Star (football badge)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Star (football crest))
Jump to: navigation, search
Juventus first popularised the star.

In association football, some national and club sides include one or more stars as part of (or beside) the badge (often referred to as a "crest") appearing on their shirt, to represent important trophies the team has previously won. Sometimes this is a unilateral decision by the team concerned rather than a privilege earned and sanctioned by any governing body.

Standardised significance[edit]

Club[edit]

The scudetto (Italian for "little shield") was the source of inspiration for the adding of stars.

The first team to adopt a star was Juventus, who added one above their badge in 1958 to represent their tenth Serie A title. This was an extension of the existing convention by which the reigning champions are entitled to display the scudetto on their shirts for the following season. The star was later formally adopted by some organisations as a symbol for ten titles.

In Turkey, one star represents five league trophies; hence Galatasaray S.K. wear three stars.

The Turkish league introduced a similar scheme in 2000, with one star per five titles.

Rangers wear 5 stars to represent the 50 league championships they have amassed.

In 2003 Rangers F.C displayed five stars above the badge on their shirts to symbolise their 50 league titles.

Football in Germany has two official star systems operating in parallel. In 2004, the DFL, which governs the Bundesliga (the top 2 divisions), introduced Verdiente Meistervereine (roughly "distinguished champion clubs"). This has a sliding scale of 1, 2, 3, and 4 stars for 3, 5, 10, and 20 titles.[1] It includes only Bundesliga titles, excluding titles from before the formation of the Bundesliga in 1963, and from the former East German League. Dynamo Berlin (playing in the fourth level) unilaterally began wearing three unapproved stars for its East German titles.[2] In November 2005, the DFB, which governs non-Bundesliga football, allowed former champions playing outside the Bundesliga to display a single star inscribed with the number of titles.[3] In 2007, Dynamo Berlin switched to a single approved star inscribed with the number 10. Greuther Fürth retains three silver stars on its club logo, but not on it shirts.

Major League Soccer's previously informal system, one star per MLS Cup title, was standardised in 2006, with the defending champions wearing the MLS Scudetto, like the Serie A system, for one season before adding a new star. Starting in 2012, the Scudetto was replaced with a single gold star worn above any other silver championship stars.

In Norway a team will display a star for every 10 titles in Tippeligaen. Rosenborg is the only team with more than 10 titles. Since 2006, all Swedish football clubs that have won ten or more Swedish championships have added a star above their badge. The same system has applied in the Dutch Eredivisie from the 2007–08 season onwards.[4] This innovation was suggested by PSV, after the club won its twentieth title in 2007.[5] Ajax currently have the right to wear three stars since they have won the league more than 30 times. PSV have the right to wear two stars with their 21 league titles, while Feyenoord and HVV Den Haag can add one for their 14 and 10 titles, respectively. HVV won all titles before 1915 and is currently playing in the fourth level of the Dutch league system. In Malta, Floriana, Valletta and Sliema Wanderers boast 2 Golden Stars on their badges having won 25, 20 and 26 titles, respectively, while Hibernians have one star thanks to their 10 titles. No other team in the Maltese League has the golden star on their badge.

Rowdies logo used from 2011-2013
Rowdies logo used since 2013
The Tampa Bay Rowdies added a star in recognition of a title won by a former club with the same name. They have since added another star after the new club won a league championship of its own.

Occasionally, stars are added to badges of successor or phoenix clubs for the achievements of defunct predecessors. An example of this is the Tampa Bay Rowdies. They added a star to represent the Soccer Bowl, the championship of the original NASL, won by the original Tampa Bay Rowdies in 1975. The club has since added a second star, after the new club won the 2012 edition of the resurrected Soccer Bowl in the new NASL.[6]

As well as predecessor clubs, victories in the national leagues of defunct countries have also been represented by stars. FC Dynamo Kyiv have two stars, commemorating championships won in the Soviet and Ukrainian football league system. The same is true of Belgrade clubs Partizan and Red Star who have won titles in Yugoslavia, Serbia and Montenegro and present-day Serbia, while Spartak Moscow's stars refer to their Soviet Top League and Russian Football Premier League achievements.

International[edit]

The first international team to add stars was Brazil. Their badge, pictured here on a team scarf, now features five stars.
The stars on Uruguay's logo commemorate two consecutive Olympic Golds in football in the 1920s and dual victories in the World Cup

Brazil added three stars above their badge after winning their third World Cup in 1970. Italy did likewise in 1982. All world champions have since followed suit. Uruguay display four stars, regarding their triumphs in the 1924 and 1928 Olympics as equivalent to their later World Cup wins, as there was no World Cup at the time. Brazil and Italy have since added more stars, after the former won the 1994 and 2002 tournaments and the latter emerged victorious in 2006.

In the equipment regulations for FIFA competitions, section 18.2 states "Those Member Associations that have won the FIFA World Cup may put a symbol on the playing shirt representing this accomplishment and the number of times won."[7] The form of symbol is not specified, although the accompanying illustrative example depicts a gold star.[7]

Ad hoc adoptions[edit]

More recently, club teams have added stars either upon winning a landmark trophy, or in response to a rival team's having added stars. In the Romanian first league, Steaua uses 2 stars above their logo since they won their 20th title. Since then Dinamo added a star for the 18 championships they won. Manchester United sported a star in their UEFA Champions League matches on their special European home kit between 1997 and 1999. To celebrate their second victory that year, they added an extra star to that kit for the 1999–00 season. Liverpool likewise wore four stars in 2001–02, their first campaign in the competition since the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985. They wore five stars in the competition in 2005–06 after their fifth victory. Instead of stars, UEFA introduced a multiple winner badge in 2000–01 season, currently worn by five teams who have won the Champions League either five times or more in total, or three times in a row.

Occasionally, stars are temporarily added for one season, usually to commemorative kits to celebrate the anniversary of a particular event in the club's history. Burnley sported two stars on their 2006–07 shirt, for the club's 125th anniversary, to celebrate their two league titles in 1921 and 1960. Likewise Bury in 2009–10, also for their 125th anniversary, commemorating their 1900 and 1903 FA Cup triumphs. Bury have since revived the stars, from 2011–12, after a season's absence. This not a practice limited to clubs, as in 2004, Denmark wore a star on their shirts specially for Euro 2004, to commemorate their victory in the competition in 1992.

In women's football, the emerging ad hoc standard is to wear stars on the sleeve instead of above the badge. Two of the four teams that have won the FIFA Women's World Cup to date — Norway and Germany — use this practice, as did two-time Women's World Cup winners, the USA, until moving the stars to the back collar in 2007. The United States has returned its two stars to above the badge on their new uniforms for the 2011 Women's World Cup.

