List of languages by time of extinction

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This is a list of extinct languages sorted by their time of extinction. When the exact time of death of the last remaining speaker is not known, either an approximate time or the date when the language was last being recorded is given. However, the list is not complete.

List[edit]

21st century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
30 August 2016 Wichita Caddoan Oklahoma, United States with the death of Doris McLemore
February 2016 Nuchatlaht dialect of Nuu-chah-nulth Wakashan British Columbia, Canada with the death of Alban Michael[1]
4 February 2014 Klallam Salishan Washington, United States with the death of Hazel Sampson[2]
5 June 2013 Livonian Uralic > Finnic Latvia with the death of Grizelda Kristina[3]
26 March 2013 Yurok Algic California, United States with the death of Archie Thompson[4]
2 October 2012 Cromarty dialect of Scots Germanic Northern Scotland, United Kingdom with the death of Bobby Hogg [5]
ca. 2012 Dhungaloo Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia with the death of Roy Hatfield[6]
2011 Lower Arrernte Pama-Nyungan Northern Territory, Australia with the death of Brownie Doolan Perrurle[7]
24 October 2010 Pazeh Austronesian Taiwan with the death of Pan Jin-yu[8]
20 August 2010 Cochin Indo-Portuguese Creole Portuguese-based Creole Southern India with the death of William Rozario[8]
26 January 2010 Aka-Bo Andamanese Andaman Islands, India with the death of Boa Sr.[9]
November 2009 Aka-Kora Andamanese Andaman Islands, India with the death of Ms. Boro[10]
2009 Aka-Jeru Andamanese Andaman Islands, India [11]
2009 Nyawaygi Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia with the death of Willie Seaton[12]
by 2009 Gugu Badhun Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia
by 2009 Muruwari Pama-Nyungan Queensland and New South Wales, Australia [13]
by 2009 Thaypan Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia with the death of Tommy George [14]
by 2009 Agavotaguerra Arawakan Brazil [15]
by 2009 Arikem Tupian Brazil [16]
by 2009 Karipúna[disambiguation needed] Tupian Brazil [17]
by 2009 [18] Pataxó Hã-Ha-Hãe unclassified Brazil
by 2009 Aribwatsa Malayo-Polynesian Papua New Guinea [19]
by 2009 Lelak Malayo-Polynesian Sarawak, Malaysia [4]
by 2009 Papora-Hoanya Austronesian Taiwan [20]
2008 Plains Apache Na-Dene > Athabaskan Oklahoma, United States with the death of Alfred Chalepah, Jr.
after April 2008 Dura Sino-Tibetan Nepal with the death of Soma Devi Dura[21]
21 January 2008 Eyak Na-Dene Alaska, United States with the death of Marie Smith Jones[22]
10 August 2007 Gros Ventre Algic > Algonquian Montana, United States [23] with the death of Theresa Lamebull[24]
ca. 2007 Javindo Dutch-based creole Java, Indonesia [25]
ca. 2006 (?) A-Pucikwar Andamanese Andaman Islands, India

[26]

after 2005 Whulshootseed Salishan Washington, United States with the death of Ellen Williams [27][28]
2005 Berbice Creole Dutch Dutch-based creole Guyana with the death of Bertha Bell[29]
2005 Osage Siouan Oklahoma, United States with the death of Lucille Roubedeaux[30]
by 2005 Barrow Point Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [31]
ca. 2004 (?) Duli Niger-Congo > Adamawa Cameroon [32]
29 December 2003 Akkala Sami Uralic > Sami Kola Peninsula, Russia with the death of Marja Sergina[33][34]
2003 Klamath-Modoc Penutian Oregon, United States [35]
2003 Garig Ilgar Pama-Nyungan Northern Territory, Australia [36]
by 2003 Alngith Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia
by 2003 Areba Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [37]
by 2003 Atampaya Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [38]
by 2003 Umbindhamu Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [39]
31 August 2002 Unami Algic > Algonquian Delaware, United States with the death of Edward Thompson[40]
23 May 2002 Gaagudju Arnhem Land languages Northern Territory, Australia with the death of Big Bill Neidjie[41]
2002 Serrano Uto-Aztecan California, United States with the death of Dorothy Ramon
by 2001 Amanayé Tupian Brazil [42]
20th century |Xam Tuu South Africa
2000 Sowa Malayo-Polynesian Pentecost Island, Vanuatu with the death of Maurice Tabi
ca. 2000 Mesmes Semitic Ethiopia with the death of Abegaz[43][44]

