Jump to content

Shakti pitha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Shakti Peetha)

The Shakti Pithas or the Shakti Peethas (Sanskrit: शक्ति पीठ, Śakti Pīṭha, seat of Shakti[1]) are significant shrines and pilgrimage destinations in Shaktism, the mother goddess denomination in Hinduism. The shrines are dedicated to various forms of Adi Shakti. [a] Various Puranas such as Srimad Devi Bhagavatam state the existence of a varying number of 51, 52, 64 and 108 Shakti Pithas[2][3] of which 18 are named as Astadasha Maha (major) in medieval Hindu texts.[2]

Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Temple is one of the 64 and 108 Maha (Major) Shakti Pithas and is also the most visited among all. It attracts more than 15 million people annually.[4]

Various legends explain how the Shakti Pithas came into existence. The most popular is based on the story of the death of the goddess Sati. Out of grief and sorrow, Shiva carried Sati's body, reminiscing about their moments as a couple, and roamed around the universe with it. Vishnu had cut her body into 51 body parts, using his Sudarshana Chakra, which fell on earth to become sacred sites where all the people can pay homage to the goddess. To complete this massively long task, Shiva took the form of Bhairava.

Shri Hinglaj Mata temple Shakti Pitha is the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yatra is attended by more than 250,000 people.[5]

Most of these historic places of goddess worship are in India, but there are seven in Bangladesh, four in Nepal, three in Pakistan, and one each in Tibet, Sri Lanka[3] and Bhutan.[6] There were many legends in ancient and modern sources that document this evidence. A consensus view on the number and location of the precise sites where goddess Sati's corpse fell is lacking, although certain sites are more well-regarded than others.

Shakambhari Shakti Pitha Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh. ShakambhariDevii is one of the 108 Siddhapeethas of Brahma Puran and one of the oldest temples of Devi Shakambhari. Around ten million people visit the temple annually.


Hindu literature[edit]

The Brahmanda Purana, one of the major eighteen Puranas mentions 64 Shakti Pithas of the goddess Parvati in the Bharat or Greater India including present-day India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, some parts of Southern Tibet in China and parts of southern Pakistan. Another text which gives a listing of these shrines, is the Shakti Pitha Stotram, written by Adi Shankara, the 9th-century Hindu philosopher.[7]

According to the manuscript Mahapithapurana (c. 1690–1720 CE), there are 52 such places. Among them, 23 are located in the Bengal region, 14 of these are located in what is now West Bengal, India, 1 in Baster (Chhattisgarh), while 7 are in what is now Bangladesh.

Daksha yajna[edit]

Shiva carrying the corpse of Dakshayani

According to legend, Brahma once conducted a huge yajna (ritual sacrifice), where all the prajapatis, deities, and kings of the world were invited. Shiva and Sati were also called on to participate in the yajna. All of them came for the yajna, and sat in the ceremonial place. Daksha came last. When he arrived, everyone in the yajna, with the exception of Brahma and Shiva, stood up, showing their reverence for him.[8] Brahma, being Daksha's father, did not rise. Shiva, being Daksha's son-in-law, and also due to the fact that he considered himself superior in stature to Daksha, remained seated. Daksha misunderstood Shiva's gesture, and considered this act an insult. Daksha vowed to take revenge on the insult in the same manner.[9]

Daksha performed a yajna with a desire to take revenge on Shiva. Daksha invited all the deities to the yajna, except Shiva and Sati. The fact that she was not invited did not deter Sati's desire to attend the yajna. She expressed her desire to Shiva, who tried his best to dissuade her from going. He relented at her continued insistence, Sati went to her father's yajna. However, Sati was not given her due respect at the yajna, and had to bear witness to Daksha's insults aimed at Shiva. Anguished, Sati cursed her father and self-immolated.

