Shinjuku Station

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Shinjuku Station

新宿駅
JR Shinjuku Miraina TowerB.JPG
Aerial view from south (March 2016)
LocationShinjuku and Shibuya wards, Tokyo
Japan
Operated by
Connections
History
Opened1885; 135 years ago (1885)
Location
Shinjuku Station is located in Special wards of Tokyo
Shinjuku Station
Shinjuku Station
Location within Special wards of Tokyo
Shinjuku Station is located in Tokyo
Shinjuku Station
Shinjuku Station
Shinjuku Station (Tokyo)
Shinjuku Station is located in Japan
Shinjuku Station
Shinjuku Station
Shinjuku Station (Japan)

Shinjuku Station (新宿駅, Shinjuku-eki) is a major railway station in the Shinjuku and Shibuya wards in Tokyo, Japan. In Shinjuku, it is part of the Nishi-Shinjuku and Shinjuku districts. In Shibuya, it is located in the Yoyogi and Sendagaya districts. It is the world's busiest railway station.

Serving as the main connecting hub for rail traffic between Tokyo's special wards and Western Tokyo on inter-city rail, commuter rail, and subway lines, the station was used by an average of 3.64 million people per day in 2007, making it, by far, the world's busiest transport hub (and registered as such with Guinness World Records). The main JR station and the directly adjacent private railways have a total of 35 platforms, including an underground arcade, above ground arcade and numerous hallways with another 17 platforms (53 total) can be accessed through hallways to 5 directly connected stations without surfacing outside. The entire above/underground complex has well over 200 exits.

Lines[edit]

Shinjuku is served by the following railway systems:

Station facilities[edit]

JR East[edit]

SJKJY17JC05JB10JS20JA11
Shinjuku Station

新宿駅
JR East station
JR Shinjuku Station South Gates.jpg
Shinjuku Station South gates
Location3-38-1 Shinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo
Japan
Operated byJR logo (east).svg JR East
Line(s)
ConnectionsBus terminal
History
Opened1885
Traffic
Passengers (FY2015)760,043 daily
Services
Preceding station JR logo (east).svg JR East Following station
Shin-Ōkubo
JY16
Next counter-clockwise
Yamanote Line Yoyogi
JY18
Next clockwise
Tachikawa
JC19
Azusa Kinshichō
JO22
toward Chiba
Tokyo
TYOJC01
Terminus
Tachikawa
JC19
toward Ryūō
Kaiji Tokyo
TYOJC01

(limited service)
Terminus
Tachikawa
JC19
Fuji Excursion Kinshichō
One-way operation
Tachikawa
JC19
toward Hachiōji
Hachioji Tokyo
TYOJC01
Terminus
Tachikawa
JC19
toward Ōme
Ōme
Kokubunji
One-way operation
Chūō Line
     Commuter Special Rapid
Yotsuya
JC04
toward Tokyo
Nakano
JC06
toward Ōtsuki
Chūō Line
     Chūō Special Rapid
Nakano
JC06
toward Ōme
Chūō Line
Ōme
     Ōme Special Rapid
Nakano
JC06
toward Ōtsuki
Chūō Line
     Commuter Rapid
Yotsuya
One-way operation
Chūō Line
     Rapid
Yotsuya
JC04
toward Tokyo
Terminus Shinjuku Sazanami Akihabara
AKBJB19
toward Tateyama
Shinjuku Wakashio Akihabara
AKBJB19
Ōkubo
JB09
toward Mitaka
Chūō–Sōbu Line Yoyogi
JB11
toward Chiba
Ikebukuro
IKBJS21
toward Ōmiya
Narita Express Shibuya
SBYJS19
Kichijōji
JC11
toward Takao
Shibuya
SBYJS19
Saphir Odoriko Terminus
Shibuya
One-way operation
Ohayō Liner Shinjuku
Shibuya
SBYJS19
toward Odawara
Home Liner Odawara
Terminus Nikkō and Kinugawa Ikebukuro
IKBJS21
Shibuya
SBYJS19
toward Odawara or Zushi
Shōnan–Shinjuku Line
     Special Rapid
     Rapid
     Local
Ikebukuro
IKBJS21
Shibuya
SBYJA10
toward Ōsaki
Saikyō Line
     Commuter Rapid
     Rapid
     Local
Ikebukuro
IKBJA12
toward Ōmiya

The station is centered around facilities servicing the East Japan Railway Company (JR East) lines. These consist of eight ground-level island platforms (16 tracks) on a north-south axis, connected by two overhead and two underground concourses. Most JR services here are urban and suburban mass transit lines, although JR's long-distance express services to Kōfu and Matsumoto on the Chūō Main Line, Narita Express to Narita Airport, and joint operations with Tobu Railway to Nikkō and Kinugawa Onsen also use this station. The JR section alone handles an average of 1.5 million passengers a day.


