List of languages by time of extinction

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This is a list of extinct languages sorted by their time of extinction. A language is determined to be extinct when its last native or fluent speaker dies. When the exact time of death of the last remaining speaker is not known, either an approximate time or the date when the language was last being recorded is given.

The list[edit]

21st century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Terminal speaker Notes
7 March 2021 Bering Aleut Eskimo Aleut Kamchatka Krai, Russia Vera Timoshenko[1]
2 February 2021 Juma Kawahiva Rondônia, Brazil Aruka Juma[2]
2 December 2020 Tuscarora Iroquoian North Carolina, United States Kenneth Patterson[3]
4 April 2020 Aka-Cari Great Andamanese Andaman Islands, India Licho[4]
23 March 2019 Ngandi Arnhem Northern Territory, Australia C. W. Daniels[5][6]
4 January 2019 Tehuelche Chonan Patagonia, Argentina Dora Manchado[7][8]
9 December 2016 Mandan Siouan North Dakota, United States Edwin Benson[9]
November 25, 2016 Resígaro Arawakan Peru Rosa Andrade Rosa Andrade was brutally murdered in a beheading at the age of 67.
30 August 2016 Wichita Caddoan Oklahoma, United States Doris McLemore[10]
29 July 2016 Gugu Thaypan Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia Tommy George[11]
11 February 2016 Nuchatlaht dialect of Nuu-chah-nulth Wakashan British Columbia, Canada Alban Michael[12]
4 January 2016 Whulshootseed Salishan Washington, United States Ellen Williams[13][14]
4 February 2014 Klallam Salishan Washington, United States Hazel Sampson[15][16][notes 1]
By 2014 Demushbo Panoan Amazon Basin, Brazil
5 June 2013 Livonian Uralic > Finnic Latvia Grizelda Kristiņa[17][notes 2] Under a process of revival.[18]
26 March 2013 Yurok Algic California, United States Archie Thompson[19] Under a process of revival.[20]
By 2013 Sabüm Mon–Khmer Perak, Malaysia 2013 extinction is based on ISO changing it from living to extinct in 2013
2 October 2012 Cromarty dialect of Scots Germanic Northern Scotland, United Kingdom Bobby Hogg[21]
11 July 2012 Upper Chinook Chinookan Oregon, United States Gladys Thompson[22]
10 March 2012 Holikachuk Na-Dene Alaska, United States Wilson "Tiny" Deacon[23]
ca. 2012 Dhungaloo Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia Roy Hatfield[24]
ca. 2012 Ngasa Nilo-Saharan Tanzania Most speakers have shifted to Chaga
by 2012 Mardijker Portuguese-based Creole Jakarta, Indonesia Oma Mimi Abrahams[25]
10 April 2011 Apiaká Tupian Mato Grosso, Brazil Pedrinho Kamassuri[26]
2011 Lower Arrernte Pama-Nyungan Northern Territory, Australia Brownie Doolan Perrurle[27]
24 October 2010 Pazeh Austronesian Taiwan Pan Jin-yu[28]
20 August 2010 Cochin Indo-Portuguese Creole Portuguese-based Creole Southern India William Rozario[28]
26 January 2010 Aka-Bo Andamanese Andaman Islands, India Boa Sr.[29]
November 2009 Aka-Kora Andamanese Andaman Islands, India Ms. Boro[30]
22 February 2009 Aka-Jeru Andamanese Andaman Islands, India Nao Jr.[31]
2009 Nyawaygi Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia Willie Seaton[32]
by 2009 Muruwari Pama-Nyungan Queensland and New South Wales, Australia [33]
by 2009 Agavotaguerra Arawakan Brazil [34]
by 2009 Arikem Tupian Brazil [35]
by 2009 Karipúna Tupian Brazil [36]
by 2009 Pataxó Hã-Ha-Hãe Macro-Jê Brazil [37]
by 2009 Aribwatsa Malayo-Polynesian Papua New Guinea [38]
by 2009 Lelak Malayo-Polynesian Sarawak, Malaysia [4]
by 2009 Papora-Hoanya Austronesian Taiwan [39]
by 2009 Warluwara Pama-Nyungan Australia
30 July 2008 Tübatulabal Uto-Aztecan California, United States James Andreas [40]
after April 2008 Dura Sino-Tibetan Nepal Soma Devi Dura[41]
24 February 2008 Plains Apache Na-Dene > Athabaskan Oklahoma, United States Alfred Chalepah Jr.
21 January 2008 Eyak Na-Dene Alaska, United States Marie Smith Jones[42]
Late 2000s Ruga Sino-Tibetan East Garo Hills district Most people who identify themselves as Ruga speak Garo.
2007 Northeastern Maidu Maiduan Central California Under process of revival
10 August 2007 Gros Ventre Algic > Algonquian Montana, United States Theresa Lamebull[43][44]
ca. 2007 Javindo Dutch-based creole Java, Indonesia [45]
by 2007 Hpun Sino-Tibetan > Burmish Myanmar [46]
by 2007 Hoti Austronesian > CEMP Seram, Indonesia
11 July 2006 Wasco dialect of Upper Chinook Chinookan Oregon, United States Madeline Brunoe McInturff[47]
2006 Zire Malayo-Polynesian New Caledonia
3 November 2005 Osage Siouan Oklahoma, United States Lucille Roubedeaux[48]
2005 Berbice Creole Dutch Dutch-based creole Guyana Bertha Bell[49]
by 2005 Barrow Point Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia Urwunjin Roger Hart[50]
20 September 2004 Nüshu script unclassified Hunan, China Yang Huanyi[51][52]
ca. 2004 (?) Duli Niger-Congo > Adamawa Cameroon [53]
29 December 2003 Akkala Sami Uralic > Sami Kola Peninsula, Russia Marja Sergina[54][55]
22 November 2003 Wintu Wintuan California, United States Flora Jones[56]
14 September 2003 Klamath-Modoc Penutian Oregon, United States Neva Eggsman[57][58]
September 2003 Garig Ilgar Pama-Nyungan Northern Territory, Australia [59]
by 2003 Alngith Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia
by 2003 Areba Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [60]
by 2003 Atampaya Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [61]
by 2003 Umbindhamu Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [62]
by 2003 Makolkol Unclassified New Britain, Papua New Guinea possible Papuan language
2003 Umotína Macro-Jê Mato Grosso, Brazil
4 November 2002 Serrano Uto-Aztecan California, United States Dorothy Ramon A revitalization process is happening.
31 August 2002 Unami Algic > Algonquian Delaware, United States Edward Thompson[63][notes 3]
23 May 2002 Gaagudju Arnhem Land languages Northern Territory, Australia Big Bill Neidjie[64]
c. 2001 Rennellese Sign Language Unclassified Solomon Islands Kagobai
by 2001 Amanayé Tupian Brazil [65]
ca. 2000 Chiapanec Oto-Manguean Chiapas, Mexico
ca. 2000 Castellano Abakay Spanish-based creole South Philippines Chavacano language group.
ca. 2000 Mapia Chuukic Mapia Atoll, Indonesia
ca. 2000 Cholón Hibito–Cholon Huallaga River Valley
ca. 2000 Lapachu Arawakan Apolobamba It is possible there are still a few very old speakers.
By 2000 Central Pomo Pomoan (Hokan?) Northern California