Enraged at the insult and death of his spouse, Shiva in his Virabhadra avatar destroyed Daksha's yajna and cut off his head. His anger not abated and immersed in grief, Shiva then picked up the remains of Sati's body and performed the Tandava, the celestial dance of destruction, across all creation. Frightened, the other deities requested Vishnu to intervene to stop this destruction. As a recourse, Vishnu used the Sudarshana Chakra on Sati's corpse. This caused various parts of Sati's body to fall at several spots across the world.[10]

The history of Daksha yajna and Sati's self-immolation had immense significance in shaping the ancient Sanskrit literature and influenced the culture of India. Each of the places on Earth where Sati's body parts were known to have fell were then considered as Shakti Pithas and were deemed places of great spiritual importance.[citation needed] Several stories in the Puranas and other Hindu religious books refer to the Daksha yajna. It is an important incident in both Shaivism and Shaktism, and marks the replacement of Sati with Parvati, and of the beginning of Shiva's house-holder (grihastāshramī) life from an ascetic. This event is ahead of the emergence of both of the couple's children, Kartikeya and Ganesha.[11]

Shakti Pithas[edit]

Each temple has shrines for Shakti and Kalabhairava, and most Shakti and Kalabhairava in different Shakti Pithas have different names.

Map of Shakti Pithas[edit]

List of 4 Adi Shakti Pithas[edit]

The scriptures, which include the Kalika Purana, recognize four Shakti Peethas as sites where most of the energy is. Vimala where the feet fell (Pada Khanda), Tara Tarini housing the breasts (Stana Khanda), Kamakhya, where the genitals fell (Yoni Khanda) and Dakshina Kalika, where the toes of right foot fell. These four temples originated from the lifeless body of Sati.[12]

Apart from these 4 there are 48 other famous pithas recognized by religious texts. According to the Pithanirnaya Tantra the 51 peethas are in the present day countries of India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan and Pakistan. The Shivacharita besides listing 51 maha-peethas, speaks about 26 more upa-peethas. The Bengali almanac, Vishuddha Siddhanta Panjika too describes the 51 peethas including the present modified addresses. A few of the several accepted listings are given below.[13] In South India, Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh became the site for a 2nd-century temple.[14]

List of 18 Astadasha Maha Shakti Pithas[edit]

There are believed to be 64 locations. Adi Shankara's Asta Dasha Shakti Pitha Stotram mentions 18 locations known as the Maha Shakti Pithas.[15][16] Among these, the Shakti Pithas at Kamakhya, Gaya and Ujjain are regarded as the most sacred as they symbolize the three most important aspects of the Mother Goddess viz. Creation (Kamarupa Devi), Nourishment (Sarvamangala Devi/Mangalagauri), and Annihilation (Mahakali Devi).

Sr. No. Temple Place State in India/Country Appellation Part of the body fallen Shakti Image
1 Shankari Devi Temple Trincomalee (Thirukonamalai) Sri Lanka Shankari Pitham Groin Goddess Shankari
2 Kamakshi Amman Temple Kanchipuram Tamil Nadu Kamakoti Pitham Navel Goddess Kamakshi
3 Shrinkala Temple Pradmunyee (Pandua) West Bengal Bhavatārini Pitham Part of stomach Goddess Shrinkhala
4 Chamundeshwari Temple Mysuru Karnataka Krouncha Pitham Hair Goddess Chamundeshwari
5 Jogulamba Devi Alampuram Telangana Yogini Pitham Teeth Goddess Jogulamba (Yogamba Thalli)
6 Bhramaramba Mallikarjuna Temple Srisailam Andhra Pradesh Srisaila Pitham Neck Goddess Bhramarambika
7 Mahalakshmi Temple Kolhapur Maharashtra Shri Pitham Eye Goddess Mahalakshmi (Aai Ambabai Devi)
8 Renuka Temple Mahur Maharashtra Moola Pitham Left hand Goddess Renuka
9 Mahakaleswar Temple Ujjain Madhya Pradesh Ujjaini Pitham Upper lip Goddess Mahakali
10 Kukkuteswara Swamy Temple Pithapuram Andhra Pradesh Pushkarini Pitham Back Goddess Puruhutika
11 Biraja Temple Jajpur Odisha Oddyana Pitham Part of abdomen Goddess Biraja
12 Bhimeswara Temple Draksharamam Andhra Pradesh Daksharama Pitham Left cheek Goddess Manikyamba
13 Kamakhya Temple Guwahati Assam Kamarupa Pitham Genitals Goddess Kamakhya
14 Alopi Devi Mandir Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh Prayaga Pitham Fingers Goddess Madhaveshwari
15. Jwalamukhi Temple Jwalamukhi Himachal Pradesh Jwalamukhi Pitham Head Goddess Jwalamukhi
16. Mangla Gauri Temple Gaya Bihar Gaya Pitham Breast Goddess Sarvamangala
17. Vishalakshi Temple Varanasi Uttar Pradesh Varanasi Pitham Nose Goddess Vishalakshi
18. Sharada Peeth Sharda, Kashmir Pakistan Administered Kashmir Sharada Pitham Right hand Goddess Sharada

