2020 United States elections
|← 2019 2020 2021 → |
Presidential election year
|Election day||November 3|
|Incumbent president||Donald Trump (Republican)|
|The electoral map for the 2020 election, based on populations from the 2010 Census|
|Seats contested||35 of 100 seats |
(33 seats of Class II + 2 special elections)
|Map of the 2020 Senate races
Democratic incumbent Republican incumbent|
Retiring Democratic incumbent Retiring Republican incumbent
|Seats contested||All 435 voting-members |
All six non-voting delegates
|Map of the 2020 House of Representatives elections
Democratic incumbent Republican incumbent Undetermined incumbent|
Retiring or defeated Democratic incumbent
Retiring or defeated Republican incumbent
Retiring Libertarian incumbent
|Seats contested||13 (11 states, two territories)|
|Map of the 2020 gubernatorial races
Democratic incumbent Republican incumbent|
Retiring or term-limited Democrat Retiring or term-limited Republican
New Progressive incumbent Retiring or term-limited non-partisan
The 2020 United States elections will be held on Tuesday, November 3, 2020. All 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives, 35 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate, and the office of president of the United States will be contested. Thirteen state and territorial governorships, as well as numerous other state and local elections, will also be contested.
Each major party will choose a nominee for the 2020 presidential election through a series of Primaries and Caucus, culminating in a national convention held in mid-2020. Incumbent Republican president Donald Trump is seeking re-nomination in the 2020 Republican Party presidential primaries, while Joe Biden is the Democratic Party's presumptive nominee after his sweeping wins in the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries.
Barring vacancies and party-switching, Republicans will enter the 2020 elections with control of 53 of the 100 seats in the Senate, while Democrats will enter the election with control of approximately 235 seats in the House of Representatives.[a] All 33 Class 2 senators are up for election, and two states (Georgia and Arizona) are holding special elections for the Senate. The six non-voting congressional delegates from the District of Columbia and the inhabited U.S. territories will also be elected.
The vast majority of the fifty states will hold regularly-scheduled state legislative elections, and eleven states will hold gubernatorial elections. The outcome of these state elections will have a major impact on the redistricting cycle that will take place following the 2020 United States Census.
Other parties, including the Democratic Party and various third parties, will also field presidential candidates. Like the Republican primaries, the 2020 Democratic primaries will take place from early 2020 to mid-2020. The Democratic ticket will be nominated at the 2020 Democratic National Convention, held in July 2020. Other parties will conduct various processes to choose their presidential tickets, and independent candidates may also seek the presidency.
The individual who wins a majority of the presidential electoral vote (270 of the 538 electoral votes) will win the presidential election. The current electoral vote distribution was determined by the 2010 census. Each elector is chosen by the states and is charged with casting one vote for president and one vote for vice president. Most states award all their electoral votes to the individual who wins a majority or plurality of that state's popular vote, although two states award electors by congressional districts. If no individual wins a majority of the electoral vote, then the United States House of Representatives will hold a contingent election to determine the winner.[b] The vice president is selected in a similar manner, though a contingent election will be held in the United States Senate if no individual receives a majority of the vice presidential electoral vote.
At least 35 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate will be up for election. All seats of Senate Class II will be up for election; the winners of those elections will serve six-year terms. Additionally, Arizona and Georgia will hold special elections to a fill Class III Senate vacancies; the winners of those elections will serve two-year terms. Other states may also hold special elections.
Republicans won control of the Senate in the 2014 Senate elections. They retained that majority through the 2016 and 2018 Senate elections. Republicans currently hold 53 Senate seats, Democrats hold 45, and independents hold two. Both independents have caucused with the Democratic Party since joining the Senate. Barring further vacancies or party switching, 21 Republican-held seats, along with 12 Democratic-held seats, will be up for election. If they win the vice presidency, Democrats will need to achieve a net gain of at least three seats to take the majority; otherwise, they will need to achieve a net gain of at least four seats to take the majority.
House of Representatives elections
All 435 voting seats in the United States House of Representatives will be up for election. The winners of each race will serve a two-year term. Additionally, elections will be held to select the delegate for the District of Columbia as well as the delegates from U.S. territories. This includes the resident commissioner of Puerto Rico, a position with a four-year term.
