|Founded||5 December 1919SCADTAas|
|Parent company||Avianca Holdings S.A.|
|Operating income||COP 2.8 B (FY 2009)|
|Total assets||COP 2.403.632 M (FY 2008)|
Avianca S.A. (acronym in Spanish for "Aerovías nacionales de Colombia. National Airways of Colombia is a Colombian airline that has been the national airline and flag carrier of Colombia since 5 December 1919, when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA. It is headquartered in Bogotá, D.C. with its main hub at El Dorado International Airport. Avianca is the flagship of a group of eight Latin American airlines, whose operations are combined to function as one airline using a codesharing system. Avianca is the largest airline in Colombia and second largest in Latin America, after LATAM of Chile. Avianca and its subsidiaries have the most extensive network of destinations in Latin America. It is wholly owned by Synergy Group S.A., a South American holding company established by Germán Efromovich and specialising in air transport. It is listed on the Colombia Stock Exchange.
Through SCADTA, Avianca is the world's second oldest airline after KLM, and celebrated its 90th anniversary in 2009, when it was announced that it would merge with TACA. It is the oldest airline in the Western Hemisphere. It became an official member of Star Alliance on 21 June 2012, after a process that lasted approximately 18 months from the initial announcement of their invitation to join the Alliance.
- 1 History
- 2 Headquarters
- 3 Destinations
- 4 LifeMiles
- 5 Fleet
- 6 Incidents and accidents
- 7 Certifications
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The airline traces its history back to 5 December 1919, in the city of Barranquilla, Colombia. Colombians Ernesto Cortissoz (the first President of the Airline), Rafael Palacio, Cristóbal Restrepo, Jacobo Correa and Aristides Noguera and Germans Wilhem Schnurbusch, Werner Kämerer, Stuart Hosie and Albert Tietjen founded the Colombo-German Company, called Sociedad Colombo-Alemana de Transportes Aéreos or SCADTA. The company accomplished their first flight between Barranquilla and the nearby town of Puerto Colombia using a Junkers F.13, transporting 57 pieces of mail. The flight was piloted by German Helmuth von Krohn. This and another aircraft of the same type were completely mechanically constructed monoplanes, the engines of which had to be modified to efficiently operate in the climate of the country. There were nine aircraft in the fleet with a total range of 850 km (528 mi) which could carry up to four passengers and two crewmen. Due to the topographic characteristics of the country and the lack of airports at the time, floats were adapted for two of the Junkers aircraft to make water landings in the rivers near different towns. Using these floats, Helmuth von Krohn was able to perform the first inland flight over Colombia on 20 October 1920, following the course of the Magdalena River; the flight took eight hours and required four emergency landings in the water.
Soon after the airline was founded, German scientist and philanthropist Peter von Bauer became interested in the airline and contributed general knowledge, capital and a tenth aircraft for the company, as well as obtaining concessions from the Colombian government to operate the country's airmail transportation division using the airline, which began in 1922. This new contract allowed SCADTA to thrive in a new frontier of aviation. By the mid-1920s, SCADTA started its first international routes that initially covered destinations in Venezuela and the United States. In 1924, the aircraft that both Ernesto Cortissoz and Helmuth von Krohn were flying crashed into an area currently known as Bocas de Ceniza in Barranquilla, killing them. In the early 1940s, Peter von Bauer sold his shares in the airline to the US-owned Pan American World Airways.
National Airways of Colombia (1940–1994)
On 14 June 1940, in the city of Barranquilla, SCADTA, under ownership by United States businessmen, merged with regional Colombian airline SACO (acronym of Servicio Aéreo Colombiano), forming the new Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia S.A. or Avianca. Five Colombians participated in this: Rafael María Palacio, Jacobo A. Corea, Cristobal Restrepo, and Aristides Noguera, as well as German citizens Albert Teitjen, Werner Kaemerer and Stuart Hosie, while the post of first President of Avianca was filled by Martín del Corral. Avianca claims SCADTA's history as its own.