The practice of using stars to signify major titles has spread to other football codes. For example, in rugby union, Toulon added a star above its badge after winning the Heineken Cup in 2013, and added a second star immediately after winning the same competition in 2014.[8]

List[edit]

Excluding the temporary stars, the following teams have chosen to add stars to their shirts:

National teams[edit]

Men[edit]

Intercontinental
National Team Title(s)
represented
First
worn
Number
of stars
Notes
 Brazil World Cup 1971 5 Third win was in 1970; fourth and fifth stars added after 1994 and 2002 wins. Briefly wore 2 stars on a tour of Europe in 1968.[9][10]
 Italy World Cup 1982 4 Added after third win; fourth star added after the 2006 win. Incorporated into the badge since 2006.[11]
 Germany World Cup 1996 4 Stars first added during Euro 1996 qualification, representing wins in 1954, 1974 and 1990. Worn above the badge. Fourth win was in 2014.
 Uruguay World Cup and Olympics 1930 4 Represent 2 World Cups (1930 & 1950) and 2 Olympic football titles (1924 & 1928) recognized de facto as FIFA World Championships.[12]
 Argentina World Cup 2003 2 1978, Second win was in 1986.
 England World Cup 2003 1 Title won in 1966. Star added after a campaign on Sky Sports' Soccer AM programme, first worn on the sleeve.
 France World Cup 1998 1 Title won in 1998. Star added above their badge which was unveiled at their opening qualifying game for Euro 2000
 Spain World Cup 2010 1 Title won in 2010. Spain played in their away kit for the final, but upon winning the World Cup they changed into their home kit, complete with a star above the badge, for the presentation ceremony.
Continental
National Team Title(s)
represented
First
worn
Number
of stars
Notes
 Egypt Africa Cup of Nations 1986 7 Fifth star added after the 2006 African Cup victory. A sixth is due for the 2008 African Cup victory. A seventh is due for the 2010 African Cup victory
 Cameroon Africa Cup of Nations 2008 4 1984, 1988, 2000, Fourth win was in 2002.
 Ghana Africa Cup of Nations 2008 4 1963, 1965, 1978, Fourth win was in 1982.
 Japan Asian Cup 2011 4 1992, 2000, 2004, Fourth win was in 2011. For commemorative jerseys only.
 Tunisia Africa Cup of Nations 2004 1 Title won in 2004.
 Ivory Coast Africa Cup of Nations 1992 1 Title won in 1992.
 Zambia Africa Cup of Nations 2012 1 Title won in 2012. To be worn from 2012 onwards.

Women[edit]

National Team Title(s)
represented
First
worn
Number
of stars
Notes
 United States Women's World Cup 1991 2 Worn on the chest, worn on the back collar between 2007 and 2011 and until early 2007 worn on the sleeve. Second star added 1999.
 Germany Women's World Cup 2003 2 Until 2003 the three stars of the men's team had been worn. Second star added for their 2007 victory.
 Norway Women's World Cup 1995 1 Worn on the sleeve
 Japan Women's World Cup 2011 1

Note: Some women teams, like France, Italy or Brazil, wear the men's stars on their jersey.

Club teams[edit]

AFC[edit]

Club Team Country Title(s)
represented
Number
of stars
Notes
Central Coast Mariners  Australia A-League 2 Two A-League premierships 2007-08, 2011-12. This is for coming first at the end of the league season. The Mariners have since also won once the play-off series that determines the champions of the league as a whole, although whether this is also represented with a further star is yet to be determined.
Dalian Shide  China PR Chinese Jia-A League, Chinese Super League 8 One title per star.
Shandong Luneng  China PR Chinese Jia-A League, Chinese Super League 4 One title per star.
Guangzhou Evergrande  China PR Chinese Super League 3 One title per star.
Shenzhen Ruby  China PR Chinese Super League 1 One title per star.
Changchun Yatai  China PR Chinese Super League 1 One title per star.
Beijing Guoan  China PR Chinese Super League 1 One title per star.
Shanghai Shenhua  China PR Chinese Jia-A League 1 One title per star.
Persija Jakarta  Indonesia Perserikatan and Liga Indonesia Premier Division 1 Nine Perserikatan titles and one Premier Division title in 2001.
Esteghlal FC  Iran AFC Champions League 2 A star for each AFC Champions League triumph.
PAS Tehran  Iran AFC Champions League 1 For their AFC Champions League triumph.
Gamba Osaka  Japan J. League, J. League Cup 2 Star for league title in 2005 added in 2006. Smaller star for cup title in 2007 added for the 2008 season.
Kashima Antlers  Japan J. League, J. League Cup, Emperor's Cup 6 (1 + 5) As the most successful Japanese football club, with 15 titles won, Kashima has 1 golden star above the badge (for the first 10 titles) and 5 stars on the left sleeve (for the subsequent 5 titles). Kashima has won the J.League a record 7 times, the J. League Cup a record 4 times and the Emperor's Cup 4 times.
Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma  Korea Republic K-League First Division 7 One title per star.
Busan IPark  Korea Republic K-League First Division 4 One title per star.
Pohang Steelers  Korea Republic K-League First Division 4 One title per star.
Suwon Samsung Bluewings  Korea Republic K-League First Division 4 One title per star.
Ulsan Hyundai  Korea Republic K-League First Division 2 One title per star.
Jeonbuk Hyundai Motors  Korea Republic K-League First Division 2 One title per star.
Ulsan Hyundai Mipo Dolphin  Korea Republic Korea National League 3 One title per star.
Goyang KB  Korea Republic Korea National League 3 One title per star.
Gangneung City  Korea Republic Korea National League 1 One title per star.
Suwon City  Korea Republic Korea National League 1 One title per star.
Incheon Korail  Korea Republic Korea National League 1 One title per star.
Gyeongju Citizen  Korea Republic Challengers League 2 One title per star.
Seoul United  Korea Republic Challengers League 1 One title per star.
Yangju Citizen  Korea Republic Challengers League 1 One title per star.
FC Pocheon  Korea Republic Challengers League 1 One title per star.
Kelantan FA  Malaysia Malaysian Super League 2 One title per star. Kelantan FA had won the MSL in 2011 & 2012.