Democrats won control of the House of Representatives in the 2018 elections, controlling 235 seats while Republicans control 199 seats. One seat is held by an independent.[d] Winning 218 or more seats determines which party is in the majority.
The following special elections will be held to replace a member who resigned or died in office during the 116th U.S. Congress:
- California's 25th Congressional district: Republican Mike Garcia defeated Democrat Christy Smith to replace Democrat Katie Hill, who announced on October 27, 2019, her intent to resign in the wake of ethics concerns surrounding a relationship with a staffer complicated by her being a victim of revenge porn. The district has an even partisan index.
- Maryland's 7th Congressional district: Democrat Kweisi Mfume defeated Republican Kim Klacik to replace Democrat Elijah Cummings, who died in office on October 17, 2019. The district has a partisan index of D+26.
- New York's 27th Congressional district: Republican Chris Collins resigned from Congress on October 1, 2019, ahead of his pleading guilty to insider trading. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the special election was delayed until June 23, 2020. The district has a partisan index of R+11.
- Wisconsin's 7th congressional district: Republican Tom Tiffany defeated Democrat Tricia Zunker to replace Republican Sean Duffy, who announced his resignation effective September 23, 2019, ahead of the birth of his ninth child, who was diagnosed in utero with severe medical complications. The district has a partisan index of R+7.
|Democrats Not Up||Democrats Up||PNP/R Up||Republicans Up||Republicans Not Up|
Elections will be held for the governorships of 11 U.S. states and two U.S. territories. Special elections may be held for vacancies in the other states and territories, if required by respective state/territorial constitutions. Most elections will be for four-year terms, but the governors of New Hampshire and Vermont each serve two-year terms.
Barring vacancies and party switching, Republicans will be defending seven seats, while Democrats will be defending six seats. At least two Democratic incumbents and at least one Republican incumbent will not seek election to another term.
Most states will hold state legislative elections in 2020. Alabama, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, New Jersey and Virginia will not hold state legislative elections, Michigan will hold elections only for the lower house, while North Dakota will hold elections only for the upper house. In states that use staggered terms, some state senators will not be up for election. After the 2019 elections, Democrats have 15 trifectas (control of the governor's office and both legislative chambers), Republicans have 20 trifectas, and 14 states have a divided government (Nebraska has a non-partisan legislature).
- 2020 California State Assembly election in the State of California
- 2020 California State Senate election in the State of California
- 2020 Florida Senate election in the state of Florida
- 2020 Florida House of Representatives election in the state of Florida
- 2020 Pennsylvania House of Representatives election in the State of Pennsylvania
- 2020 Pennsylvania Senate election in the State of Pennsylvania
In 2020, 82 state supreme court seats are up for election in 35 states. This constitutes 24% of all state supreme court seats in the country.
Impact on redistricting
A census will be conducted in 2020, after which the United States House of Representatives and state legislatures will undergo redistricting, and the state delegations to the United States House of Representatives will undergo reapportionment. In states without redistricting commissions, the legislators and governors elected between 2017 and 2020 will draw the new Congressional and state legislative districts that will take effect starting with the 2022 elections. If either party does well in the 2020 elections, they could gain a significant advantage in electing their candidates to the state legislature and the United States House of Representatives until the next round of redistricting in 2030. State supreme courts can also have a significant effect on redistricting, as demonstrated in Pennsylvania and Virginia.
Incumbent mayors won re-election in major cities during 2020, including Bakersfield, California (Karen Goh), Milwaukee, Wisconsin (Tom Barrett), and Sacramento, California (Darrell Steinberg).
Mayoral elections remain to be held in many cities, including:
- Baltimore, Maryland: Incumbent Democrat Jack Young, who was elevated to mayor following the resignation of Catherine Pugh, is seeking re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Incumbent Mayor-President Sharon Weston Broome is running for re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Chesapeake, Virginia: Election to be held on May 5, 2020.
- Corpus Christi, Texas: Incumbent Mayor Joe McComb is seeking re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- El Paso, Texas: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Fremont, California: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Gilbert, Arizona: Incumbent Mayor Jenn Daniels declined to seek re-election to a second term. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Glendale, Arizona: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Honolulu, Hawaii: Two-term incumbent Democrat Kirk Caldwell is ineligible to run for reelection due to term limits. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Irving, Texas: Incumbent Mayor Rick Stopfer is eligible to run for re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Lubbock, Texas: Incumbent Mayor Dan Pope is seeking re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Mesa, Arizona: Incumbent Mayor John Giles is seeking re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Miami-Dade County, Florida: Election to be held on August 18, 2020.