In 1946, Avianca began flights to Quito, Lima, Panama City, Miami, New York City and Europe, using Douglas DC-4s and C-54 Skymasters. In 1951, Avianca acquired Lockheed 749 Constellations and 1049 Super Constellations. In 1961, Avianca leased two Boeing 707 aircraft, to operate its international routes and on 2 November 1961, it acquired its own Boeing 720s. In 1976, Avianca became the first Latin American airline to continuously operate[clarification needed] a Boeing 747. Three years later, it started operations with another 747, this time a 747 Combi, mixing cargo and passenger operations.
Merger and alliance (1994–2002)
In 1994, Avianca, the regional carrier SAM and the helicopter operator Helicol, merged, beginning Avianca's new system of operations. This arrangement allowed for specialized services in cargo (Avianca Cargo) and postal services, as well as a more modern fleet, made up of Boeing 767–200s, Boeing 767–300s, Boeing 757–200s, McDonnell Douglas MD-83s, Fokker 50s, and Bell helicopters.
By 1996, Avianca Postal Services became Deprisa, which provided various mail services.
Summa Alliance (2002–04)
After the September 11 attacks, Avianca, the regional carrier SAM Colombia, and its major rival ACES Colombia joined efforts to create Alianza Summa, which began merged operations on 20 May 2002. In November 2003, Alianza Summa was disbanded and ACES Colombia was liquidated altogether and SAM Colombia was acquired to be a regional carrier under Avianca's brand.
American Continent Airways (2004–09)
On 10 December 2004, Avianca concluded a major reorganization process, undertaken after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, by obtaining confirmation of its reorganization plan, which was financially backed by the Brazilian consortium, OceanAir/Synergy Group and the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia, allowing the airline to obtain funds for US$63 million, in the 13 months following withdrawal from bankruptcy.
Under this plan, Avianca was bought by Synergy Group, and was consolidated with its subsidiaries OceanAir and VIP Ecuador. The company's full legal name was changed from Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia (National Airways of Colombia) to Aerovías del Continente Americano (Airways of the American Continent), retaining the acronym Avianca. In 2009, OceanAir and VIP were re-branded as Avianca Brazil and Avianca Ecuador, respectively.
Avianca-TACA merger (2009–13)
In 2009, it was announced that Avianca would merge with TACA. This created AviancaTaca Holdings, which instantly became one of the region's largest airlines, with 129 aircraft and flights to more than 100 destinations.
In November 2009, the airline's Chief Executive Fabio Villegas announced that the airline was looking to replace its Fokker 50 and Fokker 100 aircraft with newer aircraft of 100 seats or less. On 1 January 2011, the airline decided to retire the Fokker 100 aircraft in 2011 and replace them with 10 Airbus A318 leased from GECAS. The aircraft were delivered from February to April 2011.
On 10 November 2010, Star Alliance announced that Avianca (and its merger counterpart, TACA) were full members in 2012. Due to Avianca's entry into Star Alliance, it ended its codeshare agreement with Delta Air Lines and began a new codeshare agreement with United Airlines. TACA had been codesharing with United Airlines since 2006. On 21 June 2012, Avianca and TACA were both officially admitted into Star Alliance.
Avianca Holdings S.A. (2013–present)
TACA and all other AviancaTaca airlines changed their brand to Avianca on 28 May 2013. On 21 March 2013, at the annual general meeting, the shareholders approved the change of corporate name from AviancaTaca Holdings S.A. to Avianca Holdings S.A.
Avianca's headquarters are on Avenida El Dorado and between Avenida la Esmeralda and Gobernación de Cundinamarca, located in the Ciudad Salitre area of Bogotá. The building is located next to the Gran Estación. Its previous head office was at Avenida El Dorado No. 93-30.
