Iranian cuisine

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Iranian cuisine includes the foods, cooking methods, and food traditions of Iranians.

Iranian culinary styles have shared historical interactions with the cuisines of the neighboring regions, including Caucasian cuisine, abroad Kurdish cuisine, Turkish cuisine, Levantine cuisine, Greek cuisine, Central Asian cuisine, and Russian cuisine.[1][2][3][4] Through the Persianized Central Asian Mughal dynasty, aspects of Iranian cuisine were adopted into North Indian cuisine.[5]

Typical Iranian main dishes are combinations of rice with meat (such as lamb, chicken, or fish), vegetables (such as onions and various herbs), and nuts. Fresh green herbs are frequently used, along with fruits such as plums, pomegranate, quince, prunes, apricots, and raisins. Characteristic Iranian flavorings such as saffron, dried lime, cinnamon, and parsley are mixed and used in some special dishes.

Iranian cuisine is gaining popularity in multicultural cities such as London, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., Vancouver, and Toronto, which have significant Iranian populations.[6][7] Los Angeles and its environs, in particular, are well known for the number and quality of Iranian restaurants which are usually centered around kebab, but also serve various Iranian stews and other traditional dishes.

Staple foods[edit]

Rice[edit]

The usage of rice, at first a specialty of Safavid court cuisine, evolved by the end of the 16th century CE into a major branch of Iranian cookery.[8] Traditionally, rice was most prevalent as a major staple item in northern Iran and the homes of the wealthy, while bread was the dominant staple in the rest of the country.

Varieties of rice in Iran include gerde, domsia, champa, doodi (smoked rice), Lenjan (from Lenjan County), Tarom (from Tarom County), anbarbu, and others.

The following table includes three primary methods of cooking rice in Iran.

Method Description
Polow and chelow Chelow is plain rice served as an accompaniment to a stew or kebab, while polow is rice mixed with something. They are, however, cooked in the same way. Rice is prepared by soaking in salted water and then boiling it. The parboiled rice (called chelow) is drained and returned to the pot to be steamed. This method results in an exceptionally fluffy rice with the rice grains separated and not sticky. A golden rice crust, called tadig, is created at the bottom of the pot. Tadig is served plain, with thin bread or slices of potato. Meat, vegetables, nuts and fruits are sometimes added in layers or completely mixed with the chelow and then steamed. When chelow is in the pot, the heat is reduced and a piece of thick cloth or towel is place on top of the pot to absorb excess steam.
Kateh Rice that is cooked until the water is absorbed completely. It is the traditional dish of Gilan Province.
Dami Rice that is cooked almost the same as kateh, but at the start, ingredients that can be cooked thoroughly with the rice (such as grains and beans) are added. While making kateh, the heat is reduced to minimum when the rice and other ingredients are almost cooked. If kept long enough on the stove without burning and over-cooking, dami and kateh can also produce tadig. A special form of dami is tachin, which is a mixture of yogurt, chicken (or lamb) and rice, plus saffron and egg yolks.

Bread[edit]

Second only to rice is the production and use of wheat. The following table lists several forms of flatbread and pastry-bread commonly used in Iranian cuisine.

Type and description Type and description Type and description
Pan armenio en el mercado de Yerevan.JPG
Lavash: Thin, flaky, and round or oval. It is the most common bread in Iran and the Caucasus.
Naan Sangak.jpg
Sangak: Plain, rectangular, or triangle-shaped leavened flatbread that is stone-baked.
Taftun bread.jpg
Taftun: Thin, soft and round-shaped leavened flatbread that is thicker than lavash.
Traditional lavash bread making.jpg
Tanur bread: Leavened bread baked in an oven called tanur.
Qandi bread in Iran.jpg
Qandi bread: A sweet bread, sometimes brioche-like and sometimes flat and dry.[9]
Barbari bread.jpg
Barbari: Thick and oval flatbread; also known as Tabrizi, referring to the city of Tabriz.
Baguette-246424.jpg
Baguette: A long, narrow French loaf, typically filled with sausages and vegetables.
Paskalya coregi.jpg
Nan e gisu: A sweet pastry-bread, also widely known as shirmal ("milk-rubbed").
Komaj.JPG
Komaj: A sweet date bread with turmeric and cumin, similar to nan e gisu.[10]

Fruits and vegetables[edit]

Agriculture of Iran produces many fruits and vegetables. Thus, a bowl of fresh fruit is common on Iranian tables, and vegetables are standard sides to most meals. These are not only enjoyed fresh and ripe as desserts, but are also combined with meat and form accompaniments to main dishes.[11] When fresh fruits are not available, a large variety of dried fruits such as dates, fig, apricots and peach are used instead. Southern Iran is one of the world's major date producers, where some special cultivars such as the Bam date are grown.

