List of current pretenders
A pretender is an aspirant or claimant to a monarchy that has either been abolished or suspended, or is occupied by another. It should not be confused with the term impostor, which instead refers to a person who exercises deception under an assumed name or identity. A pretender may assert a claim and the term is also applied to those persons on whose behalf a claim is advanced, regardless of whether that person makes the claim.
Entries in this list are based on the relevant succession laws, whether hereditary or elective. Prominent and reliably-sourced claims made on a person's behalf are included regardless of whether that person stakes an active claim, provided that the person possesses a legitimate link to the line of succession. Claimants with no kinship to the dynasty, often distinguished as "false pretenders", are not listed. Former monarchies with serious support for restoration include those of Germany, Nepal and Libya.
|Burundi||Rosa Paula Iribagiza[af 1]||1 May 1977||Ntwero||Daughter of Mwami Mwambutsa IV (1915–1966).||Hereditary||1966|||
|Central African Empire||Jean-Bédel Bokassa, Crown Prince
of the Central African Empire
|3 November 1996||Bokassa||Heir apparent of Emperor Bokassa I (1976–1979).[af 2]||Hereditary||1979|||
|Dahomey (Benin)||Dah Sagbadjou Glele||12 January 2019||Aladaxonou||Elected by Dahomeyan nobles.||Elective||1904|||
|Egypt||Fuad II||18 June 1953[af 3]||Muhammad Ali||Last reigning King (1952–1953).||Hereditary||1953|||
|Ethiopia||Zera Yacob Amha Selassie[af 4]||7 February 1997||Solomon[af 5]||Grandson of Emperor Haile Selassie (1930–1974).||Hereditary [af 6]||1975|||
|Girma Yohannes Iyasu[af 7]||1977||Grandson of Emperor Iyasu V (1913–1916).[af 8]|
|Yves Ñzînga Mvêmb'a||October 1962||Kilukeni[af 9]||Descendant of Manikongo Afonso I (1509–1542).||Elective and Hereditary [af 10]||1914|||
|Libya||Muhammad bin Hasan||18 June 1992||Senussi||Son of Hasan ar-Rida, heir apparent of King Idris I (1916–1969).||Hereditary||1969|||
|Idris bin Abdullah||May 1989||Relative of King Idris I (1916–1969).|||
|Rwanda||Emmanuel Bushayija (Yuhi VI)||9 January 2017[af 11]||Abanyiginya[af 12]||Nephew of Mwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa (1959–1961).||Hereditary and Elective[af 13]||1961|||
|Tunisia||Muhammad Al Husain||17 June 2013||Al Husain||Grandson of Bey Muhammad VI al-Habib (1922–1929).||Hereditary||1957|||
|Zanzibar||Jamshid bin Abdullah||12 January 1964[af 14]||Al Bu Sa'id||Last reigning Sultan (1963–1964).||Hereditary||1964|||
|Miskito||Norton Cuthbert Clarence||1977||Clarence||Descendant of Chief Robert Henry Clarence (1890–1894).||Hereditary and Elective[am 1]||1894|||
|Afghanistan||Ahmad Shah||23 July 2007||Barakzai||Heir apparent and son of King Zahir Shah (1933–1973).[as 1]||Hereditary||1973|
|Burma||Soe Win||12 January 2019||Konbaung||Great-grandson of King Thibaw Min (1878–1885).||Hereditary||1885|
|China||Jin Yuzhang[as 2]||10 April 2015||Aisin Gioro[as 3]||Great-great-grandson of the Daoguang Emperor (1820–1850).||Hereditary||1912|||
|Champasak||Champhonesak||17 March 1980||Champasakti[as 4]||Son of Prince Boun Oum (1945–1946), the last reigning prince.||Hereditary||1946|||
|Hsipaw State[as 5]||Sao Oo Kya[as 6]||Shan||Relative of Saopha Sao Kya Seng (1947–1962).||Hereditary||1962|||
|Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran||27 July 1980||Pahlavi||Heir apparent and son of Shah Mohammad Rezā (1941–1979).[as 7]||Hereditary||1979|||
|Mohammad Hassan Mirza II||5 May 1988||Qajar||Descendant of Shah Mohammad Ali (1907–1909).||Hereditary||1925|||
|Iraq||Ra'ad bin Zeid[as 8]||18 October 1970||Hāshim[as 9]||Relative of King Faisal II (1939–1958).[as 10]||Hereditary||1958|||
|Johor-Singapore||Tengku Muhammad Shawal bin Tengku Abdul Aziz||31 October 1996||Bendahara-Johor||Descendant of Sultan Hussein Shah (1819–1835).||Hereditary||1824|||
|Kengtung[as 11]||Sao Leng||14 September 1997||Mangrāi||Relative of Saopha Sao Kya Seng (1947–1962).||Hereditary||1962|||