1-2 JA Saikyō Line for Shibuya, Ōsaki, and Shin-Kiba (via the R Rinkai Line)
for Hazawa yokohama-kokudai and Ebina (via the Sotetsu line symbol.svg Sōtetsu Line)
for Ikebukuro, Ōmiya, and Kawagoe (via the Kawagoe Line)
JS Shōnan-Shinjuku Line for Yokohama, Ōfuna, Chigasaki, Hiratsuka, Kōzu, and Odawara (via the JT Tōkaidō Main Line)
for Yokohama, Ōfuna, Kamakura, and Zushi (via the JO Yokosuka Line)
3 JA Saikyō Line for Ikebukuro, Ōmiya, and Kawagoe (via the Kawagoe Line)
4 JA Saikyō Line for Ikebukuro, Ōmiya, and Kawagoe (via the Kawagoe Line)
JS Shōnan-Shinjuku Line for Ōmiya, Kumagaya, and Takasaki (via the JU Takasaki Line)
for Ōmiya, Oyama, and Utsunomiya (via the JU Utsunomiya Line)
5-6  Limited Express Home Liner Odawara for Odawara
Kinugawa for Kinugawa-Onsen
Narita Express for Ikebukuro, Takao, and Ōmiya
Narita Express for Narita Airport
Nikkō for Tōbu Nikkō
Super View Odoriko for Atami, Itō, and Izukyū Shimoda
7-8 JC Chūō Line (Rapid) for Ochanomizu and Tokyo
Ltd. Express Hachiōji / Ōme for Tokyo
Ltd. Express Azusa / Kaiji for Tokyo[Note 1] and Chiba[Note 2]
Ltd. Express Shinjuku Sazanami for Chiba and Tateyama
Ltd. Express Shinjuku Wakashio for Chiba and Awa-Kamogawa
9-10 JC Chūō Line (Rapid) Ltd. Express Hachiōji for Hachiōji
Ltd. Express Ōme for Ōme
 Chūō Main Line Ltd. Express Azusa for Matsumoto and Minami-Otari
Ltd. Express Fuji Excursion for Kawaguchiko
Ltd. Express Kaiji for Kōfu and Ryūō
11-12 JC Chūō Line (Rapid) for Nakano, Tachikawa, Hachiōji, Takao, and Ōtsuki
for Haijima and Ōme (via the JC Ōme Line)
for Musashi-Itsukaichi (via the JC Itsukaichi Line)
for Komagawa (via the Hachikō Line)
13 JB Chūō-Sōbu Line for Suidōbashi, Akihabara, and Chiba
14 JY Yamanote Line (counter-clockwise) for Harajuku, Shibuya, and Shinagawa
15 JY Yamanote Line (clockwise) for Ikebukuro, Tabata, Nippori, and Ueno
16 JB Chūō-Sōbu Line for Higashi-Nakano, Nakano, and Mitaka
  1. ^ Azusa No. 2, 6, and 8, as well as Kaiji No. 4 continue to Tokyo.
  2. ^ Azusa No. 30 continues to Chiba.

Odakyu[edit]

OH-01 station number.png
Shinjuku Station

新宿駅
Odakyu station
Odakyu Shinjuku Station.JPG
West exit of Odakyu Shinjuku Station
Location1-1-3 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo
Japan
Operated byOdakyuGroup logo2.svg Odakyu Electric Railway
Line(s)Odakyu odawara.svg Odakyu Odawara Line
History
Opened1927
Traffic
Passengers (FY2015)492,324 daily
Services
Preceding station OdakyuGroup logo2.svg Odakyu Following station
Seijōgakuen-Mae
OH-14 station number.png
Romancecar Terminus
Yoyogi-Uehara
OH-05 station number.png
toward Odawara
Odawara Line
Rapid Express
Yoyogi-Uehara
OH-05 station number.png
toward Karakida
Odawara Line
Commuter Express
Yoyogi-Uehara
OH-05 station number.png
toward Odawara
Odawara Line
Express
Minami-Shinjuku
OH-02 station number.png
Odawara Line
Local

The terminus for the private Odakyu Odawara Line is parallel to the JR platforms on the west side, and handles an average of 490,000 passengers daily. This is a major commuter route stretching southwest through the suburbs and out towards the coastal city of Odawara and the mountains of Hakone. The ten platforms are built on two levels beneath the Odakyu department store; three express service tracks (six platforms) on the ground level and two tracks (four platforms) on the level below. Each track has platforms on both sides in order to completely separate boarding and alighting passengers.