Sharadha Peeth is currently in a ruined state.[17] Only ruins are found in these places. Its ruins are near the Line of Control (LOC)[18] between the Indian and Pakistani-controlled portions of the former princely state of Kashmir and Jammu. Instead, Sringeri Sharada Pitham, Sringeri in Karnataka even though not a Shakti Pitha, is this aspect of the goddess. It is believed that Goddess Sharada moved from her ruined temple in Kashmir to live in the new temple in Sringeri. Requests have been made by the Hindu community in Pakistan to the Pakistani government to renovate the temple, the issue being raised by former Indian Home minister L. K. Advani to the Pakistan authorities[19] as a confidence-building measure, by increasing the people-to-people cross-border interaction.[18]

In Skanda Purana[edit]

As per Sankara Samhita of Sri Skanda Purana,[20]

  1. Sri Sankari Pitham (Thirukonamalai, Sri Lanka)
  2. Sri Simhika Pitham (Simhala)
  3. Sri Manika Pitham (Draksharamam, Dakshavati)
  4. Sri Shadkala Pitham (Peethapuram)
  5. Sri Bhramaramba Pitham (Srisailam)
  6. Sri Vijaya Pitham (Vijayapura)
  7. Sri Mahalakshmi Pitham (Kolhapur)
  8. Sri Renuka Pitham (Mahur)
  9. Sri Kamakoti Pitham (Kanchipuram)
  10. Sri Kuchananda Pitham (Salagrama)
  11. Sri Biraja Pitham (Jajpur)
  12. Sri Bhadreshwari Pitham (Harmyagiri)
  13. Sri Mahakali Pitham (Ujjain)
  14. Sri Vindhyavasini Pitham (Vindhya mountains)
  15. Sri Mahayogi Pitham (Ahicchatra)
  16. Sri Kanyaka Pitham (Kanya Kubja)
  17. Sri Vishalakshi Pitham (Varanasi)
  18. Sri Saraswati Pitham (Kashmir)
  19. Sri Abhirami Pitham (Padmagiri, Dindigul)

List of all Shakti Pithas[edit]

In the listings[21][22][23][24] below:

  • "Shakti" refers to the Goddess worshipped at each location, all being manifestations of Dakshayani, Sati; later known as Parvati or Durga;
  • "Bhairava" refers to the corresponding consort, each a manifestation of Shiva;
  • "Body Part or Ornament" refers to the body part or piece of jewellery that fell to earth, at the location on which the respective temple is built.

More details on this are available in the text 'Tantrachūḍamanī' where Parvati tells these details to her son Skanda.