- Norfolk, Virginia: Election to be held on May 5, 2020.
- Phoenix, Arizona: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Portland, Oregon: This is a non-partisan office. One-term incumbent Ted Wheeler is eligible to run for reelection. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Richmond, Virginia: Incumbent Democrat Levar Stoney is eligible to run for reelection. He has not announced whether or not he will run for reelection. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Riverside, California: Incumbent Mayor Rusty Bailey declined to seek re-election. A run-off election between city councilman Andy Melendrez and school board member Patricia Lock Dawson, the top-two vote getters in the March 3 primary, will be held on November 3, 2020.
- San Diego, California: This is a non-partisan election. Incumbent Kevin Faulconer is ineligible to run for a third term due to term limits. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- San Juan, Puerto Rico: Two-term incumbent Popular Democrat Carmen Yulín Cruz is eligible to run for reelection, but has said she plans to run for governor.
- Santa Ana, California: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Scottsdale, Arizona: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Stockton, California: Incumbent Mayor Michael Tubbs faces Kevin Lincoln II in a run-off election on November 3, 2020.
- Tulsa, Oklahoma: Incumbent Mayor G. T. Bynum is seeking a second term. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Virginia Beach, Virginia: Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
- Winston-Salem, North Carolina: Incumbent Mayor Allen Joines is seeking re-election. Election to be held on November 3, 2020.
Other elections and referendums
- One of Washington, D.C.'s, shadow senators and its shadow representative, who are charged with lobbying Congress for D.C. statehood, are up for election.
- A California veto referendum funded by the American Bail Coalition PAC will decide whether to uphold SB10, which replaces cash bail with risk assessments for suspects who are detained in jail awaiting trial.
- A veto referendum in Colorado will decide whether to allow the state to join the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact or retain the traditional membership in the Electoral College in presidential elections.
- A Florida constitutional amendment initiative seeks to narrow the right to vote in any Florida election exclusively to citizens, replacing language in the state constitution stating "every citizen" has the right to vote with "only a citizen."
- A Maine veto referendum sought to overturn a new law which eliminates religious and philosophical exemptions from mandatory vaccinations for K-12 and college students and employees of healthcare facilities. It failed by a wide margin on the March primary ballot.
- Constitutional amendments to remove penal exceptions from state constitutions will be on the ballot in Nebraska and Utah.
- A legislatively-referred ballot question in New Jersey will allow voters to decide on legalization of recreational cannabis.
- The legalization of medical marijuana will be on the ballot in South Dakota.
A number of Native American tribal governments held elections for tribal leadership in 2020.
Scheduled elections include:
- Bois Forte Band of Chippewa: Postponed until June 9, 2020 (primary) and August 28, 2020 (general) due to the coronavirus pandemic.
- Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians: April 12, 2020. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, the election was conducted entirely by mail.
- Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe: Postponed until June 9, 2020 (primary) and August 28, 2020 (general) due to the coronavirus pandemic. Incumbent tribal chairperson Faron Jackson Sr. is running.
- Oglala Sioux Tribe: November 2020
- Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians: May 22, 2020 (primary); June 25, 2020 (general). Incumbent chairperson Aaron A. Payment is running.
- White Earth Nation: Postponed until June 9, 2020 (primary) and August 28, 2020 (general) due to the coronavirus pandemic.
Starting in March 2020, elections across the United States were delayed and disrupted by the novel coronavirus pandemic. As of March 24, 2020[update], at least 10 states and territories — Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Ohio, Puerto Rico, and Rhode Island — had delayed presidential primaries. In addition, Alabama delayed the Republican primary Senatorial run-off and North Carolina and Mississippi delayed Republican primary run-off for congressional seats. Iowa, Missouri, South Carolina, and Texas all delayed municipal elections, and in New York City the special election for Queens borough president was cancelled.