CAF[edit]

Club Team Country Title(s)
represented
Number
of stars
Notes
JS Kabylie  Algeria various African titles 6 2 African Cup of Champions Clubs (1981, 1990), 3 CAF Cup (2000, 2001, 2002), one African Cup Winners' Cup (1995).
ES Sétif  Algeria African Cup of Champions Clubs 1 Title won in 1988.
MC Alger  Algeria African Cup of Champions Clubs 1 Title won in 1976.
Canon Yaoundé  Cameroon African Cup of Champions Clubs 3 3 African Cup of Champions Clubs (1971, 1978, 1980).
Union Douala  Cameroon African Cup of Champions Clubs 2 (1 + 1) 1 African Cup of Champions Clubs (1979), and 1 African Cup Winners' Cup (1981)
TP Mazembe  Democratic Republic of the Congo African Cup of Champions Clubs, Linafoot 5 (4 + 1) Represents 10 titles ands 4 African Cup of Champions Clubs (1967, 1968, 2009, 2010)
AS Vita Club  Democratic Republic of the Congo African Cup of Champions Clubs 1 Title won in 1973.
Al-Ahly SC  Egypt Egyptian League 3 3 stars, one for every 10th championship win in Egyptian Premier League on top of crest (36 total).
Zamalek  Egypt Egyptian League 1 Star for every 10th championship win in Egyptian Premier League.
Hafia FC  Guinea African Cup of Champions Clubs 3 3 African Cup of Champions Clubs (1972, 1975, 1977).
ASEC Mimosas  Ivory Coast African Cup of Champions Clubs 1 Title won in 1998.
Stade d'Abidjan  Ivory Coast African Cup of Champions Clubs 1 Title won in 1966.
Gor Mahia F.C.  Kenya African Cup Winners' Cup 1 Title won in 1987.
Al-Ittihad  Libya Libyan Premier League 1 Awarded star after winning 10th Libyan Premier League title in 2002–03.
Raja Casablanca  Morocco African Cup of Champions Clubs, Botola 4 (1 + 3) Represents 10 titles, and 3 African Cup of Champions Clubs (1989, 1997, 1999).
FAR Rabat  Morocco Botola 1 Represents 10 titles.
Wydad Casablanca  Morocco Botola 1 Represents 10 titles.
Enyimba  Nigeria African Cup of Champions Clubs 2 2 African Cup of Champions Clubs (2003, 2004).
CARA Brazzaville  Republic of the Congo African Cup of Champions Clubs 1 Title won in 1974.
Orlando Pirates  South Africa African Cup of Champions Clubs 1 Title won in 1995.[13]
ES Tunis  Tunisia African Cup of Champions Clubs 2 2 African Cup of Champions Clubs (1994, 2011).
Club Africain  Tunisia African Cup of Champions Clubs 1 Title won in 1991.

CONCACAF[edit]

Club Team Country Title(s)
represented
Number
of stars
Notes
Montreal Impact  Canada USL First Division, A-League, American Professional Soccer League 3 Each star represents a league championship from 1994, 2004 and 2009. 2 stars were worn after the second league title in 2004 and a third star was added after their third title in 2009. The stars were removed when they joined Major League Soccer for the 2012 season; the four stars on the 2012 Impact logo do not represent championships, but instead the four founding communities of Montreal represented on the city's coat of arms.
Vancouver Whitecaps FC  Canada USL First Division, North American Soccer League 3 2 stars are worn for their 2 championships in the USL First Division (2006, 2008) and one for the Vancouver Whitecaps (NASL) win in the 1979. Soccer Bowl. The stars were removed when they joined Major League Soccer for the 2011 season.
Saprissa  Costa Rica Costa Rican league 2 Costa Rican most recent champions wear one star for every consecutive national league championship.
Firpo  El Salvador La Primera 9 Each national title won.
Isidro Metapán  El Salvador La Primera 6 Each national title won.
Guadalajara  Mexico Mexican league 11 One star per title.
América  Mexico Mexican league 11 One golden star per title, worn on a red stripe on the right sleeve, beginning the 2006–2007 "Apertura" Tournament.
Toluca  Mexico Mexican league 10 One title per star.
Cruz Azul  Mexico Mexican league 8 One title per star.
Puebla  Mexico Mexican league and Mexican Cup 6 (2+4) for 2 league titles; 4 outside for 4 cup titles.
Pachuca  Mexico Mexican league + Copa Sudamericana 10 (5+5) One title per star, plus 3 for CONCACAF Champions Cup titles, 1 for CONCACAF Champions League title and star for its title at the Copa Sudamericana.
Necaxa  Mexico Mexican league 3 One title per star.
Atlante  Mexico Mexican league 3 One Mexican League title per star.
UANL Tigres  Mexico Mexican league 3 One title per star; 3 stars inside the badge.
Monterrey  Mexico Mexican league + CONCACAF Champions League 7 (4+3) One title per star plus 3 gold star for its title at the CONCACAF Champions League.
Santos Laguna  Mexico Mexican league 4 One title per star.
Monarcas Morelia  Mexico Mexican league 1 Title was Apertura 2000.
Tecos UAG  Mexico Mexican league 1 Title won in 1994.
Atlas  Mexico Mexican league 1 Title won in 1951.
Tijuana  Mexico Mexican league 1 Title won in 2012
Real Estelí  Nicaragua Nicaraguan Primera División 2 First two national championships won by the club (in 1991 and 1999).
Tauro F.C.  Panama Liga Panameña de Fútbol 1 Represents 10 titles.
Puerto Rico Islanders  Puerto Rico CFU Club Championship 2 One title per star.
Defence Force F.C.  Trinidad and Tobago CONCACAF Champions League, CFU Club Championship and TT Pro League. 4 (2+1+1) Two CONCACAF Champions League titles, One CFU Club Championship and one for at least ten league titles.
D.C. United  United States MLS Cup 4 Titles won in 1996, 1997, 1999, and 2004.
Los Angeles Galaxy  United States MLS Cup 4 Titles won in 2002, 2005, 2011 and 2012.
Houston Dynamo  United States MLS Cup 2 Titles won in 2006 and 2007.
San Jose Earthquakes  United States MLS Cup 2 Titles won in 2001 and 2003 (Although the original Earthquakes moved and became the Houston Dynamo, that team forfeited the history of the Earthquakes and became an effective expansion team, with the new Earthquakes re-joining in 2008 with the original team's identity and permission to use two sanctioned stars. This is similar to the relationship between the Cleveland Browns and Baltimore Ravens in American football.)
Sporting Kansas City  United States MLS Cup 2 Titles won in 2000 (as Kansas City Wizards) and 2013 (as Sporting Kansas City)
Chicago Fire  United States MLS Cup 1 Title won in 1998.
Columbus Crew  United States MLS Cup 1 Title won in 2008.
Real Salt Lake  United States MLS Cup 1 Title won in 2009.
Colorado Rapids  United States MLS Cup 1 Title won in 2010.
Tampa Bay Rowdies  United States North American Soccer League championships 2 The team, which began play in 2010 as FC Tampa Bay in the D2 Pro League and now plays in the current North American Soccer League (NASL), added the first star to represent the Soccer Bowl, the championship of the original NASL, won by the original Tampa Bay Rowdies in 1975. A second star was added after the new club won Soccer Bowl 2012.[6]
Minnesota United FC  United States North American Soccer League championship 1 Title won in 2011.[14]
Cleveland City Stars  United States USL Second Division championship 1 Cleveland won the 2008 USL Second Division championship and moved into the USL First Division for 2009, along with the Austin Aztex, to replace the departed Seattle Sounders and Atlanta Silverbacks. The team folded after the 2009 season.
Akron Zips  United States NCAA Division I 1 Represents 2010 NCAA Division I Men's Soccer Championship.
Northern Kentucky Norse  United States NCAA Division I 1 Represents club's 2010 NCAA Division II national championship. The team retained its star even after moving to Division I in 2012.

