List of ancient dishes

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A plate of testaroli with pesto, as served at a trattoria in Pontremoli, Italy
A plate of testaroli, an ancient dish, served with pesto at a trattoria in Pontremoli, Italy

This is a list of ancient dishes, foods and beverages that have been recorded as originating during ancient history. The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with Sumerian Cuneiform script, the oldest discovered form of coherent writing from the protoliterate period around the 30th century BC.[1]

Ancient history can be defined as occurring from the beginning of recorded human history to:

Although the end date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used),[8][9] the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD,[10] the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD,[11] the birth of Islam in 610 CE[12] or the rise of Charlemagne[13] as the end of ancient and Classical European history. This list does not contain entries that originated after ancient history.

Beginning of recorded history to 476 AD[edit]

This section is limited to dishes that originated during the time of ancient history (the beginning of recorded human history) up to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD.

Ruins of a garum factory in Baelo Claudia, Spain
Papadzules may be "one of the most ancient traditional dishes of Yucatán, Mexico.[14]
Various chutneys in Bangalore, India

Beverages[edit]

  • Beer is recorded in the written history of Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt and is one of the world's oldest prepared beverages.[70]
  • Kombucha originated in what is now Manchuria around 220 BCE, and is said to have been imported to Japan around 400 CE by the physician Kombu.[71][72]
  • Soy milk has been consumed in China since ancient times.[73]
  • Wine consumption and production has been found through archaeological evidence as early as c. 6000 BC.[74][75]

Cereals and grains[edit]

Farro may be one of the "most ancient of all ancient grains."[76]
  • Amaranth graingrain and plant bundles were found by archaeologists at the Tehuacán caves in Central Mexico that date back to around 5,500 years.[77] The grain continues to be grown in the area in contemporary times.[77]
  • Barley[78]
  • Bulgur (burghul) – existed Anno Domini in the Near East[45]
  • Farro – may be one of the "most ancient of all ancient grains"[76]
  • Hemp seed – used as a food grain in Ancient China up to the time of the Han Dynasty, at which time its use declined and then stopped.[79] This was documented as "the prevailing view" in the book Fermentations and Food Science.[79]
  • Kasha (buckwheat groats) – first cultivated in China, they were later cultivated in Eastern Europe.[80] The food is still commonly used in both regions.[80]
  • Millet – a staple food of ancient China, Egypt and India; Staple in Northern China before rice.[80]
  • Maize - originated in Central America between 5600 and 4000 BCE.[81]
  • Rice - originated in Southern China 8,200 - 13,500 years ago.
  • Wheat[78][82]
    • Einkorn wheat – may be one of the "most ancient of all ancient grains"[76]
    • Spelt – a common grain in Switzerland and Germany "by the seventh century BCE"[83] (BC) Spelt existed in Great Britain since 500 BCE.[83]
  • Teff - a native grain to Ethiopia and Eritrea that happened to be domesticated sometime between 8000 and 5000 BC.[84]

Dairy products[edit]

Cheeses[edit]

Pecorino Romano is one of the world's most ancient cheeses

Legumes[edit]

Seeds[edit]

  • Chia has been cultivated by the Aztecs, Mayans, Incas and "other ancient Native American cultures" for over 5,000 years.[112]

AD 477–1500[edit]

This section includes dishes, foods and beverages that originated during the time of ancient history from 477 AD to 1500 AD (prior to the Postclassical Era).

  • Börek is known from 14th century Persia in a poem by Bushaq-i-Atima, and it may be far older.[113][114]
  • Hummus first mentioned in a cookbook from Cairo, Egypt from the 13th century.
  • Kuluban – an ancient Javanese dish of boiled vegetables served in spices, similar with today urap. Mentioned in The Rukam inscription dated 829 Saka (907 CE) from Mataram kingdom ancient Java, Indonesia.[115]
  • Lalab – vegetable dish called as rumwah-rumwah in ancient Java, Indonesia. Mentioned in The Panggumulan (Kembang Arum) inscription dated 824 Saka (902 CE) from Mataram kingdom.[116]
  • Rawon – meat stew, mentioned as rarawwan in ancient Javanese Taji inscription (901 CE).[117]
  • Rujak – spicy fruit dish, mentioned as rurujak in ancient Javanese Taji inscription (901 CE).[117]
  • Krupuk – traditional cracker made from rice flour, mentioned as kurupuk in ancient Javanese Taji inscription (901 CE).[117]
  • Popcorn – an ancient food used by people of the Inca civilization.[80]
  • Philippine adobo - a dish and cooking process originating during the Pre-colonial Philippines. [118]
  • Tapuy - rice wine from the Pre-colonial Philippines. [118]
  • Tempeh - high protein fermented soy product from Indonesia. First known as kadêlê mentioned in an old Javanese manuscript Serat Sri Tanjung from the 12th to 13th century CE.

Cereals and grains[edit]

Defined as ancient, but lacking time frame[edit]

A bowl of poi showing a typical consistency

Legumes[edit]

Seeds[edit]

Likely ancient in origin[edit]

  • Nattō is prepared using fermented soybeans, and has been described as likely being an ancient food.[124] Its origins have been described as unknown.[124] Nattō may have been developed independently in different areas that have the same ingredients, such as Japan, China and Korea.[124]

See also[edit]

Ancient cuisines

List articles

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "The origin of sausage goes back to ancient times."[52]
  2. ^ "An ancient food, soup is prepared by cooking meat, fish or vegetables and the like in such fluids as water or milk; it is then consumed as a liquid."[57]
  3. ^ "Smy, or thickened milk, both human and animal, is often mentioned in medical prescriptions."[89]
  4. ^ "Cheese is represented in the tomb art of ancient Egypt and in Greek literature"[91]
  5. ^ "In the Pacific Islands, poi, made from taro root, is an ancient food that is preserved through fermentation."[121]
  6. ^ "Chickpea is an ancient food crop in the Highlands, but whether it was domesticated indigenously is debatable. Ethiopian varieties are infertile when crossed with Near Eastern varieties. This genetic incompatibility may reflect distinct ecological ..."[122]

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