20th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
20th-21st century (?) Ayabadhu Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [66]
20th-21st century (?) Aghu Tharnggala Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [66]
20th-21st century (?) Adithinngithigh Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia
20th-21st century (?) Arritinngithigh Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia
20th-21st century (?) Gurnai Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia now being revived[66]
20th-21st century Southern Kayapó Macro-Jê Mato Grosso, Brazil Hypothesized to be the ancestor of Panará.
late 20th century (?) Nganyaywana Pama-Nyungan Australia
late 20th century (?) Ngamini Pama-Nyungan South Australia
late 20th century (?) Nila Austronesian Nila Island, Indonesia Speakers were relocated to Seram due to volcanic activity on Nila[67]
late 20th century (?) Serua Austronesian Mount Serua, Indonesia Speakers were relocated to Seram due to volcanic activity on Serua[67]
late 20th century Newfoundland Irish Celtic Newfoundland, Canada [68]
late 20th century Soyot-Tsaatan language Turkic Buryatia, Khövsgöl Province Partly revitalized
late 20th century Saraveca Arawakan Eastern lowlands Boliva
From 1980 to 2000 Tepecano Uto-Aztecan Central Mexico Last known speaker Lino de la Rosa was alive in 1980
ca. 2000 Mesmes Semitic Ethiopia with the death of Abegaz[69][70]
ca. 2000 Kamarian Austronesian west Seram Island, Indonesia
2000 Sowa Malayo-Polynesian Pentecost Island, Vanuatu with the death of Maurice Tabi[71]
late 1990s Munichi unclassified Loreto Region, Peru with the death of Victoria Huancho Icahuate
1999 Nyulnyul Pama-Nyungan Australia with the death of Carmel Charles[72]
by 1999 Ineseño Chumashan California, United States [73]
1998 Mlahsô Semitic Syria; Turkey with the death of Ibrahim Hanna[74]
by 1998 Skepi Creole Dutch Dutch-based creole Guyana [75]
after or in 1997 Aribwatsa Lower Markham languages Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea Exact date of extinction is unknown although it's believed to be in 2000. Most descendants have switched to the Bukawa language.
1997-98 Ngarnka Pama-Nyungan Australia
January 1997 Sireniki Yupik Eskimo–Aleut Chukotka Peninsula, Russia with the death of Valentina Wye[76]
ca. 1996 (?) Malaryan Dravidian Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India [77]
16 December 1996 Iowa-Oto Siouan Oklahoma and Kansas, United States with the death of Truman Washington Dailey[78]
by 1996 Katabaga Malayo-Polynesian Philippines [79]
by 1996 Palumata Austronesian Maluku, Indonesia [80]
before 1996 Seru Malayo-Polynesian Sarawak, Malaysia [81]
5 November 1995 Kasabe Niger–Congo Cameroon with the death of Bogon[82]
6 August 1995 Martuthunira Pama-Nyungan Western Australia with the death of Algy Paterson[83]
8 January 1995 Northern Pomo Pomoan (Hokan?) California, United States

