The United States of America
is a federal republic
of 50 states
, a capital district
, and a few other territories. It resides mostly in central North America
. The U.S. has three land borders, two with Canada
and one with Mexico
, and is otherwise bounded by the Pacific Ocean
, the Bering Sea
, the Arctic Ocean
and the Atlantic Ocean
. Of the 50 states, only Alaska
are not contiguous with any other state. The U.S. also has a collection of districts, territories, and possessions
around the world. Each state has a high level of local autonomy according to the system of federalism. The United States traces its national origin to the declaration
by 13 British
colonies in 1776
that they were free and independent states. They were recognized as such by the Treaty of Paris
in 1783. Since then, the nation has grown to become a global superpower
and exerts a high level of economic, political, military, and cultural influence.
World War II
or the Second World War
(often abbreviated as WWII
), was a global military conflict
lasting from 1939 to 1945, which involved most of the world's nations
, including all of the great powers
: eventually forming two opposing military alliances, the Allies
and the Axis
. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. In a state of "total war
," the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust
and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare
, it was the deadliest conflict
in human history
, resulting in 50 million to over 70 million fatalities
The war ended with the total victory of the Allies over Germany and Japan in 1945. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international cooperation and prevent future conflicts (such as World War III). The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which would last for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers started to decline, while the decolonization of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration emerged as an effort to stabilise postwar relations.
Selected culture biography
Ernest Miller Hemingway
(July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author
. His distinctive writing style, characterized by economy and understatement
, influenced 20th-century fiction, as did his life of adventure and public image. He produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1954. Hemingway's fiction was successful because the characters he presented exhibited authenticity that resonated with his audience. Many of his works are classics of American literature
. He published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works during his lifetime; a further three novels, four collections of short stories, and three non-fiction works were published posthumously.
Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea in 1952 Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was almost killed in a plane crash that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway had permanent residences in Key West, Florida, and Cuba during the 1930s and '40s, but in 1959 he moved from Cuba to Ketchum, Idaho, where he committed suicide in the summer of 1961.
Selected society biography
Nancy Davis Reagan
(born Anne Frances Robbins
on July 6, 1921) is the widow of former United States President Ronald Reagan
and was First Lady of the United States
from 1981 to 1989. Born in New York
, her parents divorced soon after her birth; she grew up in Maryland
, living with an aunt and uncle while her mother pursued acting jobs. As Nancy Davis
, she was an actress
in the 1940s and 1950s, starring in films such as Donovan's Brain
, Night into Morning
, and Hellcats of the Navy
. In 1952 she married Ronald Reagan, who was then president of the Screen Actors Guild
; they had two children. Nancy became the First Lady of California
when her husband was Governor
from 1967 to 1975.
She became the First Lady of the United States in January 1981 following her husband's victory, but experienced criticism early in his first term largely due to her decision to replenish the White House china. Nancy restored a Kennedy-esque glamor to the White House following years of lax formality, and her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention as well as criticism for accepting unreported loans and gifts from fashion designers. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, which was considered her major initiative as First Lady. More controversy ensued when it was revealed in 1988 that she had consulted an astrologer to assist in planning the president's schedule after the 1981 assassination attempt on her husband's life.
is the fourth most populous city in California
and the 14th most populous city
in the United States
, with a 2007 estimated population of 764,976. One of the most densely populated
major cities in the US, San Francisco is part of the much larger San Francisco Bay Area
, which is home to approximately 7.2 million people. The city is located on the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula
, with the Pacific Ocean
to the west, San Francisco Bay
to the east, and the Golden Gate
to the north.
In 1776, the Spanish settled the tip of the peninsula, establishing a fort at the Golden Gate and a mission named for Francis of Assisi. The California Gold Rush in 1848 propelled the city into a period of rapid growth. After being devastated by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt.
San Francisco is a popular international tourist destination renowned for its steep rolling hills, an eclectic mix of Victorian and modern architecture, and famous landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, Alcatraz Island, the cable cars, Coit Tower, and Chinatown. The city is also known for its diverse, cosmopolitan population, including large and long-established Asian American and LGBT communities. While the climate includes chilly summer fog, the winters are mild.
Anniversaries for July 12
- 1817 – American author, poet, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, and leading transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau (pictured) was born.
- 1812 – The United States invades Canada at Windsor, Ontario as part of the War of 1812.
- 1862 – The Medal of Honor, the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government, is authorized by the Congress.
- 1917 – The Bisbee Deportation occurs as vigilantes kidnap] and deport nearly 1,300 striking miners and others from Bisbee, Arizona.
- 1967 – The Newark riots, which were sparked when two white policemen beat an African-American cabdriver until he needed to be hospitalized, began in Newark, New Jersey. The riots would leave 26 dead, 725 injured, and cause ten million dollars in damages.
- 1979 – Disco Demolition Night, a promotional event which involved the demolition of a crate of disco music records, is held at Comiskey Park, in Chicago, Illinois.
