Kafr 'Ana mosque
|Name meaning||The village of Ana|
|Also spelled||Kafar Ana|
|Date of depopulation||April 25, 1948|
|Cause(s) of depopulation||Military assault by Yishuv forces|
|Current localities||Neve Monosson Or Yehuda|
Kafr 'Ana' (Arabic: كفرئنا, also: Kafr Ana) was a Palestinian town located 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) east of Jaffa, built on the ancient site of Ono. In 1945, the town had an estimated population of 2,800 Arabs and 220 Jews. Captured by the pre-state Jewish forces of the Alexandroni Brigade prior to the outbreak of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, it was depopulated.
During early Ottoman rule in Palestine, the revenues of the village of Kafr 'Ana were in 1557 designated for the new waqf of Hasseki Sultan Imaret in Jerusalem, established by Hasseki Hurrem Sultan (Roxelana), the wife of Suleiman the Magnificent. In 1596, Kafr 'Ana appeared in the census located in the Nahiya of Ramla of the Liwa of Gazza. The population was 11 households, all Muslim. They paid a fixed tax-rate of 25% on agricultural products, including wheat, barley, summer crops, vineyards, fruit trees, sesame, goats and beehives; in addition to occasional revenues, a total of 26,800 Akçe. All of the revenue went to a waqf.
French explorer Victor Guérin visited the village in 1863 and noted that "near the village are two shallow basins hollowed in rock, not built up, which receive the winter rains. Several wells are here as well, which permit the gardens to be irrigated. By the side of one of these wells I observed trunks of columns which seemed ancient."
British Mandate period
In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Kufr Ana had a population of 1,374 inhabitants, all Muslims. increasing the 1931 census to 1,824, still all Muslims, in a total of 449 houses.
The villagers grew crops and raised poultry and bees. In 1944/45 a total 2,214 dunums were used for growing citrus and bananas, while 11,022 dunums of village land was used for cereals. 597 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, while 90 dunams were classified as built-up areas.
State of Israel
The village of Kafr 'Ana was depopulated in the weeks leading up to the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, during the Haganah's offensive Mivtza Hametz (Operation Hametz) 28–30 April 1948. This operation was held against a group of villages east of Jaffa, including Kafr 'Ana. According to the preparatory orders, the objective was for "opening the way [for Jewish forces] to Lydda". Though there was no explicit mention of the prospective treatment of the villagers, the order spoke of "cleansing the area" [tihur hashetah]. The final operational order stated: "Civilian inhabitants of places conquered would be permitted to leave after they are searched for weapons."
On 23 September 1948 General Avner named Kafr 'Ana as a suitable village for settlement for new Jewish immigrants ("olim") to Israel. Today, the modern Israeli city, Or Yehuda, is built upon the lands formerly belonging to Kafr 'Ana and Saqiya village and Kheiriya village. Or Yehuda was founded in 1950, on village land, south of the village site.
A woman's thob (loose fitting robe with sleeves), from Kafr Ana, from the 1930s, is in the Museum of International Folk Art (MOIFA) collection at Santa Fe, United States. The dress is of white commercial cotton and the embroidery is multicolored cotton, mainly in red and blue. The qabbeh (the square chest panel) is not a separate panel, but instead executed directly on the dress. The embroidery on the skirt and sleeves is also done directly on the dress. There is some machine embroidery, but most is by hand. The dress has an uncommon round neckline, which was an innovation and was only used here and in the village of Salama, near Jaffa.
- Palmer, 1881, p. 215
- Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 27
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 52
- Morris, 2004, p. xviii, village #218. Also gives cause of depopulation.
- Khalidi, 1882, p. 248
- Christie, W.M. (1925). "The Jamnia Period in Jewish History". The Journal of Theological Studies. 26 (104): 348. JSTOR 23950037. (Registration required (. ));Maisler (Mazar), Benjamin (1932). "The Method of Transcribing Geographical and Personal Names". Lĕšonénu: A Journal for the Study of the Hebrew Language and Cognate Subjects: 19. JSTOR 24384308. (Registration required (. )); Shmuel Klein, Eretz Yehudah (Heb. ארץ יהודה : מימי העליה מבבל עד חתימת התלמוד), Tel-Aviv 1939, s.v. אונו (Ono)
- Mishnah (Arakhin 9:6).
- Ishtori Haparchi, Kaphtor u'ferach (ed. Avraham Yosef Havatzelet), vol. II, chapter 11, s.v. מלוד לאונו, (3rd edition) Jerusalem 2007, p. 75 (note 265), who cites Mishna Arakhin 9:6 as proof of antiquity (Hebrew).
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 247
- Dauphin, 1998, p. 824
- Singer, 2002, p.52
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 156. Note that Khalidi, 1992, p. 247 here mixed this Kafr 'Ana up with a Kafr Ana in the Jerusalem district; Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 119
- Guérin, 1868, p. 320, as translated by Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 265
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, 251. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 247
- Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Jaffa, p. 20
- Mills, 1932, p. 14.
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 95
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 145
- HGS\Operations to Alexandroni, etc., "Orders for Operation "Hametz", 26 April 1948. IDFA 6647\49\\15. Cited in Morris, 2004, pp. 217, 286
- Operation Hametz HQ to Givati, etc., 27 April 1948, 14:00 hours, IDFA 67\51\\677. See also Alexandroni to battalions, 27 April 1948, IDFA 922\75\\949. Cited in Morris, 2004, pp. 217, 286
- Protocol of Meeting of Military Government Committee, 23 September 1948, ISA FM 2564\11. Cited in Morris, 2004, pp. 394, 413
- Khalidi, 1992, pp. 247-248; Carta's Official Guide to Israel, Jerusalem 1983, p. 358.
- Stillman, 1979, p.70
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress. ISBN 0-860549-05-4.
- Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945. Government of Palestine.
- Guérin, Victor (1868). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 1: Judee, pt. 1. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Khalidi, Walid (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00967-7.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Singer, A. (2002). Constructing Ottoman Beneficence: An Imperial Soup Kitchen in Jerusalem. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-5352-9.
- Stillman, Yedida Kalfon (1979), Palestinian costume and jewelry, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, ISBN 0-8263-0490-7