The United States of America
is a federal republic
of 50 states
, a capital district
, and a few other territories. It resides mostly in central North America
. The U.S. has three land borders, two with Canada
and one with Mexico
, and is otherwise bounded by the Pacific Ocean
, the Bering Sea
, the Arctic Ocean
and the Atlantic Ocean
. Of the 50 states, only Alaska
are not contiguous with any other state. The U.S. also has a collection of districts, territories, and possessions
around the world. Each state has a high level of local autonomy according to the system of federalism. The United States traces its national origin to the declaration
by 13 British
colonies in 1776
that they were free and independent states. They were recognized as such by the Treaty of Paris
in 1783. Since then, the nation has grown to become a global superpower
and exerts a high level of economic, political, military, and cultural influence.
World War II
or the Second World War
(often abbreviated as WWII
), was a global military conflict
lasting from 1939 to 1945, which involved most of the world's nations
, including all of the great powers
: eventually forming two opposing military alliances, the Allies
and the Axis
. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. In a state of "total war
," the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust
and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare
, it was the deadliest conflict
in human history
, resulting in 50 million to over 70 million fatalities
The war ended with the total victory of the Allies over Germany and Japan in 1945. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international cooperation and prevent future conflicts (such as World War III). The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which would last for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers started to decline, while the decolonization of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration emerged as an effort to stabilise postwar relations.
Selected culture biography
(born March 17, 1948) is an American-Canadian writer who has been called the "noir prophet" of the cyberpunk
subgenre of science fiction. Gibson coined the term "cyberspace
" in his short story "Burning Chrome
" and later popularized the concept in his debut novel, Neuromancer
(1984). In envisaging cyberspace, Gibson created an iconography
for the information age
before the ubiquity of the Internet in the 1990s. He is also credited with predicting the rise of reality television
and with establishing the conceptual foundations for the rapid growth of virtual environments such as video games and the Web.
After expanding on Neuromancer with two more novels to complete the dystopic Sprawl trilogy, Gibson became a central figure to an entirely different science fiction subgenre – steampunk – with the 1990 alternate history novel The Difference Engine, written in collaboration with Bruce Sterling. In the 1990s he composed the Bridge trilogy of novels, which focused on sociological observations of near future urban environments and late-stage capitalism. His most recent novels – Pattern Recognition (2003) and Spook Country (2007) – are set in a contemporary world and have put Gibson's work onto mainstream bestseller lists for the first time.
To date, Gibson has written more than twenty short stories, nine novels (one in collaboration), a nonfiction artist's book, and has contributed articles to several major publications and collaborated extensively with performance artists, filmmakers and musicians.
Selected society biography
Ronald Wilson Reagan
(February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States
(1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California
(1967–1975). Born in Illinois
, Reagan moved to Los Angeles, California
in the 1930s, where he became an actor, president of the Screen Actors Guild
(SAG), and a spokesman for General Electric
(GE). His start in politics occurred during his work for GE; originally a member of the Democratic Party
, he switched to the Republican Party
in 1962. After delivering a rousing speech
in support of Barry Goldwater
's presidential candidacy in 1964
, he was persuaded to seek the California governorship, winning two years later
and again in 1970
. He was defeated in his run for the Republican presidential nomination in 1968
as well as 1976
, but won both the nomination and election in 1980
As president, Reagan implemented new political initiatives as well as economic policies, advocating a laissez-faire philosophy, but the extent to which these ideas were implemented is debatable. The supply side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", included substantial tax cuts implemented in 1981. After surviving an assassination attempt and ordering controversial military actions in Grenada, he was re-elected in a landslide victory in 1984.
is the seventh largest city in the U.S. state
, with a population of 114,024 as of the 2000 census
, of which 36,892 (32%) are college or graduate students.
The city's economy is currently dominated by education, high tech, and biotechnology. Average home prices and property taxes are well above the state and national medians. The city is also known for its political liberalism and its large number of restaurants and performance venues.
Ann Arbor was founded in January 1824 by John Allen and Elisha Rumsey, both of whom were land speculators. There are various accounts concerning the origin of the settlement's name; one states that Allen and Rumsey decided to name it "Annarbour" for their spouses, both named Ann, and for the stands of burr oak in the 640 acres (260 ha) of land they had purchased for $800 from the federal government. The regional Native Americans named the settlement Kaw-goosh-kaw-nick, after the sound of Allen's saw mill.
The Ann Arbor Land Company, a group of speculators, set aside 40 acres (16 ha) of undeveloped land and offered it to the State of Michigan as the site of the state capital, but lost the bid to Lansing. In 1837, the property was accepted instead as the site of the University of Michigan, forever linking Ann Arbor and its history with the university.
- 1626 – Peter Minuit purchases the island of Manhattan from Native Americans.
- 1830 – The nursery rhyme Mary Had a Little Lamb, penned by Sarah Josepha Hale, is published.
- 1844 – Samuel Morse (pictured) sends the message "What hath God wrought" (a biblical quotation, Numbers 23:23) from the Old Supreme Court Chamber in the United States Capitol to his assistant, Alfred Vail, in Baltimore, Maryland to inaugurate the first telegraph line.
- 1941 – Bob Dylan, the Singer-songwriter who's music became anthems for the American civil rights and anti-war movements, was born.
- 1962 – As part of Project Mercury, astronaut Scott Carpenter orbits the Earth three times in the Aurora 7 space capsule.
- 1976 – The Judgement of Paris takes place in France, launching California as a worldwide force in the production of quality wine.