with the death of Edna Campbell Guerrero

16 May 1994 Luiseño Uto-Aztecan Southern California Extinct in 1994, with the death of Villiana Calac Hyde. A revitalization process is happening.
30 April 1994 Sakhalin Ainu Ainu languages Japan with the death of Take Asai[84]
13 July 1993 Eastern Abnaki Algic > Algonquian Maine, United States with the death of Madeline Shay[85][86]
1993 Andoa Zaparoan Peru [87]
7 October 1992 Ubykh Northwest Caucasian Balıkesir Province, Turkey with the death of Tevfik Esenç[88]
23 February 1991 Roncalese (Erronkariko) dialect Basque (language isolate) Spain with the death of Fidela Bernat[89]
1991 Pánobo Panoan Peru [90]
30 July 1990 Wappo Yuki–Wappo California, United States with the death of Laura Fish Somersal[91]
1990 Shasta Shastan California, United States
ca. 1990s Lumaete dialect of Kayeli Malayo-Polynesian central Maluku, Indonesia [92]
ca. 1990s Taman variety of Sak Sino-Tibetan Myanmar [93]
1990s Unggumi Worrorra Australia with the death of Morndi Munro[94]
20 September 1989 Kamassian Uralic > Samoyedic Sayan Mountains, Soviet Union with the death of Klavdiya Plotnikova
March 1989 Leliali dialect of Kayeli Malayo-Polynesian central Maluku, Indonesia [92][95]
ca. 1989 Hukumina Austronesian Maluku, Indonesia [96]
1989 Miami-Illinois Algic > Algonquian along the Mississippi River, United States
1989 Kungarakany Gunwinyguan Northern Territory, Australia with the death of Madeline England[95][97]
16 September 1988 Atsugewi Palaihnihan California, United States with the death of Medie Webster[98]
1988 ǁXegwi Tuu South Africa with the death of Jopi Mabinda[99]
ca. 1987 Bidyara Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [100]
ca. 1987 Laua Trans-New Guinea Papua New Guinea
4 February 1987 Cupeño Chumashan California, United States with the death of Roscinda Nolasquez[101]
1987 Dyangadi Pama-Nyungan New South Wales, Australia [102]
1987 Negerhollands Dutch-based creole U.S. Virgin Islands with the death of Alice Stevens
by 1987 Basa-Gumna Niger-Congo > Benue-Congo Niger State/Plateau State, Nigeria [103]
by 1987 Yugambal Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [104]
ca. 1986 Bikya Niger-Congo > Benue-Congo Cameroon
ca. 1986 Bishuo Niger-Congo > Benue-Congo Cameroon
April 1986 Jiwarli dialect, Mantharta Pama-Nyungan Australia with the death of Jack Butler[105]
1986 Mangala Pama-Nyungan Western Australia [106]
1986 Volow Austronesian Vanuatu with the death of Wanhan[107]
18 March 1984 Deeside dialect, Scottish Gaelic Celtic Scotland with the death of Jean Bain[108]
1984 Yavitero Arawakan Venezuela [95][109]
February 1983 Antrim dialect, Irish Celtic Ireland with the death of Séamus Bhriain Mac Amhlaig[110][111]
ca. 1983 Yangman Australian Northern Territory, Australia [112]
June 1982 Kansa Siouan Oklahoma, United States with the death of Ralph Pepper
1982 Dagoman Australian Northern Territory, Australia with the death of Martha Hart[113]
by 1982 Dyugun Australian Western Australia [114]
by 1982 Kato Na-Dene > Athabaskan California, United States [115]
after 1981 Dirari Pama-Nyungan South Australia [116]
after 1981 Dyaberdyaber Pama-Nyungan Western Australia [117][118]
after 1981 Erre Australian Northern Territory, Australia [119]
after 1981 Umbugarla Arnhem Land languages or Darwin Region languages Northern Territory, Australia with the death of Butcher Knight
after 1981 Yawarawarga Pama-Nyungan Queensland and South Australia [120]
ca. 1981 Ternateño Portuguese Creole Maluku, Indonesia [121]
1 May 1981 Pitta Pitta Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia with the deaths of Ivy Nardoo of Boulia[122]
1981 Warrungu Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia with the death of Alf Palmer[123][124]
1981 Bina Austronesian Central Province (Papua New Guinea)
1980 Twana Salishan Washington, United States [95][125]
1980 Yalarnnga Pama-Nyungan Australia
late 1970s - 1980s[118] Flinders Island Pama-Nyungan Australia last known speaker was Johnny Flinders[123]
between 1971 and 1981 Kwadi Khoe southwestern Angola [126]
1970s – 1980s Chicomuceltec Mayan Mexico; Guatemala
22 February 1979 Barranbinja Pama-Nyungan New South Wales, Australia with the death of Emily Margaret Horneville
3 November 1977 Shuadit Romance southern France with the death of Armand Lunel[95][127]
24 August 1977 Ngawun Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia with the death of Cherry O'Keefe[128]
13 July 1977 Nooksack Salishan Washington, United States with the death of Sindick Jimmy[95]
ca. 1977 Nagumi Niger-Congo > Benue-Congo Cameroon [129]
between 1976 and 1999 Kw'adza Cushitic Tanzania [130]
after 1976 Muskum Chadic western Chad [131]
1975 Yugh Yeniseian central Siberia, Soviet Union [95][132]
before 1975 Homa Bantu southern Sudan [133]
27 December 1974 Manx Celtic Isle of Man, United Kingdom with the death of Ned Maddrell. Now being revived as a second language[134]
28 May 1974 Ona Chon Tierra del Fuego, Argentina with the death of Ángela Loij[notes 4]
1974 Moksela Malayo-Polynesian Maluku, Indonesia [135]
before 1974 Cacaopera Misumalpan El Salvador [136]
By 1974 Dicamay Agta Malayo-Polynesian Luzon, Philippines The Dicamay Agta were killed by Ilokano homesteaders sometime between 1957 and 1974.
9 October 1972 Tillamook Salishan Oregon, United States with the death of Minnie Scovell[95]
5 February 1972 Hanis Penutian Oregon, United States with the death of Martha Harney Johnson[137]
1972 Mbabaram Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia with the death of Albert Bennett[138]
1968 Welsh-Romani Romani Wales, United Kingdom with the death of Manfri Wood[139]
before 1968 Sened Berber Tunisia
after 1965 Barngarla Pama-Nyungan southern Australia with the death of Moonie Davis[140]
24 July 1965 Barbareño Chumashan California, United States with the death of Mary Yee[141][notes 5]
1965 Wakawaka Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [142]
ca. 1964 Aariya spurious India [143]
10 August 1963 Galice Na-Dene > Athabaskan Oregon, United States with the death of Hoxie Simmons
10 January 1963 Upper Umpqua Na-Dene > Athabaskan Oregon, United States with the death of Wolverton Orton
1963 Jorá Tupi Bolivia [95]
1962 Wiyot Algic California, United States with the death of Delia Prince[144]
after 1961 Wyandot Iroquoian Oklahoma, United States; Quebec, Canada
1961 Northeastern Pomo Pomoan(Hokan?) California, United States
1960 Oriel dialect, Irish Celtic Ireland with the death of Annie O'Hanlon[145][146]
1960 Siuslaw Penutian Oregon, United States with the death of Mary Barrett Elliott. Last speaker of Lower Umpqua dialect was Billy Dick[137]
ca. 1960s Pirlatapa Pama-Nyungan South Australia [147]
1960s Timor Pidgin Portuguese creole East Timor [148]
1960s Cuitlatec isolate Guerrero, Mexico with the death of Juana Can.[149]
16 April 1959 Catawba Siouan South Carolina, United States with the death of Chief Sam Blue[150]
22 September 1958 Molala Penutian Oregon, United States with the death of Fred Yelkes[137]
1958 Salinan isolate (Hokan?) California, United States
1958 Omurano Zaparoan Peru [95][151]
25 March 1957 Natchez isolate Mississippi, United States [152] with the death of Nancy Raven.[153] The Natchez people are attempting to revive this language.[154]
1952-1956 Aasáx Cushitic Tanzania [155]
after 1955 Wotapuri-Katarqalai Indo-Aryan Afghanistan [156]
after 1954 Tây Bồi French-based Pidgin Vietnam [157][158]
1954 Central Kalapuya Kalapuyan Oregon, United States with the death of John B. Hudson[137]
1954 Ifo Malayo-Polynesian Erromanga Island, Vanuatu with the death of James Nalig[159]
1952 Martha's Vineyard Sign Language Sign language Massachusetts, United States with the death of Katie West
1951 Alsea Penutian Oregon, United States with the death of John Albert[137]
ca. 1950 Bohemian Romani mixed language Czechoslovakia, Central Europe after World War II, due to extermination of most of its speakers in Nazi concentration camps.
1950 Kaniet Malayo-Polynesian Manus Province, Papua New Guinea [95][160]
ca. 1950s Pijao unclassified Colombia [161]
mid-20th century Ventureño Chumashan California, United States
mid-20th century Kawishana Arawakan Brazil presumably extinct
mid-20th century Basay Austronesian Taiwan
mid-20th century Sidi Bantu Bantu Kathiawar, India; also known as Habsi.
mid-20th century Slovincian Slavic Pomerania, Poland
mid-20th century Southern Pame Oto-Manguean Southern Mexico
mid-20th century Kipea Macro-Gê Eastern Brazil
mid-20th century Dzubukua Macro-Gê Pernambuco, Brazil
around mid-20th century Tubar Uto-Aztecan Northern Mexico
possible around the mid-20th century Chico Maiduan Central California
after 1949 Kunza unclassified Atacama Desert, Chile/Peru
6 December 1948 Tunica isolate Louisiana, United States with the death of Sesostrie Youchigant[162]
after 1947 Gafat Semitic along the Abbay River, Ethiopia [163]
3 March 1940 Pentlatch Salishan Vancouver Island, Canada with the death of Joe Nimnim[95]
28 January 1940 Chitimacha isolate Louisiana, United States with the death of Delphine Ducloux[164]
ca. 1940 Eudeve Uto-Aztecan Sonora, Mexico
ca. 1940s Chemakum Chimakuan Washington, United States
ca. 1940s Ossory dialect of Irish Celtic County Kilkenny, Ireland
ca. 1940s Kitanemuk Uto-Aztecan California, United States with the deaths of Marcelino Rivera, Isabella Gonzales, and Refugia Duran
22 May 1939 Rumsen Penutian California, United States with the death of Isabel Meadows[165]
9 May 1939 Miluk Penutian Oregon, United States with the death of Annie Miner Peterson[166]
by or after 1939 Judaeo-Piedmontese Romance Northwestern Italy
16 January 1937 Northern Kalapuya Kalapuyan Oregon, United States with the death of Louis Kenoyer
1937 Yoncalla Kalapuyan Oregon, United States with the death of Laura Blackery Albertson[167]
1936 Narungga Pama-Nyungan South Australia, Australia [168]
8 January 1935 Biloxi Siouan Louisiana, United States with the death of Emma Jackson[169]
1934 Juaneño Uto-Aztecan California, United States
1934 Puelche Chon Argentina with the death of Trruúlmani
1934 Takelma isolate Oregon, United States with the death of Frances Johnson[170]
1933 Gabrielino Uto-Aztecan California, United States
between 1931 and 1951 Akar-Bale Andamanese Andaman Islands, India [171]
between 1931 and 1951 Aka-Kede Andamanese Andaman Islands, India [171]
between 1931 and 1951 A-Pucikwar Andamanese Andaman Islands, India [171]
after 1931 Tonkawa isolate Oklahoma/Texas/New Mexico, United States
by 1931 Aka-Bea Andamanese Andaman Islands, India [171]
by 1931 Oko-Juwoi Andamanese Andaman Islands, India [171]
ca. 1930 Mattole Na-Dene > Athabaskan California, United States
29 January 1930 Mutsun Penutian California, United States with the death of Ascencion Solorsano
ca. 1930s Cayuse isolate/unclassified Oregon, United States
ca. 1930s Kathlamet Penutian Washington/Oregon, United States with the death of Charles Cultee[137]
ca. 1930s Lower Chinook Penutian Washington/Oregon, United States
ca. 1930s Mahican Algic > Algonquian New York, United States
ca. 1930s Clackamas dialect of Upper Chinook Penutian Washington/Oregon, United States
ca. 1930s Kitsai Caddoan Oklahoma, United States with the death of Kai Kai[172]
ca. 1930s Tapachultec Mixe–Zoque Southern Mexico
before 1930s Kwalhioqua Na-Dene > Athabaskan Washington, United States
by 1930 Opata Uto-Aztecan Northern Mexico
between 1920 and 1940 Ajawa Chadic Bauchi State, Nigeria [173]
25 December 1929 Kaurna Pama-Nyungan South Australia with the death of Ivaritji,[174] now being revived
ca. 1929 Bear River Na-Dene > Athabaskan California, USA
after 1925 Subtiaba Oto-Manguean or Subtiaba-Tlapanec Nicaragua
January 1922 Chimariko isolate California, United States with the death of Sally Noble[175][176]
after 1921 Chagatai Turkic Central Asia including Turkmenistan Chagtai is still studied in Uzbekistan and Turkey.[177]
30 June 1921 Tataviam Uto-Aztecan California, United States with the death of Juan José Fustero
by 1921 Aka-Kol Andamanese Andaman Islands, India [178]
ca. 1920 Mochica Chimuan northwest Peru
ca. 1920s Fergana Kipchak Turkic Fergana Valley
ca. 1920s Chochenyo Penutian California, United States
ca. 1920s Island Carib Cariban Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea An offshoot survives as Garifuna.
by 1920 Yupiltepeque Xincan Guatemala [179]
after 1917 Pochutec Uto-Aztecan Oaxaca, Mexico
15 June 1917 Obispeño Chumashan Southern California, United States with the death of Rosario Cooper[180]
25 March 1916 Yahi isolate (Hokan?) California, United States with the death of Ishi[181][notes 6]
1915 Yamhill dialect of Northern Kalapuya Kalapuyan Oregon, United States
1910s ǀXam Tuu South Africa
after 1908 Siraya Austronesian southwestern Taiwan [182]
18 July 1908 Mohegan-Pequot Algic > Algonquian southern New England, United States with the death of Fidelia Fielding[183]
24 February 1905 Tasmanian unclassified Tasmania, Australia with the death of Fanny Cochrane Smith[184][185][notes 7]
after 1902 Dyirringany Pama–Nyungan New South Wales, Australia
between 1900 and 1920 Jangil Ongan Andaman Islands, India [186]
ca. 1900 Henniker Sign Language Village sign New Hampshire, United States
ca. 1900 Tongva language Uto-Aztecan Southern California, United States A revitalization process is happening.
ca. 1900 Moran Sino-Tibetan Assam, India [187]
1900 Wulguru Pama-Nyungan Australia
by 1900 Classical Mandaic Semitic Iran; Iraq [188]
by 1900 Piro Pueblo Tanoan New Mexico, United States
early 20th century Atakapa isolate Louisiana/Texas, United States
early 20th century Kamakã Macro-Jê Bahia, Brazil
early 20th century Jersey Dutch Dutch-based creole New Jersey, United States
early 20th century Kazukuru Malayo-Polynesian New Georgia, Solomon Islands
early 20th century Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin Chinese/Russian-based contact language
early 20th century Chaná Charruan Uruguay
early 20th century Marawán Arawakan Brazil
early 20th century East Leinster dialect, Irish Celtic Ireland [189]
early 20th century Ingain Macro-Jê Santa Catarina, Brazil