|Korea||Yi Seok||16 July 2005[as 12]||Yi[as 13]||Descendants of Emperor Gojong (1863–1907).||Hereditary||1910|||
|Laos||Soulivong Savang||19 September 1997[as 14]||Khun Lo||Descendant of King Savang Vatthana (1959–1975).||Hereditary||1975|||
|Maldives||Muhammad Nooraddeen||27 May 1969||Huraa||Son of Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen II (1935–1943).||Hereditary||1968|||
|Mohammarah||Ali bin Nader||16 June 2008||Kassib||Descendant of Sheikh Khaz'al al-Ka'bi (1863–1936).||Hereditary||1936|||
|Mongolia||Jebtsundamba Khutuktu X||Reincarnation of Jebtsundamba Khutuktu VIII, the last reigning Khan (1911–1924).[as 15]||Theocratic [as 16]||1924|||
|Mongpawn||Hso Hom||2 March 1962[as 17]||Shan||Last reigning Saopha (1947–1962).||Hereditary||1962|||
|Ottoman Empire (Turkey)||Dündar Ali Osman||6 January 2017||Osman||Great-grandson of Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876–1909).[as 18]||Hereditary||1922|||
|Ryūkyū||Mamoru Shō||30 August 1996||Shō||Descendant of King Shō Tai (1848–1879).||Hereditary||1879|||
|Sarawak||Jason Desmond Anthony Brooke||27 May 2017||Brooke||Great-great-nephew of Rajah Vyner (1917–1946).||Hereditary||1946|||
|Sulu||Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram||16 February 1986||Kiram||Son of the last Sultan of Sulu, Sultan Mohammed Mahakuttah Abdullah Kiram (1974–1986).||Hereditary||1915|||
|Syria||Ra'ad bin Zeid||18 October 1970||Hāshim||Relative of King Faisal I (1920).||Hereditary||1920|
|Tibet||Tenzin Gyatso||17 March 1959||Last reigning and current recognised Dalai Lama.[as 19]||Theocratic[as 16]||1964|||
|Vietnam||Bảo Ân||15 March 2017||Nguyễn||Son of Emperor Bảo Đại (1926–1945).||Hereditary||1949|
|Yawnghwe||Haŏ Shwe-Thaike||26 May 1999||Shan||Grandson of Saopha Sao Shwe Thaik (1927–1962).||Hereditary||1962|||
|Yemen, North||Ageel bin Muhammad||6 August 1996||Al Qasimi||Eldest son of King Muhammad al-Badr, the last ruling king.[as 20]||Hereditary||1962|||
India and Pakistan
Following the Partition of India in 1947, the majority of princely states in the subcontinent acceded to either the Dominion of Pakistan or the Dominion of India. Official recognition of hereditary royal entitlements and accompanying privy purses was abolished in the Republic of India through a constitutional amendment on 28 December 1971. The same was done in Pakistan on 1 January 1972. In many cases, members of the former ruling families of princely states retain a considerable degree of political influence within their communities. Many leaders continue to be referred to by their claimed titles, including most notably within the Supreme Court. Jammu and Kashmir, subject to an ongoing armed conflict between India, Pakistan and China, is the last remaining of the independent princely states once under British suzerainty of which sovereignty continues to be disputed.
|Baroda||Samarjitsinh Gaekwad||2012||Gaekwad||Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Pratap Singh Rao Gaekwad||Hereditary||1947|
|Bhopal state||Saif Ali Khan||2011||Great-grandson of Nawab Hamidullah Khan||Hereditary||1949|
|Bharatpur||Vishvendra Singh||July 1995||Sinsiniwar Jat||Son of last ruling Maharaja Brijendra Singh||Hereditary||1947|
|Bikaner||Ravi Raj Singh||2003||Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Sadul Singh||Hereditary||1947|
|Burdwan||Saday Chand Mehtab||1984||Son of last ruling Maharaja Uday Chand Mahtab||Hereditary||1947|||
|Cochin||Ravi Varma VI||2014||Descendant of last ruling Maharaja Rama Varma XVIII||Hereditary||1949|
|Dholpur||Hemant Singh||1954||Bamraulia||Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Udaybhanu Singh||Hereditary||1949|
|Faridkot||Amrit Kaur||1989||Daughter of last ruling Maharaja Harinder Singh Brar||Hereditary||1948|||
|Gwalior||Jyotiraditya Scindia||2001||Scindia||Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Jivajirao Scindia||Hereditary||1948|
|Hyderabad State||Mukarram Jah||1967||Asaf Jah||Grandson of last Nizam Osman Ali Khan||Hereditary||1948|