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As of 24 May 2015, there are featured and 964 good articles within WikiProject United States scope. This makes up 5.12% of the articles on Wikipedia, 13.18% of all featured articles and lists, and 9.2% of all good articles. Including non-article pages, such as talk pages, redirects, categories, etcetera, there are 2,027 pages in the project. 806,180
Featured culture biographies: Actors and filmmakers – James Thomas Aubrey, Jr. • Kroger Babb • Eric Bana • Joseph Barbera • Bette Davis • Kirsten Dunst • Judy Garland • Jake Gyllenhaal • Maggie Gyllenhaal • Anthony Michael Hall • William Hanna • Phil Hartman • Ethan Hawke • Katie Holmes • Janet Jackson • Michael Jackson • Angelina Jolie • Diane Keaton • Madonna (entertainer) • Austin Nichols • Brad Pitt • Nancy Reagan • Ronald Reagan • Aaron Sorkin • KaDee Strickland • Sharon Tate • Reese Witherspoon • Anna May Wong; Arts and entertainment – James Robert Baker • William D. Boyce • Stephen Crane • H.D. • Emily Dickinson • George Washington Dixon • Zelda Fitzgerald • Margaret Fuller • William Gibson • Rufus Wilmot Griswold • Ernest Hemingway • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. • Jenna Jameson • James Russell Lowell • Master Juba • I. M. Pei • Edgar Allan Poe • Roman Vishniac • Nathaniel Parker Willis; Musicians – Aaliyah • Alice in Chains • Audioslave • Bix Beiderbecke • Big Star • Mariah Carey • Damageplan • Bob Dylan • Flea (musician) • Black Francis • John Frusciante • Godsmack • The Greencards • Insane Clown Posse • Janet Jackson • Michael Jackson • Bradley Joseph • Maynard James Keenan • Frank Klepacki • David Lovering • Madonna (entertainer) • John Mayer • Metallica • Nine Inch Nails • Nirvana (band) • The Notorious B.I.G. • Leo Ornstein • Ellis Paul • Pearl Jam • Pixies • Elvis Presley • Selena • Slayer • The Smashing Pumpkins • Elliott Smith • Gwen Stefani • The Supremes • Tool (band) • Uncle Tupelo • Wilco • Frank Zappa; Sports and games – Nick Adenhart • Shelton Benjamin • Moe Berg • Tim Duncan • Bobby Eaton • Orval Grove • Art Houtteman • Magic Johnson • Michael Jordan • Bart King • Sandy Koufax • Jimmy McAleer • Bob Meusel • Stan Musial • Ben Paschal • CM Punk • J. R. Richard • Jackie Robinson • Bill Russell • Sigi Schmid • Lee Smith (baseball) • Ozzie Smith • Paul Stastny • Jim Thorpe • Tyrone Wheatley
Featured society biographies: Military – Daniel Boone • James Bowie • Simon Bolivar Buckner • Henry Cornelius Burnett • Frederick Russell Burnham • Wesley Clark • Brian Eaton • Gerald Ford • Winfield Scott Hancock • Benjamin Harrison • William Henry Harrison • Rutherford B. Hayes • Thomas C. Hindman • Thomas C. Kinkaid • Eli Lilly • John McCain • George B. McClellan • Fred Moosally • Sylvanus Morley • Edwin Taylor Pollock • Ronald Reagan • Uriel Sebree • Lawrence Sullivan Ross • Isaac Shelby • William Tecumseh Sherman • Myles Standish • Edward Teller • Benjamin Franklin Tilley • Stephen Trigg • Harriet Tubman; Politics and government – Samuel Adams • J. C. W. Beckham • Daniel Boone • William O'Connell Bradley • Simon Bolivar Buckner • Henry Cornelius Burnett • Charles Carroll the Settler • Murray Chotiner • Wesley Clark • Grover Cleveland • Calvin Coolidge • Richard Cordray • John J. Crittenden • Gerald Ford • Wendell H. Ford • William Goebel • Emma Goldman • John W. Johnston • Franklin Knight Lane • John McCain • George B. McClellan • Bob McEwen • Thomas R. Marshall • Harvey Milk • Edwin P. Morrow • Pat Nixon • Barack Obama • Rosa Parks • Paul E. Patton • Edwin Taylor Pollock • Nancy Reagan • Ronald Reagan • Theodore Roosevelt • Lawrence Sullivan Ross • Terry Sanford • Antonin Scalia • Solomon P. Sharp • Isaac Shelby • Augustus Owsley Stanley • Stephen Trigg • Jerry Voorhis • Daniel Webster • Franklin D. Roosevelt • Harry S. Truman; Science and academia – Edward Drinker Cope • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. • David A. Johnston • Eli Lilly • Glynn Lunney • Barbara McClintock • Sylvanus Morley • Gerard K. O'Neill • Hilary Putnam • Edward Teller • Roman Vishniac • Otto Julius Zobel
Featured lists: There are over 230 Featured lists in the scope of United States including: 109th United States Congress • Commandant of the Marine Corps • Korean War Medal of Honor recipients • Most populous counties in the United States • National Parks of the United States • Tallest buildings in Washington, D.C. • U.S. state name etymologies • U.S. states by population • United States Secretary of Energy • Volcanoes in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain
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Featured portals: • California • Portal:Connecticut • Florida • Illinois (Chicago) • Indiana (Indianapolis) • Kentucky (Louisville) • Minnesota • Nevada • New York • Oklahoma • Oregon • Puerto Rico • Rhode Island • Texas (Houston) • Utah • American Civil War • Barack Obama • Military of the United States (United States Navy, United States Air Force) • U.S. Roads (Maryland Roads, Michigan Highways)
Featured article candidates
Total pages in content type is 4
Featured list candidates
Total pages in content type is 1
Good article nominees
Total pages in content type is 49
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