CONMEBOL[edit]

Club Team Country Title(s)
represented
Number
of stars
Notes
Vélez Sársfield  Argentina Argentine, South American, and Intercontinental 11 (1+10) Gold star for 1994 Intercontinental Cup over 10 blue stars for 6 Argentine and 4 international titles.[15]
Estudiantes de La Plata  Argentina Argentine League, South American, and Intercontinental 11 5 Argentine league titles; 4 Copa Libertadores; 1968 Intercontinental and 1969 Interamerican Cups.[16] An earlier badge had just four stars, for the Libertadores and Intercontinental titles.[16] Tenth star added after Copa Libertadores 2009 victory.
Rosario Central  Argentina Argentine league and CONMEBOL Cup 5 (4+1) The middle star, for the CONMEBOL Cup, is larger. The previous badge had 5 blue stars and one larger yellow star; the extra small star was for the unofficial "1974 Argentinian Championship",[17] a qualification playoff for the 1974 Copa Libertadores.[18]
Newell's Old Boys  Argentina Argentine league 6 One star per title, including one each for the 1990 Apertura and the 1990-1 Apertura/Clausura playoff.[19]
Argentinos Juniors  Argentina Argentine, South American, and Intercontinental 4 2Argentine League; 1985 Libertadores and Interamerican Cups
Boca Juniors  Argentina Intercontinental Cup 3 Stars above the badge.[20] The badge used 1970–2007 contained a star for each major title won: 30 in 1970, 46 when replaced[21] as being too crowded.[20] In 2007 the club changed its badge to include only 3 stars, one for each Intercontinental Cup / Club world title. And also the kit has a further star at the back of collar inscribed with 47, the current title count.[22]
Quilmes AC  Argentina Argentine league 2 Amateur title of 1912 and Metropolitano title of 1978
Racing Club de Avellaneda  Argentina Intercontinental Cup 1 Trophy won in 1967; star added for the fortieth anniversary.
Joinville  Brazil Campeonato Catarinense 12 12 titles won[23]
Americano  Brazil Campeonato da Cidade de Campos 9 For 9-in-a-row 1967–1975[23]
Vasco da Gama  Brazil Various Brazilian and South American 8 South American Club Championship 1948; Copa Libertadores 1998; Copa Mercosur 2000; 1974, 1989, 1997 and 2000 Brazilian Championships; unbeaten Campeão de Terra e Mar season in 1945[23][24]
Palmeiras  Brazil Campeonato Paulista, Brazilian Championship 8 8 titles won under the name "Palestra Itália" between 1920 and 1940. Others say it commemorates the eighth month (August) of 1914, when the club was founded.[23] Previously wore 4 silver stars, one for each Brazilian championship conquered (1972, 1973, 1993, 1994)
Santa Cruz  Brazil Pernambucan Championship 8 (3+5) Club badge has 5 yellow stars for the 5-in-a-row (1969–73) and 3 stars for 3 "super-championships" (black for 1957, white for 1976, red for 1983).[23]
São Raimundo (AM)  Brazil Copa Norte, Campeonato Amazonense 7 (3 + 4) 3 red stars for Norte 3-in-a-row 1999–2001; 4 silver stars for Amazonas titles[23]
Internacional (Porto Alegre)  Brazil FIFA Club World Cup, Copa Libertadores, Brazilian Championship, Copa do Brasil 6 (1+5) Silver star for 2006 World title, 5 gold stars for others, with the Libertadores star larger than the other 4 (3 Championships, 1 Copa).[23][25]
Goiás EC  Brazil Brazilian Série B and Goiás State Championship 2 2 silver stars, for the 1999 and 2012 Série B championships.
Náutico  Brazil Campeonato Pernambucano 6 6-in-a-row won 1963–1968[23]
Corinthians Paulista  Brazil FIFA Club World Cup, Brazilian Championship 5 (1+4) Larger star for the 2000 FIFA Club World Championship, above the other 4 stars for 4 Campeonato Brasileiro titles. The stars were removed for the 2011 season onwards.[23]
América do Natal  Brazil Copa Nordeste, Campeonato Potiguar 5 (1 + 4) 1 silver star for 1998 Nordeste; 4 yellow stars for Potiguar 4-in-a-row 1979–82[23]
Fortaleza EC  Brazil Campeonato Cearense and Copa Norte-Nordeste 6 (4+2) 4 blue stars for Cearense Championship 4-in-a-row in 2007-10; 2 yellow stars for wins of North/Northeast Cup in 1946 and 1970.[26]
Vila Nova  Brazil Campeonato Brasileiro Série C, Campeonato Goiano 5 (1 + 4) 1 yellow star for 1996 Brasileiro title; 4 red stars for Goiano 4-in-a-row between 1977–80.[23]
Goiânia  Brazil Campeonato Goiano 5 5-in-a-row won between 1950–1954.[23]
Ceará  Brazil Campeonato Cearense 5 5-in-a-row between 1915–19.[23]
ABC  Brazil Campeonato Potiguar 4 Sweep of all four categories in 1954: professional, amateur, junior, and youth leagues.[23]
Colo-Colo (Ilhéus)  Brazil Campeonato de Ilhéus 4 4-in-a-row between 1960–63.[23]
São Paulo FC  Brazil Intercontinental Cup, FIFA Club World Cup 3 (red stars; also 2 gold stars) 3 red stars represent 2 Intercontinental Cups (1992 and 1993) and 1 FIFA Club World Championship (2005). Also, 2 gold stars commemorate Adhemar da Silva's triple jump world records at the 1952 Olympics and the 1955 Pan American Games.[27]
Grêmio Porto Alegre  Brazil Intercontinental Cup, Libertadores Cup, Brazilian Championship, Copa do Brasil 3 (1+1+1) The gold star on the badge was added in 1970 to honour Everaldo of the 1970 World Cup team.[28] It also represents the 1983 Intercontinental Title. The silver star represents Continental titles (2 Libertadores and one Recopa); the bronze star represents Brazilian titles (2 Championships, 1 Serie B, and 4 Copas).[23]