20th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
20th-21st century (?) Ayabadhu Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [45]
20th-21st century (?) Aghu Tharnggala Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [45]
20th-21st century (?) Adithinngithigh Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia
20th-21st century (?) Arritinngithigh Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia
20th-21st century (?) Gurnai Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia [45] now being revived
1999 Nyulnyul Pama-Nyungan Australia with the death of Carmel Charles [46]
by 1999 Ineseño Chumashan California, United States [47]
1998 Mlahsô Semitic Syria; Turkey with the death of Ibrahim Hanna [48]
1997-98 Ngarnka Pama-Nyungan Australia
by 1998 Skepi Creole Dutch Dutch-based creole Guyana [49]
late 1990s Munichi unclassified Loreto Region, Peru with the death of Victoria Huancho Icahuate
1997 Ofo Siouan United States with the death of Thomas Darko[50]
1997, January Sireniki Yupik Eskimo–Aleut Chukotka Peninsula, Russia with the death of Valentina Wye[51]
ca. 1996 (?) Malaryan Dravidian Kerala and Tamil Nadu, India [52]
1996 Iowa-Oto Siouan Oklahoma and Kansas, United States [53]
by 1996 Katabaga Malayo-Polynesian The Philippines [54]
by 1996 Palumata Austronesian Maluku, Indonesia [55]
before 1996 Seru Malayo-Polynesian Sarawak, Malaysia [56]
ca. 1990s Lumaete dialect of Kayeli Malayo-Polynesian central Maluku, Indonesia [57]
1990s Unggumi Worrorra Australia with the death of Morndi Munro[58]
ca. 1990s Taman variety of Sak Sino-Tibetan Myanmar [59]
6 August 1995 Martuthunira Pama-Nyungan Western Australia with the death of Algy Paterson[60]
after 1994 Aka-Cari Andamanese Andaman Islands, India
1994 Sakhalin Ainu Ainu languages Japan with the death of Take Asai[61]
1994 Northern Pomo Pomoan (Hokan?) California, United States

