Ooty

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Udhagamandalam)
Jump to: navigation, search
For the Indian film, see Ooty (film).
Udhagamandalam
Ooty
Udhagai
Hill station
Emerald Lake Nilgiris.jpg
Nickname(s): Queen of Hill Stations
Udhagamandalam is located in Tamil Nadu
Udhagamandalam
Udhagamandalam
Coordinates: 11°25′N 76°42′E / 11.41°N 76.70°E / 11.41; 76.70Coordinates: 11°25′N 76°42′E / 11.41°N 76.70°E / 11.41; 76.70
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
District The Nilgiris
Government
 • Type Special Grade Municipality
 • Body Udagamandalam Municipality Corporation
Elevation[1] 2,240 m (7,350 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • Total 88,430
Languages
 • Official Tamil, Badaga
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 643 001
Tele 91423
Vehicle registration TN 43
Civic agency Udagamandalam Municipality Corporation
Distance from Bangalore 277 kilometres (172 mi) (land)
Climate Subtropical Highland (Köppen)
Precipitation 1,238 mm (49 in)
Avg. annual temperature 14.4 °C (58 °F)
Temperature from Batchmates.com[3]

Udhagamandalam (also Ootacamund (About this sound listen )) and abbreviated as Udhagai and Ooty (About this sound listen ), is a town and municipality in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located 80 km north of Coimbatore and is the capital of the Nilgiris district. It is a popular hill station located in the Nilgiri Hills.

Originally occupied by the Todas, the area came under the rule of the East India Company at the end of the 18th century. The economy is based on tourism and agriculture, along with manufacture of medicines and photographic film. The town is connected by the Nilgiri ghat roads and Nilgiri Mountain Railway. Its natural beauty attract tourists and is a popular summer destination.[4] As of 2011, the town had a population of 88,430.

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the name Udhagamandalam is obscure. The first mention of the place occurs in a letter of March 1821 to the Madras Gazette from an unknown correspondent as Wotokymund.[5] In early times it was called OttaikalMandu. "Mund" is the Tamil word for a Toda village, and the first part of the name is probably a corruption of the local name for the central region of the Nilgiri Plateau.[6] Another likely origin of the stem of the name (Ootaca) comes from the local language in which Otha-Cal literally means Single Stone. This is perhaps a reference to a sacred stone revered by the local Toda people. The name probably changed under British rule from Udhagamandalam to Ootacamund, and later was shortened to Ooty.[7]

Ooty is situated in the Nilgiri hills. The name meaning blue mountains in Tamil name might have arisen from the blue smoky haze given off by the eucalyptus trees that cover the area or from the kurunji flower, which blooms every twelve years giving the slopes a bluish tinge.[5] The beautiful mountains and green valleys led to the epithet Queen of Hill Stations.[8]

History[edit]

Ooty in 1911
Ooty, India (c. 2011)

Udhagamandalam was originally a tribal land occupied by the Todas along with other tribes who coexisted through specialization and trade. The major tribes of Nilagiri area are Toda people, Kotas, Badagas and Alu Kurumbas.[9] The Todas in Nilgiris are referenced in a record dated 1117 AD.[10] Toda people are known for raising water buffaloes and Badaga people for their farming activities.[8] Nilgiris was ruled by various Tamil kingdoms and Hoysalas.[10] Tippu Sultan captured and extended the border by constructing a hideout cave like structure.[8] The Nilgiris came into possession of British East India Company as part of the ceded lands, held by Tipu Sultan, by the treaty of Srirangapatnam in 1799.

In 1818, Wish and Kindersley, assistants to John Sullivan, then Collector of Coimbatore visited Ooty and submitted a report to him. John Sullivan camped at Dimbhatti, north of Kotagiri in January 1819 and was enthralled by the beauty of the place. He wrote to Thomas Munro, ... it resembles Switzerland, more than any country of Europe... the hills beautifully wooded and fine strong spring with running water in every valley.[11] The Todas handed over that part of the town to Sullivan and in May 1819, Sullivan began the construction of his bungalow at Dimbhatti. He also started work on a road from Sirumugai to Dimbhatti in 1819. The road was completed in May 1823 and the road was extend up to Coonoor by 1830-32.[5] Ooty served as the summer capital of the Madras Presidency and visited by British during the colonial days as a popular summer resort. Soldiers were sent to nearby Wellington to recuperate. Wellington is the home of the Madras Regiment of the Indian Army.[12][13] After Independence, it developed into a popular hill resort.