Criciuma EC  Brazil Copa do Brasil; Série B; Série C[23] 3[29] Copa won in 1991, Série B in 2002, Série C in 2006.
Fluminense  Brazil Brazilian Championships 3 Titles won in 1970, 1984 and 2010.[23]
Caxias (Santa Catarina)  Brazil Campeonato Catarinense 3 Titles won in 1929, 1954, and 1955.[23]
Galícia  Brazil Campeonato Baiano 3 3 in-a-row won between 1941–1943.[23]
União Barbarense  Brazil Campeonato Brasileiro Série C, 2 others 3 Série C title won in 2004.[23]
Santos FC  Brazil Intercontinental Cup[23] 2 Titles won in 1962, 1963.
EC Bahia  Brazil Taça Brasil and Brazilian Championship 2 Taça won 1959, Championship won 1988.[23]
Atlético Paranaense  Brazil Brazilian Championship and Série B 2 (1 + 1) Gold star for 2001 title; silver star for 1995 B title.[23]
Sport Club do Recife  Brazil Brazilian Championship, Série B and Brazilian Cup 3 (1+1+1) A Gold star for Championship of 1987; a silver star for Série B 1990[23] and another Gold star for Brazilian Cup 2008.
EC Juventude  Brazil Copa do Brasil and Brazilian Série B 2 (1+1) Gold star for the 1999 Copa; silver star for 1994 Série B.[23][30]
Paraná Clube  Brazil Brazilian Série B 2 Official Série B of 1992 and Yellow Module of Copa João Havelange in 2000.[23]
Paysandu SC  Brazil 2 Titles won in 1991 and 2001.
Brasiliense  Brazil Brazilian Série B and Série C 2 (1+1) Bronze star for C title won in 2002; silver star for B title won in 2004.[23]
América Mineiro  Brazil Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, Campeonato Mineiro 2 (1 + 1) Gold star for 1997 Serie B title, red star for Mineiro 10-in-a-row between 1916–25.[23]
CRAC  Brazil Campeonato Goiano[23] 2 Won in 1967 and 2004.
Grêmio Barueri  Brazil Campeonato Paulista 2 2005 Série A3 title; 2006 Série A2 title[23]
CR Flamengo  Brazil Intercontinental Cup[23] 1 Title won 1981. Stars for lesser titles were removed from badge in 2004.
Atlético Mineiro  Brazil Brazilian Championship[23] 1 Represents title won in 1971. Previously wore 3 stars (2 red and 1 gold), the 2 red stars for the 1992 and 1997 Copa CONMEBOL titles.
Coritiba  Brazil Brazilian Championship[31] 1 Represents title won in 1985.
Guarani FC  Brazil Brazilian Championship[23] 2 Represents title won in 1978 and Série B of 1981.
Paulista  Brazil Copa do Brasil[23] 1 Title won in 2005.
Santo André  Brazil Copa do Brasil[23] 1 Title won in 2004.
Gama  Brazil Campeonato Brasileiro Série B[23] 1 Title won in 1998.
Londrina  Brazil Campeonato Brasileiro Série B[23] 1 Title won in 1980.
Avaí  Brazil Campeonato Brasileiro Série C[23] 1 Title won in 1998.
Atlético Goianiense  Brazil Campeonato Brasileiro Série C[23] 1 Title won in 1990.
Rio Branco  Brazil Copa Norte[23] 1 Title won in 1997.
Anápolis  Brazil Campeonato Goiano[23] 1 Title won in 1965.
Bragantino  Brazil Campeonato Paulista[23] 1 Title won in 1990.
Brusque  Brazil Campeonato Catarinense[23] 1 Title won in 1992.
Goiatuba  Brazil Goiás State Championship[23] 1 Title won in 1992.
Ipatinga  Brazil Campeonato Mineiro[23] 1 Title won in 2005.[23]
São Caetano  Brazil Campeonato Paulista[23] 1 Title won in 2004
Colo-Colo  Chile Copa Libertadores 1 Trophy won in 1991.
Club Universidad de Chile  Chile Copa Sudamericana 1 Trophy won in 2011.
O'Higgins de Rancagua  Chile Chilean Primera Division 1 Title won in 2013 Apertura.
América de Cali  Colombia Colombian league 13 One star per title.
Atlético Junior  Colombia Colombian league 7 One star per title.
Once Caldas  Colombia Colombian league and Copa Libertadores 5 (4+1) Gold star over badge for libertadores; 4 stars within badge for one league each.[32]
Barcelona SC  Ecuador Ecuadorian Championship 13 Stars under the badge (one per title).[33]
CS Emelec  Ecuador Ecuadorian Championship 10 Stars under the badge (one per title).
LDU Quito  Ecuador Each international title won 4 Fourth star added after Recopa Sudamericana 2010 victory.
Olimpia Asunción  Paraguay Intercontinental Cup 1 Trophy won in 1979.
Cienciano  Peru Copa Sudamericana and Recopa Sudamericana 2 Won in 2003 and 2004 respectively.
FBC Melgar  Peru Peruvian Primera División 1 Peruvian championship title in 1981.
Juan Aurich  Peru Peruvian Primera División 1 Peruvian championship titles won in 2011.
CD San Martín  Peru Peruvian Primera División 3 Peruvian championship titles won in 2007, 2008 and 2010.
Sporting Cristal  Peru Peruvian Primera División 3 Three consecutive titles in 1994–96.
Sport Boys  Peru Peruvian Primera División 6 Stars under the badge (one per title).
Caracas FC  Venezuela Primera División Venezolana 10 One title per star.
Deportivo Tachira  Venezuela Primera División Venezolana 6 One title per star.
Deportivo Petare  Venezuela Primera División Venezolana 5 One title per star, titles won as Deportivo Italchacao.
Portuguesa FC  Venezuela Primera División Venezolana 5 One title per star.
Estudiantes de Mérida  Venezuela Primera División Venezolana 2 One title per star.
Minervén FC  Venezuela Primera División Venezolana 1 One title per star.
Unión Atlético Maracaibo  Venezuela Primera División Venezolana 1 One title per star.
Deportivo Anzoátegui  Venezuela Segunda División Venezolana 1 One title per star.