|Indore||Usha Devi Holkar||1961||Holkar||Daughter of last ruling Maharaja Yashwant Rao Holkar II||Hereditary||1948|||
|Jaipur State||Padmanabh Singh||2011||Kachwaha||Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Man Singh II||Hereditary||1948|
|Jammu and Kashmir||Karan Singh||April 1961||Dogra||Son of last ruling Maharaja Hari Singh||Hereditary|
|Jodhpur||Gaj Singh||26 January 1952||Rathore-Jodhpur||Son of last ruling Maharaja Hanwant Singh||Hereditary||1947|
|Karauli||Ganesh Pal||1985||Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Ganeshpal Deo||Hereditary||1947|||
|Khanate of Kalat||Suleman Daud||1998||Ahmadzai||Grandson of last ruler Ahmad of Kalat||Hereditary||1948|||
|Kolhapur||Shahu II||1983||Bhonsle||Son of last ruling Maharaja Shahaji II||Hereditary||1949|
|Kota||Brijraj Singh||21 June 1991||Son of last ruling Maharaja Bhim Singh II||Hereditary||1948|
|Kutch||Pragmulji III||17 October 1991||Jadeja Rajput||Son of last ruling Maharaja Madansinhji||Hereditary||1948|
|Maratha Empire (India)||Udayanraje Bhosale||4 March 1978||Bhonsle||Grandson of Shahu III of Satara, who was adopted by the widow of Pratapsinh Raje-II, who was the younger son of Rajaram Maharaj-III, who was adopted by the widow of Pratapsinh Raje, who was adopted by Venkata Raje, who was adopted by Shahaji II of Satara, who was the adopted son of Chhatrapati Pratap Singh (1808–1818).||Hereditary||1818|||
|Mewar||Arvind Singh||19 November 1984||Sisodia||Grandson of last Maharana Bhupal Singh||Hereditary||1948|
|Mughal Empire (India)||Mirza Ghulam Moinuddin Muhammad Javaid Jah Bahadur||3 August 1975||Timurid||Eldest son of Shahzada Muhammad Khair ud-din Mirza, Khurshid Jah Bahadur (1931–1975).||Hereditary||1857|
|Mysore||Yaduveer Krishnadatta Chamaraja Wadiyar||28 May 2015||Wadiyar||Relative of last ruling Maharaja Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar||Hereditary||1948|
|Nawanagar||Shatrusalyasinhji||1933||Son of last ruling Maharaja Digvijaysinhji||Hereditary||1948|
|Junagadh State||Muhammad Jahangir Khanji||30 July 1989||Khanji||Grandson of last ruling Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khan III||Hereditary||1948|||
|Patialia||Amarinder Singh||June 1974||Phulkian||Son of last Maharaja Yadavindra Singh||Hereditary||1948|
|Sikkim||Wangchuk Namgyal||29 January 1982||Namgyel||Son of Chogyal Palden Thondup Namgyal (1963–1975).||Hereditary||1975|
|Travencore||Moolam Thirunal Rama Varma||16 December 2013||Venad Swaroopam||Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma||Hereditary||1949|
Nepal's numerous small monarchies were collectively abolished by the federal government on 7 October 2008. At the time, the thrones of both Salyan and Jajarkot had been vacant since the deaths of rajas Gopendra Bahadur and Prakash Bikram respectively (both in 2003), and have remained vacant.
|Nepal||Gyanendra||28 May 2008[as 21]||Shah[as 22]||Last reigning Maharajdhiraja (2001–2008).||Hereditary||2008|||
|Bajhang||Binod Bahadur||7 October 2008[as 23]||Last reigning Raja (1989–2008).||Hereditary[as 24]|||
|Bhirkot||Prakash||7 October 2008[as 25]||Last reigning Raja (2002–2008).||Hereditary[as 24]|||
|Mustang[as 26]||Jigme Singhe Palbar||16 December 2016[as 27]||Bista[as 28]||Nephew and adopted son of last reigning Raja (1964–2008).||Hereditary[as 24]|||
The German Empire was a federation of a score of smaller monarchies, all of which are now abolished under modern republican Germany, although a handful of monarchs never abdicated their titles. As a result, there are a large number of claimants to various German thrones. Since the dissolution of the German empire, however, a number of former royal dynasties have become extinct in the male line, and are therefore not included in the list below. Mecklenburg–Schwerin became extinct in 2001, Saxe-Altenburg in 1991, and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen in 1971.
In all cases the succession is hereditary.