Vegetables such as pumpkins, spinach, green beans, fava beans, courgette, varieties of squash, onion, garlic and carrot are commonly used in Iranian dishes. Tomatoes, cucumbers and scallion often accompany a meal. While the eggplant is "the potato of Iran",[12] Iranians are fond of fresh green salads dressed with olive oil, lemon juice, salt, chili, and garlic.

Fruit dolma is probably a specialty of Iranian cuisine. The fruit is first cooked, then stuffed with meat, seasonings, and sometimes tomato sauce. The dolma is then simmered in meat broth or a sweet-and-sour sauce.[13]

Verjuice, a highly acidic juice made by pressing unripe grapes or other sour fruit, is used in various Iranian dishes.[14] It is mainly used within soup and stew dishes, but also to simmer a type of squash dolma. Unripe grapes are also used whole in some dishes such as khoresh e qure (lamb stew with sour grapes). As a spice, verjuice powder (pudr e qure) is sometimes reinforced by verjuice and then dried.

Typical spices[edit]

A spice bowl in a shop at the Vakil Bazaar of Shiraz.
A spice shop at the bazaar of Isfahan.

Advie or chāshni refers to a wide variety of pungent vegetables and dried fruits that are used in Iranian cuisine to flavor food.

One of the traditional and most widespread Iranian spices is saffron, derived from the flower of Crocus sativus. Rose water, a flavored water made by steeping rose petals in water, is also a traditional and common ingredient in many Iranian dishes.

Persian hogweed (golpar), which grows wild in the humid mountainous regions of Iran, is used as a spice in various Iranian soups and stews. It is also mixed with vinegar into which lettuce leaves are dipped before eating.

Some other common spices are cardamom—made from the seeds of several Elettaria and Amomum plants, shevid—an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae, mahleb—an aromatic spice made from the seeds of Prunus mahaleb, and limu amani—lime that has lost its water content.

There are also several traditional combinations of spices, two of which are arde—made from toasted ground hulled sesame seeds, and delal sauce—made of heavy salted fresh herbs such as cilantro and parsley.

Typical food and drinks[edit]

Typical Iranian cuisine includes a wide variety of dishes, including several forms of kebab, stew, soup, and pilaf dishes, as well as various salads, desserts, pastries, and drinks.

Main course[edit]

Kebab[edit]

In Iran, kebabs are served either with rice or with bread. A dish of chelow white rice with kebab is called chelow kebab, which is considered the national dish of Iran. The rice can also be prepared using the kateh method, and hence the dish would be called kateh kebab.

The following table lists several forms of kebab used in Iranian cuisine.

Type and description Type and description Type and description
Isfahan 1220534 nevit.jpg
Kebab kubide: Barbecued ground lamb or beef, mixed with parsley and onion.
Jujeh Kabob.JPG
Juje kebab: Grilled chunks of chicken; one of the most common dishes in Iran.[15]
Iranian barg kebab.jpg
Kebab barg: Barbecued and marinated lamb, chicken or beef.
Kebab torsh.jpg
Kebab torsh: Traditional kebab from Gilan and Mazenderan, marinated in a paste of crushed walnuts, pomegranate juice, and olive oil.
Kebab Bakhtyari.jpg
Kebab Bakhtyari: Mixture of barbecued fillet of lamb (or veal) and chicken breast.[16]
Chenjeh.jpg
Chenje: Skewered and grilled cubes of meat. Iranian equivalent of shish kebab.[17]
Shashlik.jpg
Shashlik: A popular form of shish kebab. In Iranian cuisine, shashlik is usually in form of large chunks.
Kabab tabei.jpg
Kebab tabei: Homemade grilled meat, prepared on the pan.[18]

Stew[edit]

Khoresh is an Iranian form of stew, which is usually accompanied by a plate of white rice. A khoresh typically consists of herbs, fruits, and meat pieces, flavored with tomato paste, saffron, and pomegranate juice. Other non-khoresh types of stew such as dizi are accompanied by bread instead of rice.