Sr. No. Place State in India/Country Body part or ornament Shakti Bhairava Image
1 A. Amarnath Temple, from Srinagar through Pahalgam 94 km by Bus, Chandanwari 16 km by walk
B. Shri Parvat in Ladakh
Jammu and Kashmir A. Throat
B. Anklet
Mahamaya Devi Trisandhyeshwar (Amarnath)
  1. Fullara - It is situated near Labhpur. Fullara is about 30 km. from its nearest town Bolpur Santiniketan in the district of Birbhum
  2. Attahas Temple – At a village also named as Attahas or Ashtahas around 2 km east of Labhpur village road in the district of Birbhum
West Bengal Lips Phullara Devi Vishveshwar
3 Bahula at Ketugram, 8 km from Katwa, Purba Bardhaman West Bengal Left arm Goddess Bahuladevi Bhirukeshwar[25]
4 Bakreshwar, on the banks of Paaphara river, 24 km distance from Siuri Town [a district headquarter], district Birbhum, 7 km from Dubrajpur Rly. Station West Bengal Portion between the eyebrows Mahishamardini devi Vakranatheshwar
5 Bhairavparvat, also known as Harsiddhi, at Bhairav hills on the banks of Shipra river in the city of Ujjaini. Madhya Pradesh Elbow Avanti Devi Lambkarneshwar
6 Bhabanipur, located in the Upazila of Sherpur, Bogra, Rajshahi Division. Also located at Karatoyatat, it is about 28 km distance from the town of Sherpur. Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh Left anklet (ornament) Aparna Devi Vamaneshwar
7 Biraja Temple at Jajpur, in Jajpur District Odisha Navel Biraja Devi Varaheshwar (Baraha)
8 padmakshi Renuka Mandir, kawade,Alibag, Maharashtra Maharashtra Upper teeth Tripura Sundari devi Samhara Bhairaveshwar
9 Muktinath Temple[26] Nepal Right cheek Tulasi Vishnu
10 Goddess Bhadrakali on banks of Godavari in Nashik city (Saptashrungi) Maharashtra Chin (2 parts) Bhadrakali devi Vikritaksheshwar
11 Hinglaj Mata Temple Pakistan Bramharandhra (Part of the head) Kottari Devi Bhimalochaneshwar
12 Jayanti at Nartiang village in the Jaintia Hills district. This Shakti Pitha is locally known as the Nartiang Durga Temple. Meghalaya Left thigh Jayanti Devi Kramadishwar
13 Jeshoreshwari Kali Temple Bangladesh Palms of hands and soles of the feet Jashoreshwari Chandeshwar
14 Jwalaji, Kangra from Pathankot alight at Jwalamukhi Road Station from there 20 km Himachal Pradesh Tongue Jwalamukhi (Ambika) Unmatta Bhairaveshwar
15 Kalipeeth, (Kalighat, Kolkata) West Bengal Right toes Kali Devi Nakuleshwar
16 Kamgiri, Kamakhya, in the Neelachal hills in Guwahati Assam Genitals Kamakhya Devi Umanandeshwar or Bhayanandeshwar
17 Kankalitala, on the banks of Kopai River 10 km north-east of Bolpur station in Birbhum district, Devi locally known as Kankaleshwari West Bengal Pelvis Devgarbha Devi Rurunatheshwar
18 A Kanyashram of Balaambika – The Bhagavathy temple in Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of mainland India, Tamil Nadu