|Germany||Georg Friedrich||26 September 1994||Hohenzollern||Great-great-grandson of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Bavaria||Franz, Duke of Bavaria||8 July 1996||Wittelsbach||Great-grandson of King Ludwig III (1913–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Hanover||Ernst August||9 December 1987||Hanover[eu 22]||Great-great-grandson of King Georg V (1851–1866).||Hereditary||1866|||
|Prussia||Georg Friedrich||26 September 1994||Hohenzollern||Great-great-grandson of King Wilhelm II (1888–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Saxony||Rüdiger||6 October 2012||Wettin[eu 14]||Great-grandson of King Friedrich August III (1904–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Alexander||23 July 2012||Saxe-Gessaphe||Great-grandson of King Friedrich August III (1904–1918).|
|Westphalia||Charles Napoléon||3 May 1997||Bonaparte||Great-great-grandson of King Jérôme Bonaparte (1807–1813).||Hereditary||1813|||
|Württemberg||Charles||17 April 1975||Württemberg||Grandnephew of King Wilhelm II (1891–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Baden||Maximilian||27 October 1963||Zähringen||Great-great-grandson of Grand Duke Leopold I (1830–1852).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Hesse and by Rhine||Donatus||23 May 2013||Hesse||11th cousin twice removed of Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig (1892–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Mecklenburg-Strelitz||Borwin||26 January 1996||Mecklenburg[eu 23]||Great-great-great-grandson of Grand Duke Georg (1816–1860).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Oldenburg||Christian||20 September 2014||Holstein-Gottorp[eu 24]||Great-grandson of Grand Duke Friedrich August II (1900–1918).||Hereditary||1918|
|Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach||Michael||14 October 1988||Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach[eu 7]||Grandson of Grand Duke Wilhelm Ernst (1901–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Hesse-Kassel||Donatus||23 May 2013||Hesse||5th great-grandson of Landgrave Friedrich II (1760–1785).||Hereditary||1866|||
|Anhalt||Julius Eduard||9 October 1963||Ascania||Son of Duke Joachim Ernst (1918).||Hereditary||1918|
|Arenberg||Léopold||15 August 2011||Arenberg||Descendant of Duke Prosper Louis||Hereditary||1810|
|Brunswick||Ernst August||9 December 1987||Hanover[eu 22]||Grandson of Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick (1913–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Nassau||Henri||7 October 2000||Bourbon-Parma branch||Great-great-grandson of Duke Adolf I (1839–1866).||Hereditary||1866|||
|Saxe-Coburg-Gotha||Andreas||23 January 1998||Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[eu 7]||Grandson of Duke Carl Eduard (1900–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Saxe-Meiningen||Konrad||4 October 1984||Saxe-Meiningen[eu 7]||Great-grandson of Duke Georg II (1866–1914).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Schleswig-Holstein||Christoph||30 September 1980||Glücksburg[eu 12]||Great-great-grandnephew of Duke Frederik VII (1808–1863).||Hereditary||1866|
|Hohenzollern[eu 25]||Karl Friedrich||16 September 2010||Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen[eu 26]||Great-great-grandson of Prince Karl Anton (1848–1849).||Hereditary||1850|||
|Isenburg||Alexander||5 May 2018||Isenburg||Descendant of Prince Carl (1803–1815).||Hereditary||1815|||
|Leyen||Philipp Erwein||1971||Leyen||Great-great-great-great-grandson of Prince Philip Franz (1806–1814).||Hereditary||1814|
|Lippe||Stephan||20 August 2015||Lippe||Grandson of Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe (1905–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Friedrich Wilhelm||15 June 1990||Grandnephew of Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe (1905–1918).|
|Reuss[eu 27]||Heinrich XIV||20 June 2012||Reuss||Relative of Prince Heinrich XXVII (1913–1918).[eu 28]||Hereditary||1918|||
|Salm||Carl-Philipp||15 January 1988||Salm-Salm||Descendant of Prince Konstantin (1778–1815).||Hereditary||1810|||
|Schaumburg-Lippe||Alexander||28 August 2003||Lippe||Grandnephew of Prince Adolf II (1911–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Schwarzenberg||Karl||25 October 1979||Schwarzenberg||Descendant of Prince Johann I (1782–1789).||Hereditary||1789|||
|Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt||Friedrich Magnus||4 November 1984||Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt||Great-grandson of Prince Friedrich Günther (1807–1867).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Schwarzburg-Sondershausen||Friedrich Magnus||4 November 1984||Schwarzburg-Sondershausen||Relative of Prince Günther Victor (1909–1918).||1918|||
|Waldeck and Pyrmont||Wittekind||30 November 1967||Waldeck||Grandson of Prince Friedrich (1893–1918).||Hereditary||1918|||
|Wied-Neuwied||Maximilian||12 March 2015||Wied-Neuwied||6th-great-grandson of Prince Friedrich Karl (1741–1809).||Hereditary||1806|
|Solms-Wildenfels||Friedrich Magnus||1945||Solms-Wildenfels||Descendant of Frederick Magnus II (1801–1806).||Hereditary||1806|
Until the mid-nineteenth century, the Italian peninsula comprised a number of states, some of which were monarchies. During the Italian unification, the monarchs of such agglomerated states lost their sovereignty and their titles became purely ceremonial. The resultant throne of the Kingdom of Italy was held by the former king of Sardinia.