Climate[edit]

Ooty features a subtropical highland climate (Cwb) under Köppen climate classification.[14] Despite its location in the tropics, in stark contrast with most of South India, Ooty generally features pleasantly mild conditions throughout the year. However, nighttime in the months of January and February is typically cold. Generally, the town appears to be eternally stuck in the spring season. Temperatures are relatively consistent throughout the year; with average high temperatures ranging from about 17–20 °C (63–68 °F) and average low temperatures between approximately 5–12 °C (41–54 °F). The highest temperature ever recorded in Ooty was 25 °C (77 °F), which by South Asian standards is uncharacteristically low for an all-time record high temperature.The rainy season in Ooty is generally very cool and windy with high humidity. The windchill may fall to as low as 5 °C during the day time. Wind is always high throughout the year. The lowest temperature was −2 °C (28 °F).[15] The city sees on average about 1,250 mm (49 in) of precipitation annually, with a marked drier season from December through March.

Climate data for Ooty (Udagamandalam)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
21
(70)
19
(66)
19
(66)
20
(68)
20
(68)
21
(70)
20
(68)
25
(77)
Average high °C (°F) 20.3
(68.5)
20.9
(69.6)
22.2
(72)
22.6
(72.7)
22
(72)
18.3
(64.9)
16.9
(62.4)
17.4
(63.3)
18.5
(65.3)
18.8
(65.8)
18.7
(65.7)
19.7
(67.5)
19.69
(67.47)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
13.6
(56.5)
15.2
(59.4)
16.3
(61.3)
16.6
(61.9)
14.8
(58.6)
14.1
(57.4)
14.4
(57.9)
14.4
(57.9)
14.6
(58.3)
13.7
(56.7)
12.9
(55.2)
14.42
(57.95)
Average low °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
6.5
(43.7)
8.8
(47.8)
10.7
(51.3)
11.4
(52.5)
11.2
(52.2)
11
(52)
10.9
(51.6)
10.4
(50.7)
10.1
(50.2)
8.6
(47.5)
6.7
(44.1)
9.33
(48.81)
Record low °C (°F) −2
(28)
−1
(30)
0
(32)
1
(34)
3
(37)
4
(39)
3
(37)
3
(37)
2
(36)
2
(36)
0
(32)
−1
(30)
−2
(28)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20.5
(0.807)
10.2
(0.402)
25.8
(1.016)
75.4
(2.969)
147.5
(5.807)
136.7
(5.382)
181.1
(7.13)
123.7
(4.87)
134.9
(5.311)
189.2
(7.449)
139.9
(5.508)
52.8
(2.079)
1,237.7
(48.73)
Average rainy days 1 1 2 5 8 8 10 9 9 11 7 4 75
Mean daily sunshine hours 8 8 8 8 7 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 6.2
Source #1: Indian Meteorological Department (1901-2000)[16]
Source #2: Climate-Data.org for mean temperatures, altitude: 2214m,[14] Weather2Travel for sunshine and rainy days[17]

Demographics[edit]

Religious census
Religion Percent(%)
Hindu
  
64.36%
Christian
  
21.25%
Muslim
  
13.37%
Other
  
1.03%

According to 2011 census, Uthagamandalam had a population of 88,430 with a sex-ratio of 1,053 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[18] A total of 7,781 were under the age of six, constituting 3,915 males and 3,866 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 28.98% and .3% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the city was 82.15%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[18] The city had a total of 23,235 households. There were a total of 35,981 workers, comprising 636 cultivators, 5,194 main agricultural laborers, 292 in house hold industries, 26,411 other workers, 3,448 marginal workers, 65 marginal cultivators, 828 marginal agricultural labourers, 56 marginal workers in household industries and 2,499 other marginal workers.[19] As per the religious census of 2011, Udhagamandalam had 64.36% Hindus, 21.25% Christians, 13.37% Muslims, 0.03% Sikhs, 0.3% Buddhists, 0.4% Jains, 0.28% following other religions and 0.02% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference.[20]