B. (also thought to be situated in Yunnan province, China) C Gourikunda Temple

A. Tamil Nadu

B. Yunnan, China C. Sitakunda, Chattogram, Bangladesh

Back Sharvani Devi Nimisheshwar
19 Bajreshwari Temple, Nagarkot, district Kangra Himachal Pradesh left Breast Jayadurga Devi Abhirunatheshwar
20 Kiriteswari Temple at Kiritkona village, 3 km from Lalbag Court Road railway station in Murshidabad district West Bengal Crown Vimala Devi Sanvarteshwar
21 Ratnavali, on the banks of Ratnakar river at Khanakul I Krishnanagar, district Hooghly (locally known as Anandamayee Tala) West Bengal Right Shoulder Kumari Devi Ghanteshwar
22 Locally known as Bhramari Devi in Jalpaiguri near a small village Boda on the bank of river Teesta or Tri-shrota (combination of three flows) mentioned in Puranas West Bengal Left leg
Bhramari Devi Ambareshwar
23 Manas, under Tibet at the foot of Mount Kailash in Lake Manasarovar, a piece of Stone China Right hand Dakshayani Devi Amareshwar
24 Manibandh, at Gayatri hills near Pushkar 11 km north-west of Ajmer. People know this temple as Chamunda Mata Temple or Shri Raj Rajeshwari Puruhuta Manivedic Shakti Pitha. Rajasthan Wrists Gayatri Devi Sarvanandeshwar
25 Mithila, near Janakpur railway station on the border of India and Nepal Nepal Left shoulder Uma Devi Mahodareshwar
26 Nainativu (Manipallavam), Northern Province, Sri Lanka. Located 36 km from the ancient capital of the Jaffna kingdom, Nallur. The murti of the Goddess is believed to have been consecrated and worshipped by Indra. The protagonist, Lord Rama and antagonist, Ravana of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana have offered obeisances to the Goddess. Nāga and Garuda of the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata; resolved their longstanding feuds after worshipping this Goddess. Sri Lanka Silambu (Anklets) Indrakshi (Nagapooshani / Bhuvaneshvari) Rakshaseshwar (Nayanair)
27 Guhyeshwari Temple Nepal Both knees Mahashira Devi Kapalishwar
28 Chandranath Temple Bangladesh Right arm Bhavani Devi Chandrashekhar
29 Panchsagar Near Lohaghat (in Champawat District of Uttarakhand) just 12 km from nearest railway station Tanakpur. पूर्णागिरी Champawat Varahi Devi Uttarakhand Lower teeth/ Navel Varahi Devi Maharudra
30 Near Somnath temple, Veraval, Gir Somnath district. Local People call this temple as Kali Mandir, It is nearby Triveni Sangam.[27] Gujarat Stomach Ambika Vakratundeshwar
31 Alopi Devi Mandir near Sangam at Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh Finger Lalita Devi Bhaveshwar
32 Present day Kurukshetra town or Thanesar ancient Sthaneshwar Haryana Ankle bone Bhadrakali Devi Sthanu
33 Sharda Peeth on top Trikoot Hill, at Maihar Madhya Pradesh necklace[28] Shivani Devi Chandeshwar
34 Nandikeshwari Temple is located in Sainthia city West Bengal Necklace Nandini Nandikeshwar
35 Kotilingeswar Ghat temple on the banks of Godavari river near Rajamundry Andhra Pradesh Cheeks Bhuvaneshwari Vatsanabheshwar or Dandapani
36 Naina Devi Temple Himachal Pradesh Right eye Mahishamardini Devi Krodhishwar
37 Shondesh, at the source point of Narmada River in Amarkantak Madhya Pradesh Right buttock Narmada Bhadraseneshwar
38 Srisailam, at Nallamala hills, Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh, India Neck Bhramarambika Devi Mallikarjuna
39 Shuchi, in a Shiva temple at Suchindrum 11 km on Kanyakumari Trivandrum road Tamil Nadu nails Narayani Sihareshwar
40 Sugandha, situated in Shikarpur, Gournadi, about 20 km from Barisal town, on the banks of Sonda river.8 Bangladesh Nose Sugandha Trayambak
41 Udaipur, Tripura, at the top of the hills known as Tripura Sundari temple near Radhakishorepur village, a little distance away from Udaipur town Tripura Right leg Tripura Sundari Tripuresh