|Italy||Amedeo||18 March 1983||Savoy||Great-great-grandson of King Vittorio Emanuele II (1861–1878).||Hereditary||1946|||
|Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples[eu 29]||15 December 1969||Heir apparent and son of King Umberto II (1946).|
|Mantua||Maurizio||18 September 1943||Gonzaga||Descendant of Marquis Federico I (1478–1484).||Hereditary||1708|||
|Modena||Lorenzo||7 February 1996||Austria-Este[eu 4]||Great-grandnephew of Franz Ferdinand, adopted heir of Duke Francesco V (1846–1859).||Hereditary||1859|||
|Naples (Bonapartist)||Joachim||20 July 1944||Murat||4th-great-grandson of King Gioacchino I (1808–1815).||Hereditary||1816|||
|Parma||Carlos||18 August 2010||Bourbon-Parma[eu 9]||Great-grandson of Duke Roberto I (1854–1859).||Hereditary||1859|||
|Piombino||Niccolò||8 February 1988||Boncompagni-Ludovisi[eu 30]||Descendant of Prince Antonio I (1778–1805).||Hereditary||1805|||
|Tuscany||Sigismondo[eu 31]||18 June 1993||Habsburg-Lorraine[eu 4]||Great-great-grandson of Grand Duke Ferdinando IV (1859).||Hereditary||1859|||
|Two Sicilies||Pedro of Calabria||5 October 2015||Bourbon[eu 32]||Descendants of King Ferdinando II (1830–1859).||Hereditary||1861|
|Carlo of Castro||20 March 2008|
Following the country's independence from Russia in 1918, the Council of Lithuania voted to establish a monarchy, and invited Prince Wilhelm, the Duke of Urach[eu 33], to take the throne as king. Wilhelm accepted the nomination in July 1918, and adopted the regnal name Mindaugas II. During the subsequent German Revolution, however, the Council withdrew its decision in November 1918, and Wilhelm was never crowned. His grandson Wilhelm Albert, Duke of Urach, is the head of the family since 9 February 1991. His marriage in 1992 was morganatic and so in 2009 his brother, Prince Inigo of Urach, visited Lithuania and announced that if offered the throne he would be ready to assume it.
|Lithuania||Wilhelm Albert||9 February 1991||Württemberg||Grandson of King Wilhelm Karl (1918–1928).||Hereditary||1918|
In each case the succession is hereditary.
|Abemama||Tem Tokataake[oc 1]||Descendant of Tem Binoka (1878–1891).||1911|||
|Cocos Islands[oc 2]||Ross V||1 September 1978[oc 3]||Clunies-Ross||Last reigning King (1944–1978).||1978|||
|Easter Island||Valentino Riroroko Tuki||July 2011||Miru||Descendant of King Riro Kāinga (1892–1898/1899).||1888|||
|Hawaiʻi||Abigail Kawānanakoa||20 May 1969||Kawānanakoa[oc 4]||Descendant of David Kawānanakoa, heir apparent of Queen Liliʻuokalani (1891–1893).||1895|||
|Quentin Kawānanakoa||29 July 1997|||
|Owana Salazar[oc 5]||19 September 1988||Laʻanui[oc 6]||Descendant of Kalokuokamaile, half-brother of King Kamehameha I (1795–1819).|||
|Tahiti||Léopold Pōmare[oc 7]||Pōmare||Descendant of Queen Pōmare IV (1827–1877).||1880|||
|Joinville Pōmare [fr][oc 8]||28 May 2009|
- Abolished monarchy
- List of current sovereign monarchs
- List of current constituent monarchs
- List of living former sovereign monarchs
- List of usurpers
- List of titles and honours of the Spanish Crown (incl. the Kingdom of Cyprus, Kingdom of Sardinia, Archduchy of Austria etc.)
- As the last living sister and daughter of the last and second-to-last kings respectively, Princess Rosa Paula Iribagiza is considered the head of the royal household. According to the relevant laws of succession, however, the crown must pass to a male member of the family.
- Jean-Bédel Bokassa was Crown Prince of the Central African Empire from its inception on 4 December 1976 until its abolition on 20 September 1979.
- Fuad II previously reigned as King of Egypt and the Sudan during his infancy, from 26 July 1952 until the monarchy's official abolition in 1953. He reigned in absentia, and under a regent.
- Designated heir presumptive by his grandfather the Emperor on 14 April 1974. Confirmed as heir apparent by his father Amha Selassie I on 6 April 1988. He has used the title of crown prince since 7 April 1989, when his father was proclaimed emperor-in-exile. He is recognised as heir to the throne by the Imperial Crown Council.
- The Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia claims descent from King Solomon of Israel, who belonged to the House of David. Both of the current claimants are from the House of Shoa, which represents the junior branch of the dynasty.
- According to the 1955 Constitution, the Emperor designated his successor from members of his own family, with the rule of primogeniture preferred but not necessarily followed. Candidates for the succession must be descendants of the Solomonic dynasty, in the male or female line. They must also be practising members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and their candidature must be approved by the Imperial Crown Council. If the Emperor has no direct descendants, or if the crown prince is unable to perform his dynastic duties, the Crown Council selects the successor from amongst the members of the Solomonic dynasty.
- Lij Girma claims that all governments in Ethiopia since the 1916 deposition of his grandfather are illegitimate, and as such, as the seniormost descendant of Iyasu V, he claims to be the nation's rightful monarch.