Several Iranian stew dishes are listed within the following table.

Type and description Type and description Type and description Type and description
Eggplant stew persian.jpg
Khoresh e bademjan: Eggplant stew with tomato and saffron.
Khoresht-e fesenjan.jpg
Khoresh e fesenjan: Stew flavored with pomegranate syrup or ground walnuts.
Gheyme.jpg
Khoresh e qeyme: Stew with split peas, French fries, and dried lime.
Ailin14VeganGhormehSabzi.JPG
Qorme sabzi: Stew with herbs such as leek, cilantro, and dried fenugreek.
Celery stew.jpg
Khoresh e karafs: Stewed celery and meat.[19]
Սալորի շոգեխաշած սոուս.JPG
Khoresh e alu: Stewed prunes and meat.[20]
Spinach & plums.jpg
Khoresh e alu-esfenaj: Stewed prunes, spinach, and meat.[21][22]
Khoresh havij.png
Khoresh e havij: Stewed carrots and meat.[23]
Claypot beef stew with potatoes and mushrooms.jpg
Khoresh e qarch: Mushroom stew.[24]
Baqala qatoq.jpg
Baqala qatoq: Gilak stew with fava bean, dill, and eggs.
Abgoosht tilit.jpg
Dizi (piti): Mutton stew with chickpeas and potatoes.
Iranian Kofte Rizeh.jpg
Kufte rize: Azerbaijani and Kurdish meatball stew.

Soup and āsh[edit]

There are various forms of soup in Iranian cuisine, including sup e jow ("barley soup"), sup e esfenaj ("spinach soup"), sup e qarch ("mushroom soup"), and several forms of "thick soup". A thick soup is referred to as āsh in Iran, which is an Iranian traditional form of soup.[25] Also, shole qalamkar is the Iranian term for "Hodge-Podge" soup,[26] a soup made of a mixture of various ingredients.

The following table lists a number of soup and āsh dishes in Iranian cuisine.

Type and description Type and description Type and description
Broth.jpg
Sup e morgh: Chicken and noodle soup.[27]
Sup e jow.jpg
Sup e jow: Barley soup.[28]
Iranian tripe soup.jpg
Sirabi: Tripe soup; also known as sirab shirdun.[29]
Tarkhineh.JPG
Tarkhine: Grain and yoghurt soup.
St John Restaurant, Smithfield, London (3445306202).jpg
Gazane: Nettle soup.
Adasi.png
Adasi: Lentil soup.
Ash e reshte.jpg
Āsh e reshte: Noodle thick soup.
Asheanar.jpg
Āsh e anār: Pomegranate thick soup.
Buttermilk soup ardabil.JPG
Āsh e doogh: Buttermilk thick soup.

Polow and dami[edit]

Apart from dishes of rice with kebab or stew, there are various rice-based Iranian dishes cooked in the traditional methods of polow and dami.

Polow is the Iranian word for pilaf. A polow dish includes rice stuffed with cuts of vegetables, fruits, and beans, usually accompanied by either chicken or red meat. Dami dishes are simply the same thing cooked using the dami method.

The following are a number of traditional Iranian rice-based dishes.

Type and description Type and description Type and description Type and description
Sabzi polo.jpg
Sabzi polow: Rice with chopped herbs, usually served with fish.
Loobia Polo.jpg
Lubia polow: Rice with green beans and minced meat.
Persian-sour-cherry-saffron-rice-polow.jpg
Albalu polow: Rice with sour cherries and slices of chicken or red meat.
Morasa Poló (Close).JPG
Morasa polow: Rice "jewelled" with barberries, raisins, carrots, orange peel, and almonds.[30][31]
Քաղցր փլավ.JPG
Shirin polow: Rice with sweet carrots, raisins, and almonds.[32]
Adas polos.jpg
Adas polow: Rice with lentils, raisins, and dates.[33]
Baghala polo.jpg
Baqala polow: Rice with fava beans and dill weed.[34]
Dampokhtak.JPG
Dampokhtak: Turmeric rice with lima beans.[35]
Tahchin.jpg
Tachin: Rice cake including yogurt, egg, and chicken fillets.