42 Ujaani, at Mangalkot 16 km from Guskara station in Purba Bardhaman district West Bengal Right wrist Mangal Chandika Kapilambar
43 Varanasi at Manikarnika Ghat on banks of the Ganges at Kashi Uttar Pradesh Face or Earring Vishalakshi Devi Kala Bhairaveshwar
44 Bargabhima temple, at Tamluk under district Purba Medinipur West Bengal Left ankle Kapalini Devi (Bhimarupa) also known as Bargabhima Devi
45 Virat Nagar district, Alwar, near Bharatpur, India Rajasthan Fingers of Left Leg Ambika Devi Amritaksheshwar
46 Katyayani Shakti Pitha, Vrindavan, district Mathura Uttar Pradesh Ringlets of hair Uma Devi Bhuteshwar
47 Devi Talab Mandir, District Jalandhar Punjab Left Breast Tripuramalini Devi Bhishaneshwar
48 Baidyanath Dham Jharkhand Heart Jayadurga Devi Baidyanath
49 Adi Kamakshi Amman Temple behind Kamakshi Amman Temple, situated at Kanchipuram Town, Kanchipuram District Tamil Nadu Odyanam (Navel) Kamakshi Devi (Elavarkuzhali) Ekambareshwar
50 Jogadya (যোগাদ্যা), at Kshirgram (ক্ষীরগ্রাম) near Kaichar under Burdwan district West Bengal Great toe Jogadya Devi Ksheerkantakeshwar
51 Pithapuram under Kakinada Port Town Andhra Pradesh Hip part Puruhutika Durvaseshwar
52 Arasuri Ambaji Shaktipeeth at Gabbar Hill (Golden Temple of Gujarat) Gujarat Heart Amba Batuka Bhairava
53 Jwaladevi Temple, Shaktinagar, Sonbhadra Uttar Pradesh Tongue Jwala Devi Rudra
54 Chandika Sthan, near Munger town Bihar Left eye Chandika Devi Chandaleshwar
55 Danteshwari Temple, Dantewada Chhattisgarh Tooth Danteshwari Devi Kapala Bhairava
57 Tara Tarini, Purushottampur, Ganjam Odisha Breast Tara Tarini Devi Tumbeshwar
58 Nalhateswari, Nalhati West Bengal Stomach/Nauli Kalika Devi Jogeshwar
60 Mankachar, 266 km from Guwahati Assam Little finger Devi Deva
61 Vimala Temple, Inside Jagannath Temple, Puri Odisha Foot Vimala Devi Jagannatheshwar
62 Anjanakshi, inside Marundeeswarar Temple, Thirukachur on Mount Rudragiri in Aadhi Kanchi, Thirukachoor, Chengalpattu District or Marundeeswarar Temple Tamil Nadu Skin Anjanakshi Devi Marundeeshwar (Oushadheeshwar)
64 Shri Hatta Kali Temple, Shri Shail (also known as Mahalakshmi Griva Peeth) Gotatikar, Kalagul tea state, Dakshin Surma Upazila, Sylhet, Bangladesh Neck Mahalakshmi Sambaranandeshwar
65 Dhakeshwari Temple (now relocated at Dhakeswari Mata Temple) Dhaka, Bangladesh Gem of Sati's Crown Dhakeshwari (a form of Katyani Mahishasurmardini Durga) Shiva
66 Tarapith Rampurhat West Bengal Third eye Maa Tara (second mahavidya) (main form of Parvati) Chandrachuda Bhairava
67 Lalta Maata Mandir Neemsaar, Sitapur Uttar Pradesh heart Lalita Devi Kameshwar
68 Chhinnamastika Shakti Pitha at Chintpurni, in Ramgarh District of Jharkhand Jharkhand Foot Chhinnamastika Devi Rudra Mahadeva
69 Dirgheswari Mandir at North Guwahati, in the Sitachal hills in Guwahati Assam Femur Dirgheswari Devi Manikarneshwar
70 Bhairabkunda Shiva Mandir Bhutan
71 Devi Patan Mandir at Balrampur distt, Uttar Pradesh, near indo Nepal border Balrampur Uttar Pradesh Patt Pateshwari Devi Kala Bhairava
72 Kaali Mandir at Pavagarh hill in Panchmahal district with in Champaner Pavagadh Archaeological Park. Gujarat Right leg toe Mahakali Devi Batuka Bhairava
73 Aranya Devi Mandir at Badi Devisthan Shish Mahal Chowk in Arrah. Bihar Right thigh[29] Aranyani Bhuma Bhairava
74 Bageshwori Temple at the center of Nepalgunj, Lumbini Province. Nepal Tongue Durga Junge Mahadeva
75 Yogeshwari Mandir at Ambejogai, Beed district Maharashtra Parvati Vaidyanatha
75 Tuljabhavani Temple at Tuljapur, Dharashiv district Maharashtra Tuljabhavani Devi Bhairava
76 Asamai Devi Temple Kabul, Afghanistan Asamai Devi Shiva