with the death of Edna Guerrero

1993 Andoa Zaparoan Peru [62]
1993 Eastern Abnaki Algic > Algonquian Maine, United States with the death of Madeline Shay[63][64]
1992, October 7 Ubykh Northwest Caucasian Balıkesir Province, Turkey with the death of Tevfik Esenç[65]
1991 Roncalese (Erronkarriko) dialect, Basque language isolate Spain; France with the death of Fidela Bernat[66]
1991 Pánobo Panoan Peru [67]
1990 Shasta Shastan California, United States
1990 Wappo Yuki–Wappo California, United States with the death of Laura Fish Somersal[68]
ca. 1989 Hukumina Austronesian Maluku, Indonesia [69]
1989 Kamassian Uralic > Samoyedic Ural mountains, Russia with the death of Klavdiya Plotnikova
1989 Leliali dialect of Kayeli Malayo-Polynesian central Maluku, Indonesia in March 1989[57][70]
1989 Miami-Illinois Algic > Algonquian along the Mississippi River, United States
1989 Kungarakany Gunwinyguan Northern Territory, Australia with the death of Madeline England[70][71]
1988 Atsugewi Palaihnihan California, United States with the death of Medie Webster[72]
1988 Nooksack Salishan Washington, United States with the death of Sindick Jimmy [70]
1988 ǁXegwi Tuu South Africa with the death of Jopi Mabinda[73]
ca. 1987 Bidyara Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [74]
ca. 1987 Laua Trans-New Guinea Papua New Guinea
between 1976 and 1999 Kw'adza Cushitic Tanzania [75]
4 February 1987 Cupeño Chumashan California, United States with the death of Roscinda Nolasquez[76]
1987 Dyangadi Pama-Nyungan New South Wales, Australia [77]
1987 Negerhollands Dutch-based creole U.S. Virgin Islands with the death of Alice Stevens
1987 Basa-Gumna Niger-Congo > Benue-Congo Niger State/Plateau State, Nigeria [78]
by 1987 Yugambal Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [79]
by 1987 Yawuru Australian Western Australia [80]
ca. 1986 Bikya Niger-Congo > Benue-Congo Cameroon
ca. 1986 Bishuo Niger-Congo > Benue-Congo Cameroon
1986 Jiwarli Pama-Nyungan Australia with the death of Jack Butler[81]
1986 Mangala Pama-Nyungan Western Australia [82]
1984 Yavitero Arawakan Venezuela [70][83]
1983 Kansa Siouan Oklahoma, United States with the death of Walter Kekahbah[84]
ca. 1983 Yangman Australian Northern Territory, Australia [85]
1982 Dagoman Australian Northern Territory, Australia with the death of Martha Hart [86]
by 1982 Dyugun Australian Western Australia [87]
by 1982 Kato Na-Dene > Athabaskan California, United States [88]
after 1981 Dirari Pama-Nyungan South Australia [89]
after 1981 Dyaberdyaber Pama-Nyungan Western Australia [90][91]
after 1981 Erre Australian Northern Territory, Australia [92]
after 1981 Umbugarla Arnhem Land languages or Darwin Region languages Northern Territory, Australia with the death of Butcher Knight
after 1981 Yawarawarga Pama-Nyungan Queensland and South Australia [93]
ca. 1981 Ternateño Portuguese Creole Maluku, Indonesia [94]
1981 Warrungu Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia with the death of Alf Palmer[95]
1980 Twana Salishan Washington, United States [70][96]
late 20th century Newfoundland Irish Celtic Newfoundland, Canada [97]
late 1970s - 1980s[91] Flinders Island Pama-Nyungan Australia last known speaker was Mr. Johnny Flinders[95]
20th century (?) Nganyaywana Pama-Nyungan Australia
20th century (?) Yalarnnga Pama-Nyungan Australia
20th century (?) Yandruwandha Pama-Nyungan Australia
20th century (?) Warluwara Pama-Nyungan Australia
20th century (?) Wariyangga Pama-Nyungan Australia
between 1971 and 1981 Kwadi Khoe southwestern Angola [98]
1970s – 1980s Chicomuceltec Mayan Mexico; Guatemala
