|Tokyo Monorail Haneda Airport Line|
A train passing through Tennōzu in Shinagawa
|Termini||Monorail Hamamatsuchō (north)|
Haneda Airport Terminal 2 (south)
|Daily ridership||134,895 (2017, average)|
|Opened||17 September 1964|
|Owner||Tokyo Monorail Co., Ltd.|
|Line length||17.8 km (11.1 mi)|
|Minimum radius||120 m (390 ft)|
The Tokyo Monorail (東京モノレール Tōkyō Monorēru), officially the Tokyo Monorail Haneda Airport Line (東京モノレール羽田空港線 Tōkyō Monorēru Haneda Kūkō sen), is a monorail line in Tokyo, Japan. An airport rail link, it connects Haneda Airport to the Ōta, Shinagawa, and Minato wards. The line serves eleven stations between the Monorail Hamamatsuchō and Haneda Airport Terminal 2 stations, operating on an elevated north–south route that mainly follows the western coast of Tokyo Bay. Along with the Keikyū Airport Line, it is one of two rail lines serving the airport. At Hamamatsuchō Station, passengers may transfer to the Keihin–Tōhoku and Yamanote lines of JR East, as well as the Asakusa and Ōedo lines of the Toei Subway via nearby Daimon Station. The monorail also connects to the Rinkai Line at Tennōzu Isle Station.
Planners originally intended the monorail line to extend from Haneda Airport to Shimbashi or Tokyo Station, and the Nihon Koka Dentetsu Co., Ltd., later the Tokyo Monorail Co., Ltd., had acquired a licence to build it up to either station.:3 However, cost overruns during the construction of the Tōkaidō Shinkansen drained the government subsidies reserved for other projects including the Tokyo Monorail, resulting in a shortened route. To further minimize costs, the monorail was erected over public waterways donated by local municipalities, which eliminated the need to acquire expensive private land, but reclaimed parts of Tokyo Bay, as well as rivers and canals. The resulting construction removed a number of fishing and aquatic farming operations; affected local fishing cooperatives had their licences summarily revoked by the city government. Among them, a seaweed harvesting field in Ōta Ward, which had produced a premium brand of nori since the Edo period called Omori no nori, was demolished.
Construction of the monorail line began on 1 May 1963.:248 It opened on 17 September 1964, ahead of the 1964 Summer Olympics opening ceremony on 10 October. Built by Hitachi Monorail, the first cars were made in Japan from the German ALWEG design (also used in the Seattle Center Monorail and the original Disneyland Monorail), and were replaced by newer models in 1969, 1977, 1982, and 1989. It was the first commercial monorail in the world.
When the monorail began operation, the passenger terminal at Haneda Airport was located on the west side of the airfield, south of Seibijō, and this was the southern terminus of the monorail. Upon the opening of the new passenger terminal (now Terminal 1) in 1993, the monorail was extended to a new platform, and the former passenger terminal was razed to make room for an extension of Runway B. The now-unused monorail tunnel leading to the old station was leased from the Transport Ministry and therefore had to be restored to its original state prior to its handover. Although the rails were removed from the tunnel and its entrance walled off, the tunnel remains otherwise intact today below the extension of Runway B.
A single-station, 0.9-km extension to Haneda's new Terminal 2 opened on December 1, 2004, and the opening of a passing loop at Showajima allowed express services from March 18, 2007. A new infill station to serve the airport's new International Terminal was opened on 21 October 2010.
The Tokyo Monorail serves eleven stations and operates from around 5:00 a.m. to midnight with over 500 trains. It carried its 1.5 billionth passenger on January 24, 2007.