To help enforce social distancing, many states looked to expand absentee and vote-by-mail options for 2020 primary elections and the November general elections. Several elections, including Democratic primaries in Alaska and Hawaiʻi, as well as the Maryland 7th congressional district special election, were conducted entirely with mail-in ballots only.
Beyond the disruption to traditional campaign events, the pandemic has the potential to disrupt the party conventions.
Table of state, territorial, and federal results
This table shows the partisan results of president, congressional, gubernatorial, and state legislative races held in each state and territory in 2020. Note that not all states and territories hold gubernatorial, state legislative, and U.S. Senate elections in 2018. The five territories and Washington, D.C., do not elect members of the U.S. Senate, and the territories do not take part in presidential elections; instead they each elect one non-voting member of the House. Nebraska's unicameral legislature and the governorship and legislature of American Samoa are officially non-partisan. In the table, offices/legislatures that are not up for election in 2019 or 2020 are already filled in for the "after 2020 elections" section, although vacancies or party switching could potentially lead to a flip in partisan control.
|Subdivision and PVI||Before 2020 elections||After 2020 elections|
|Subdivision||PVI||Governor||State leg.||U.S. Senate||U.S. House||President||Governor||State leg.||U.S. Senate||U.S. House|
|New Hampshire||D+1||Rep||Dem||Dem||Dem 2–0|
|New Jersey||D+7||Dem||Dem||Dem||Dem 10–2||Dem||Dem|
|New Mexico||D+3||Dem||Dem||Dem||Dem 3–0||Dem|
|New York||D+11||Dem||Dem||Dem||Dem 21–6||Dem||Dem|
|North Carolina||R+3||Dem||Rep||Rep||Rep 9–3|
|North Dakota||R+17||Rep||Rep||Rep||Rep 1–0||Rep|
|Rhode Island||D+10||Dem||Dem||Dem||Dem 2–0||Dem|
|South Carolina||R+8||Rep||Rep||Rep||Rep 5–2||Rep|
|South Dakota||R+14||Rep||Rep||Rep||Rep 1–0||Rep|
|Vermont||D+15||Rep||Dem||Dem[f]||Dem 1–0||Split D/I[f]|
|West Virginia||R+20||Rep||Rep||Split||Rep 3–0|
|United States||Even||Rep 26–24||Rep 29–19||Rep 53–47[g]||Dem|
|N. Mariana Islands||Rep||Rep||Ind[j]|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||Dem||Dem||Dem|
|Subdivision||PVI||Governor||State leg.||U.S. Senate||U.S. House||President||Governor||State leg.||U.S. Senate||U.S. House|
|Subdivision and PVI||Before 2020 elections||After 2020 elections|
- The exact number of Democratic seats will depend on the results of vacancies and special elections that occur prior to November 2020.
- In a contingent election, the House of Representatives can choose from the three candidates who received the most electoral votes. Each state delegation of the House of Representatives receives one vote. For example, the state delegation of Alabama (consisting of seven representatives) and the state delegation of Alaska (consisting of one representative) each collectively receive one vote.
- 2 Independents not up
- Rep. Justin Amash of Michigan was first elected as a Republican in 2010. On July 4, 2019, Amash announced he was leaving the GOP and would run as an independent in 2020.
- One of Maine's senators, Susan Collins, is a Republican. The other senator from Maine, Angus King, is an independent who has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2013.
- One of Vermont's senators, Patrick Leahy, is a Democrat. The other senator from Vermont, Bernie Sanders, was elected as an independent and has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2007.
- The Democratic Senate caucus currently consists of 45 Democrats and two independents.
- Washington, D.C., does not elect a governor or state legislature, but it does elect a mayor and a city council.
- Although elections for governor of American Samoa are non-partisan, Governor Lolo Matalasi Moliga has affiliated with the Democratic Party at the national level since re-election in 2016.
- The Northern Mariana Islands' delegate to Congress, Gregorio Sablan, was elected as an Independent and has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2009.
- Puerto Rican Governor Wanda Vázquez Garced, who became governor after Pedro Pierluisi's succession of Ricardo Rosselló was deemed unconstitutional, is as a member of the Puerto Rican New Progressive Party, but affiliates with the Republican Party at the national level.
- Puerto Rico's Resident Commissioner, Jenniffer González, was elected as a member of the New Progressive Party and has caucused with the Republicans since taking office in 2017.
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