Other[edit]

Type and description Type and description Type and description Type and description
Kuku Sabzi (Iranian food).jpg
Kuku: Whipped eggs folded in with herbs or potato.
Iranian kotlet.jpg
Kotlet: Mixture of fried ground beef, mashed potato, and onion.
Russischer Oliviersalat.JPG
Salad Olvie: Mixture of potato, eggs, peas, and diced chicken (or sausage), dressed with mayonnaise.
Six types of caviar.jpg
Caviar: Salt-cured fish eggs.
ტოლმა (1).jpg
Dolme: Stuffed peppers or vine leaves.
Koofteh tabrizi.jpg
Kufte: Meatball or meatloaf dishes.
Beefjf0159.JPG
Zaban: Beef tonge.
Iranian pache dish.jpg
Pache: Boiled parts of cow or sheep; also known as khash.
Iranian pirashki.jpg
Pirashki (pirozhki): Baked or fried buns stuffed with a variety of fillings.
Persian Port Sausage (Sosis Bandari) with sliced tomato and kosher dills.jpg
Sosis bandari: Traditional sausage with onion, tomato paste, and chili pepper.
Nargesi: A type of spinach omelette. Sirabij: A type of garlic omelette.
Gondi: Iranian Jewish dish of meatball. Iranian pizza: A typical Iranian pizza.

Appetizers[edit]

Type and description Type and description Type and description Type and description
Mixed Pickles (9370-72).jpg
Torshi: Mixed pickles salad.
Salad Shirazi.jpg
Salad Shirazi: Chopped cucumbers, tomato, and onion with lemon juice.
Bouranee.png
Borani: Yogurt with spinach and other ingredients.
Շալոտով մածուն նանայով.JPG
Mast o khiar: Strained yogurt with cucumber, garlic, and mint.
Կանաչի 2.JPG
Sabzi (greens): Fresh herbs and raw vegetables.
Zeytoon-Parvardeh-Zeytoun-Zeitoun-Zeytun-Persian-Olive- Pomegranate- Walnutfood-photo-by-persian-dutch-network.jpg
Zeytun parvarde: Olives in a paste made of pomegranate and walnuts.[36]
Mirza-Qasemi dish.jpg
Mirza Qasemi: Grilled eggplant with egg and garlic.
Kashk e Badamjan.jpg
Kashk e bademjan: Mixture of kashk and eggplant.

Desserts[edit]

In 400 BC, the ancient Iranians invented a special chilled food, made of rose water and vermicelli, which was served to royalty in summertime.[37] The ice was mixed with saffron, fruits, and various other flavors. Today, one of the most famous Iranian desserts in the semi-frozen noodle dessert known as falude, which has its roots in the city of Shiraz, a former capital of the country.[38][39] Bastani e zaferani, Persian for "saffron ice cream", is a traditional Iranian ice cream which is also commonly referred to as "the traditional ice cream". Other typical Iranian desserts include several forms of rice pudding and cheese.

The following is a list of several Iranian desserts.

Type and description Type and description Type and description Type and description
Fereni 1.jpg
Fereni: Sweet rice pudding flavored with rose water.[40]
Iranian sholezard for Nowruz.jpg
Sholezard: Saffron rice pudding dessert.
Persian halva.jpg
Halva: Wheat flour and butter, flavored with rose water.
Saffron ice cream.jpg
Bastani e zaferani: Saffron ice cream.
Faloodeh1.jpg
Falude: Vermicelli mixed in a semi-frozen syrup of sugar and rose water.
Kaymak in Turkey.jpg
Sarshir: Creamy dairy product similar to clotted cream.
Greek feta.jpg
Liqvan and feta: Brined curd cheese, typically eaten for breakfast.
Samanoo-Samanou-Persian-sweet-paste-for-Nowruz-Haft-Sin-Tablet.jpg
Samanu: Germinated wheat, typically served for Nowruz.