Chest-high platform screen doors were added to platforms 4 and 5 in September 2012.[1]

Ground level[edit]

1    Not in use
2, 3  Ltd. Express. "Romancecar" for Odawara, Hakone-Yumoto, Fujisawa, and Gotemba
4, 5  Rapid Express for Shin-Yurigaoka, Machida, Ebina, Hon-Atsugi, Shin-Matsuda, Odawara, Chūō-Rinkan, Yamato, Shōnandai and Fujisawa
 Express for Noborito, Shin-Yurigaoka, Machida, Ebina, Hon-Atsugi, Shin-Matsuda, Odawara, Chūō-Rinkan, Yamato, Shōnandai, Fujisawa and Katase-Enoshima
6    (Alighting only)

Underground level[edit]

7    (Alighting only)
8, 9  Local for Shin-Yurigaoka, Sagami-Ono, and Hon-Atsugi
10    (Alighting only)

Keio/Toei Subway (Toei Shinjuku Line)[edit]

KO01 S01
Shinjuku Station

新宿駅
Keio/Toei Subway station
Shinjuku Keio Department Store 2012.JPG
West exit of Keio Shinjuku Station
Location1-1-4 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo
Japan
Operated byKeioRailway logo.svg Keio Corporation
Line(s)
History
Opened1915
Rebuilt1978
Traffic
Passengers (FY2015)757,823 daily
Services
Preceding station KeioRailway logo.svg Following station
Fuchū
KO-24 station number.png
Keiō Liner Terminus
Meidaimae
KO-06 station number.png
Keiō Line
Special Express
Sasazuka
KO-04 station number.png
Keiō Line
Semi Special Express
Express
Semi Express
Rapid
Local
Hatsudai
KO-02 station number.png
toward Sasazuka
Keiō New Line
Express
Semi Express
Rapid
Local
through to Shinjuku Line
Preceding station PrefSymbol-Tokyo.svg Toei Subway Following station
through to Keiō New Line Shinjuku Line
Express
Ichigaya
S04
toward Motoyawata
Shinjuku Line
Local
Shinjuku-sanchome
S02
toward Motoyawata

The Keio Line concourse is located to the west of the Odakyu line concourse, two floors below ground level under Keio department store. It consists of three platforms stretching north to south. Approximately 720,000 passengers use this section daily, which makes it the busiest amongst the non-JR Group railways of Japan. This suburban commuter line links Shinjuku to the city of Hachiōji to the west.[2] Chest-high platform edge doors were introduced on the Keio Line platforms in March 2014.[3] The doors are different colours for each platform. The doors on platform 2 are green.[3]

Keio Line[edit]

1 KO Local for Meidaimae, Chōfu, Keio Tama Center, Hashimoto, Keio Hachiōji, and Takaosanguchi
2 KO Keio Liner, Special Express, Semi-Special Express, Express, Semi Express, Rapid, Local for Meidaimae, Chōfu, Keio Tama Center, Hashimoto, Keio Hachiōji, and Takaosanguchi
' KO   (Alighting only)
3 KO Special Express, Semi-Special Express, Express, Semi Express, Rapid for Meidaimae, Chōfu, Keio Tama Center, Hashimoto, Keio Hachiōji, and Takaosanguchi

Keio New Line and Toei Shinjuku Line[edit]

The shared facilities for the Toei Shinjuku subway line and the Keiō New Line are distinctively called Keiō New Line Shinjuku Station (新線新宿駅, Shinsen Shinjuku-eki) and consist of two platforms stretching east-west five floors beneath the Kōshū Kaidō avenue to the southwest of the JR section. The concourse is managed by Keio Corporation but is in a separate location to the main Keio platforms. Further south (and deeper underground) are the two north-to-south Toei Ōedo subway line platforms.