Tamil is the official language of Udhagamandalam. Languages native to the Nilgiris like Badaga and Paniya are also spoken by the tribes. Due to its proximity to the neighboring states and it being a popular tourist spot, English, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam are also spoken and understood to an extent.[21]

Administration and politics[edit]

Ooty is the district headquarters of the Nilgiris district.[22] The Ootacamund assembly constituency is part of the Nilgiris Lok Sabha constituency.[23]

Economy[edit]

Blackened Nilgiri tea leaves

Contrary to the thought that much of the local economy is now dominated by tourism, Ooty is still a supply base and market town for the surrounding area which is still largely dependent on agriculture, notably the cultivation of "English vegetables" and "English fruits" grown locally. This primarily consists of potato, carrot, cabbage and cauliflower and the fruits being peaches, plums, pears and strawberries.[24] There is a daily wholesale auction of these products at the Ooty Municipal Market. Dairy farming has long been present in the area and there is a cooperative dairy manufacturing cheese and skimmed milk powder. As a result of the local agricultural industry, certain research institutes are based in Ooty. These include a soil conservation center, livestock farm and a potato research farm. Efforts are being made to diversify the range of local crops with Floriculture and Sericulture being introduced in the local area, as well as the cultivation of mushrooms.[24]

Hindustan Photo Films manufactures photo films in Ooty.[25] Human Biologicals Institute, which manufactures human rabies vaccine is present in Ooty near Pudumand. Other manufacturing industries are located in the outskirts of Ooty. The most significant of these are in Ketti (manufacture of needles); Aruvankadu (manufacture of cordite) and Coonoor (manufacture of rabies vaccine). Cottage industries in the area including chocolate, pickle manufacture and carpentry. Homemade chocolates are popular among the tourists and the locals. The local area is known for tea cultivation and is economically grown in Ooty, Coonoor, Kotagiri and across Nilgiris district. The elevation is about 6000 feet above the sea level. Soil conditions, elevation and climatic conditions gives flavors to the tea grown here.

Transport[edit]

Road[edit]

Main article: Ooty bus stand

Ooty is well connected roads. It is 535 kilometres (332 mi) from Chennai[26] (via Salem, Erode, and Coimbatore), 80 kilometres (50 mi) from Coimbatore and 155 kilometres (96 mi) from Mysore.[27] Ooty is situated on National Highway NH 67 and is connected by road via the five main accepted Nilgiri Ghat Roads. Bus services operated by TNSTC connect major towns in the state and nearby towns in the district such as Coonoor, Kotagiri, and Gudalur.

Rail[edit]

Nilgiri Mountain Railway, a UNSECO heritage site

Udhagamandalam railway station is connected with Mettupalayam by NMR metre gauge service.[28] In 1882, a Swiss engineer named Arthur Riggenbach came to the Nilgiri Hills on an invitation from Government of India and he submitted an estimate for a line costing £132,000. The Nilgiri Railway Company was formed in 1885 and planning work commenced in 1886. The work on the line commenced in August 1891 and the Mettupalayam-Coonoor section of the track was opened for traffic on 15 June 1899. In January 1903, the Indian Government purchased the line, and took over the construction of the extension from Coonoor to Ooty. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway was operated by the Madras Railway until 31 December 1907 on the behalf of the Government. In January 1908, the railway line was handed over to South Indian Railway. The line from Coonoor to Ooty was completed in 1908. On October 15, Arthur Lawley, Governor of Madras opened the new railway to traffic.[29] The Nilgiri Mountain Railway (NMR) is one of the oldest mountain railways in India and was declared by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in July 2005. It is the only rack railway in India, and uses the Abt system. [30][31]

Air[edit]

The nearest airport is Coimbatore (96 kilometres (60 mi)). Ooty has three helipads, one at Theettukal and two at Kodanad. The Theettukal helipad was approved by Airports Authority of India for defence and VIP services. Pawan Hans was supposed to start its service with Bell 407, but being present amidst farmland, dislocation of the farm animals there has put the operations on hold for commercial activities.[32][33][34][35]

Education[edit]

Boarding schools have been a feature of Ooty since the days of the British Raj. They offer a significant contribution to the local economy. The facilities and standards of education are considered amongst the highest in India,[36] and so these schools are popular amongst the elite of India and some of the neighboring countries.

