Kasaragod district

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Kasaragod District
District
Kasaragod District is located in Kerala
Kasaragod District
Kasaragod District
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 12°30′N 75°00′E / 12.5°N 75°E / 12.5; 75Coordinates: 12°30′N 75°00′E / 12.5°N 75°E / 12.5; 75
Country  India
State Kerala
District Kasaragod
Region Tulunad
Area
 • District 1,992 km2 (769 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • District 1,307,375
 • Density 660/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
 • Metro 1,642,892
Languages
 • Official Malayalam , Tulu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 671 xxx
Telephone code 0499
Vehicle registration KL-14 KL-60
Website kasargod.nic.in

Kasaragod District (Malayalam: കാസർഗോഡ് ജില്ല; Kannada: ಕಾಸರಗೋಡು ಜಿಲ್ಲೆ) is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala, India. Kasaragod became part of Kannur district, Kerala following the reorganisation of states and formation of Kerala in November 1, 1956.[1] Kasaragod was declared as a district on 24 May 1984. Now Kasaragod is the northernmost and also the last (14th) district in the State; comprising Kasaragod, Manjeswar, Vellarikundu and Hosdurg taluks.

Kasaragod is world-renowned for its coir and hand-loom industries. It is a region where three 'dream-lands' Kerala, Tulunadu and Coorg meet. The district has a coastline of around 29.3 kilometers and a very vast midland. It also consists of high mountain ranges like the Ranipuram-Kottencheri belt. The district is filled with rivers, hillocks, beaches, shrines and forts. Kasaragod District is unique for its linguistic culture is also known as "Sapthabhasha Sangamabhoomi" as seven major languages are spoken here.

Kasaragod has also been fatally affected by indiscriminate use of the pesticide Endosulphan. Its a challenge of this district

Overview[edit]

To its south lies Kannur District, to the South east is Kodagu district(Coorg) and to the north Dakshina Kannada district. All along its east it is walled by the Western Ghats while along the west the Laccadive Sea borders it.

The district, covering an area of around 1992 km2, has a population (2011 census) of 1,307,375 and has four taluks, namely, Kasaragod and Hosdurg (Kanhangad), Vellarikundu and Manjeshwaram Taluk. Major towns in Kasaragod district are Nileshwar, Kanhangad, Kasaragod, Uppala, Kumbla,cheruvathur and Trikaripur. It has three municipalities (Nileshwar Kasaragod, and Kanhangad and thirty-eight grama panchayats.[2] The district is further sub-divided into six administrative segments called development blocks, namely, Manjeshwaram, Kasaragod, Kanhangad, and Nileshwaram, Parappa, Karadka. Like other districts of Kerala, Kasaragod district too has a high literacy rate, around 85.17% according to the 2001 census.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Kasaragod
Chandragiri bridge which connects Kasaragod town to Chemnad Panchayath.

Kasaragod was known to the Arabs by the name Harkwillia.[3] Many Arab travelers who visited Kerala between the 9th and the 14th centuries visited Kasaragod, which was an important trade centre then. Duarte Borbosa, the Portuguese traveler who visited Kumbla, near Kasaragod in 1514, recorded rice being exported for coir to Maldives.[3]

Kasaragod was part of the kumbala Kingdom in which there were 64 Tulu and Malayalam villages.[3] When the Vijayanagara empire attacked Kasaragod, it was still under the Kolathiri Raja who had Nileshwaram as one of his capitals. During the decline of the Vijayanagara empire, the administration of this area was vested with Ikkeri Nayakas.[3] At the onset of collapse of the Vijayanagara empire, Venkappa Nayaka declared independence to Ikkery. Kumbla, Chandragiri and Bekal are considered to be the chain of forts constructed or renovated by Shivappa Nayaka.[3]

Francis Buccanan, the family doctor of Arthur Wellesley, visited Kasargod in 1800.[3] In his travelogue, he recorded information on places like Athiraparambu, Kavvai, Nileshwaram, Bekal, Chandragiri and Manjeshwaram.[3] In 1763, Hyder Ali conquered Bedanoor (Bidnur), the capital of the Ikkery Naiks. His son Tippu Sultan conquered much of Malabar. As per the Sreerangapattanam Treaty of 1792, Tippu surrendered Malabar, except Tulunadu (Canara) to the British. The British got Tulunadu only after the death of Tippu Sultan.[3] it is said that Kinavoor Molom (Sree Dharma Shashtha Temple)is belonging to Karinthalam (one among 64 Brahmin Villages in old Kerala)

Geography[edit]

The district is the northernmost district of the State of Kerala. Kasaragod is located at 12°30′N 75°00′E / 12.5°N 75.0°E / 12.5; 75.0.[4] It has an average elevation of 19  metres (62  feet).