UEFA[edit]

Club Team Country Title(s)
represented
Number
of stars
Notes
KF Tirana  Albania Albanian Superliga 2 Each represents 10 titles.In total they won 24 titles.
Dinamo Tirana  Albania Albanian Superliga 1 Represents 10 titles.In total they won 18 titles.
Partizani Tirana  Albania Albanian Superliga 1 Represents 10 titles.In total they won 15 titles.
Rapid Vienna  Austria Austrian Bundesliga 3 Each represents 10 titles.
FK Austria Wien  Austria Austrian Bundesliga 2 Each represents 10 titles.
FC Wacker Innsbruck  Austria Austrian Bundesliga 1 Represents 10 titles

(5 titles FC Wacker Innsbruck, 2 titles FC Swarovski Tirol, 3 titles FC Tirol Innsbruck)

Kapaz PFC  Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Premier League 3 One golden star per each league championship.
FC Baku  Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Premier League 2 One golden star per each league championship.
FC Inter Baku  Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Premier League 2 One golden star per each league championship.
Neftchi Baku  Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Premier League 1 Represents 5 league championships.
R.S.C. Anderlecht  Belgium Belgian First Division 3 Each golden star represents 10 titles.
Club Brugge  Belgium Belgian First Division 1 Represents 10 titles.
Standard Liège  Belgium Belgian First Division 1 Represents 10 titles.
R.U. Saint-Gilloise  Belgium Belgian First Division 1 Represents 10 titles. They won 11 titles in total. They currently play in Belgian Third Division B.
PFC CSKA Sofia  Bulgaria Bulgarian A Professional Football Group 3 Added 3 stars because of their 30th league title in 2005.
SK Slavia Prague  Czech Republic Gambrinus Liga 1 Represent 10 titles. 16th and 17th titles won respectively in 2007 and 2008.
AC Sparta Prague  Czech Republic Gambrinus Liga 3 Represent 30 titles. 35th title won in 2010.
FK Dukla Prague  Czech Republic Gambrinus Liga 1 Represent 10 titles. 11th title won in 1982 as Dukla Prague.
APOEL Nicosia  Cyprus Cypriot First Division 2 Each represent 10 titles.
Omonoia Nicosia  Cyprus Cypriot First Division 2 Each represent 10 titles.
BIF  Denmark Danish Premier League 2 Gold star for every fifth championship.
F.C. København  Denmark Danish Premier League 2 Gold star for every fifth championship.
AB  Denmark Danish Premier League 1 Gold star for every fifth championship.
AGF  Denmark Danish Premier League 1 Gold star for every fifth championship.
BK Frem  Denmark Danish Premier League 1 Gold star for every fifth championship.
Esbjerg fB  Denmark Danish Premier League 1 Gold star for every fifth championship.
Vejle BK  Denmark Danish Premier League 1 Gold star for every fifth championship.
Aston Villa  England European Cup 1 Title won in 1982.[13] Star incorporated into the crest.
Bury  England FA Cup 2 Titles won in 1900 and 1903.[13]
Huddersfield Town  England English First Division 3 First team to win English First Division 3 times an a row, between 1924 and 1926.[13]
Ipswich Town  England English First Division, FA Cup, UEFA Cup 3 Trophies won respectively in 1962, 1978 and 1981.[13]
Nottingham Forest  England European Cup 2 Two silver stars worn above the club crest to commemorate back to back European Cup victories, in 1979 and 1980.[13]
FC Flora Tallinn  Estonia Meistriliiga 1 Each represents 5 titles.
FC Levadia Tallinn  Estonia Meistriliiga 1 Each represents 5 titles.
Helsingin Jalkapalloklubi  Finland Veikkausliiga 2 Each represents 10 titles.
Nantes  France French league 8 One title per star, incorporated into the crest.
Marseille  France UEFA Champions League 1 Title won in 1993.
Saint-Étienne  France French league 1 Represents 10 titles. Last won in 1981.
Bayern Munich  Germany German Bundesliga 4 Represents 20 Bundesliga titles, the 1932 German championship win is not counted. Fourth star added after 2008 title[34]
Borussia Mönchengladbach  Germany German Bundesliga 2 Represents 5 titles.
Borussia Dortmund  Germany German Bundesliga 2 Represents 5 titles.
Werder Bremen  Germany German Bundesliga 1 Represents 3 titles.
Hamburger SV  Germany German Bundesliga 1 Represents 3 titles.
VfB Stuttgart  Germany German Bundesliga 1 Represents 3 titles; added after third win.
Olympiacos  Greece Super League Greece 4 Each represents 10 titles.
Ferencvárosi TC  Hungary Hungarian Championship 2 Each represents 10 titles (28).
MTK  Hungary Hungarian Championship 2 Each represents 10 titles (23).
Újpest FC  Hungary Hungarian Championship 2 Each represents 10 titles (20).
Budapest Honvéd  Hungary Hungarian Championship 1 Each represents 10 titles (13).
Valur  Iceland Icelandic league 4 Each represents 5 titles.
Fram Reykjavík  Iceland Icelandic league 3 Each represents 5 titles.
Knattspyrnufélag Reykjavíkur  Iceland Icelandic league 5 Each represents 5 titles.
Knattspyrnufélagið Víkingur  Iceland Icelandic league 1 Each represents 5 titles.
Íþróttabandalag Akraness  Iceland Icelandic league 3 Each represents 5 titles.
FH Hafnarfjörður  Iceland Icelandic league 1 Each represents 5 titles.
Wexford Youths F.C.  Ireland FAI Youth Inter-League Cup 2 Titles won by Wexford Football League sides coached by Mick Wallace, founder of Wexford Youths F.C.; the junior league is a nursery for the senior club. Titles were won in 2004–5 and 2006–7.[35] A third star is due for the 2007–8 victory.[36][37]
Bohemian F.C.  Ireland League of Ireland 1 Represents 10 titles. Tenth won in 2008.
Shamrock Rovers  Ireland League of Ireland 1 Represents 10 titles. Tenth won in 1964; 15 held at time star was added.