Recreation[edit]

Ootacamund Club (c.1905)

Snooker is said to have originated on the billiard tables of the Ootacamund Club, invented by an army officer Neville Francis Fitzgerald Chamberlain.[37] There was also a cricket ground with regular matches played between teams from the Army, the Indian Civil Service and the business sector. Visiting teams would come from various parts of India as well as from the island of Ceylon. There were riding stables and kennels at Ooty and the Ootacamund Hounds hunted across the surrounding countryside and the open grasslands of the Wenlock Downs, named after Beilby Lawley, 3rd Baron Wenlock. Horse races are held at Ooty Racecourse.[38][39][40][41][42][43][44]

The diverse landscape of Ooty offers an opportunity to explore number of adventure sports and recreational activities, including hang gliding. Located around 20 km from Ooty, Kalahatty in the mountain ranges of Nilgiris is a site for hang gliding. Kalahatty has a launch area that can be reached by a jeep. Ooty Golf Course is located in Ooty town.[45][46] The golf course is set at an altitude of 7600 feet.[47] It is owned by the Gymkhana club in Ooty. The course extends over 193.56 acres[48] and comprises 18 holes.[47] The England cricket captain Colin Cowdrey was born in Ooty.[49]

Places of interest[edit]

Ooty is situated in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Many of the forested areas and water bodies are off-limits to most visitors to protect this fragile ecosystem. Some areas of the Biosphere Reserve have been earmarked for tourism development, and steps are being undertaken to open these areas to visitors whilst conserving the area.[50] It is situated at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 feet) above sea level.[1]

Gardens and parks
The Government Botanical Garden

The Government rose garden (formerly Centerary Rose Park)[51][52] is the largest rose garden in India.[53] It is situated on the slopes of the Elk Hill in Vijayanagaram of Ooty town in Tamil Nadu, India[54] at an altitude of 2200 meters. Today this garden has one of the largest collection of roses in the country with more than 20,000 varieties of roses of 2,800 cultivars.[55] The collection include hybrid tea roses, Miniature Roses, Polyanthas, Papagena, Floribunda, Ramblers, Yakimour and roses of unusual colours like black and green.

The 22-acre (89,000 m2) Ooty Botanical Gardens was laid out in 1847[56] and is maintained by the Government of Tamil Nadu. The Botanical Garden is lush, green, and well-maintained. A flower show along with an exhibition of rare plant species is held every May. The gardens have around a thousand species, both exotic and indigenous, of plants, shrubs, ferns, trees, herbal and bonsai plants.[57] The garden has a 20-million-year-old fossilized tree.[58][59]

Deer Park is located on the edge of Ooty Lake. It is considered as one of the high altitude zoo in India aside from the zoo in Nainital, Uttarakhand. This park was formed to house a number of species of deers and animals for travelers to view.[60]

Lakes and dams
Ooty Lake

Ooty lake covers an area of 65 acres.[61] The boat house established alongside the lake, which offers boating facilities to tourists, is a major tourist attraction in Ooty. It was constructed in 1824 by John Sullivan, the first collector of Ooty. The lake was formed by damming the mountain streams flowing down Ooty valley.[61] The lake is set among groves of Eucalyptus trees with a railway line running along one bank. During summer season in May, boat races and boat pageantry are organised for two days at the lake.[62][63]

Pykara is a river located 19 km from Ooty.[64] The Pykara is considered very sacred by the Todas.[65] The Pykara river rises at Mukurthi peak and passes through hilly tract, generally keeping to North and turns to West after reaching the Plateau's edge.[65] The river flows through a series of cascades; and the last two falls of 55 meters and 61 meters are known as Pykara falls.[65] The falls are approximately 6 km from the bridge on the main road. A boat house by the Pykara falls and dam is added attractions to the tourists.[64][66] Kamaraj Sagar Dam (also known as Sandynalla reservoir)[67] is located at a distance of 10 km from the Ooty bus stand.[68][69] It is a picnic spot and a film shooting spot on the slopes of the Wenlock Downs.[70] The various tourist activities the dam include fishing and studying nature and environment.[71] Parsons Valley Reservoir is the primary water source for the town and is mainly in a reserved forest and is thus largely off-limits to visitors. Emerald Lake, Avalanche Lake and Porthimund Lake are other lakes in the region.