- Iyasu V was heir apparent of Menelik II and succeeded as Emperor upon the latter's death, but was never crowned. His reign was terminated with the sanction of the Church following allegations of conversion to Islam.
- Succession is limited to members of two lineages of the Kilukeni: the Kinlaza and the Kimpanzu, both descended from Afonso I. It is unclear as to which of the two lines the current pretender belongs.
- During the civil war period beginning in 1669, the line of succession was disputed between two lines of descendants of Afonso I: the Kinlaza and the Kimpanzu. Under Pedro IV (1695–1718), who restored unity to the kingdom in 1709, it was established that the Manikongo was to be elected by a council of six, and that succession would rotate between the two lineages. This system functioned sporadically, with considerable fighting, until the kingship was extinguished by the Portuguese in 1914.
- Emmanuel Bushayija was chosen on 9 January 2017 to succeed his paternal uncle Kigeli V Ndahindurwa, who was deposed on 28 January 1961.
- The royal Abanyiginya clan of Tutsis.
- The mwami is selected from amongst members of the various royal clans by the Abiru, a traditional council of Tutsi and Hutu elders.
- Jamshid previously reigned as sultan from 1 July 1963 until the monarchy's abolition in 1964.
- The Hereditary Chief of the Miskito Nation was elected by the Council of State from amongst the closest male blood relatives of the previous ruler.
- Ahmad Shah, second son of the last reigning king, was Crown Prince of Afghanistan from 26 November 1942 until the monarchy's end in 1973.
- Jin Yuzhang is a nephew of Puyi (1908–1912), the last emperor of China, and the eldest son of Jin Youzhi.
- The emperors of the Qing dynasty were from the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro.
- The House of Champasakti is a branch of the Khun Lo dynasty of Laos.
- Alternatively known as Thibaw, or officially as Dutawadi.
- Sao Oo Kya was imprisoned by the Burmese military regime in 2005.
- Rezā, eldest son of the last reigning shah, was Crown Prince of Iran from birth, on 31 October 1960, until the monarchy was deposed in 1979.
- Another claimant to the throne (since 1956) is Sharif Ali bin al-Hussein, of the same family, but his claim is not considered by some to fulfill the requirements of the former monarchy's laws of succession. Furthermore, his reigning Hāshemite relatives in Jordan have supported Ra'ad's claim, rather than Sharif Ali's.
- The name "Hashimites" refers to members of the Hāshim clan, a sept of the Quraysh tribe to which the Prophet Muhammad belonged.
- Ra'ad's father, Prince Zeid, was appointed Head of the Royal House of Iraq following the assassination of King Faisal II during the coup d'état in 1958. Zeid was the son of Hussein bin Ali, King of Hejaz.
- Alternatively written as Kyaingtong or Keng Tung.
- The position of head of the royal family and heir to the throne of Korea has been disputed among various claimants since the death of Yi Gu. Yi Hae-won was the eldest living grandchild of Gojong as of 2005, while Yi Seok is the tenth son of Prince Yi Kang.
- The House of Yi consists of the descendants of the Joseon dynasty.
- After the monarchy was abolished in 1975, the senior members of the royal family were imprisoned by the military. The deaths of the former king, queen, and crown prince were confirmed by the Lao authorities on 17 December 1989. The dates of actual death were not released, but the current heir, who is the eldest son of the late crown prince, escaped imprisonment and arrived in Thailand on 3 August 1981. He was confirmed as the successor to his grandfather by the Royal Council in Exile on 19 September 1997.
- Jampal Namdol Chökyi Gyaltsen was recognised as the 9th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu by the Tibetan government in 1936. He was publicly proclaimed as such by the current Dalai Lama in 1990, and was formally "enthroned" in 1999. His predecessors were the spiritual leaders of the Gelug branch of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia. The 8th Jebtsundamba Khutuktu was enthroned as Khan of Mongolia upon the country's independence from China in 1911. After his death in 1924, the installation of any further Khutuktus was forbidden by the republican government.
- Succession is neither hereditary nor elective, instead being based on theocratic laws.
- Sao Hso Hom reigned as saopha from 19 July 1947, until the national coup d'état deposed him in 1962.
- The sultans of the Ottoman Empire also held the title Caliph of Islam, thus claiming to be the spiritual leaders of all Muslims. The Ottoman Caliphate was abolished by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in 1924.
- The 14th and current Dalai Lama was recognised as the reincarnation of his predecessor in 1939. He was officially inaugurated on 17 November 1950, from which time he reigned as both spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet until he fled into exile in March 1959. He continues to maintain a government-in-exile, in opposition to the Chinese administration, and remains the seniormost spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists until August 2011 when he abdicated and released temporal authority to the democratically elected Prime Minister Lobsang Sangay.
- Many of the kings of the Qasimid dynasty also held the title Imam and Commander of the Faithful, and were the spiritual leaders of the Zaidiyyah branch of Shi'a Islam. The Imamate ended with the republican revolution in 1962.