Other claimed Shakti Pithas[edit]

These are not recognised as the Shakti Pithas, but still claimed by the followers, for various reasons.

1. Jwala Devi Jobner

2. Jayanti Kali Temple

3. Asamai Devi Temple in Kabul, Afghanistan

There are disputes about the location of the Jayanti Shakti Pitha. Based on most presented manuscripts and facts it is situated in Jaintiapur Upazila, Bangladesh, which was previously the capital of the Jaintia Hills tribe kingdom, which became the Jaintia hills district of Meghalaya, India, excluding Jaintiapur. However, some people say that it is the Nartiang Durga temple which is the real Jayanti Temple, though there is a shortage of evidence. Some other people[30] argue the actual shrine is at Amta in West Bengal, where the goddess is worshiped as Maa Melai Chandi in Melai Chandi Mandir. But this fact can not be corroborated with any evidence. Moreover, refuting most texts, in Melai Chandi Mandir, the Bhairava is Durgeshwar rather than Kramadishwar. Some also identify the Jayanti shrine with the Mahakal cave temple situated in the village Jayanti of Alipurduar,[31][32] where many statues were created by Stalagmites and Stalactites (combination of limestone and water), but there is no evidence.

Vindhyavasini Shakti Pitha[edit]

The Vindhyavasini Shakti Pitha is considered a Shakti Pitha even though any body parts of Sati did not fall there. Vindhyavasini is the ultimate and the highest form of the goddess, she is called Adi Parashakti. Goddess Vindhyavasini is considered the embodiment of all of the Mahavidyas, Navadurgas, Matrikas, Yoginis and all the other goddesses present in this universe, she is Tripura Sundari herself. Many legends are associated with Vindhyavasini, she is also called Mahadurga. She is the combined form of all 108 Shakti Peethas as mentioned in the Devi Bhagavata Purana text. This is because it is the place where the goddess chose to reside after her birth in Dvapara Yuga.[33] At the time of the birth of Krishna to Devaki and Vasudeva, Vindhyavasini took birth in Gokula to Nanda and Yashoda as per the instruction of Lord Vishnu. Vasudeva replaced his son Krishna with this girl child of Yashoda so that Krishna could escape his demon uncle Kamsa, whom he would kill later according to a prophecy. When Kamsa tried to kill the girl, she slipped from his hands, assumed her true form and warned Kamsa that his killer (Krishna) still lived on. She left Mathura and the goddess chose the Vindhya Mountains as her abode to live on the earth. It is also believed that Vindhyavasini is the sister of Krishna and Subhadra was her only incarnation.[33]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Dineschandra Sircar (1998). The Śākta Pīṭhas. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0879-9.