after 1979 Pitta Pitta Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia with the deaths of Ivy Nardoo of Boulia, and Linda Craigie of Mount Isa.[99]
3 November 1977 Shuadit Romance southern France with the death of Armand Lunel[70][100]
ca. 1977 Nagumi Niger-Congo > Benue-Congo Cameroon [101]
after 1976 Muskum Chadic western Chad [102]
1976 Aasáx Cushitic Tanzania [103]
1975 Homa Bantu southern Sudan [104]
1975 Yugh Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [70][105]
27 December 1974 Manx Celtic Isle of Man, United Kingdom with the death of Ned Maddrell. Now being revived as a second language[106]
28 May 1974 Ona Chon Tierra del Fuego, Argentina with the death of Ángela Loij
1974 Moksela Malayo-Polynesian Maluku, Indonesia [107]
before 1974 Cacaopera Misumalpan El Salvador [108]
1972 Hanis Penutian Oregon, United States with the death of Martha Harney Johnson [109]
1972 Mbabaram Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia with the death of Albert Bennett[110]
1970 Tillamook Salishan Oregon, United States [70]
before 1968 Sened Berber Tunisia
1965 Barbareño Chumashan California, United States with the death of Mary Yee [111]
1965 Natchez isolate Mississippi, United States [112] with the deaths of Nancy Raven [113] and Watt Sam
1965 Wakawaka Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia [114]
ca. 1960s Pirlatapa Pama-Nyungan South Australia [115]
1960s Cappadocian Greek Hellenic Greece [116]
1960s Timor Pidgin Portuguese creole East Timor [117]
ca. 1964 Aariya spurious India [118]
1963 Galice Na-Dene > Athabaskan Oregon, United States with the death of Hoxie Simmons
1963 Jorá Tupi Bolivia [70]
1962 Wiyot Algic California, United States with the death of Delia Prince[119]
after 1961 Wyandot Iroquoian Oklahoma, United States; Quebec, Canada
1960 Siuslaw Penutian Oregon, United States with the death of Mary Barrett Elliott. Last speaker of Lower Umpqua dialect was Billy Dick[109]
1959 Catawba Siouan South Carolina, United States with the death of Chief Sam Blue [120]
1958 Salinan isolate (Hokan?) California, United States
1958 Molala Penutian Oregon, United States with the death of Fred Yelkes[109]
1958 Omurano Zaparoan Peru [70][121]
after 1955 Wotapuri-Katarqalai Indo-Aryan Afghanistan [122]
1954 Central Kalapuya Kalapuyan Oregon, United States with the death of John B. Hudson[109]
ca. 1950s Pijao unclassified Colombia [123]
after 1954 Tây Bồi French-based Pidgin Vietnam [124][125]
1954 Ifo Malayo-Polynesian Erromanga Island, Vanuatu with the death of James Nalig[126]
1952 Martha's Vineyard Sign Language Sign language Massachusetts, United States with the death of Katie West
1951 Alsea Penutian Oregon, United States with the death of John Albert[109]
1950 Kaniet Malayo-Polynesian Manus Province, Papua New Guinea [70][127]
ca. 1950 Bohemian Romani mixed language Czech Republic, Eastern Europe after World War II, due to extermination of most of its speakers in Nazi concentration camps.
mid-20th century Ventureño Chumashan California, United States
mid-20th century Slovincian Slavic Pomerania, Poland
mid-20th century Tunica isolate Louisiana, United States with the death of Sesostrie Youchigant[128]
after 1949 Kunza unclassified Atacama Desert, Chile/Peru
after 1947 Gafat Semitic along the Abbay River, Ethiopia [129]
ca. 1940s Chemakum Chimakuan Washington, United States
after 1942 Upper Umpqua Na-Dene > Athabaskan Oregon, United States with the death of Wolverton Orton
1940 Chitimacha isolate Louisiana, United States with the death of Delphine Ducloux[130]