19th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
late 19th century Adai isolate Louisiana, United States
late 19th century Purí Macro-Jê southeastern Brazil
late 19th century Coroado Purí Macro-Jê southeastern Brazil
late 19th century Istrian Albanian Albanian Croatia
late 19th century Shebaya Arawakan Trinidad
later 19th century (?) Mbara Pama-Nyungan Australia [190]
May 1900 Moriori Malayo-Polynesian Chatham Island, New Zealand with the death of Hirawanu Tapu[191]
ca. 1899 Nawathinehena Algic > Algonquian Oklahoma and Wyoming, United States[192]
by 1899 Ahom Tai India
by 1899 Waling Sino-Tibetan Nepal [193]
10 June 1898 Dalmatian Romance Croatia; Montenegro with the death of Tuone Udaina[194][195]
after 1894 Tsetsaut Na-Dene > Athabaskan British Columbia, Canada
after 1892 Awabakal Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia
after 1886 Comecrudo Comecrudan Mexico; Texas, United States
after 1886 Cotoname isolate Mexico; Texas, United States
after 1884 Yaquina Penutian Oregon, United States
after 1880 Kenaboi unclassified (Language isolate?) Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
ca. 1880 Auregnais Romance Alderney, United Kingdom
1877 Aruá Arauan Brazil
8 May 1876 Bruny Island Tasmanian Tasmania, Australia with the death of Truganini[notes 8]
mid-1870s Yola Germanic Wexford, Ireland [197]
21 February 1871 Tutelo Siouan Virginia, United States with the death of Nikonha[198][notes 9]
1870 Clatskanie Na-Dene > Athabaskan Washington (state), United States
after 1867 Andoquero Witotoan Colombia [199]
1864 Xakriabá Macro-Jê Minas Gerais state, Brazil
1862 Caquetio Arawakan Aruba with the death of Nicolaas Pyclas[200]
1858 Karankawa unclassified Texas, United States concurrent with the extermination of the tribe at the hands of Juan Cortina
ca. 1857 Woiwurrung Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia
26 December 1856 Nanticoke Algic > Algonquian Delaware and Maryland, United States with the death of Lydia Clark[201]
12 January 1855 Wampanoag Algic > Algonquian Massachusetts, United States Nantucket Wampanoag disappeared with the death of Dorcas Honorable[202]
after 1853 Samaritan Semitic West Bank and the Gaza Strip, Palestinian territories [203]
19 October 1853 Nicoleño Uto-Aztecan California, United States with the death of Juana Maria[204]
after 1851 Wainumá-Mariaté Arawakan Amazonas, Colombia A word list was collected by Alfred Russel Wallace in 1851.
after 1950 Hibito Hibito–Cholon Bobonaje River Valley
ca. 1850 Norn North Germanic Northern Isles, United Kingdom with the death of Walter Sutherland[205][206]
mid-19th century Shinnecock Algic > Algonquian New York, United States
ca. 1850s Kott Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [132]
after or during 1840s Bororo of Cabaçal Macro-Jê languages Mato Grosso, Brazil
ca. 1840s Mator Uralic > Samoyedic Sayan Mountains, Russia
after 1839 Gulidjan Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia
1838 Nottoway Iroquoian Virginia, United States with the death of Edith Turner
after 1836 Wathawurrung Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia
after 1835 Pali Indo-Aryan India; Myanmar [207]
after 1833 Esselen isolate (Hokan?) California, United States
after 1833 Cararí Arawakan Mucuim River, Amazonas, Brazil A word list was collected by Johann Natterer in 1833.
after 1832 Charrúa language Charruan languages Entre Ríos Province and Uruguay
after 1832 Guenoa language Charruan languages Entre Ríos Province and Uruguay
after 1832 Aroaqui Arawakan Lower Rio Negro Brazil A word list was collected by Johann Natterer in 1832.
after 1832 Parawana Arawakan Lower Branco River Brazil A word list was collected by Johann Natterer in 1832.
after 1831 Mepuri Arawakan Amazonas, Brazil A word list was collected by Johann Natterer in 1831.
after 1831 Mainatari Arawakan Siapa River (Orinoco basin) Venezuela A word list was collected by Johann Natterer in 1831.
6 June 1829 Beothuk Algic > Algonquian? Newfoundland, Canada with the death of Shanawdithit[208]
after 1828 Garza Comecrudan Mexico
after 1828 Mamulique Comecrudan Nuevo León, Mexico
1821 Karkin Penutian California, United States
after 1819 Peerapper Tasmanian Tasmania, Australia
10 April 1815 Tambora unclassified (Papuan) Sumbawa following the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora[209]
after 1808 Nuennone Tasmanian Tasmania, Australia
ca. 1803 Bunwurrung Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia
ca. 1800 Pallanganmiddang Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia
ca. 19th century Crimean Gothic Germanic Crimea, Russia
ca. 19th century Assan Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [132]
ca. 19th century Sandy River Valley Sign Language Martha's Vineyard Sign Language or isolate Maine, United States
19th century Mediterranean Lingua Franca Romance-based Pidgin Tunisia; Greece; Cyprus [210]
19th century Chorotega Oto-Manguean Costa Rica; Nicaragua [211]
19th century Matagalpa Misumalpan Nicaragua
19th century Ramaytush Penutian California, United States
19th century Kemi Sami Uralic > Sami Lapland, Finland [212]
19th century Jaikó Macro-Jê southeastern Piauí
around the 19th century Mangue language Oto-Manguean Central America
early 19th century Cochimí Yuman-Cochimi (Hokan?) Baja California, Mexico
early 19th century Yurats Samoyedic central Siberia, Russia
early 19th century Wila' Austroasiatic Borneo, Malaysia
early 19th century Pumpokol Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [132]