The landscape is dominated by the characteristic coconut palms accompanying rolling hills and streams flowing into the sea. The landscape is dotted with tiled-roof buildings, topped with the famous Kasaragod tiles made with the local hard red clay and typically walled with laterite blocks. Older houses are commonly found with elaborate woodwork. .

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Kasaragod
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 33.1
(91.6)
33.3
(91.9)
33.9
(93)
34.3
(93.7)
33.4
(92.1)
29.8
(85.6)
28.7
(83.7)
28.8
(83.8)
30.1
(86.2)
31.2
(88.2)
32.7
(90.9)
33.1
(91.6)
31.87
(89.36)
Average low °C (°F) 21.1
(70)
21.9
(71.4)
23.7
(74.7)
24.9
(76.8)
24.9
(76.8)
23.5
(74.3)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23.2
(73.8)
23.2
(73.8)
22.7
(72.9)
21.3
(70.3)
23.03
(73.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.8
(0.031)
0
(0)
17.3
(0.681)
32.7
(1.287)
182.9
(7.201)
1,010.5
(39.783)
1,002.8
(39.48)
663.6
(26.126)
246.5
(9.705)
222.6
(8.764)
69
(2.72)
12.4
(0.488)
3,461.1
(136.266)
Source: Meo Weather

Demographics[edit]

Religions in Kasaragod District
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
56.8%
Muslims
  
37.2%
Christian
  
6.7%
Others
  
0.3%
Distribution of religions
Source: 2011 Census.
Kasaragod District Map

According to the 2011 census Kasaragod district has a population of 1,307,375,[5] roughly equal to the nation of Mauritius[6] or the US state of New Hampshire.[7] This gives it a ranking of 375th in India (out of a total of 640).[5] The district has a population density of 654 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,690/sq mi) .[5] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 8.18%.[5] Kasaragod has a sex ratio of 1079 females for every 1000 males,[5] and a literacy rate of 89.85%.[5]

Transport[edit]

The National Highway 66(formerly NH17) enters Kerala in Kunjathur of Kasargod district, through which major towns in the district are connected to Mangalore. The highway form a backbone of the road network for the district from Talapady, covering major towns like Uppala, Kasaragod, Kanhangad, Nileshwar, Cheruvathur and Trikaripur. The NH exits the district in Kalikadavu (Pilicode) which ends at Edappally.

Languages[edit]

Kasargod district is one of the rare districts in India which houses as many as 7 different languages (excluding dialects and tribal languages), with each spoken by a substantial number of people.[8]

The principal and recognized administrative language here is Malayalam and Tulu. The predominant language in Kasaragod is Malayalam. Tulu, Beary, Konkani and Kannada languages are also widely spoken here. Besides these, Marathi, Hindi and Urdu are also spoken by minorities. Kasaragod also has a sizable population of Havyaka Brahmins.[8][9] The Malayalam spoken here has influences from Kannada and Tulu. Like wise, the Tulu and Kannada spoken here, are also influenced by Malayalam.[10][11]

Education[edit]

  • Primary Schools. 411
  • Secondary Schools. 115
  • Colleges. 40
Institution Government Aided Unaided Total
Lower Primary School 141 115 7 263
Upper Primary School 73 72 4 149
High School 43 19 8 70
Higher Secondary School 31 14 0 45
Arts & Science College 4 2 9 14
Engineering College 2 3 3[12]
Agriculture College 1 0 0 1
Pharmacy College 0 2 0 2
Teacher Training School 2 1 0 3
Special Schools for the blind/deaf 1 1 0 2
Industrial Training Institute 2 0 1 3
Industrial Training Centres 2 0 2 4
Polytechnic 2 1 0 3
Kendriya Vidyalaya 0 0 0 3
Navodaya Vidyalaya 0 0 0 1
B.Ed Centre 1 0 2 3
Central University 1 0 0 1

Tourist attractions[edit]

Kasaragod is often named as land of Lords and Forts and one of the most beautiful districts in Kerala state endowed with 9 rivers (out of a total of the 44 rivers that flow in Kerala), hills, beaches, backwaters, as well as temples, churches, mosques and forts.