Cookies and snacks[edit]

Cookies appear to have their origins in 7th-century Iran, shortly after the use of sugar became relatively common in the region.[41] There are numerous traditional native and adopted confectionery in modern Iran, of which some are listed within the following table.

Type and description Type and description Type and description Type and description
Fooman cookie.jpg
Koluche: Cookies, with major production in Fuman and Lahijan.
Loukoumades.jpg
Bamie: Deep fried dough soaked in sugar syrup.
Baklava, Iranian Style.jpg
Baqlava: Pastry made of filo, nuts, and sugar syrup.
Reshteh khoshkar.jpg
Reshte khoshkar: Fried and spiced rice flour and walnut.
Gaz Candy From Iran.jpg
Nougat and gaz: Made of sugar, nuts, and egg white.
Sohan Halwa.JPG
Sohan: Saffron brittle candy with nuts.
Sohan Asali.png
Sohan asali: Brittle candy with honey.
Nan berenji.jpg
Nan berenji: Rice flour cookies.[42]
Lovuez.png
Tabrizi Lovuez: Diamond-shaped, made of almond powder, sugar, and saffron.
Shirini-e Nokhodchi close 150313 AW.jpg
Nokhodchi: Chickpea cookies.[43]
Qottab 02.jpg
Qottab: Almond-filled deep-fried pastry.
Kolompeh-Kerman.png
Kolompe: Pie made of dates and cardamom.
Saffron rock candy.jpg
Nabat chubi: Rock candy, commonly flavored with saffron in Iran.
Candyfloss (4825597893).jpg
Pashmak: Cotton candy.
Gorp.jpg
Trail mix: Dried fruit, grains, and nuts.
Dulce de membrillo.jpg
Quince cheese: Made of quince and sugar.
Troubleshooting ajil: Traditional packed trial mix for Nowruz. Gush e fil: Dough topped with pistachios powdered sugar. Poolaki: Thin candy made of sugar, water, and white vinegar. Baslogh: Pastry made of grape syrup, starch and almond.[44]

Drinks[edit]

A cup of black tea.

Iran is the world's 7th major tea producer,[45] mostly cultivated in its northern regions. In Iranian culture, tea (čāy) is so widely consumed,[46][47] and is typically the first thing offered to a guest.[48] Iranians traditionally put a lump of rock sugar in the mouth before drinking the tea.[49] Rock candies are also widely used, typically flavored with saffron.

Café Pars, Tehran (1936).

Iran's traditional coffee (qahve, or kāfe) is served strong, sweet, and "booby-trapped with a sediment of grounds".[50] In 16th-century Safavid Iran, coffee was initially used for medical proposes among the society.[51] Traditional coffeehouses were popular gatherings, in which people drank coffee, smoked tobacco, and recited poetry—especially the epic poems of Šāhnāme.[52] In present-day Iran, cafés are trendy mostly in urban areas, where a variety of brews and desserts are served.[50]

Wine (mey) has also a significant presence in Iranian culture, and is widespread among Iranians.[53] Since the 1979 Revolution, alcoholic beverages have been prohibited in Iran; though non-Muslim recognized minorities (i.e. Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians) are allowed to produce alcoholic beverages for their own use.[54] While non-alcoholic beer (ābjow) is available from legal outlets, other citizens prepare their alcoholic beverages illegally through the minority groups[55][56][57] and largely from Iraqi Kurdistan and Turkey.[58]

The following table lists several Iranian cold beverages.

Type and description Type and description Type and description Type and description
Tan-raffi kojian-IMG 3584.JPG
Doogh: Cold yogurt drink.
PikiWiki Israel 28888 squeezed Pomegranate juice.jpg
Pomegranate juice: Cold pomegranate juice.
GlassOfJuice and carrots.JPG
Carrot juice: Cold carrot juice,[59] sometimes mixed with ice cream.[60]
Khakshir (sisymbrium sophia seeds cold drink).jpg
Khakshir: Cold sweet drink with sisymbrium sophia seeds.[61]
Sekanjebin (drink).jpg
Sekanjebin: Cold drink made of honey and vinegar.
Arak saggi (distilled beverage).jpg
Araq sagi (Arak Saggi): A type of distilled alcoholic beverage.