Reserve forests

Doddabetta is the highest peak (2,623 m) in the Nilgiris, about 10 km from Ooty. It lies at the junction of the Western and Eastern Ghats surrounded by dense sholas. Pine forests situated between Ooty and Thalakunda is a small downhill region where pine trees are arranged in an orderly fashion. Wenlock Downs is a grassland area typical of the original bioscape of the Nilgiris with gently undulating hills. Mudumalai National Park and tiger reserve lies on the northwestern side of the Nilgiri Hills.[72][73] The sanctuary is divided into 5 ranges - Masinagudi, Thepakadu, Mudumalai, Kargudi and Nellakota. Here one can often spot herds of endangered Indian elephants, vulnerable gaur, and chital. The sanctuary is a haven for Bengal tigers[74] and Indian leopards and other threatened species.[75] There are at least 266 species of birds in the sanctuary, including critically endangered species like the Indian white-rumped vulture and the long-billed vulture.[76] Mukurthi National Park is a 78.46 km2 protected area located in the south-eastern corner of the Nilgiris Plateau west of Ooty. The park was created to protect its keystone species, the Nilgiri tahr.[77] The Western Ghats, Nilgiri Sub-Cluster (6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi)), including all of Mudumalai National Park, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.[78]

Tribal huts and museum
Toda Hut

There are a few Toda huts on the hills above Botanical Garden, where Todas still dwell. There are other Toda settlements in the area, notably Kandal Mund near Old Ooty. Although many Toda have abandoned their traditional distinctive huts for concrete houses,[79] a movement is now afoot to build tradition barrel-vaulted huts and during the last decade forty new huts have been built and many Toda sacred dairies renovated.[80]

The Tribal Museum is part of the campus of Tribal Research Centre which is in Muthorai Palada (10 km from Ooty town). It is home to rare artifacts and photographs of tribal groups of Tamil Nadu as well as Andaman and Nicobar Islands and anthropological and archaeological primitive human culture and heritage. The Tribal Museum also displays houses belongs to Toda, Kota, Paniya, Kurumba and Kanikarans.

Nilgiri Mountain Railway

The Nilgiri Mountain Railway was built by the British in 1908,[81] and was initially operated by the Madras Railway Company. The railway still relies on its fleet of steam locomotives.[82] NMR comes under the jurisdiction of the newly formed Salem Division. In July 2005, UNESCO added the Nilgiri Mountain Railway as an extension to the World Heritage Site of Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the site then became known as "Mountain Railways of India."[83] after it satisfied the necessary criteria, thus forcing abandonment of the modernisation plans. For the past several years diesel locomotives have taken over from steam on the section between Coonoor and Udhagamandalam. Local people and tourists have led a demand for steam locos to once again haul this section.[82]

Historical buildings
Fernhills palace

Stone House is the first bungalow constructed in Ooty. It was built by John Sullivan and was called as Kal Bangala by the tribals (Kal means stone in local tribal language). John Sullivan started building Stone House in 1822, acquiring land from the Todas at one rupee an acre.[11] Today, it is the official residence for the principal of the Government Arts College, Ooty[84][85]