  • Bekal Fort - It is the biggest fort in Kerala today and is 14  km from Kanhangad and 15  km from Kasaragod town. The nearest railway station is Pallikere railway station, which is now called the Bekal Fort Railway Station, and the nearest airport is Mangalore Airport.
  • Ananthapura Lake Temple, an ancient and attractive-looking temple, dedicated to Lord Vishnu.
  • Adhur, one of the natural spot in Kasaragod with large diversity of flora and fauna. Located on the shore of Payaswini River.

Ranipuram Wildlife sanctaury (50 km2, proposed)

In Panathady RF, the proposed Ranipuram Wildlife sanctuary / National park of Kanhangad forest range consists of various flora and fauna which are endemic to the Western Ghats and a yet to studied biodiversity hotspot. It merges with the Talacauvery Wildlife Sanctuary. Ranipuram hill station which falls in Panathady reserve forest is an ideal area to notify as a wild life sanctuary/National park. Shola forest seen only here in this district. Elephants, leopards, deer, wild dogs, wild boars, macaques, jungle cats, leopard cats slender loris, porcupines, malabar giant squirrels, malabar civet cat, many species of birds, rare butterflies and medicinal plants are found in these forest.

Malom Wildlife Sanctuary

Malom Wildlife Sanctuary of the Vellarikundu region is popular among tourists for its tropical rainforest and many wild animals. The sanctuary is home to animals like wild pig, slender loris, rhesus monkey, flying squirrel and porcupine. The Malabar hornbill, peacock and grey-hornbill can also be seen in the sanctuary. Many animals like flying squirrel, bats, jungle cat, butterflies are living here. Encroachment, hunting in night, rampant tree felling and granite mining are the main threats.

National Movement[edit]

Kasaragod played a prominent role in the National Movement for the freedom of the country. Mohammed Sherul Sahib and Kandige Krishna Bhat were the frontline leaders of the independence movement. Umesh Rao, kallige Mahbala Bhandari, Kayyara kinchanna Rai, Kumble Devappa Alva,. M. Krishnan Nambiar, Shreesankarji, Naranthatta Raman Nair, A. C. Kannan Nair, T. Gopalan Nair and Meloth Narayanan Nambiar were prominent freedom fighters.

The agrarian struggle to end the exploitation and oppression by landlords and chieftains were part of the National Movement. The Kadakom Sathyagraha was started following the arrest of Gandhiji in 1932. The Palayi Harvest Agitation (1941), Cheemeni Estate Struggle (1942), Kayyur Agrarian Riot (1944), Eleri Estate Agitation (1946), Karinthalam Paddy Seizure Revolt (1948) and many other struggles waged by the peasant organisations accelerated the tempo of the freedom movement. Besides the agitation of the peasants, the various struggles unleashed for the uplift of the scheduled castes and tribes also supported and enlivened the National Movement.

Administration[edit]

Parliament Constituency[edit]

  • Kasaragod

Assembly Constituencies[edit]

  1. Manjeswar
  2. Kasaragod
  3. Udma
  4. Kanhangad (SC)
  5. Trikkarpur

Notable People[edit]

The following list gives the names of people from Kasaragod District who have a page on them in the Wikipedia.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kasaragod - After District Formation". Kasaragod District. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  2. ^ There are 38 Grama Panchayats in Kasaragod District (kasaragod.nic.in).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Kasaragod History". Government of Kerala. Archived from the original on September 25, 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  4. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Kasaragod
  5. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  6. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. Mauritius 1,303,717 July 2011 est. 
  7. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. New Hampshire 1,316,470 
  8. ^ a b Kumar Suresh Singh (1998). India's communities. 6. Anthropological Survey of India. p. 1549. 
  9. ^ "Kasaragod". 
  10. ^ A Sreedhara Menon (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. 
  11. ^ "Introduction to Kasaragod district". 
  12. ^ http://www.kerala-colleges.com/Kerala-Districts-India/Kasaragod-Colleges.asp#Engineering

External links[edit]