1940 Pentlatch Salishan Vancouver Island, Canada [70] with the death of Joe Nimnim
1939 Rumsen Penutian California, United States with the death of Isabel Meadows[131]
1939 Miluk Penutian Oregon, United States with the death of Annie Miner Peterson[132]
1939 Northern Kalapuya Kalapuyan Oregon, United States with the death of Annie Miner Peterson[132]
1937 Yoncalla Kalapuyan Oregon, United States with the death of Laura Blackery Albertson[133]
1937 Kitanemuk Uto-Aztecan California, United States with the deaths of Marcelino Rivera, Isabella Gonzales, and Refugia Duran
1936 Narungga Pama-Nyungan South Australia, Australia [134]
ca. 1930s Cayuse isolate/unclassified Oregon, United States
ca. 1930s Chimariko isolate California, United States with the death of Sally Noble[135]
ca. 1930s Kathlamet Penutian Washington/Oregon, United States with the death of Charles Cultee[109]
ca. 1930s Lower Chinook Penutian Washington/Oregon, United States
ca. 1930s Mahican Algic > Algonquian New York, United States
ca. 1930s Clackamas dialect of Upper Chinook Penutian Washington/Oregon, United States
ca. 1930s Kitsai Caddoan Oklahoma, United States with the death of Kai Kai[136]
after 1934 Biloxi Siouan Louisiana, United States with the death of Emma Jackson[137]
1934 Juaneño Uto-Aztecan California, United States
1934 Puelche Chon Argentina with the death of Trruúlmani
1934 Takelma isolate Oregon, United States with the death of Frances Johnson[138]
1933 Gabrielino Uto-Aztecan California, United States
after 1931 Tonkawa isolate Oklahoma/Texas/New Mexico, United States
1931 Kaurna Pama-Nyungan South Australia with the death of Ivaritji,[139] now being revived
1930 Mutsun Penutian California, United States with the death of Ascencion Solorsano
ca. 1930 Mattole Na-Dene > Athabaskan California, United States
between 1920 and 1940 Ajawa Chadic Bauchi State, Nigeria [140]
ca. 1929 Bear River Na-Dene > Athabaskan California, USA
after 1925 Subtiaba Oto-Manguean or Subtiaba-Tlapanec Nicaragua
ca. 1920s Chochenyo Penutian California, United States
ca. 1920s Island Carib Cariban Lesser Antilles, Caribbean Sea
after 1921 Chagatai Turkic Central Asia including Turkmenistan [141]
ca. 1920 Mochica Chimuan northwest Peru
by 1920 Yupiltepeque Xincan Guatemala [142]
after 1917 Pochutec Uto-Aztecan Oaxaca, Mexico
1916 Yahi isolate (Hokan?) California, United States with the death of Ishi[143]
1915 Yamhill dialect of Northern Kalapuya Kalapuyan Oregon, United States
before 1913 Tataviam Uto-Aztecan California, United States with the death of Juan José Fustero
1910 Kwalhioqua Na-Dene > Athabaskan Washington, United States
after 1908 Siraya Austronesian southwestern Taiwan [144]
1908 Mohegan-Pequot Algic > Algonquian southern New England, United States with the death of Fidelia Fielding[145]
1905 Tasmanian unclassified Tasmania, Australia with the death of Fanny Cochrane Smith[146][147]
after 1901 Aka-Bea Andamanese Andaman Islands, India
after 1901 Oko-Juwoi Andamanese Andaman Islands, India
after 1901 Aka-Kol Andamanese Andaman Islands, India
after 1901 Aka-Kede Andamanese Andaman Islands, India
after 1901 Akar-Bale Andamanese Andaman Islands, India
by 1900 Classical Mandaic Semitic Iran; Iraq [148]
early 20th century Atakapa isolate Louisiana/Texas, United States
early 20th century Jersey Dutch Dutch-based creole New Jersey, United States
early 20th century Kazukuru Malayo-Polynesian New Georgia, Solomon Islands
early 20th century Kyakhta Russian–Chinese Pidgin Chinese/Russian-based contact language
early 20th century Chaná Charruan Uruguay

