Voiceless uvular stop

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Voiceless uvular stop[edit]

Voiceless uvular stop
q
IPA number 111
Encoding
Entity (decimal) q
Unicode (hex) U+0071
X-SAMPA q
Kirshenbaum q
Braille ⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
Sound

The voiceless uvular stop or voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is pronounced like [k], except that the tongue makes contact not on the soft palate but on the uvula. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is q, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is q.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless uvular stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abaza хъацIа [qat͡sʼa] 'man'
Adyghe атакъэ About this sound [ataːqa]  'rooster'
Aleut[1] ҟи́гаҟъ / qiighax̂ [qiːɣaχ] 'grass'
Arabic Standard[2] قصر [qɑsˤr] 'palace' See Arabic phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [qa] 'for'
Archi хъал [qaːl] 'human skin'
Bashkir ҡайын About this sound [qɑˈjɯ̞n]  'birch tree'
Berber Kabyle aqcic [aqʃiʃ] 'boy'
Chechen кхоъ / qo’ [qɔʔ] 'three'
Dawsahak [qoq] 'dry'
English Multicultural London[3] cut [qʌt] 'cut' Allophone of /k/ before /ɑː ɒ ʌ/
Eyak u.jih [quːtʃih] 'wolf'
Greenlandic illoqarpoq [iɬːoqaʁpɔq] 'he has a house'
Hebrew Iraqi קול [qol] 'voice' See Biblical Hebrew phonology
Hindustani بَرق / बर्क़ [bərq] 'lightning' Most speakers of Hindi do not pronounce [q] and assimilate it with [k], because [q] occurs mainly in loanwords from Arabic. However, in Urdu, this is not the case. See Hindustani phonology
Inuktitut ᐃ"ᐃᑉᕆᐅᖅᑐᖅ ihipqiuqtuq [ihipɢiuqtuq] 'explore' Represented by a . See Inuit phonology
Iraqw [qeːt] 'break'
Kabardian къабзэ [qaːbza] 'clean'
Kavalan qaqa [qaqa] 'elder brother'
Kazakh Қазақстан [qɑzɑqˈstɑn] 'Kazakhstan' An allophone of /k/ before back vowels
Ket қан [qan] 'begin'
Klallam qəmtəm [qəmtəm] 'iron'
Kutenai qaykiťwu [qajkitʼwu] 'nine'
Nivkh тяқр̆ [tʲaqr̥] 'three'
Persian Kermani dialect قورباغه [quːrbɒɣe] 'frog' See Persian phonology
Quechua[4] qallu [qaʎu] 'tongue'
Sahaptin qu [qu] 'heavy'
Seediq Seediq [ˈsəːdʑɪq] 'Seediq'
Seereer-Siin[5] [example needed]
Somali qaab [qaːb] 'shape' See Somali phonology
St’át’imcets teq [təq] 'to touch'
Tajik қошуқ [qoʃuq] 'spoon'
Tlingit ghagw [qɐ́kʷ] 'tree spine' Tlingit contrasts six different uvular stops
Tsimshian gwildma̱p'a [ɡʷildmqɑpʼa] 'tobacco'
Ubykh qe [qʰɜ] 'grave' One of ten distinct uvular stop phonemes. See Ubykh phonology
Upper Saxon Chemnitz dialect[6] Rock [qɔkʰ] 'skirt' In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [χ] and [ʀ̥].[6] Doesn't occur in the coda.[6]
Uyghur ئاق aq [ɑq] 'white'
Uzbek quloq' [qulɒq] 'ear'
Yukaghir Northern маарх [maːrq] 'one'
Southern атахл [ataql] 'two'
!Xóõ !qhàà [ǃ͡qʰɑ̀ː] 'water'

Voiceless post-velar stop[edit]

Voiceless post-velar stop

The voiceless post-velar stop or voiceless post-velar plosive is a consonant occurring in Australian English. It's equally valid to use the term pre-uvular instead of post-velar, since they're essentially equivalent.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless post-velar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is post-velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue raised between the soft palate and the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Australian[7] caught [ḵʰoːt] 'caught' Allophone of /k/ before /ʊ oː ɔ oɪ ʊə/.[7] See Australian English phonology
Western Neo-Aramaic Bakh'a [example needed] Somewhat more front in Ma'loula.
Ma'loula


See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]