- Gyanendra reigned as King of Nepal between 7 November 1950 and 8 January 1951, and again from 4 June 2001 until the monarchy was abolished in 2008.
- Members of the Shah dynasty of Nepal are descended from the Parmar clan of Rajputs from the former state of Narsinghgarh in modern India.
- Binod is the eldest son of Princess Shanti Singh of Nepal (one of the ten people who died in the Nepalese royal massacre). Binod is also the Director of Hotel Sherpa.
- Succession to the throne, whilst hereditary, is also subject to confirmation from the reigning King of Nepal.
- Prakash reigned as raja from 13 November 2002 until 2008, when the constituent monarchies of Nepal were abolished.
- A Tibetan kingdom known locally as Lo, the name "Mustang" is actually a Nepalese corruption of Manthang, the state's capital. Its ruler was styled Raja of Mustang by the Nepalese, and Lo rGyal-po (King of Lo) in Tibetan.
- Jigme reigned as raja from 1964 until 2008, when the constituent monarchies of Nepal were abolished.
- The surname "Bista" was adopted by the last reigning raja and his family.
- A branch of the House of Bagrationi. During the partition of the kingdom in the 15th Century, the Bagratid dynasty split into two main lineages: the Mukhrani line of Kartli, and the Gruzinsky line of Kakheti. It is between these two lineages that the leadership of the Royal House of Georgia is now disputed.
- Charles-Antoine Lamoral of Ligne-La Trémoïlle and Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples are both direct descendants of Janus of Cyprus by way of Amadeus IX, Duke of Savoy. When following the system of male-preference primogeniture, which normally governed the succession to the Crowns of Jerusalem and Cyprus while those kingdoms actually existed, Charles-Antoine Lamoral of Ligne-La Trémoïlle would be the legitimate heir. However, following the death of Yolande Louise of Savoy, Philibert II, Duke of Savoy, of whom Vittorio Emanuele is a direct descendant, put forth a claim on the titles of King of Jerusalem and King of Cyprus on the basis of the Salic law, ostensibly bolstered by the additional jure uxoris claim based on Yolande Louise's legitimate claim to those titles (although the marriage of Yolande Louise and Philibert II never produced issue). Notably, the claim of the House of Savoy to the Jerusalemite and Cypriot crowns rests on the application of the Salic law to the succession to kingdoms which never employed the Salic law, and the application of the Salic law to the succession to the Jerusalemite and Cypriot crowns would in itself defeat the claim of the House of Savoy to the Jerusalemite and Cypriot crowns, as Amadeus IX inherited those pretenses by way of his mother, Anne of Cyprus.
- If reigning, he would be known as "Karl II of Austria" and "Károly V of Hungary".
- On 31 May 1961, Karl's father Otto renounced all claims to the Austrian throne in order to return from exile. He relinquished his position as head of the House of Habsburg to Karl on 1 January 2007.
- A branch of the House of Lorraine cognatically descended from the House of Habsburg. The ducal family of Modena, which was historically descended from the House of Este, traditionally uses the name Austria-Este, which has continued to be adopted as a title by the current line.
- The Austro-Hungarian monarch held the crowns of Austria and Hungary, and also reigned as King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, and more.
- Simeon II reigned as Tsar of Bulgaria from 28 August 1943 until the monarchy was deposed in the Communist revolution of 1946. After returning to the country from exile in 1996, he later served as elected Prime Minister between 24 July 2001 and 17 August 2005.
- A sept of the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin.
- The House of Bourbon is a branch of the Capetian Dynasty.
- A branch of the House of Bourbon.
- Charles Napoléon is the current head of the House of Bonaparte. His son, Jean Christophe, was posthumously appointed heir to the imperial claim in the will of his grandfather, Louis Napoléon.
- Constantine II reigned as King of the Hellenes from 6 March 1964 until the monarchy's abolition in 1973.
- Officially the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, which is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
- The kings of Saxony belonged to the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin.
- A branch of the House of Aviz.
- Margareta's father Michael I reigned as King of the Romanians between 20 July 1927 and 8 June 1930, and again from 6 September 1940 until the monarchy's abolition during the Communist revolution of 1947. A rival claim to the throne is maintained by the descendants of Carol Lambrino, Michael's elder half-brother from his father's first marriage. Carol Lambrino's eldest son, Paul-Philippe, has maintained his claim to the throne since his father's death on 27 January 2006.
- A line of the House of Hohenzollern.
- Heir under the 1923 constitution, which stipulates Salic law.
- The House of Romanov is a line of the House of Holstein-Gottorp, which itself is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
- Full title: Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, used since 1721, although commonly designated Tsar. The emperors of Russia were also the Grand Dukes of Finland from 1809 until 1917, and the Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1916.
- Senior legitimate male-line descendant as promulgated by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1776, on the basis that Infante Carlos's renunciation of his rights to the defunct throne of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was legitimate and enabled his, and his descendants, to claim the Spanish throne.