Regional cuisine[edit]

The method of kateh is the predominant style of cooking rice in the Caspian region. In Gilan, Mazenderan, and Golestan, this type of rice dish is also eaten as a breakfast meal, either heated with milk and jam or cold with cheese and garlic. Caviar and Caspian fish roes hails from that region, and is served with eggs in frittatas or omelettes. In general, the cuisine of this region has the most affinity with the cuisine of the Caucasus region.

Among the Turkmen people in Golestan and North Khorasan, there is a dish made of rice, meat, and tomato paste known as chegderme, which is comparable to dampokhtak and arroz rojo. Kalle jush, which contains boiled Kashk, meat, and beans, is a form of soup in North Khorasan.

Dande kebab refers to a traditional grilled rib meat dish among the Kurdish people in Iran. In Kurdistan Province, there is a variation of khoresh e qeyme known as qeyme tarre, which includes wild leek. Sib polow, rice with baked apple, is another distinctive traditional dish among the Kurdish people in Kermanshan.

Turkic-speaking Azeris of the provinces of Azerbaijan and Aderbil in northwestern Iran also have some distinctive traditional dishes, including bonab kebabi—a variation of kebab kubide, zezbez—a savoury pudding dish known in Persian as cheqor peqor, and dushbara—a dish of dumplings. In Ardebil, there is also a form of khoresh e qeyme which is called pichagh qeyme. Azeris also have a type of dessert known as shekerbura, which is identical to Khorasan's shekarpare.

Mahyawa is a tangy sauce made out of fermented fish in southern coastal regions of Iran, including Bushehr, Hormozgan, and Khuzestan. In southern Khuzestan, there is also a variation of kufte known as kibbeh, which is made of ground meat, cracked wheat, and various spices.

Structure[edit]

Meals[edit]

Breakfast[edit]

The basic traditional Iranian breakfast consists of a variety of flat breads, butter cubes, white cheese, whipped heavy cream (sarshir; often sweetened with honey), and a variety of fruit jams and spreads.

Many cities and towns across Iran feature their own distinct versions of breakfast dishes. Pache, a popular traditional dish widely eaten in Iran and the neighboring Caucasus, is almost always only served from three in the morning until sometime after dawn, and specialty restaurants (serving only pache) are only open during those hours.

Lunch and dinner[edit]

Traditional Iranian cooking is done in stages, at times needing hours of preparation and attention. The outcome is a well-balanced mixture of herbs, meat, beans, dairy products, and vegetables. Major staples of Iranian food that are usually eaten with every meal include rice, various herbs, cheese, a variety of flat breads, and some type of meat (usually poultry, beef, lamb, or fish). Stew over rice is by far the most popular dish, and the constitution of these vary by region.

Traditional table setting and etiquette[edit]

Traditional Iranian table setting firstly involves the tablecloth, called sofre, and is spread out over either a table or a rug. Main dishes are concentrated in the middle, surrounded by smaller dishes containing appetizers, condiments, and side dishes, all of which are nearest to the diners. When the food is perfectly served, an invitation is made to seat at the sofre and start having the meal.

Historical Iranian cookbooks[edit]

Although the Arabic cookbooks written under the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate—one of the Arab caliphates which ruled Iran after the Muslim invasion—include some recipes with Iranian names, the earliest surviving classical cookbooks in Persian are two volumes from the Safavid period. The older one is entitled "Manual on cooking and its craft" (Kār-nāmeh dar bāb e tabbāxī va sanat e ān) written in 927/1521 for an aristocratic patron at the end of the reign of Ismail I. The book originally contained 26 chapters, listed by the author in his introduction, but chapters 23 through 26 are missing from the surviving manuscript. The recipes include measurements for ingredients—often detailed directions for the preparation of dishes, including the types of utensils and pots to be used—and instructions for decorating and serving them. In general, the ingredients and their combinations in various recipes do not differ significantly from those in use today. The large quantities specified, as well as the generous use of such luxury ingredients as saffron, suggest that these dishes were prepared for large aristocratic households, even though in his introduction, the author claimed to have written it "for the benefit of the nobility, as well as the public."