18th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
late 18th century Esuma Kwa southern Côte d'Ivoire [213]
late 18th century Maipure Arawakan Upper Orinoco region
after the late 1790s Chiriba Panoan Moxos Province, Bolivia All that was recorded of it was a list of seven words in the late 1790s.
after 1794 Magiana Arawakan Boliva Magiana, an extinct Bolivia-Parana Arawakan language of Bolivia attested only with the wordlist in Palau, Mercedes and Blanca Saiz 1989 [1794].
after 1791 Eora Pama-Nyungan Queensland and New South Wales, Australia [214]
after 1791 Quiripi Algic > Algonquian Connecticut/New York/New Jersey, United States [215]
ca. 1790s Powhatan Algic > Algonquian eastern Virginia, United States
ca. 1790s Ramanos Unclassified Moxos Province, Bolivia
after 1788 Gundungurra Pama-Nyungan New South Wales, Australia [216]
after 1788 Ngunnawal Pama-Nyungan New South Wales, Australia [216]
after 1788 Thurawal Pama-Nyungan New South Wales, Australia [216]
26 December 1777 Cornish Celtic Cornwall, England with the death of Dolly Pentreath[217][notes 10]
after 1770 Weyto unclassified Ethiopia
after 1770 Tamanaku Cariban languages Venezuela
1770 Cuman Turkic north of Black Sea; Hungary with the death of István Varró
ca. 1770s Abipón Mataco–Guaicuru Argentina
1763 Susquehannock Iroquoian Maryland/Virginia, United States roughly concurrent to the Conestoga massacre
1760 Galwegian dialect, Scottish Gaelic Celtic Scotland, United Kingdom with the death of Margaret McMurray
3 October 1756 Polabian Slavic around the Elbe river, Poland/Germany with the death of Emerentz Schultze[218]
ca. 1730s Arin Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [132]
18th Century Plateau Sign Language Contact pidgin Columbia Plateau, United States
18th century Coahuilteco isolate/unclassified Mexico; Texas, United States
18th century Loup language Algic > Algonquian Massachusetts and Connecticut, USA
18th century Chibcha Chibchan Colombia
18th century Manao Arawakan Brazil
18th century Hilberno-Scottish Gaelic Celtic Ireland and Scotland, United Kingdom [219]
ca. 18th century Chané Arawakan Argentina a dialect of Terêna
early 18th century Apalachee Muskogean Florida, United States
early 18th century Old Prussian Baltic Poland