- The House of Hanover is a branch of the House of Welf, which itself is a branch of the House of Este.
- The royal family of Mecklenburg-Strelitz belongs to the Strelitz branch of the House of Mecklenburg.
- A branch of the House of Oldenburg.
- The principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen were created in 1576 from the partition of the territory of Hohenzollern. When the Hechingen lineage became extinct in 1869, the heirs of the Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen reclaimed the title Prince of Hohenzollern.
- A branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
- The territory of Reuss was partitioned between the sons of the reigning prince in 1564, eventually resulting in the principalities of Reuss Elder Line and Reuss Younger Line. The elder lineage expired in 1927 through the death of Heinrich XXVII, and inheritance passed to the junior line of Köstritz, whose heirs now claim the title Prince Reuss.
- For details on the unusual numbering system of the Reuss-Köstritz lineage, see the main article.
- Vittorio Emanuele, only son of King Umberto II, was heir presumptive to the throne of Italy from his birth on 12 February 1937 until the monarchy was abolished in 1946. He declared himself King of Italy in 1969, claiming that his father, having agreed to submit to a referendum on his position as head of state, had thereby abdicated his throne. The declaration came after his father called for Amedeo, Duke of Aosta to visit him in Cascais, allegedly to name him his heir. Umberto II died on 18 March 1983.
- Descended from the Houses of Boncompagni and Ludovisi. By matrimonial pact between the two families, the male-line descendants bear the name Boncompagni-Ludovisi.
- Leopold Franz, the previous head of the house, abdicated his right to the throne in favour of his son Sigismund upon the date of the former's second marriage in 1993. Sigismund succeeded as Grand Master of the Tuscan Orders (the Order of Saint Joseph and Order of Saint Stephen) on 12 April 1994.
- This branch is known as the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. The right to succession is currently disputed between two branches of the family.
- A branch of the House of Württemberg.
- Although his family no longer holds any hereditary political power, Tokataake remains a highly influential member of the community. He has served a number of terms as the member for Abemama in the national parliament, and still holds his title for land rights purposes.
- A Crown colony of Great Britain from 1857, the Cocos Islands were granted in perpetuity to the Clunies-Ross family by Queen Victoria in 1886. Its resulting self-proclaimed monarchy, however, was not recognised by the British government. It disbanded in 1978, when John Cecil Clunies-Ross relinquished his official authority as governor.
- John Cecil succeeded as king upon the death of his father, on 14 August 1944. He remained overseas in London until 1946, during which time the islands were overseen by a military administrator. Officially, he served as governor of the territory from 1947. He relinquished authority in 1978.
- The House of Kawānanakoa was a collateral line of succession of the reigning Kalākaua dynasty. The last queen, Liliʻuokalani, not having had any issue of her own, adopted and appointed the head of the Kawānanakoa as heir apparent. The House of Kawānanakoa is historically recognised as providing presumptive heirs to the throne should the monarchy be revived. Because of an early succession dispute within the family, there are currently two claimants from this dynasty.
- Noa Kalokuokamaile DeGuair is a descendant of the House of Kalokuokamaile, which was a collateral line of succession of the Kamehameha dynasty, the first line of Hawaiʻian kings. It became extinct in the male line during the time of the monarchy, and now survives through the female line as the House of Laʻanui. The current descendants also belong to the Wilcox lineage of English and Italian descent. His claim on the throne is disputed.
- The House of Laʻanui consists of maternal descendants of the House of Kalokuokamaile, the seniormost branch of the chiefly House of Keōua Nui. It descends from the eldest half-brother of Hawaiʻi's first king, Kamehameha the Great, who united the small chiefdoms of the Hawaiʻian Islands under the Kamehameha dynasty in 1810. When the male heirs of this lineage died out in 1872, it was replaced by the Kalākaua dynasty who ruled till 1893. It claims closer kinship to the kingdom's first dynasty while the Kawānanakoa line claims closer kinship to the kingdom's last dynasty.
- Recognised as the rightful heir to the Tahitian throne by a majority of the royal family's current members. He has migrated overseas, however, and currently lives in Paris.
- An adopted member of the family. He was "enthroned" as Pomare XI during a ceremony attended by descendants of local chiefs. The enthronement was rejected by other members of the royal family.
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Ex-Pepsi Cola employee becomes Rwandan king. Posted at 10:22 UTC. A 56-year-old man who lives in the UK and once worked for a soft drinks company in Uganda has been named Rwanda's king-in-exile. Prince Emmanuel Bushayija succeeds his grandfather, King Kigeli V, who died in the US [sic] in October aged 80. In a statement, the Royal House said the new monarch grew up in exile in Uganda, and later worked for Pepsi Cola in the capital, Kampala. 'He then went on to work in the tourism industry in Kenya, before returning to Rwanda between 1994 and 2000. Since then, His Majesty has lived in the United Kingdom, where he is married with two children,' it added.
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