4 KO Keio New Line for Hatsudai, Hatagaya, Meidaimae, Chōfu, and Hashimoto
5 S Toei Shinjuku Line for Ichigaya, Kudanshita, Jimbocho, Ōjima, and Moto-Yawata

Toei Subway (Toei Oedo Line)[edit]

E27
Shinjuku Station

新宿駅
Toei Subway station
Toei-subway-E27-Shinjuku-station-platform-20191201-133812.jpg
Oedo Line platform
Location2-1-1 Yoyogi, Shibuya, Tokyo
Japan
Operated byPrefSymbol-Tokyo.svg Toei Subway
Line(s)
ConnectionsShinjuku Expressway Bus Terminal
Other information
Station codeE-27
History
Opened1997
Services
Preceding station PrefSymbol-Tokyo.svg Toei Subway Following station
Tochomae
E28
Ōedo Line Yoyogi
E26
toward Tochōmae

Toei Oedo Line's two underground platforms stretch north-south to the south of the Toei Shinjuku Line and Keio New Line facilities. This is on the 7th basement floor of Tokyo prefectural road 414(Yotsuya-Tsunohazu Ave.).


6 E Toei Oedo Line for Roppongi and Daimon
7 E Toei Oedo Line for Tochōmae and Hikarigaoka

Tokyo Metro[edit]

M08
Shinjuku Station

新宿駅
Tokyo Metro station
Shinjuku-Sta-Marunouchi-Line-Platform.JPG
Marunouchi Line platform
Location1st Nishiguchi Chikagai,1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo
Japan
Operated byTokyo Metro logo.svg Tokyo Metro
Line(s)
Other information
Station codeM-08
History
Opened1959
Services
Preceding station Tokyo Metro logo.svg Tokyo Metro Following station
Nishi-Shinjuku
M07
Marunouchi Line Shinjuku-sanchome
M09
toward Ikebukuro

Tokyo Metro's two Marunouchi Line underground platforms stretch east-west to the north of the JR and Odakyu facilities, directly below the Metro Promenade underground mall.


1 M Marunouchi Line for Nakano-sakaue, Ogikubo, and Hōnanchō
2 M Marunouchi Line for Akasaka-mitsuke, Ginza, Ōtemachi, and Ikebukuro

Commercial facilities[edit]

East exit of Shinjuku Station
South exit of Shinjuku Station

Many department stores and shopping malls are built directly into the station. These include

  • Lumine Est – above JR's east exit
  • Odakyu department store – above the Odakyu line concourse
  • Odakyu Mylord – above the southern end of Odakyu line concourse
  • Lumine 1 shopping mall – above the Keio Line concourse
  • Lumine 2 shopping mall – above JR's south and Lumine exits
  • Keio Department store – above the Keio Line concourse
  • Keio Mall – underground mall to the southwest of the Keio Line concourse
  • Odakyu Ace – underground malls beneath the bus terminal by the west exit.

In addition to the above, the Metro Promenade, which is an underground mall owned by Tokyo Metro, extends eastwards from the station beneath Shinjuku-dori avenue, all the way to the adjacent Shinjuku-sanchōme station with 60 exits along the way. The Metro Promenade in turn connects to Shinjuku Subnade, another underground shopping mall, which leads onto Seibu Railway's Seibu-Shinjuku station.

Shinjuku Station is connected by underground passageways and shopping malls to:

Nearby non-connected stations (within 500 meters of an underground passageway or station) include:

Bus terminals[edit]

There is a bus terminal at the west exit servicing both local and long-distance buses, and a JR Highway Bus terminal at the New South Gates.

On April 4, 2016, the new bus terminal and commercial facilities nearby south exit, named Busta Shinjuku [ja] (Shinjuku Expressway Bus Terminal), opened for service.[4] Considerable numbers of the coaches and the airport buses depart from this new terminal.

Passenger statistics[edit]

The figures below are the official number of passengers entering and exiting (except for JR East) each day released by each train operator. The figure for JR East only includes entering passengers.

Operator Number Fiscal year Source Note
JR East 751,018 (boarding only) 2013 [5] Boarding passengers only. Busiest station in Japan.
Odakyu 494,184 2013 [6] The busiest Odakyu station
Keio 730,849 2013 [7] The busiest Japanese private (i.e. non-JR) railway station[citation needed]
Tokyo Metro 227,366 2013 [8] The 6th busiest Tokyo Metro station
Toei Shinjuku Line 266,869 2013 134,185 entries and 132,684 exits[9] The busiest Toei subway station
Oedo Line 133,075 2013 64,701 entries and 68,374 exits[9]

The passenger figures (boarding passengers only) for the JR East (formerly JNR) station in previous years are as shown below.