Avianca's hubs are in Bogotá at El Dorado International Airport, in San Salvador at Monseñor Óscar Arnulfo Romero International Airport and in Lima at Jorge Chávez International Airport. Its focus cities are Medellín, Cali, Cartagena, Barranquilla, San José and Quito as well as Miami, where Avianca is the largest foreign carrier by number of passengers. The airline covers 187 destinations in 27 countries.
|Company||Number of destinations||List|
|Avianca Argentina||2||Avianca Argentina destinations|
|Avianca Cargo||20||Avianca Cargo destinations|
|Avianca Costa Rica||12||List of Avianca Costa Rica destinations|
|Avianca Ecuador||15||List of Avianca Ecuador destinations|
|Avianca El Salvador||37||List of Avianca El Salvador destinations|
|Avianca Guatemala||11||Avianca Guatemala destinations|
|Avianca Honduras||4||Avianca Honduras destinations|
|Avianca Peru||32||List of Avianca Perú destinations|
Frequent Flyer Program
Avianca launched their LifeMiles frequent-flyer program in 2011, replacing AviancaPlus. The levels include Silver, Gold and Diamond, replacing the former Basic, Gold, Platinum, and Platinum Executive levels. This program covers all Avianca Holdings airlines.
The frequent flyer program of Avianca and its subsidiaries is LifeMiles.This program is to reward customer loyalty. The membership is free and you can register online. LifeMiles members earn miles every time they fly with Star Alliance members, Avianca subsidiaries or use service in some hotels, retails, car rental and credit card partners.
LifeMiles has three Elite Tiers:
- Silver (Star Alliance Silver)
- Gold (Star Alliance Gold)
- Diamond (Star Alliance Gold)
As of September 2018, the Avianca Holding S.A. fleet consists of the following aircraft:
|Airbus A321neo||2||15||12||183||195||First A321neo operator in Latin-America and second in America|
|Airbus A330-300||2||—||32||268||300||Taken over from former TransAsia Airways fleet.|
|Boeing 787-9||—||8||TBA||Delivery begins mid-2019|
|Avianca Cargo Fleets|
Avianca's first Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner was delivered on 17 December 2014 and launched its first service on 16 January 2015 between Bogotá and New York.
Erroneously, Avianca Holdings has been associated with the purchase of ten units of the Airbus A350-900 XWB. However, the purchase was made by Grupo Synergy, owner of Avianca Brasil and main shareholder of Avianca Holdings. The purchase is destined to Avianca Brasil, which is not a subsidiary of Avianca Holdings.
|Boeing 707-300||1969||1993||One was written off as Avianca Flight 52|
|Boeing 737-100||1968||1971||First Latin American airline to operate its type|
|Boeing 747-200M||1981||1988||One was written off as Avianca Flight 011|
|Boeing 757-200||1992||2010||Many aircraft have been converted into freighters and sold to FedEx Express.|
|Consolidated PBY Catalina||1946||Unknown|
|Curtiss C-46 Commando||1950||Unknown|
|de Havilland Giant Moth||Unknown||Unknown|
|de Havilland Tiger Moth||Unknown||Unknown|
|Douglas C-54 Skymaster||1948||1975|
|Dornier Do J||Unknown||Unknown|
|Fokker 50||1993||2014||Replaced by ATR 72-600|
|Fokker 100||2005||2011||Replaced by Airbus A318.|
|Fokker Super Universal||1931||1934|
|Ford 5-AT-DS Trimotor||1932||1946|
|Hawker Siddeley HS 748||1968||1978|
|Junkers W 33||1928||1932|
|Junkers W 34||1929||1947|
|Lockheed L-749 Constellation||1956||1968|
|Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation||1958||1968|
|Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar||Unknown||Unknown|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-11ER||1999||1999|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-83||1992||2011|
Incidents and accidents
The airline suffered a few incidents during the 1980s and early 1990s. The deadliest of those incidents was Avianca Flight 011, which crashed in 1983.
- On 22 January 1947, a Douglas C-53B, registered C-108, crashed in the Magdalena river valley, killing all 17 people on board.