The second surviving Safavid cookbook, entitled "The substance of life, a treatise on the art of cooking" (Māddat al-ḥayāt, resāla dar ʿelm e ṭabbāxī), was written about 76 years later by a chef for Abbas I. The introduction of that book includes elaborate praise of God, the prophets, the imams, and the shah, as well as a definition of a master chef. It is followed by six chapters on the preparation of various dishes: four on rice dishes, one on qalya, and one on āsh. The measurements and directions are not as detailed as in the earlier book. The information provided is about dishes prepared at the royal court, including references to a few that had been created or improved by the shahs themselves. Other contemporary cooks and their specialties are also mentioned.[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Persian Cuisine, a Brief History". Culture of IRAN. Retrieved 2016-01-08. 
  2. ^ ĀŠPAZĪ
  3. ^ "Iranian Food". Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  4. ^ "Culture of IRAN". Cultureofiran.com. Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  5. ^ Stanton,; et al. (2012). Cultural Sociology of the Middle East, Asia, and Africa: An Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. p. 103. ISBN 978-1452266626. 
  6. ^ "The 10 best new restaurants in Toronto in 2013". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2016-02-16. 
  7. ^ Dehghan, Saeed Kamali (2016-02-03). "Top five Persian restaurants in London". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-02-16. 
  8. ^ Fragner, B. (1987). ĀŠPAZĪ. Encyclopaedia Iranica. 
  9. ^ Davidson, Alan. Jaine, Tom. The Oxford Companion to Food. p. 414. 
  10. ^ Tales of a Kitchen (March 5, 2013). "Persian date bread with turmeric and cumin (Komaj)". 
  11. ^ Ramazani, Nesta. "Uses of the Fruit in Cooking". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2008-10-11. 
  12. ^ "Production/Crops for Eggplant in 2013". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2015. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  13. ^ Ghanoonparvar, M. R. "Dolma". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  14. ^ Ramazani, N. "ĀB-ḠŪRA". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2011-06-26. 
  15. ^ "Saffron and lemon chicken (Joojeh Kabab)". Irish Times. Retrieved 2016-07-02. 
  16. ^ Burke, Andrew. Elliott, Mark. "MAIN COURSES: Kabab". Iran. Ediz. Inglese. p. 84. 
  17. ^ Sally Butcher (Oct 10, 2013). "Kebab-e-Chenjeh". Snackistan. 
  18. ^ Aashpazi.com. "KABAB TABEI". 
  19. ^ Vatandoust, Soraya. "Khoresh-e Karafs". Authentic Iran: Modern Presentation of Ancient Recipes. p. 132. 
  20. ^ Ramazani, Nesta. "Khoresht-e aloo". Persian Cooking: A Table of Exotic Delights. p. 138. 
  21. ^ Dana-Haeri, Jila. Lowe, Jason. Ghorashian, Shahrzad. "Glossary". New Persian Cooking: A Fresh Approach to the Classic Cuisine of Iran. p. 221. 
  22. ^ Goldstein, Joyce. "Persian Stew with Lamb or Beef, Spinach, and Prunes". The New Mediterranean Jewish Table: Old World Recipes for the Modern Home. p. 319. 
  23. ^ Ramazani, Nesta. Persian Cooking: A Table of Exotic Delights. p. 130. 
  24. ^ Dana-Haeri, Jila. Ghorashian, Shahrzad. Lowe, Jason. "Khoresht-e gharch". New Persian Cooking: A Fresh Approach to the Classic Cuisine of Iran. p. 72. 
  25. ^ Elāhī, ʿE. "ĀŠ (thick soup), the general term for a traditional Iranian dish comparable to the French potage.". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  26. ^ Trost, Alex. Kravetsky, Vadim. 100 of the Most Delicious Iranian Dishes. p. 8. 
  27. ^ Ramazani, Nesta. "Chicken Soup (Soup-e Morgh)". Persian Cooking: A Table of Exotic Delights. p. 38. 
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Further reading[edit]