  1. ^ Also known as Sati, Parvati and Durga


  1. ^ Fuller, Christopher John (2004). The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5. Archived from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  2. ^ a b Vanamali (2008). Shakti: Realm of the Divine Mother. Inner Traditions. pp. 83–84, 143–144. ISBN 978-1-59477-785-1. Archived from the original on 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  3. ^ a b Kunal Chakrabarti; Shubhra Chakrabarti (2013). Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis. Scarecrow. p. 430. ISBN 978-0-8108-8024-5. Archived from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2016-10-23.
  4. ^ "Everything you wanted to know about visiting Vaishno Devi". India Times. 5 April 2019. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  5. ^ "Mata Hinglaj Yatra: To Hingol, a pilgrimage to reincarnation". tribune.com.pk. 19 April 2016. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  6. ^ Newspaper, Bhutan's Daily. "Significance of Bhairab Kunda Temple in Bhutan". Kuensel Online. Retrieved 2023-04-02.
  7. ^ Shakti Peetha Stotram Archived 2011-12-11 at the Wayback Machine Vedanta Spiritual Library
  8. ^ "ഇതു ദക്ഷ യാഗ ഭൂമി". Malayala Manorama. 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-07-23. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
  9. ^ Skanda Purana (Pre-historic Sanskrtit literature), G. V. TAGARE (Author) (August 1, 1992). G.P. Bhatt (ed.). Skanda-Purana, Part 1. Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare (trans.) (1 ed.). Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120809661. {{cite book}}: |first= has generic name (help)
  10. ^ "Introduction and Preface". www.sacred-texts.com. Archived from the original on 2008-07-26. Retrieved 2012-12-20.
  11. ^ "Kottiyoor Devaswam Temple Administration Portal". kottiyoordevaswom.com/. Kottiyoor Devaswam. Archived from the original on 7 June 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  12. ^ "Motherlodes of Power: The story of India's 'Shakti Peethas'". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2024-04-03.
  13. ^ 51 Pithas of Parvati Archived 2006-09-27 at the Wayback Machine – From Hindunet
  14. ^ "Srisailam". Archived from the original on 2006-08-18. Retrieved 2006-08-31.
  15. ^ Sharma, Richa (3 October 2013). "18 Maha Shakthi Peeths". Speaking Tree. Archived from the original on 2021-12-28. Retrieved 2021-12-28.
  16. ^ Sharma, Pratha (2018-03-06). The Forgotten Shivlings of Sati Shaktipeeths. Zorba Books. pp. 27–28. ISBN 978-93-87456-12-9. Archived from the original on 2022-10-01. Retrieved 2021-12-29.
  17. ^ Pollock, Sheldon (2006). Language of the Gods in the World of Men. University of California Press.
  18. ^ a b "Pandits denied entry into temple in Pakistan Administered Kashmir". The Hindu. 3 October 2007. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  19. ^ "Pak should renovate Sharada Temple in Pakistan Administered Kashmir: Advani". zeenews.india. 2 May 2007. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2013.
  20. ^ "Dindigul Padmachala Sthala Puranam (Rockfort Abiramiamman temple)" (in Tamil).
  21. ^ "Shaktipeeth". Zee News. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2016-04-06.
  22. ^ Sharma, Divyanshi, ed. (2019-10-03). "Navratri 2019: Know the origin and existence of the 51 Shaktipeethas". Zee News. Archived from the original on 2021-12-28. Retrieved 2021-12-28.
  23. ^ Shankar, Ravi (26 September 2021). "Motherlodes of Power: The story of India's 'Shakti Peethas'". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 2021-09-26. Retrieved 2021-12-28.
  24. ^ Upadhyay, Lipi (23 September 2017). "Navratri for travellers: Visit these 51 Shakti-peeths and learn about their significance". India Today. Archived from the original on 2021-12-28. Retrieved 2021-12-28.
  25. ^ "bahula shakti peeth - Google Search". www.google.com.
  26. ^ Author, Unknown. Tantra Chudamani. pp. Lines 13–14. Archived from the original on 2015-08-19. Retrieved 2017-08-27. {{cite book}}: |last1= has generic name (help)
  27. ^ Chandrabhaga Shakti Peeth https://www.bhaktibharat.com/mandir/chandrabhaga-shakti-peeth Archived 2019-05-16 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ "About Maihar Temple". Archived from the original on 2018-08-13. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  29. ^ "माता का वो शक्तिपीठ जहां पूरी होती है अधूरी मनोकामना, मत्स्य पुराण में भी स्वरूप का वर्णन". Zee News (in Hindi). 22 Sep 2020.
  30. ^ "Kolkata Durga Puja Festival". www.facebook.com. Archived from the original on 2022-02-26. Retrieved 2020-08-16.
  31. ^ EiBangla 24x7. "চলো যাই বেড়িয়ে আসি জয়ন্তী… | EiBangla24x7". Archived from the original on 2019-02-08. Retrieved 2020-08-16.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  32. ^ "Mahakal Cave". www.cpreecenvis.nic.in. Archived from the original on 2020-01-25. Retrieved 2020-08-16.
  33. ^ a b "District Census Handbook Mirzapur" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 November 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.

External links[edit]