- On 9 August 1954, a Lockheed L-749A Constellation, registered HK-163, crashed three minutes after take off from Lajes Field, Azores, after it flew left into the hills instead of right towards the sea. All 30 on board died.
- On 9 March 1955, a Douglas C-47A, registered HK-328, crashed at Trujillo, Colombia, killing all eight on board. The wreckage was found a month later, but some of the gold and cargo was missing.
- On 23 June 1959, a Douglas DC-4, registered HK-135 and operating Flight 667, struck Cerro Baco mountain while en route to Lima, Peru, killing all 14 aboard.
- On 21 January 1960, a Lockheed L-1049E operating Flight 671 crashed and burned on landing at Montego Bay International Airport in Jamaica, killing 37 aboard.
- On 22 March 1965, a Douglas C-47-DL, registered HK-109 and operating Flight 676, struck Pan de Azucar at an elevation of 7,200 feet (2,200 m), killing all 29 on board. The cause was the decision of the pilot to fly VFR in conditions that required IFR.
- On 15 January 1966, Avianca Flight 4 crashed shortly after takeoff from Cartagena-Crespo Airport. The cause was determined to be maintenance problems, possibly compounded by pilot error.
- On 22 September 1966, a Douglas DC-4, registered HK-174 and operating Flight 870, crashed while attempting to return to Eldorado Airport due to engine problems, killing both pilots. The cause was traced to a failure in the governor control unit. Improper supervision by the company was a contributing factor, as the pilot was briefed to make a night flight while he was in conversion training for the L-749.
- On 24 December 1966, a Douglas C-47A, registered HK-161 and operating Flight 729, struck Cerro Las Animas at an elevation of 11,600 feet (3,500 m) while approaching Pasto, killing all 29 on board. A combination of poor CRM, pilot intoxication, deviation from route, and pilot error was cited as the cause.
- On 21 May 1970, a Douglas DC-3, registered HK-121, was hijacked to Yariguíes Airport, Barrancabermeja whilst on a flight from El Alcaraván Airport, Yopal to Alberto Lleras Carmargo Airport, Sogamoso. The hijackers had demanded to be taken to Cuba.
- On 29 July 1972, two Douglas C-53s, registered HK-107 and HK-1341, were involved in a mid-air collision over the Las Palomas Mountains. Both aircraft crashed, killing 21 people on HK-107 and 17 people on HK-1341. Both aircraft were operating domestic scheduled passenger flights from La Vanguardia Airport, Villavicencio to El Yopal Airport.
- On 22 August 1973, a Douglas DC-3A, registered HK-111, crashed into a hill near Casanare, Colombia, killing 16 of the 17 people on board. The aircraft was operating a domestic scheduled passenger flight from La Vanguardia Airport, Villavicencio to El Alcaraván Airport, Yopal.
- On 12 August 1974, a Douglas C-47, registered HK-508, flew into Trujillo Mountain, killing all 27 people on board. The aircraft was on a domestic scheduled passenger flight from El Dorado Airport, Bogotá to La Florida Airport, Tumaco.
- On 27 November 1983, a Boeing 747–200 operating Flight 011 crashed onto a mountain just short of landing at Barajas Airport in Madrid, killed 181 of the 192 people aboard. The cause was determined to be pilot error.
- On 17 March 1988, a Boeing 727 operating Flight 410 crashed into low mountains near Cúcuta – Norte de Santander, Colombia after take-off, killing all 143 on board. It was determined that pilot error was also the cause of this crash, in a situation similar to Flight 011.
- On 27 November 1989, a bomb destroyed Avianca Flight 203. All 110 passengers and crew were killed. The boming was ordered from Pablo Escobar to kill presidential candidate César Gaviria Trujillo. In the aftermath, it was found that Gaviria had not boarded the aircraft. Only one successful bombing has occurred in the airline's history, while most other gang related incidents were related to hijackings or shootings on board. In most hijackings, all passengers and crew members, unaffiliated with the hijacker's cause, were immediately released.