19th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
ca. 1899 Nawathinehena Algic > Algonquian Oklahoma and Wyoming, United States[149]
by 1899 Ahom Tai India
by 1899 Waling Sino-Tibetan Nepal [150]
late 19th century Adai isolate Louisiana, United States
late 19th century Istrian Albanian Albanian Croatia
later 19th century (?) Mbara Pama-Nyungan Australia [151]
1898, June 10 Dalmatian Romance Croatia; Montenegro with the death of Tuone Udaina[152]

[153]

1898 Moriori Malayo-Polynesian Chatham Island, New Zealand with the death of Hirawanu Tapu.[154]
after 1894 Tsetsaut Na-Dene > Athabaskan British Columbia, Canada
after 1892 Awabakal Pama-Nyungan Queensland, Australia
1886 Comecrudo Comecrudan Mexico; Texas, United States
1886 Cotoname isolate Mexico; Texas, United States
1884 Yaquina Penutian Oregon, United States
ca. 1880 Auregnais Romance Alderney, United Kingdom
1877 Aruá Arauan Brazil
1876, May 8 Bruny Island Tasmanian Tasmania, Australia with the death of Truganini
mid-1870s Yola Germanic Wexford, Ireland [155]
1871 Tutelo Siouan Virginia, United States with the death of Nikonha [156]
1870 Clatskanie Na-Dene > Athabaskan Washington (state), United States
after 1867 Andoquero Witotoan Colombia [157]
1864 Xakriabá Ge Minas Gerais state, Brazil
1862 Caquetio Arawakan Aruba with the death of Nicolaas Pyclas[158]
1858 Karankawa unclassified Texas, United States
ca. 1857 Woiwurrung Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia
ca. 1855 Wampanoag Algic > Algonquian Massachusetts, United States Nantucket Wampanoag disappeared with the death of Dorcas Honorable[159]
after 1853 Samaritan Semitic West Bank and the Gaza Strip, Palestinian territories [160]
1853 Nicoleño Uto-Aztecan California, United States with the death of Juana Maria [161]
1850 Norn North Germanic Northern Isles, United Kingdom with the death of Walter Sutherland [162][163]
19th century Mediterranean Lingua Franca Romance-based Pidgin Tunisia; Greece; Cyprus [164]
19th century Chorotega Oto-Manguean Costa Rica; Nicaragua [165]
19th century Matagalpa Misumalpan Nicaragua
19th century Ramaytush Penutian California, United States
19th century Kemi Sami Uralic > Sami Lapland, Finland [166]
mid-19th century Shinnecock Algic > Algonquian New York, United States
ca. 1850s Kott Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [105]
1840s Nanticoke Algic > Algonquian Delaware and Maryland, United States with the death of Lydia Clark[167]
ca. 1840s Mator Uralic > Samoyedic Sayan Mountains, Russia
ca. 1842 Barngarla Pama-Nyungan southern Australia [168]
after 1839 Gulidjan Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia
after 1836 Wathawurrung Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia
1836 Nottoway Iroquoian Virginia, United States
after 1835 Pali Indo-Aryan India; Myanmar [169]
after 1833 Esselen isolate (Hokan?) California, United States
6 June 1829 Beothuk Algic > Algonquian? Newfoundland, Canada with the death of Shanawdithit[170]
1828 Garza Comecrudan Mexico
1828 Mamulique Comecrudan Nuevo León, Mexico
after 1827 Frankish Germanic France; Germany [171]
1821 Karkin Penutian California, United States
after 1819 Peerapper Tasmanian Tasmania, Australia
1815 Tambora unclassified (Papuan) Sumbawa following the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora[172]
after 1808 Nuennone Tasmanian Tasmania, Australia
ca. 1803 Bunwurrung Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia
ca. 1800 Pallanganmiddang Pama-Nyungan Victoria, Australia
early 19th century Cochimí Yuman-Cochimi (Hokan?) Baja California, Mexico
early 19th century Pumpokol Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [105]
ca. 19th century Crimean Gothic Germanic Crimea, Russia
ca. 19th century Assan Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [105]

18th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
late 18th century Esuma Kwa southern Côte d'Ivoire [173]
after 1791 Eora Pama-Nyungan Queensland and New South Wales, Australia [174]
after 1791 Quiripi Algic > Algonquian Connecticut/New York/New Jersey, United States [175]
ca. 1790s Powhatan Algic > Algonquian eastern Virginia, United States
after 1788 Gundungurra Pama-Nyungan New South Wales, Australia [176]
after 1788 Ngunnawal Pama-Nyungan New South Wales, Australia [176]
after 1788 Thurawal Pama-Nyungan New South Wales, Australia [176]
26 December 1777 Cornish Celtic Cornwall, England with the death of Dolly Pentreath [177]
ca. 1770s Abipón Mataco–Guaicuru Argentina
after 1770 Weyto unclassified Ethiopia
1770 Cuman Turkic north of Black Sea; Hungary with the death of István Varró
1763 Susquehannock Iroquoian Maryland/Virginia, United States
1760 Galwegian dialect, Scottish Gaelic Celtic Scotland, United Kingdom with the death of Margaret McMurray
1756 Polabian Slavic around the Elbe river, Poland/Germany [178]
18th century Coahuilteco isolate/unclassified Mexico; Texas, United States
18th century Etchemin Algic > Algonquian Maine, United States
18th century Chibcha Chibchan Colombia
18th century Hilberno-Scottish Gaelic Celtic Ireland and Scotland, United Kingdom [179]
between 17th and 19th century Niuatoputapu Malayo-Polynesian Niuatoputapu Island, Tonga [180]
ca. 1730s Arin Yeniseian central Siberia, Russia [105]
ca. 18th century Chané Arawakan Argentina a dialect of Terêna
early 18th century Apalachee Muskogean Florida, United States
early 18th century Old Prussian Baltic Poland