Fiscal year Daily average
1913 5,052[10]
1960 305,236[10]
1971 614,419[10]
1984 648,659[10]
2000 753,791[11]
2005 747,930[12]
2010 736,715[13]
2011 734,154[14]
2012 742,833[15]
2013 751,018[5]

History[edit]

Shinjuku Station in 1925

Shinjuku Station opened in 1885 as a stop on Japan Railway's Akabane-Shinagawa line (now part of the Yamanote Line). Shinjuku was still a quiet community at the time and the station was not heavily trafficked at first. The opening of the Chūō Line (1889), Keiō Line (1915) and Odakyū Line (1923) led to increasing traffic through the station.

Japanese government urban planner Kensaburo Kondo designed a major revamp of the station in 1933, which included a large public square on the west side completed in 1941. Kondo's plan also called for extending the Tokyu Toyoko Line to a new underground terminal on the west side of the station, and constructing an east-west underground line that would be served by the Seibu Railway and the Tokyo Kosoku Railway (forerunner of Tokyo Metro), while the Keio and Odakyu lines would use above-ground terminals to the west of the JR station. These plans were suspended upon the onset of World War II but influenced the current layout of the station area.[16] Subway service ultimately began in 1959.

Lumine Est building, originally designed to accommodate the Seibu Shinjuku Line on its second floor

The Seibu Shinjuku Line was extended from Takadanobaba Station to Seibu Shinjuku Station in 1952. Seibu Shinjuku was built as a temporary station pending a planned redevelopment of the east side of Shinjuku Station, which was to feature a large station building that would house a new Seibu terminal on its second floor. Seibu abandoned its plan to use the building due to a lack of space for trains longer than six cars; the building is now known as Lumine Est and retains some design features originally intended to accommodate the Seibu terminal (in particular, a very high ceiling on the first floor and a very low ceiling on the second floor). In the late 1980s, Seibu planned to build an underground terminal on the east side of Shinjuku, but indefinitely postponed the plan in 1995 due to costs and declining passenger growth.[16]

On August 8, 1967, a freight train carrying jet fuel bound for the U.S. air bases at Tachikawa and Yokota collided with another freight train and caught fire on the Chūō Rapid tracks. The incident stoked ongoing political controversy in Japan regarding the Vietnam War.[17] The station was a major site for student protests in 1968 and 1969, the height of civil unrest in postwar Japan. On October 21, 1968, 290,000 marchers participated in International Anti-War Day taking over Shinjuku station and forcing trains to stop. In May and June 1969, members of the antiwar group Beheiren carrying guitars and calling themselves "folk guerrillas" led weekly singalongs in the underground plaza outside the west exit of the station, attracting crowds of thousands. Participants described it as a "liberated zone" and a "community of encounter."[18] In July, riot police cleared the plaza with tear gas and changed signs in the station to read "West Exit Concourse" instead of "West Exit Plaza." The incident represented a significant defeat for public activism in Tokyo.

There have been plans at various points in history to connect Shinjuku into the Shinkansen network, and the 1973 Shinkansen Basic Plan, still in force, specifies that the station should be the southern terminus of the Jōetsu Shinkansen line to Niigata. While construction of the Ōmiya-Shinjuku link never started and the Jōetsu line presently terminates in Tokyo Station, the right of way, including an area underneath the station, remains reserved.

On May 5, 1995, the Aum Shinrikyo doomsday cult attempted a chemical terrorist attack by setting off a cyanide gas device in a toilet in the underground concourse, barely a month after the gas attack on the Tokyo subway which killed 13, left 6,252 people with non-fatal injuries, severely injured 50 people, and caused 984 cases of temporary vision problems. This time the attack was thwarted by staff who extinguished the burning device.

A major expansion of the JR terminal was completed in April 2016, adding a 32-story office tower, bus terminal, taxi terminal, and numerous shops and restaurants.[19]

Keiō Shinjuku Station[edit]

Keio Shinjuku Oiwake Building, the site of the former terminal

When the Keio Line extended to Shinjuku in 1915, its terminal was located several blocks east of the government railway (presently JR) station. The terminal was first named Shinjuku-Oiwake Station (新宿追分駅) and was on the street near the Isetan department store. In 1927, the station was moved from the street to a newly built terminal adjacent to the original station. The station building housed a department store. The station name was changed to Yotsuya-Shinjuku Station (四谷新宿駅) in 1930 and again to Keiō Shinjuku Station (京王新宿駅) in 1937.