- On 25 January 1990, Avianca Flight 52, a Boeing 707–320 operating Flight 52 en route from Bogotá to New York City via Medellín crashed in the town of Cove Neck, New York, after running out of fuel while in a holding pattern, awaiting landing at New York's Kennedy Airport, killing 73 of the 158 people aboard.
- On 26 April 1990, 19th of April Movement presidential candidate Carlos Pizarro was gunned down during a domestic Avianca flight.
- On 12 April 1999, a Fokker 50 operating Flight 9463 from Bogotá to Bucaramanga was hijacked by 6 ELN members, who forced the plane to make an emergency landing on a clandestine runway in the Bolivar region. One passenger died during captivity, the rest were eventually liberated a year after the hijack.
In the field of security, Avianca has different international certifications that guarantee the quality of its procedures and safety standards in their services of maintenance, training and support to aircraft. In addition, on November 27, 2008 it received certification ISAGO (IATA Safety Audit for Ground Operations), being the first airline in the world to receive it. ISAGO certifies the compliance with the standards and practices for the control and management of the processes of care and boarding of passengers, cargo, luggage, as well as assistance and handling of aircraft.
- "Servicio Service/Flota Fleet". Avianca en revista. 2016. pp. 116–117. ISSN 1909-1281. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
- "Resultados Avianca 2009" (PDF). Avianca.fr. Retrieved 29 September 2012.[permanent dead link]
- Álvaro Uribe Vélez; Jorge Humberto Botero Angulo (7 March 2005). "Decreto número 604 de 2005 por el cual se concede la Orden del Mérito Comercial en la Categoría de Gran Oficial a Avianca" [Decree number 604 of 2005 which grants to Avianca the Order of Commercial Merit in the Category of Great Officer] (PDF) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo de la República de Colombia.
- Álvaro Uribe Vélez (7 March 2005). "Discurso de entrega de la Orden del Mérito Comercial en la Categoría de Gran Oficial a Avianca" [Presidential address on the Order of Commercial Merit in the Category of Great Officer to Avianca] (.htm) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Presidencia de la República de Colombia.
Nosotros no podemos perder la oportunidad de tener en Bogotá ese gran centro de conexiones. Y por supuesto, que lo haga la compañía bandera de Colombia, que es Avianca. Eso lo tiene que explicar el Gobierno a la opinión pública clara y paladinamente, sin malicias, sin cartas escondidas, y salir a defenderlo y decir por qué hay que hacerlo.
- Simón Rodríguez Rodríguez (21 September 1989). "Sentencia del Honorable Consejo de Estado de la República de Colombia con relación al proceso número 132 que reposa en el expediente del año 1989 (ce-sec1-exp1989-n132)" [Sentence of the Honourable Council of State of the Republic of Colombia in relation to the process number 132 which rests on the record of 1989 (ce-sec1-exp1989-n132)] (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Consejo de Estado de la República de Colombia. pp. 10, 16, 5th paragraph. Archived from the original (.doc) on 2011-07-04.
Desde ningún punto de vista puede abrigarse duda alguna acerca del carácter eminentemente privado de la empresa Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia AVIANCA S. A. La prueba por excelencia en este caso, como es el certificado expedido por el Secretario de la Cámara de Comercio de Barranquilla así lo determina (fls. 2 a 10). En él se lee que la empresa se constituyó por escritura pública número 2374, otorgada ante Notaría Segunda de Barranquilla, el día 5 de diciembre de 1919, registrada en el Juzgado Tercero del mismo Circuito, llamada inicialmente Sociedad Colombo – Alemana de Transportes Aéreos -SCADTA-.
- Friedman, Max Paul (April 2000). "Specter of a Nazi Threat: United States-Colombian Relations, 1939–1945". The Americas. 4. Washington, D.C. (United States): Catholic University of America Press on behalf of Academy of American Franciscan History. 56: 563–589 [566 2nd paragraph]. JSTOR 1008173.