Shelbourne  Ireland League of Ireland 1 Represents 10 titles. Tenth won in 2002; 11 held at time star was added.
Limerick F.C.  Ireland League of Ireland 2 1 title per star. 1959/60 and 1979/80.
Hapoel Tel Aviv  Israel Israeli championships 2 Each represents 5 titles. (5 won Before the state of Israel was Formed)
Ironi Kiryat Shmona  Israel Israeli championships 1 One title per star.
Maccabi Haifa  Israel Israeli championships 1 Represents 10 titles. 12th Title won in 2011.
Maccabi Netanya  Israel Israeli championships 5 One title per star.
Maccabi Tel Aviv  Israel Israeli championships 4 Each represents 5 titles. (5 won Before the state of Israel was formed)
Juventus  Italy Italian Serie A 3 Each represents 10 Italian football championship titles. Juventus won their 30th title and gained their third star at the end of the 2013-14 season.
Internazionale  Italy Italian Serie A 1 Represents 10 titles.
Milan  Italy Italian Serie A 1 Represents 10 titles.
Sliema Wanderers  Malta Maltese Premier League 2 Each star represents 10 titles.
Floriana  Malta Maltese Premier League 2 Each star represents 10 titles.
Valletta  Malta Maltese Premier League 2 Each star represents 10 titles.
Hibernians  Malta Maltese Premier League 1 Represents 10 titles.
Ajax  Netherlands Eredivisie and Dutch Championship (pre-1956) 3 Each star represents 10 titles.
PSV  Netherlands Eredivisie and Dutch Championship (pre-1956) 2 Each star represents 10 titles.
Feyenoord  Netherlands Eredivisie and Dutch Championship (pre-1956) 1 Represents 10 titles.
HVV Den Haag  Netherlands Dutch Championship (pre-1956) 1 Represents 10 titles. Titles won 1890–1914[38]
Rosenborg  Norway Norwegian league 2 Each star represents 10 titles.
Górnik Zabrze  Poland Polish League 1 Gold star represents 10 and more titles.
Ruch Chorzów  Poland Polish League 1 Gold star represents 10 and more titles.
Wisla Kraków  Poland Polish League 1 Gold star represents 10 and more titles.
Legia Warszawa  Poland Polish League 1 Gold star represents 10 and more titles.
Lech Poznań  Poland Polish League 1 Silver/Grey star represents 5 to 9 titles.
ŁKS Łódź  Poland Polish League 1 White star represents 1 to 4 titles.
Polonia Bytom  Poland Polish League 1 White star represents 1 to 4 titles.
Śląsk Wrocław  Poland Polish League 1 White star represents 1 to 4 titles.
Warta Poznań  Poland Polish League 1 White star represents 1 to 4 titles.
Widzew Łódź  Poland Polish League 1 White star represents 1 to 4 titles.
Zagłębie Lubin  Poland Polish League 1 White star represents 1 to 4 titles.
S.L. Benfica  Portugal Portuguese League 3 Each represents 10 titles. Announced in February 2008 for the following season,[39] by which time a 31st title had been won.
Ripensia Timișoara  Romania Romanian League 4 One star per title.
Steaua Bucharest  Romania Romanian League 2 Each star represents 10 titles.
Dinamo Bucharest  Romania Romanian League 1 Represents 10 titles.
Dynamo Moscow  Russia Soviet Top League 2 Each star represents 5 titles.
Spartak Moscow  Russia Russian Premier League, Soviet Top League 4 Each star represents 5 titles. Wore one star from 2003 to 2012 to commemorate their Russian Premier League wins, added another three in 2013 as Russian clubs are allowed to include their pre-1992 Soviet titles in the tally.
Rangers  Scotland Scottish League 5 Each star represents 10 titles; added after fiftieth title. The first football club in the world to win 50 titles.
Aberdeen  Scotland European Cup Winners Cup and European Super Cup 2 Both trophies won in 1983.
Celtic  Scotland European Cup 1 One European Cup win in 1967.
East Fife  Scotland Scottish Cup, Scottish League Cup 4 One Scottish Cup win in 1938 and three League Cup wins in 1948, 1950 and 1954.
Maribor  Slovenia Slovenian PrvaLiga 1 The star represent 10 titles.
Partizan Belgrade  Serbia Serbian SuperLiga, First League of Serbia and Montenegro, Yugoslav First League 2 Each star represents 10 titles.
Red Star Belgrade  Serbia Serbian SuperLiga, First League of Serbia and Montenegro, Yugoslav First League 2 Each star represents 10 titles.
AIK  Sweden Swedish League 1 Each star represents 10 times Swedish Champions.
Djurgårdens IF  Sweden Swedish League 1 Each star represents 10 times Swedish Champions.
IFK Göteborg  Sweden Swedish League 1 Each star represents 10 times Swedish Champions.
IFK Norrköping  Sweden Swedish League 1 Each star represents 10 times Swedish Champions.
Malmö FF  Sweden Swedish League 2 Each star represents 10 first placements in league stage 1. [40]
Örgryte IS  Sweden Swedish League 1 Each star represents 10 times Swedish Champions.
Grasshoppers   Switzerland Swiss Super League 2 Each represents 10 titles.
FC Basel   Switzerland Swiss Super League 1 Represents 10 titles.
Servette   Switzerland Swiss Super League 1 Represents 10 titles.
Young Boys Bern   Switzerland Swiss Super League 1 Represents 10 titles.
FC Zürich   Switzerland Swiss Super League 1 Represents 10 titles.
Fenerbahçe  Turkey Turkish Super League 3 Each represents 5 titles. Already have 18 titles.
Galatasaray  Turkey Turkish Super League 3 Each represents 5 titles. Already have 19 titles.
Beşiktaş JK  Turkey Turkish Super League 2 Each represents 5 titles. Already have 13 titles.
Trabzonspor  Turkey Turkish Super League 1 Represents 5 titles. Already have 6 titles.
Dynamo Kyiv  Ukraine Ukrainian Premier League, Soviet Top League 2 Represents 10 Ukrainian (out of 12) titles and 10 USSR (out of 13) titles. Second star was added on 6 September 2007 for USSR champion titles.