St. Stephen's Church is located on the road to Mysore in Ooty,[86] in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. It is one of the oldest churches in the Nilgiris district.[87][88] The church dates back to the 19th century. Stephen Rumbold Lushington, the then Governor of Madras, who keenly felt the need for a cathedral exclusively for the British, in Ooty, laid the foundation for the church on 23 April 1829, to coincide with the birthday of King George IV. St. Stephen's Church was consecrated by John Matthias Turner, Bishop of Calcutta, on 5 November 1830. It was thrown open to public communion on Easter Sunday 3 April 1831. It came under the Church of South India in 1947.[62] The architect in charge was John James Underwood, Captain, Madras Regiment.[89]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "About Municipality". municipality.tn.gov.in. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  2. ^ "Census 2011". GOI. 
  3. ^ "Ooty: In the Lap of the Nilgiris". batchmates.com. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  4. ^ "Ooty in Tamilnadu". Tamilnadu.com. 14 December 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c "History". ooty.net. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  6. ^ Price, Sir Frederick (1908). Ootacamund, A History. Madras Govt. Press. pp. 14–15. 
  7. ^ "Ooty History". ooty.ind.in. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  8. ^ a b c "Ooty History". evoire.com. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  9. ^ Thiagarajan, Shantha (4 December 2012). "Badaga language not a dialect of Kannada, claims French linguistic scholar". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  10. ^ a b Francis, F (1908). The Nilgiris Volume 1 of Madras district gazetteers. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 91,92. ISBN 9788120605466. Retrieved 29 January 2013. 
  11. ^ a b "One Man's Ooty", The Hindu (India), 16 January 2005 
  12. ^ History of Ootacamund by Sir Frederick Price, Madras Government Press, 1908.
  13. ^ Sir Arthur Lawley, Eloquent Knight Errant, D. J. Hogg. Chapter 5 Ruler of the Raj, Ooty, Lady Lawley Cottage (Western Australian Red Cross) 2008 iBooks
  14. ^ a b "Climate: Ooty - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  15. ^ "Ooty in Tamil Nadu". 
  16. ^ "Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall based upon 1901-2000 data" (PDF). imd.gov.in. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  17. ^ "Ooty Climate and Weather Averages, India.htm". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 30 September 2015. 
  18. ^ a b "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  19. ^ "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Uthagamandalam". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  20. ^ "Population By Religious Community - Tamil Nadu" (XLS). Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2015. 
  21. ^ "Languages in Ooty". mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 16 February 2008. 
  22. ^ "List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies" (PDF). Tamil Nadu. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 10 October 2008. 
  23. ^ "Hill Station in Nilgiri Hills". nilgirihills.in. Retrieved 16 February 2008. 
  24. ^ a b "Romantic Ooty". groundreport.com. Retrieved 16 February 2008. 
  25. ^ "Hindustan photo films". hpf-india.com. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  26. ^ "How to Reach Ooty". Mistair Realty. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  27. ^ "Bandipur". mysore.ind.in. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  28. ^ "Nilgiri Mountain Railways". nrm.indianrailways.gov.in. Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  29. ^ Heritage Express, K. Nantarajan, Heritage Steam Chariot Trust, 2007
  30. ^ Sir Arthur Lawley, Eloquent Knight Errant, D. J. Hogg. Chapter 5 Ruler of the Raj, Railways, Lady Lawley Cottage (Western Australian Red Cross) 2008 iBooks
  31. ^ Sir Arthur Lawley’s Photo Album, Empire and Commonwealth Museum
  32. ^ "Helicopter service to Ooty". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2 August 2007. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  33. ^ Anubhuti, Vishnoi (19 March 2008). "Ooty, Uttarakhand chopper plans hit roadblock". The Indian Express. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  34. ^ "Jayalalithaa leaves Kodanad". The Hindu. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  35. ^ "Jayalalithaa reaches Kodanad, will stay for brief period". The Times of India. 25 December 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  36. ^ "Modern Indian Education System". nilgiris.nic.in. [dead link]
  37. ^ Maume, C."Sporting Vernacular 11. Snooker", The Independent, 26 April 1999, (Retrieved 25 February 2007)
  38. ^ D. Radhakrishnan (2011-05-04). "Lucky draw to mark Ooty racing milestone". The Hindu. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  39. ^ "Beauty of race course to be enhanced". The Hindu. 2011-04-15. Retrieved 2011-09-22. 
  40. ^ D. Radhakrishnan (2011-04-14). "Ooty waits for the race to begin". The Hindu. Retrieved 2011-09-22. 