- "Avianca-TACA joint venture ready for implementation". Flightglobal. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
- "Flightgobal: Avianca-TACA joint venture ready for implementation". Flightglobal.com. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Brown, Claire (28 July 1998). "National Air and Space Museum Exhibition Examines the Development of Latino Aviation". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on 2010-04-08.
SCADTA Junkers F 13, one of the first commercial airlines in Colombia. SCADTA (now known as AVIANCA) is the oldest, continuously operating airline in the Western Hemisphere.
- "Avianca-Taca and Copa Airlines to join Star Alliance". Star Alliance. 11 October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
- "Avianca, Taca Airlines and Copa Airlines join Star Alliance". Star Alliance. 21 June 2012. Archived from the original on 15 April 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
- "Avianca confirms 'strategic merger' with TACA". Flightglobal. 10 July 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
- "Latin American airlines to merge". BBC. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
- "Avianca looking to replace Fokkers 100". Eturbonews.com. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Copa Airlines, Copa Airlines Colombia, United Airlines and Avianca-TACA announce their intention to establish close cooperation agreements". avianca.co.uk. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
- "Avianca se quitó el apellido Taca". ElEspectador. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- Buitrago, Alejandra. "Avianca tendrá nueva sede administrativa a comienzos del 2009 en Eje Empresarial del Salitre m, portafolio.co, retrieved on 6 December 2015. "Será un edificio con 13.800 metros cuadrados de vidrio en sus fachadas, con un coeficiente de sombra de solo el 0,71% en diseño bioclimático que permitirá luz y aire naturales incluso en los sótanos." and "Su altura será de 46 metros y tres sótanos, para un área construida de 34.536 metros cuadrados. El primer piso tendrá locales comerciales y una amplia zona de parqueaderos."
- Oficinas Colombia." Avianca. 9 March 2000. Retrieved on 30 January 2011.
- "Codeshare". www.avianca.com. Archived from the original on 2017-08-16. Retrieved 2017-08-16.
- "Air India and Avianca begins codeshare service from Nov 2018". Routesonline. 2 November 2018.
- "Avianca and Singapore Airlines sign a codeshare agreement | Avianca". www.avianca.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-03. Retrieved 2018-12-21.
- "Singapore Airlines And Avianca Sign Codeshare Agreement". www.singaporeair.com.
- "Global Airline Guide 2017 (Part One)". Airliner World (October 2017): 12.
- "Airbus O&D". Airbus S.A.S. 30 June 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Boeing". Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- "Avianca Celebrates Arrival of the Dreamliner". Airliner World: 14. March 2015.
- "Avianca cumple 90 años" (PDF) (in Spanish). Avianca. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2009.[permanent dead link]
- Avianca (4 April 2010). "Nace una historia con alas" (.htm) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Avianca.[permanent dead link]
- An example of one such aircraft; https://planefinder.net/data/aircraft/N959FD
- Accident description for C-108 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013.
- Accident description for HK-163 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 27 May 2012.
- Accident description for HK-328 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013.
- Accident description for HK-135 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013.
- Jamaica Observer, "From Avianca to CanJet: MoBay Airport at Centre of J'can Aviation History", 22 April 2009 . Retrieved 25 April 2009.
- Accident description for HK-109 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013.
- Accident description for HK-174 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013.
- Accident description for CCCP-M25 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 1 July 2013.
- "Hijacking description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- "HK-107 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "HK-1341 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
- "HK-111 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- "HK-508 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
- "Colombia". Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- "Americas | Massive security at Colombia's airports". BBC News. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- "Recordando los 10 años del secuestro del Fokker de Avianca". Noticias ABC colombia. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- "Avianca, primera aerolínea en el mundo en recibir certificación 'Isago' de IATA, tras auditoría de seguridad". portafolio.co. Retrieved 30 November 2016.
Media related to Avianca at Wikimedia Commons