Stars that do not signify particular titles[edit]

American club Philadelphia Union has 13 stars that represent the 13 original colonies of the United States.

The badge of Peñarol of Uruguay has 11 stars for the 11 players,[41] and a twelfth is to be added for the supporters, the "12th Man".[citation needed]

Manchester City's badge has three stars to give it a "more continental feel".[42] The 3 stars do not represent titles or trophies. Sivasspor of Turkey also has three stars on their badge. They do not represent any championships either.

For the 2002–03 season, the badge of Greek club Panathinaikos F.C. had 3 stars. One gold representing the team's partaking in the 1971 European Cup Final, and 2 white stars representing the team's participation at the 1985 European Cup semi-finals and the 1996 UEFA Champions League semi-finals respectively. Because none of these stars represent titles or trophies, opposition fans in Greece mocked this.

The United States Soccer Federation has 3 stars inside its badge, which is worn by all U.S. national teams, including the senior men's and women's teams. These stars are taken to recall the flag of the United States, and are not intended to symbolize championship titles.

Johor Darul Takzim F.C. has 3 stars above its badge, for each time the club changed its name; from PKENJ to Johor and finally Johor Darul Takzim.[43]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Stuttgart holt ersten Stern" [Stuttgart gets first star] (in German). Bundesliga. 19 May 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2008. 
  2. ^ Kluempers, John (13 May 2005). "East Germany's Star Quality in Question". dw-world.de. Retrieved 6 May 2008. 
  3. ^ "Durchführungsbestimmungen" [Clothing instructions] (PDF). dfb.de (in German) (German Football Association). p. 54. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. 
  4. ^ "Kampioenssterren wijzen op historische roem" [Champions' stars show past glories] (in Dutch). Eredivisie. 11 May 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2007. 
  5. ^ "Reigning champions PSV display two stars on their shirts". PSV Eindhoven. 2 May 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2005. "“We have conceived a plan to not only introduce these two stars on the championship logo, but on the shirts as well”, explained PSV Manager Match Organisation Ron Verkerk. “We have made a proposal to the KNVB, the Royal Dutch Football Association and the ECV, the Association of Eredivisie clubs, and they have both independently responded enthusiastically.”" 
  6. ^ a b "Rowdies unveil new logo". bizjournals.com (Tampa Bay Business Journal). 28 December 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "Equipment Regulations: Regulations Governing the Sports Equipment at FIFA Competitions". FIFA. 18 October 2003. pp. 30, §18.2. Retrieved 29 November 2009. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Wilkinson's name stitched into Toulon shirts". ESPN Scrum. 31 May 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2014. "Toulon's shirts [for the 2014 Top 14 final] will also feature a second silver star above the club's crest, marking their back-to-back Heineken Cup titles." 
  9. ^ "Cronologia Histórica de Uniformes e Escudos da Seleção Brasileira" [Chronological history of the uniforms and badges of the Brazilian national team")] (PDF) (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. 
  10. ^ "Evolução dos uniformes da Seleção Brasileira" [Evolution of the uniforms of the Brazilian national team")] (in Portuguese). CBF. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  11. ^ "Italy waiting to unveil fourth star on jerseys". Associated Press. 
  12. ^ "No doubts exist. Uruguay are four time FIFA World Champions".
  13. ^ a b c d e f Doda, Zola (23 October 2013). "The star on Orlando Pirates badge explained". kickoff.com (South Africa). Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  14. ^ Marthaler, Jon (5 March 2013). "New name, logo for pro soccer: "Minnesota United FC"". Star Tribune (Minneapolis). Retrieved 4 July 2013. 
  15. ^ "La Nueva Camiseta ("the new shirt")" (in Spanish). Vélez Sársfield. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2008. "Sobre el logo: 1 estrella de la Copa Intercontinental más 10 estrellas: 6 campeonatos locales y cuatro internacionales." 
  16. ^ a b "Institucional Símbolos : Su identidad simbólica" (in Spanish). Estudiantes. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  17. ^ Canullo, Emiliano (14 December 2004). "Basta de mentiras" [Enough lies] (in Spanish). canalla.com. Retrieved 4 May 2008. "Central tiene seis estrellas en su escudo, todas ganadas legítimamente [...], paso a enumerar: [...] Campeonato Argentino 1974 (ganando el triangular final que también jugaron Niubelt Ol Boi y San Lorenzo)" 
  18. ^ Gorgazzi, Osvaldo José (5 October 2005). "Argentina 1974". RSSSF. Retrieved 4 May 2008. 
  19. ^ Newell's Old Boys official website (Spanish)
  20. ^ a b "Nueva equipación Boca Juniors 07/08" (in Spanish). futboladicto. 2 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-09. 
  21. ^ "Boca Juniors: The logo". Archived from the original on 18 June 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2007. 
  22. ^ "La nueva camiseta de Boca" (in Spanish). Siempre Bostero. 1 August 2007. Retrieved 9 September 2007. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw Pasqualini, Luciano; Marcelo Leme de Arruda (24 May 2007). "Estrelas nos Escudos dos Clubes Brasileiros" (in Portuguese). RSSSF Brazil. Retrieved 2008-09-24. 
  24. ^ FLAG in Official symbols from Vasco da Gama official website. (Portuguese)
  25. ^ Sport Club Internacional Symbols: The Crest from official website (Portuguese)
  26. ^ Fortaleza EC symbols from official website (Portuguese)
  27. ^ "Escudo: Como nasceram os nossos símbolos (Shield: How our symbols came to be)" (in Portuguese). São Paulo FC. Retrieved 2008-05-02. 
  28. ^ Everaldo: a star shining in the Tricolor flag from the Grêmio website. (Portuguese)
  29. ^ Criciúma EC has a total of four national titles, more than any other in Santa Catarina state. But the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B of 1986 is not recognized by Confederação Brasileira de Futebol, leaving them with just three stars.
  30. ^ Juventude logo from club website. (Portuguese)
  31. ^ Corotiba Foot Ball Club Shield from official website (Portuguese)
  32. ^ Once Caldas emblems: The crest(Spanish)
  33. ^ "Aniversario: Este año Barcelona tendrá su estrella 14." (in Spanish). Barcelona SC. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-04. "estrella 14 del campeonato ha sido esquiva ("championship star number 14 has been elusive")" 
  34. ^ "FC Bayern first club with four stars". DFL. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  35. ^ "FAI Youth Inter-League Cup". FAI. 20 March 2006. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  36. ^ "Wexford retain FAI Umbro Inter League title". FAI. 10 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  37. ^ "Latest News". Wexford Youths F. C. Supporters Club. Retrieved 2008-05-26. "In their first year taking part Wexford Youths FC [sic] have won the FAI Youth Cup — the premier Youth soccer club competition in the country. And in so doing we have added yet another star to our famous crest." [dead link]
  38. ^ Novum (22 May 2007). "HVV krijgt ook gouden kampioensster ( HVV gets gold champion's star)". nieuws.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 2007-11-20. 
  39. ^ Vieira, Luís Filipe (28 February 2008). "Discurso Gala 104º Aniversário" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Estoril: S.L. Benfica. p. 2. Retrieved 2008-09-23. "Porque o Benfica é o único clube em Portugal a ter conquistado mais de trinta campeonatos, a nossa camisola do próximo ano terá três estrelas por cima do nosso símbolo, uma por cada 10 campeonatos conquistados." 
  40. ^ http://svenskfotboll.se/allsvenskan/historik/lagrekord/
  41. ^ "Simbología Oficial — Imagen & Identidad Corporativa" (in Spanish). C.A. Peñarol. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-04. "once estrellas, que representan a los jugadores que se encuentran en el campo de juego" 
  42. ^ From the official 1997 press release at the badge's introduction; quoted in Hanssen, Svenn. "Manchester City: OFFICIALS AND HISTORY". Retrieved 2007-01-15. .
  43. ^ citation?