Service patterns and stations
The following three service types operate on the line:
- (空港快速 Kūkō Kaisoku) Haneda Express
- (区間快速 Kukan Kaisoku) Rapid
- (普通 Futsū) Local
Tokyo Monorail trains operate on an average headway of four minutes, which can be as short as three minutes and 20 seconds during peak hours.:2:33 Local trains stop at every station, with end-to-end travel taking 24 minutes. Rapid trains bypass the Shōwajima, Seibijō, Tenkūbashi, Shin-Seibijō stations, and take 21 minutes to travel across the line. Haneda Express trains make non-stop runs between Monorail Hamamatsuchō and Haneda Airport; these trains arrive at Haneda Airport International Terminal in thirteen minutes, Haneda Airport Terminal 1 in 16 minutes, and Haneda Airport Terminal 2 in 18 minutes.
|●||Stops at this station|
||||Does not stop at this station|
|No.||Name||Japanese||Distance (km)||Haneda Express||Rapid||Local||Connections and notes|
|Monorail Hamamatsuchō||モノレール浜松町||0.0||●||●||●||JR East Keihin–Tōhoku and Yamanote lines; Toei Asakusa and Ōedo lines via Diamon Station|
|Tennōzu Isle||天王洲アイル||4.0|||||●||●||Rinkai Line|
|Tenkūbashi||天空橋||12.6||||||||●||Keikyū Airport Line|
|Haneda Airport International Terminal||羽田空港国際線ビル||14.0||●||●||●||Keikyū Airport Line|
|Haneda Airport Terminal 1||羽田空港第１ビル||16.9||●||●||●||Keikyū Airport Line|
|Haneda Airport Terminal 2||羽田空港第２ビル||17.8||●||●||●||Keikyū Airport Line|
Services are operated using six-car 1000 and 2000 series trains, running at speeds of up to 80 km/h (50 mph). Each car has a combination of aisle-facing bench seats, forward and rear-facing seats, and seats in the center of the aisle. The trains also feature extra space for hand luggage, as a convenience for air travelers. These trains are stored and maintained at Shōwajima Depot beside Shōwajima Station during off-service hours. The 1000 series trains were introduced from 1989, and the 2000 series trains were introduced from 1997.
Former rolling stock
Former rolling stock once used on Tokyo Monorail include the 100/200/300/350 series (from 1964 until 1978), 500 series (from 1969 until 1991), 600 series (from 1977 until 1997), and 700/800 series (from 1982 until 1998).
The line is operated by the Tokyo Monorail Co., Ltd. (東京モノレール株式会社 Tōkyō Monorēru Kabushiki-gaisha). JR East acquired a majority share in the company in 2002, currently owning 79%; the remainder being divided between Hitachi (12%) and All Nippon Airways (9%).
The first departure towards the airport leaves at 04:58 and the last departure is at 00:01. Towards Hamamatsuchō, the first departure is at 05:11 and the final departure is at 00:05 (final departure serving all stations at 23:38).
Passengers using the monorail to travel to the airport can take advantage of check-in facilities at Hamamatsuchō. Japan's domestic airlines (JAL, ANA, Skymark Airlines, and Air Do) have check-in counters and ticket machines right at the station. Tokyo Monorail tickets can also be purchased on the lower level of Kansai International Airport in Osaka, Itami Airport (also in Osaka), as well as Naha Airport in Okinawa and departure gate area at Hiroshima Airport.
In June 2009, Tokyo Monorail Co., Ltd., formally notified the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of its intent to convert the present single-track terminal at Hamamatsucho, which had rested unchanged since 1964, into a dual-track, dual-platform structure. To be built in six and a half years at an estimated cost of 26 billion yen, this would increase the line's capacity from 18 to 24 trains per hour and lay the groundwork for a long-mooted extension to Shimbashi Station. In August 2014, it was revealed that the line could be extended from Hamamatsucho to Tokyo Station, running alongside the Yamanote Line tracks between Shimbashi and Tokyo. Total costs are estimated at 109.5 billion yen, with construction taking approximately ten years.
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- Naoki Kuwayama, 丸の内線・都営浅草線・そしてモノレールの謎
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