The tracks from the terminal were on the Kōshū Kaidō highway, which crosses the Yamanote Line and the Chūō Line in front of the south entrance of Shinjuku Station by a bridge. The Keiō Line had a station for the access to Shinjuku Station, named Teishajō-mae Station (停車場前駅) and renamed in 1937 Shōsen Shinjuku Ekimae Station (省線新宿駅前駅).

In July 1945, the terminal of the Keiō Line was relocated to the present location, though on the ground level, on the west side of Shinjuku Station. Keiō Shinjuku Station and Shōsen Shinjuku Ekimae Station were closed. This was because the trains faced difficulty in climbing up the slopes of the bridge over the governmental railway after one of the nearby transformer substations was destroyed by an air raid. The site of Keiō Shinjuku Station near Shinjuku-Sanchōme subway station is now occupied by two buildings owned by Keiō: Keiō Shinjuku Sanchōme Building and Keiō Shinjuku Oiwake Building.

Cultural references[edit]

The station and other parts of the Toei Ōedo Line are referenced in the Digimon Adventure franchise.[20][21][22] Contemporary British painter Carl Randall (who spent 10 years living in Tokyo as an artist) depicted the station area in his large oil painting 'Shinjuku', exhibited at the National Portrait Gallery in London 2013.[23][24][25][26]

Shinjuku, by Carl Randall

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 小田急 新宿駅 可動式ホーム柵 使用 [Platform screens introduced at Odakyu Shinjuku Station]. Tetsudo.com (in Japanese). Japan: Asahi Interactive, Inc. September 12, 2012. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
  2. ^ "Keio Railway Map & Reading Station Signs - Keio Corporation". keio.co.jp. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  3. ^ a b 京王線新宿駅のホームドア整備が完了 [Installation of platform-edge doors completed at Keio Line Shinjuku Station]. Japan Railfan Magazine Online (in Japanese). Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  4. ^ Buster Shinjuku Shinjuku-busterminal.co.jp
  5. ^ a b 各駅の乗車人員 (2013年度) [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2013)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  6. ^ 1日平均乗降人員 [Average daily station usage figures] (in Japanese). Odakyu Electric Railway. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
  7. ^ 1日の駅別乗降人員 [Average daily station usage figures] (in Japanese). Japan: Keio Corporation. 2013. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  8. ^ 各駅の乗降人員ランキング [Station usage ranking] (in Japanese). Tokyo Metro. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  9. ^ a b 各駅乗降人員一覧 [Station usage figures] (in Japanese). Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
  10. ^ a b c d 日本国有鉄道停車場一覧 [JNR Station Directory]. Japan: Japanese National Railways. 1985. p. 480. ISBN 4-533-00503-9.
  11. ^ 各駅の乗車人員 (2000年度) [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2000)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  12. ^ 各駅の乗車人員 (2005年度) [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2005)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  13. ^ 各駅の乗車人員 (2010年度) [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2010)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
  14. ^ 各駅の乗車人員 (2011年度) [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2011)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  15. ^ 各駅の乗車人員 (2012年度) [Station passenger figures (Fiscal 2012)] (in Japanese). Japan: East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved August 31, 2014.
  16. ^ a b "西武新宿駅はなぜ遠いのか 幻の東口乗り入れ計画". The Nikkei. November 23, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  17. ^ Havens, Thomas R. H. (2014). Fire Across the Sea: The Vietnam War and Japan 1965-1975. Princeton University Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 9781400858439.
  18. ^ Konaka Yotaro, "Shinjuku: Community of Encounter," Japan Quarterly, 38 no.3 (1991), 301–310.
  19. ^ "新宿駅が生まれ変わります" (PDF). East Japan Railway Company. Retrieved May 6, 2016.
  20. ^ "Odaiba Memorial – Shinjuku". marron.extracaffeine.com. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  21. ^ "Odaiba Memorial – Juunigou-sen". marron.extracaffeine.com. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  22. ^ "Odaiba Memorial – Hikarigaoka". marron.extracaffeine.com. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
  23. ^ BBC World Service: World Update. 'Carl Randall - Painting the faces in Japan's crowded cities'., BBC, 2016
  24. ^ BBC News. 'Painting the faces in Japan's crowded cities'., BBC News - Arts & Entertainment, 2016
  25. ^ BP Portrait Award 2013, The National Portrait Gallery, London, 2013
  26. ^ 'Shinjuku painting'., Carl Randall artist website, 2016

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 35°41′22″N 139°42′01″E / 35.689475°N 139.700349°E / 35.689475; 139.700349