  41. ^ "Ooty Horse Racing". indiaandindians.com. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  42. ^ "Ooty (Udhagamandalam): Racecourse". lonelyplanet.com. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  43. ^ "Ooty Race Course". india9.com. 2005-06-07. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  44. ^ D. Radhakrishnan (2011-04-17). "An important milestone in the Ooty racing season". The Hindu. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  45. ^ "Ooty History". Ooty.com. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  46. ^ Duttagupta, Ishani (19 September 2010), "Young & wealthy executives transforming the face of golfing", The Economic Times (India) 
  47. ^ a b "Ooty Golf Club". Indiagolfcourses.com. Archived from the original on 10 December 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-03. 
  48. ^ "Empowered committee inspects golf course on forest land", The Hindu (India), 15 November 2008 
  49. ^ p. 1, Colin Cowdrey, "M.C.C. The Autobiography of a Cricketer" (1976)
  50. ^ "Ban on carry bags". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 4 February 2005. 
  51. ^ "Rose Park to be renamed", The Hindu (India), 23 May 2009 
  52. ^ "A rose garden by another name causes confusion", The Hindu (India), 17 May 2008 
  53. ^ "Tourism - Ooty". Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  54. ^ "Rose Garden". Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  55. ^ "World Federation of Rose Societies". Retrieved 21 January 2011. 
  56. ^ D, Radhakrishnan (9 June 2009), "A tribute to creator of Ooty Botanical Garden", The Hindu (India) 
  57. ^ "Ooty to host spices show for first time". The Hindu (India). 11 March 2010. 
  58. ^ "Hills beckon again". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  59. ^ "Tamil Nadu - Government Botanical Garden". Scstsenvis.nic.in. Archived from the original on 2 January 2010. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 
  60. ^ "Ooty Deer Park". eOoty.com. 
  61. ^ a b "Ooty lake". Nilgiris.tn.gov.in. Archived from the original on 14 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  62. ^ a b "Ooty - Lake". Ooty.com. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 
  63. ^ "Summer festival in Ooty". The Hindu. 27 March 2010. 
  64. ^ a b "Ooty - Pykara Falls". ooty.com. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  65. ^ a b c "Pykara". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  66. ^ T, Ramakrishnan. "Pykara power station a trendsetter". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  67. ^ "The Romance of the Nilgiri Trout:Coarse Fishing". Nwea.in. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  68. ^ "Kamaraj Sagar Dam and Pykara Lake being polluted". The Hindu. 6 November 2008. 
  69. ^ "Nilgiris tourist info". Nilgiris.tn.gov.in. Archived from the original on 31 August 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  70. ^ "Kamraj sagar lake". Ooty-tourism.com. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  71. ^ "Kamraj Sagar (Sandynallah Reservoir):". Nilgiris.tn.gov.in. Archived from the original on 14 January 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  72. ^ "India Based Neutrino Observatory & conserving the largest wild populations of the Asian elephant". Letter to Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. rainforestinfo.org. Retrieved 3 November 2009. 
  73. ^ Dogra, IFS, Rakesh Kumar, Wildlife Warden, Plan for Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park (2007-08 to 2016-17) Udhagamandalam, Tamil Nadu Forest Department, Mount Stuart Hill, Udhagamandalam-643 001, Tamil Nadu, India
  74. ^ Radha Venkatesan (9 June 2008). "Big leap for big cat: TN has 37 of them today". The Hindu. Retrieved 9 June 2008. 
  75. ^ "Mudumalai". Wild Biodiversity. TamilNadu Forest Department. Retrieved 30 October 2009. 
  76. ^ "Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary". Conservation database. Bangalore: Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment Eco-Informatics Center. Retrieved 9 November 2009. 
  77. ^ Dogra, Rakesh Kumar (7 July 2006), Mukurthi National Park Management plan; 2004-2009, The Protected Area part 1.doc (Draft ed.), Udhagamandalam, Tamil Nadu: Wildlife Warden, Mount Stuart Hill, 
  78. ^ UNESCO, World Heritage sites, Tentative lists, Western Ghats sub cluster, Ooty. retrieved 4/20/2007 World Heritage sites, Tentative lists
  79. ^ Walker, Anthony R. (2004). "The Truth About The Toda". Frontline, The Hindu. [dead link]
  80. ^ Chhabra, Tarun (2005). "How Traditional Ecological Knowledge addresses Global Climate change: the perspective of the Todas - the indigenous people of the Nilgiri hills of South India" (PDF). Proceedings of the Earth in Transition: First World Conference. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2012. 
  81. ^ "Mountain Railways of India". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 March 2010. 
  82. ^ a b Indian Hill Railways: The Nilgiri Mountain Railway (TV). BBC. 21 February 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2010. 
  83. ^ NMR added as a World Heritage Site
  84. ^ Tourist Guide to South India. South India. 2006. p. 96. ISBN 81-7478-175-7. 
  85. ^ Bradnock, Robert (2000). South India handbook: the travel guide. South India. p. 153. ISBN 1-900949-81-4. 
  86. ^ "Churches". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  87. ^ "St. Stephen's Church". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  88. ^ "Ooty Tourist Attractions". Retrieved 2 February 2011. 
  89. ^ "Ootacamund-Heritage Trail" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]