17th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
between 17th and 19th century Niuatoputapu Malayo-Polynesian Niuatoputapu Island, Tonga [220]
late 17th to early 18th century Cacán unclassified northern Argentina; Chile
Maybe 17th to 18th century Acaxee Uto-Aztecan Northwestern Mexico
Maybe 17th to 18th century Xixime Uto-Aztecan Northwestern Mexico
by 1700 Pidgin Delaware Delaware-based pidgin Delaware, United States [221]
late 17th century Sudovian Baltic Lithuania
after 1666 Old Kentish Sign Language Village sign language Kent, England [222]
after 1643 Narragansett Algic > Algonquian New England, United States [223]
after 1640 Yaio Cariban Trinidad and French Guiana Attested in a 1640 word list recorded by Joannes de Laet.
ca. 1635 Jurchen Tungusic Manchuria, China [224]
after 1618 Lumbee Algic > Algonquian North Carolina and Maryland, United States [225]
after 1618 Carolina Algonquian Algic > Algonquian North Carolina, United States [225]
17th century Etchemin Algic > Algonquian Maine, United States
17th century Jassic Iranian Hungary
17th century Coptic Afro-Asiatic Egypt still used as a liturgical language
17th century Gorgotoqui Macro-Jê eastern Bolivia
17th century Curonian Baltic Latvia
17th century Kipchak Turkic Ukraine and Russia north of the Black Sea evolved into the modern Kipchak languages
17th century ca. Cazcan Uto-Aztecan Mexico

16th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
late 16th century Knaanic Slavic Czech Republic; Poland
late 16th century Laurentian Iroquoian Quebec/Ontario, Canada
after 1586 Palta unclassified Ecuador
after 1548 Taino Arawakan The Bahamas and Puerto Rico
after 1502 Tangut Sino-Tibetan northwestern China; southern Mongolia
16th century Semigallian Baltic Latvia; Lithuania
16th century Guanahatabey Unclassified Pinar del Río Province and Isla de la Juventud, Cuba
16th century Guanche unclassified, maybe Berber Canary Islands, Spain [226]
16th century Navarro-Aragonese Romance Northeast Iberia
16th century Judaeo-Portuguese Romance Belmonte, Portugal

15th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
After 1492 Judaeo-Catalan Romance Eastern Spain After the Alhambra Decree
end of 15th century Mozarabic Romance Spain; Portugal [227]
late 15th century Greenlandic Norse Germanic Greenland
late 15th century Selonian Baltic Latvia; Lithuania
15th century Old Anatolian Turkish Turkic Turkey Evolved into Early Ottoman Turkish

14th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
14th century Galindian Baltic northern Poland; Russia
14th century Zarphatic Romance northern France; west-central Germany
14th century Khorezmian Turkic Eastern Europe and Central Asia Evolved into Chagatay.
14th century Old Uyghur Turkic Northwest China Evolved into Western Yugur.