17th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
late 17th to early 18th century Cacán isolate northern Argentina; Chile
by 1700 Pidgen Delaware Delaware-based pidgen Delaware, United States [181]
after 1666 Old Kentish Sign Language Village sign language Kent, England [182]
late 17th century Sudovian Baltic Lithuania
after 1643 Narragansett Algic > Algonquian New England, United States [183]
17th century Jassic Iranian Hungary
17th century Coptic Afro-Asiatic Egypt used as a liturgical language nowadays
17th century Curonian Baltic Latvia
ca. 1635 Jurchen Tungusic Manchuria, China [184]
after 1618 Lumbee Algic > Algonquian North Carolina and Maryland, United States [185]
after 1618 Carolina Algonquian Algic > Algonquian North Carolina, United States [185]

16th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
late 16th century Knaanic Slavic Czech Republic; Poland
late 16th century Laurentian Iroquoian Quebec/Ontario, Canada
after 1548 Taino Arawakan The Bahamas and Puerto Rico
16th century Semigallian Baltic Latvia; Lithuania
16th century Guanche unclassified, maybe Berber Canary Islands, Spain [186]
after 1502 Tangut Sino-Tibetan northwestern China; southern Mongolia

15th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
end of 15th century Mozarabic Romance Spain; Portugal [187]
late 15th century Greenlandic Norse Germanic Greenland
late 15th century Selonian Baltic Latvia; Lithuania

14th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
14th century Galindian Baltic northern Poland; Russia
14th century Zarphatic Romance northern France; west-central Germany
ca. 1300 Old Norse Germanic Nordic countries, England, Wales, Isle of Man, Normandy, Vinland, the Volga and places in-between during the Viking Age

13th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
13th – 14th century Bulgar Turkic Volga and Danube, Europe; Central Asia
13th century Pyu Sino-Tibetan central Myanmar
1243 Khitan Mongolic Central Asia with the death of Yelü Chucai[188]

11th and 12th centuries[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
11th – 12th century Cumbric Celtic England/Scotland, United Kingdom
11th – 12th century Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Semitic Iraq [189]
11th century Old Church Slavonic Slavic Eastern Europe still used as a liturgical language
between 1000 and 1300 Khazar Turkic northern Caucasus; Central Asia
ca. 1000 Lombardic Germanic central Europe; northern Italy
ca. 1000 Merya Uralic Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia
ca. 1000 Muromian Uralic Vladimir Oblast, Russia
ca. 1000 Alanic Iranian Pontic-Caspian steppe, Central Asia evolved into Ossetian

10th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
10th – 12th century Syriac Semitic Turkey; Iraq; Syria still used as a literary secular language[190]
10th – 12th century Samaritan Aramaic Semitic West Bank, Palestine; Israel now only used as liturgical language[191]
10th century Sakan Iranian Xinjiang, China
10th century Zhang-Zhung Sino-Tibetan western Tibet (Central Asia)

9th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
9th century or later Pictish Celtic Scotland, United Kingdom
9th century Gothic Germanic Spain; Portugal; Italy with the exception of Crimean Gothic
9th century Sogdian Iranian Uzbekistan; Tajikistan evolved partly into Yaghnobi
after 840 Tocharian Indo-European Tarim Basin (Central Asia)

7th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
ca. 600 Avestan Iranian Iran [192]

6th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
6th century Ancient Cappadocian Indo-European Anatolia
6th century Dacian Indo-European Balkans
6th century Illyrian Indo-European western Balkans disputed
6th century Sabaean Semitic Horn of Africa; Arabic Peninsula
6th century Vandalic Germanic Spain; North Africa
6th century Gaulish Celtic Gaul: France, Belgium, Germany and elsewhere

5th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
5th – 7th century Phrygian Indo-European southeastern Bulgaria; Anatolia
before 6th century Ligurian unclassified, possibly Celtic or Indo-European northwestern Italy; southeastern France [193]
after 453 Hunnic unclassified, possibly Oghuric from the Eurasian steppe into Europe
5th century Thracian Indo-European eastern and central Balkans
5th century Isaurian Indo-European Anatolia
early 5th century Punic Semitic North Africa
ca. 400 Meroitic unclassified, maybe Nilo-Saharan Sudan
ca. 400 Sarmatian Iranian Pontic-Caspian steppe, Central Asia evolved into Alanic