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As of 12 July 2014, there are featured and 926 good articles within WikiProject United States scope. This makes up 5.11% of the articles on Wikipedia, 13.29% of all featured articles and lists, and 8.97% of all good articles. Including non-article pages, such as talk pages, redirects, categories, etcetera, there are 1,814 pages in the project. 737,756
Featured culture biographies: Actors and filmmakers – James Thomas Aubrey, Jr. • Kroger Babb • Eric Bana • Joseph Barbera • Bette Davis • Kirsten Dunst • Judy Garland • Jake Gyllenhaal • Maggie Gyllenhaal • Anthony Michael Hall • William Hanna • Phil Hartman • Ethan Hawke • Katie Holmes • Janet Jackson • Michael Jackson • Angelina Jolie • Diane Keaton • Madonna (entertainer) • Austin Nichols • Brad Pitt • Nancy Reagan • Ronald Reagan • Aaron Sorkin • KaDee Strickland • Sharon Tate • Reese Witherspoon • Anna May Wong; Arts and entertainment – James Robert Baker • William D. Boyce • Stephen Crane • H.D. • Emily Dickinson • George Washington Dixon • Zelda Fitzgerald • Margaret Fuller • William Gibson • Rufus Wilmot Griswold • Ernest Hemingway • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. • Jenna Jameson • James Russell Lowell • Master Juba • I. M. Pei • Edgar Allan Poe • Roman Vishniac • Nathaniel Parker Willis; Musicians – Aaliyah • Alice in Chains • Audioslave • Bix Beiderbecke • Big Star • Mariah Carey • Damageplan • Bob Dylan • Flea (musician) • Black Francis • John Frusciante • Godsmack • The Greencards • Insane Clown Posse • Janet Jackson • Michael Jackson • Bradley Joseph • Maynard James Keenan • Frank Klepacki • David Lovering • Madonna (entertainer) • John Mayer • Metallica • Nine Inch Nails • Nirvana (band) • The Notorious B.I.G. • Leo Ornstein • Ellis Paul • Pearl Jam • Pixies • Elvis Presley • Selena • Slayer • The Smashing Pumpkins • Elliott Smith • Gwen Stefani • The Supremes • Tool (band) • Uncle Tupelo • Wilco • Frank Zappa; Sports and games – Nick Adenhart • Shelton Benjamin • Moe Berg • Tim Duncan • Bobby Eaton • Orval Grove • Art Houtteman • Magic Johnson • Michael Jordan • Bart King • Sandy Koufax • Jimmy McAleer • Bob Meusel • Stan Musial • Ben Paschal • CM Punk • J. R. Richard • Jackie Robinson • Bill Russell • Sigi Schmid • Lee Smith (baseball) • Ozzie Smith • Paul Stastny • Jim Thorpe • Tyrone Wheatley
Featured society biographies: Military – Daniel Boone • James Bowie • Simon Bolivar Buckner • Henry Cornelius Burnett • Frederick Russell Burnham • Wesley Clark • Brian Eaton • Gerald Ford • Winfield Scott Hancock • Benjamin Harrison • William Henry Harrison • Rutherford B. Hayes • Thomas C. Hindman • Thomas C. Kinkaid • Eli Lilly • John McCain • George B. McClellan • Fred Moosally • Sylvanus Morley • Edwin Taylor Pollock • Ronald Reagan • Uriel Sebree • Lawrence Sullivan Ross • Isaac Shelby • William Tecumseh Sherman • Myles Standish • Edward Teller • Benjamin Franklin Tilley • Stephen Trigg • Harriet Tubman; Politics and government – Samuel Adams • J. C. W. Beckham • Daniel Boone • William O'Connell Bradley • Simon Bolivar Buckner • Henry Cornelius Burnett • Charles Carroll the Settler • Murray Chotiner • Wesley Clark • Grover Cleveland • Calvin Coolidge • Richard Cordray • John J. Crittenden • Gerald Ford • Wendell H. Ford • William Goebel • Emma Goldman • John W. Johnston • Franklin Knight Lane • John McCain • George B. McClellan • Bob McEwen • Thomas R. Marshall • Harvey Milk • Edwin P. Morrow • Pat Nixon • Barack Obama • Rosa Parks • Paul E. Patton • Edwin Taylor Pollock • Nancy Reagan • Ronald Reagan • Theodore Roosevelt • Lawrence Sullivan Ross • Terry Sanford • Antonin Scalia • Solomon P. Sharp • Isaac Shelby • Augustus Owsley Stanley • Stephen Trigg • Jerry Voorhis • Daniel Webster • Franklin D. Roosevelt • Harry S. Truman; Science and academia – Edward Drinker Cope • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. • David A. Johnston • Eli Lilly • Glynn Lunney • Barbara McClintock • Sylvanus Morley • Gerard K. O'Neill • Hilary Putnam • Edward Teller • Roman Vishniac • Otto Julius Zobel
Featured lists: There are over 230 Featured lists in the scope of United States including: 109th United States Congress • Commandant of the Marine Corps • Korean War Medal of Honor recipients • Most populous counties in the United States • National Parks of the United States • Tallest buildings in Washington, D.C. • U.S. state name etymologies • U.S. states by population • United States Secretary of Energy • Volcanoes in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain
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Featured portals: • California • Portal:Connecticut • Florida • Illinois (Chicago) • Indiana (Indianapolis) • Kentucky (Louisville) • Minnesota • Nevada • New York • Oklahoma • Oregon • Puerto Rico • Rhode Island • Texas (Houston) • Utah • American Civil War • Barack Obama • Military of the United States (United States Navy, United States Air Force) • U.S. Roads (Maryland Roads, Michigan Highways)
Featured article candidates
Total pages in content type is 5
Featured list candidates
Total pages in content type is 2
Good article nominees
Total pages in content type is 64
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