13th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
13th – 14th century Bulgar Turkic Volga and Danube, Europe; Central Asia
20 June 1244 Khitan Mongolic Central Asia with the death of Yelü Chucai[228][notes 11]
13th century Pyu Sino-Tibetan central Myanmar

11th and 12th centuries[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
12th century Khwarezmian Iranian Khwarazm
11th – 12th century Cumbric Celtic England/Scotland, United Kingdom
11th – 12th century Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Semitic Iraq [229]
between 1000 and 1300 Khazar Turkic northern Caucasus; Central Asia
ca. 1000 Lombardic Germanic central Europe; northern Italy
ca. 1000 Merya Uralic Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia
ca. 1000 Muromian Uralic Vladimir Oblast, Russia
ca. 1000 Alanic Iranian Pontic–Caspian steppe, Central Asia evolved into Ossetian
11th century Old Church Slavonic Slavic Eastern Europe still used as a liturgical language

10th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
10th – 12th century Syriac Semitic Turkey; Iraq; Syria still used as a literary secular language[230]
10th – 12th century Samaritan Aramaic Semitic West Bank, Palestine; Israel now only used as liturgical language[231]
10th century Sakan Iranian Xinjiang, China
10th century Himyaritic Semitic Yemen
10th century Zhang-Zhung Sino-Tibetan western Tibet (Central Asia)

9th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
9th century or later Pictish Celtic Scotland, United Kingdom
after 840 Tocharian Indo-European Tarim Basin (Central Asia)
9th century Gothic Germanic Spain; Portugal; Italy with the exception of Crimean Gothic
9th century Frankish Germanic France; Germany evolved into the Franconian languages
9th century Sogdian Iranian Uzbekistan; Tajikistan evolved partly into Yaghnobi

8th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
8th century Orkhon Turkic Turkic Eurasian Steppe Evolved into Old Uyghur
8th century Caucasian Albanian Northeast Caucasian South Dagestan to Azerbaijan. developed into Udi language

7th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
ca. 600 Avestan Iranian Iran [232]
7th century Gaya Unclassified Korea
7th century Buyeo Unclassified Manchuria

6th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
6th century Ancient Cappadocian Indo-European Anatolia
6th century Dacian Indo-European Balkans
6th century Illyrian Indo-European western Balkans disputed
6th century Sabaean Semitic Horn of Africa; Arabic Peninsula
6th century Vandalic Germanic Spain; North Africa
6th century Gaulish Celtic Gaul: France, Belgium, Germany and elsewhere
6th century Ruanruan language Mongolic or isolate Northern China and Mongolia Spoken from the 4th to the 6th century AD.

5th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
5th – 7th century Phrygian Indo-European southeastern Bulgaria; Anatolia
5th – 6th century Hadramautic Semitic Dhofar Mountains
before 6th century Ligurian unclassified, possibly Celtic or Indo-European northwestern Italy; southeastern France [233]
after 453 Hunnic unclassified, possibly Oghuric from the Eurasian steppe into Europe
ca. 400 Meroitic unclassified, maybe Nilo-Saharan Sudan
ca. 400 Sarmatian Iranian Pontic–Caspian steppe, Central Asia evolved into Alanic
5th century Thracian Indo-European eastern and central Balkans
5th century Isaurian Anatolian Anatolia
early 5th century Punic Semitic North Africa

4th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
4th century CE Galatian Celtic central Anatolia
4th century CE Ge'ez Semitic Ethiopia; Eritrea still used as a liturgical language[234]
4th century CE Biblical Hebrew Semitic Israel revived in the 1880s
after 300 CE Parthian Iranian Iran

3rd century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
3rd century CE Raetic unclassified, maybe Tyrsenian eastern Alps
ca. 200 CE Qatabanian Afro-Asiatic Yemen

2nd century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
after 2nd century CE Noric Celtic Austria; Slovenia
after 2nd century CE Pisidian Anatolian southwestern Anatolia
after 150 Bactrian Iranian Afghanistan
ca. 100 CE Akkadian Semitic Mesopotamia [235]
100 CE Etruscan Tyrsenian central Italy
ca. 2nd century CE Celtiberian Celtic Spain
2nd century CE Lusitanian Indo-European Portugal; Spain

1st century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
1st – 2nd century CE Paeonian Indo-European Macedonia; Greece; Bulgaria
1st – 2nd century CE Iberian unclassified Spain; France
1st century CE Liburnian Indo-European western Croatia
1st century CE Venetic Indo-European northeastern Italy

1st century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
1st century BCE Elymian unclassified western Sicily
1st century BCE Lycian Anatolian southwestern Anatolia
1st century BCE Lydian Anatolian western Anatolia
1st century BCE Messapian Indo-European Apulia, Italy
1st century BCE Mysian Anatolian northwestern Anatolia
1st century BCE Oscan Italic southern Italy
1st century BCE Sabine Italic central Italy
1st century BCE Sicanian unclassified central Sicily
1st century BCE Sicel Indo-European eastern Sicily
1st century BCE Umbrian Italic central Italy
early 1st millennium BCE Eteocretan isolate/unclassified Crete, Greece
1st millennium BCE Milyan Anatolian Anatolia

2nd century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
100 BCE Vestinian Italic east-central Italy
ca. 150 BCE Faliscan Italic Tuscany/Latium, Italy
ca. 100 BCE Minaean Afro-Asiatic Yemen

3rd century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
ca. 3rd century BCE Volscian Italic Italy; Latium
ca. 3rd century BCE Aequian Italic Latium, east-central Italy
ca. 3rd century BCE Sidetic Anatolian southwestern Anatolia
3rd century BCE Carian Anatolian southwestern Anatolia

