Khirbat Umm Burj
|Khirbat Umm Burj|
|Arabic||خربة أمْ برج'|
|Name meaning||the mother of the tower |
|Date of depopulation||Not known|
Khirbat Umm Burj was a Palestinian Arab village in the Hebron Subdistrict, sometimes designated in modern maps as Burgin. It was depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War on October 28, 1948 during the third stage of Operation Yo'av under the command of Yigal Allon. It was located 17 km northwest of Hebron.
The site was occupied from the Iron Age. A large ancient necropolis was here, including a church or synagogue, residential buildings and numerous agricultural installations. Israeli archaeologists, Amir Ganor and Boaz Zissu, think that Umm Burj may be a corruption of the 1st-century Jewish village, Kefar Bish. In the late 19th century, extensive Christian remains were noted in the area surrounding Um Burj.
In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described Umm Burj as: "A ruined village, with a central tower; apparently not ancient; caves and cisterns round it, and a well." Khalidi believed that the SWP assumption that the tower was not ancient might have been wrong.
British Mandate era
In 1945 it had a population of 140 Muslims, with a total of 13,083 dunums of land. Of this, 28 dunums were irrigated or used for plantations, 3,546 were for cereal, while 15 dunams were built-up (urban) areas.
The villagers used to obtain drinking water from three wells on the northern outskirts of the village.
1948 and aftermath
After the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the ruin of Umm Burj remained under Israeli control under the terms of the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Jordan. Today, the site lies in the Adullam-France Park.
- Palmer, 1881, p. 408
- Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 23
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 50
- Morris, 2004, p. xix village #326. Morris gives both cause and date of depopulation as "Not known".
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 224
- In the Topographical Map (Map # 9, Jerusalem Corridor) published by Israel's Nature Protection Society, the site is listed as Ḥurvat Burjin.
- Ganor and Klein, 2011, Horbat Burqin, Preliminary Report
- Boaz Zissu and Amir Ganor, Survey and Excavations at Ḥorbat Burgin in the Judean Shephelah: Burial Caves, Hiding Complexes and Installations of the Second Temple and Byzantine Periods, ʿAtiqot (publication of the Israel Antiquities Authority), Issue 58 (2008), p. 63; Zissu, Boaz (2008). "Survey and Excavations at Ḥorbat Burgin in the Judean Shephelah: Burial Caves, Hiding Complexes and Installations of the Second Temple and Byzantine Periods". 'Atiqot (58): 60–64. Retrieved 1 March 2017 – via JSTOR. (Registration required (. ))
- Warren and Conder, 1884, p. 446
- Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol 3, Appendix 2, p. 117
- Socin, 1879, p. 162
- Hartmann, 1883, p. 148
- Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 380
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 223
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 93
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 143
- The 1949 Armistice Agreement between Israel and Jordan
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, Herbert H. (1883). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 3. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945. Government of Palestine.
- Ganor, Amir; Klein, Alon (2011-10-11). "Horbat Burgin" (123). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hartmann, M. (1883). "Die Ortschaftenliste des Liwa Jerusalem in dem türkischen Staatskalender für Syrien auf das Jahr 1288 der Flucht (1871)". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins. 6: 102–149.
- Khalidi, Walid (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Robinson, Edward; Smith, Eli (1841). Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. 3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
- Socin, A. (1879). "Alphabetisches Verzeichniss von Ortschaften des Paschalik Jerusalem". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins. 2: 135–163.
- Warren, Charles; Conder, Claude Reignier (1884). The Survey of Western Palestine: Jerusalem. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Zissu, Boaz; Ganor, Amir (1997). "Horbat Burgin" (16). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel.
- Zissu, Boaz; Ganor, Amir (1999). "Horbat Burgin" (19). Hadashot Arkheologiyot – Excavations and Surveys in Israel.