4th century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
4th century CE Galatian Celtic central Anatolia
4th century CE Ge'ez Semitic Ethiopia; Eritrea ;[194] still used as a liturgical language
4th century CE Biblical Hebrew Semitic Palestine revived in the 1880s
after 300 CE Parthian Iranian Iran

3rd century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
3rd century CE Raetic unclassified, maybe Tyrsenian eastern Alps

2nd century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
after 2nd century CE Noric Celtic Austria; Slovenia
after 2nd century CE Pisidian Indo-European southwestern Anatolia
ca. 2nd century CE Celtiberian Celtic Spain
2nd century CE Lusitanian Indo-European Portugal; Spain
after 150 Bactrian Iranian Afghanistan
100 CE Etruscan Tyrsenian central Italy
ca. 100 CE Akkadian Semitic Mesopotamia [195]
1st – 2nd century CE Paeonian Indo-European Macedonia; Greece; Bulgaria
1st – 2nd century CE Iberian unclassified Spain; France

1st century[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
1st century CE Liburnian Indo-European western Croatia
1st century CE Venetic Indo-European northeastern Italy

1st century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
1st century BCE Elymian unclassified western Sicily
1st century BCE Lycian Indo-European southwestern Anatolia
1st century BCE Lydian Indo-European western Anatolia
1st century BCE Messapian Indo-European Apulia, Italy
1st century BCE Mysian Indo-European northwestern Anatolia
1st century BCE Oscan Italic southern Italy
1st century BCE Sabine Italic central Italy
1st century BCE Sicanian unclassified central Sicily
1st century BCE Sicel Indo-European eastern Sicily
1st century BCE Umbrian Italic central Italy
1st millennium BCE Milyan Indo-European Anatolia

2nd century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
100 BC Vestinian Italic east-central Italy
ca. 150 BCE Faliscan Indo-European Tuscany/Latium, Italy

3rd century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
ca. 3rd century BCE Volscian Italic Italy; Latium
ca. 3rd century BCE Aequian Italic Latium, east-central Italy
ca. 3rd century BCE Sidetic Indo-European southwestern Anatolia
3rd century BCE Carian Indo-European southwestern Anatolia

4th century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
ca. 300 BCE Philistine unclassified, maybe Indo-European Israel; Lebanon
ca. 300 BCE Scythian Iranian Pontic-Caspian steppe, Central Asia evolved into Sarmatian
4th century BCE Ancient Macedonian Indo-European northeastern Greece
ca. 350 BCE Elamite isolate Persia; southern Mesopotamia
early 4th century BCE Eteocypriot isolate/unclassified Cyprus

5th century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
ca. 400 BCE Lepontic Celtic northern Italy
after 5th century BCE Tartessian unclassified Spain
5th century BCE Ammonite Semitic northwestern Jordan
5th century BCE Moabite Semitic northwestern Jordan
maybe 5th century BCE Phoenician Semitic Lebanon; Palestine; Mediterranean coast evolved into Punic

6th century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
after 6th century BCE Lemnian Tyrsenian Lemnos, Greece [196]
6th century BCE Edomite Semitic southwestern Jordan

7th century BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
ca. 600 BCE Luwian Indo-European Anatolia; northern Syria
ca. 600 BCE Egyptian Afroasiatic Ancient Egypt evolved into Demotic by 600 BCE
7th century BCE Urartian Hurro-Urartian Armenia; Georgia; Iraq; Anatolia
early 1st millennium BCE Eteocretan isolate/unclassified Crete, Greece

2nd millennium BCE[edit]

Date Language Language family Region Notes
ca. 1550-1050 BCE Cypro-Minoan unclassified Cyprus
ca. 1100 BCE Hittite Indo-European Anatolia
after 1170 BCE Ugaritic Semitic Syria following the destruction of Ugarit
ca. 1200 BCE Hurrian Hurro-Urartian Anatolia; Syria; Mesopotamia
ca. 1300 BCE Palaic Indo-European northwest Anatolia
ca. 1500 BCE Hattic isolate Anatolia
2nd millennium BCE Eblaite Semitic Syria
early 2nd millennium BCE Sumerian isolate Mesopotamia used as a literary and liturgical language until about 100 CE [197]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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