4th century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
early 4th century BCE Eteocypriot isolate/unclassified Cyprus
4th century BCE Ancient Macedonian Indo-European northeastern Greece
ca. 300 BCE Philistine unclassified, maybe Indo-European Israel; Lebanon
ca. 300 BCE Scythian Iranian Pontic–Caspian steppe, Central Asia evolved into Sarmatian
ca. 350 BCE Elamite isolate Persia; southern Mesopotamia

5th century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
after 5th century BCE Tartessian unclassified Spain
5th century BCE Ammonite Semitic northwestern Jordan
5th century BCE Moabite Semitic northwestern Jordan
maybe 5th century BCE Phoenician Semitic Lebanon; Palestine; Mediterranean coast evolved into Punic
ca. 400 BCE Lepontic Celtic northern Italy

6th century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
after 6th century BCE Lemnian Tyrsenian Lemnos, Greece [236]
6th century BCE Edomite Semitic southwestern Jordan

7th century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
7th century BCE Urartian Hurro-Urartian Armenia; Georgia; Iraq; Anatolia
ca. 600 BCE Luwian Anatolian Anatolia; northern Syria
ca. 600 BCE Egyptian Afroasiatic Ancient Egypt evolved into Demotic by 600 BCE

2nd millennium BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian isolate Mesopotamia used as a literary and liturgical language until about 100 CE[237]
2nd millennium BCE Eblaite Semitic Syria
ca. 1500 BCE Hattic isolate Anatolia
ca. 1450 BCE Minoan unclassified Crete may have evolved into Eteocretan
ca. 1300 BCE Palaic Anatolian northwest Anatolia
ca. 1200 BCE Hurrian Hurro-Urartian Anatolia; Syria; Mesopotamia
after 1170 BCE Ugaritic Semitic Syria following the destruction of Ugarit
ca. 1100 BCE Hittite Anatolian Anatolia
ca. 1050 BCE Cypro-Minoan unclassified Cyprus may have evolved into Eteocypriot

Unknown date[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
UNK Olmec language Unclassified, possibly Mixe-Zoque Mexico
UNK Baekje language Unclassified, possibly Koreanic Korea may be more than one language.
UNK Goguryeo language Unclassified, possibly Koreanic Korea, China
UNK Villa Viciosa Agta Malayo-Polynesian Villaviciosa, Abra Philippines unattested
UNK Tuoba Mongolic or Turkic Northern China Spoken around the 5th century AD.
UNK Tuyuhun Para-Mongolic Northern China Spoken around 500 AD
UNK Xiongnu unknown Mongolia
UNK Jie language Yeniseian North China Possibly evolved into Pumpokol.
UNK Ermiteño Chavacano Ermita, Manila, Philippines Spanish-based creole
UNK Sutean Afro-Asiatic Northeast Syria Spoken around 2100 BCE
UNK Otuke Macro-Jê Mato Grosso, Santa Cruz
UNK Menién Macro-Jê Bahia, Brazil
UNK Acroá Macro-Jê Bahia, Brazil
UNK Malalí Macro-Jê Minas Gerais, Brazil
UNK Masakará Macro-Jê Bahia, Brazil
UNK Kotoxó Macro-Jê Bahia, Brazil
UNK Koropó Macro-Jê Minas Gerais, Brazil
UNK Kamurú Macro-Jê Eastern Brazil
UNK Sabujá Macro-Jê Bahia, Brazil
UNK Mangaló Macro-Jê Bahia and Minas Gerais
UNK Gueren Macro-Jê Minas Gerais, Brazil
UNK Aravirá Macro-Jê Mato Grosso, Santa Cruz Nothing is known directly about this language.
UNK Sorung Malayo-Polynesian Erromango
UNK Hermit Malayo-Polynesian Manus Province, Papua New Guinea It has been mostly replaced by Seimat.
UNK Waamwang Malayo-Polynesian Voh, New Caledonia
UNK Pawishiana Cariban South America
UNK Arakajú Cariban South America
UNK Tiverikoto Cariban South America
UNK Wajumará Cariban South America
UNK Boanarí Cariban South America
UNK Purukotó Cariban South America
UNK Paravilyana Cariban South America
UNK Sapará Cariban South America
UNK Juma Cariban South America
UNK Apingi Cariban South America
UNK Yarumá Cariban South America
UNK Opón Cariban Colombia
UNK Pimenteira Cariban South America
UNK Palmela Cariban South America
UNK Morique Arawakan Between the Ucayali River and Javari River
UNK Aroã Arawakan Marajó
UNK Pasé Arawakan Brazil
UNK Yumana Arawakan Brazil
UNK Wiriná Arawakan Brazil
UNK Waraikú Arawakan Brazil
UNK Shiriana Arawakan Brazil
UNK Western Jicaque Hokan Honduras
UNK Custenau Arawakan Mato Grosso, Brazil
UNK Yabaâna Arawakan Brazil
UNK Kariaí Arawakan Roraima, Brazil
UNK Anauyá Arawakan Castaño Viejo River Amazonas, Venezuela
UNK Jandiatuba Mayoruna Panoan Amazon basin, Brazil
UNK Amazon Mayoruna Panoan Amazon basin, Brazil, Peru, and Colombia

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Last surviving native speaker; it is being taught as a second language on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State.
  2. ^ Last surviving native speaker; some children still learn it as a second language.
  3. ^ Brother of Lenape traditionalist and language preservation activist Nora Thompson Dean
  4. ^ The last full-blooded Selknam Indian, but some have suggested certain people remained fluent in the languages until the 1980s.
  5. ^ Last attested speaker of a Chumashan language
  6. ^ Last member of the Yahi, the last surviving group of the Yana people who spoke Yana
  7. ^ Considered to be the last fluent speaker of a Tasmanian language.
  8. ^ Considered to be the last full-blood speaker of a Tasmanian language;[196] however, Fanny Cochrane Smith, who spoke one of the Tasmanian languages, outlived her.
  9. ^ Last full-blooded speaker, though partial knowledge of this language continued among mixed Cayuga-Tutelo descendants for some time.
  10. ^ Possibly the last fluent native speaker of the Cornish language, was monoglot until her twenties. See Last speaker of the Cornish language.
  11. ^ Last person known to speak, read, and write in Khitan.

References[edit]

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