Page semi-protected

Heads of former ruling families

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of current pretenders)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Entries in this list are based on the relevant succession laws, whether hereditary or elective, irrespective of whether the individual stakes an active claim to the titles associated with the abolished monarchy. Individuals who stake claims to monarchical titles but who are not part of former dynasties are not included. Note that a country may have multiple houses with a claim to the defunct position.


State Pretender Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Kingdom of Burundi Burundi Rosa Paula Iribagiza[af 1] 1 May 1977 Ntwero Daughter of Mwami Mwambutsa IV (1915–1966). Hereditary 1966
 Central African Empire Jean-Bédel Bokassa Jr. 3 November 1996 Bokassa Heir apparent of Emperor Bokassa I (1976–1979).[af 2] Hereditary 1979
Kingdom of Egypt Egypt Fuad II 18 June 1953[af 3] Muhammad Ali Last reigning King (1952–1953). Hereditary 1953
Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia Zera Yacob Amha Selassie[af 4] 7 February 1997 Solomon[af 5] Grandson of Emperor Haile Selassie (1930–1974). Hereditary [af 6] 1975
Girma Yohannes Iyasu[af 7] 1977 Grandson of Emperor Iyasu V (1913–1916).[af 8]
Kingdom of Libya Libya Muhammad bin Hasan 18 June 1992 Senussi Son of Hasan ar-Rida, heir apparent of King Idris I (1916–1969). Hereditary 1969
Idris bin Abdullah May 1989 Relative of King Idris I (1916–1969).
Kingdom of Rwanda Rwanda Emmanuel Bushayija (Yuhi VI) 9 January 2017[af 9] Abanyiginya[af 10] Nephew of Mwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa (1959–1961). Hereditary and Elective[af 11] 1961 [6]
Kingdom of Tunisia Tunisia Muhammad Al Husain 17 June 2013 Al Husain Grandson of Bey Muhammad VI al-Habib (1922–1929). Hereditary 1957
Sultanate of Zanzibar Zanzibar Jamshid bin Abdullah 12 January 1964[af 12] Al Bu Sa'id Last reigning Sultan (1963–1964). Hereditary 1964


State Pretender Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
 Brazil Prince Luiz of Orléans-Braganza 5 July 1981 Orléans-Braganza[am 1] Great-great-grandsons of Emperor Pedro II (1831–1889). Hereditary 1889 [7][8][9][10]


Pedro Carlos 27 December 2007
Mexico Mexico Maximilian von Götzen-Iturbide November 1949 Iturbide[am 2] Descendant of Emperor Agustín I (1822–1823). Hereditary 1867 [15]
Carlos Felipe 18 October 1954 Habsburgo-Lorena Great-great nephew of Emperor Maximilian I (1864–1867) [16][17][18]


State Pretender Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Afghanistan Afghanistan Ahmad Shah 23 July 2007 Barakzai Heir apparent and son of King Zahir Shah (1933–1973).[as 1] Hereditary 1973
Burma (Myanmar) Soe Win 12 January 2019 Konbaung Great-grandson of King Thibaw Min (1878–1885). Hereditary 1885
Champasak Champhonesak 17 March 1980 Champasakti[as 2] Son of Prince Boun Oum (1945–1946), the last reigning prince. Hereditary 1946
China Jin Yuzhang 10 April 2015 Aisin Gioro Great-great-grandson of the Daoguang Emperor (1820–1850) and Nephew of Puyi (1908-1912; 1932-1945) Hereditary 1912 (China)
1945 (Manchuria)
Iran Iran
Reza Pahlavi, Crown Prince of Iran 27 July 1980 Pahlavi Heir apparent and son of Shah Mohammad Rezā (1941–1979).[as 3] Hereditary 1979
Mohammad Hassan Mirza II 5 May 1988 Qajar Descendant of Shah Mohammad Ali (1907–1909). Hereditary 1925
 Iraq Ra'ad bin Zeid[as 4] 18 October 1970 Hāshim[as 5] Relative of King Faisal II (1939–1958).[as 6] Hereditary 1958
Johor-Singapore Tengku Muhammad Shawal bin Tengku Abdul Aziz 31 October 1996 Bendahara-Johor Descendant of Sultan Hussein Shah (1819–1835). Hereditary 1824 [22]
 Korea Yi Won[as 7] 16 July 2005 Yi[as 8] Grandnephew of Emperor Sunjong (1907-1910). Hereditary 1910 [23][24][25][26]
Yi Seok[as 9] Nephew of Emperor Sunjong. [27][28][29][30]
Laos Laos Soulivong Savang 19 September 1997[as 10] Khun Lo Descendant of King Savang Vatthana (1959–1975). Hereditary 1975
Maldives Muhammad Nooraddeen 27 May 1969 Huraa Son of Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen II (1935–1943). Hereditary 1968
 Ottoman Empire (Turkey) Harun Osmanoğlu 18 January 2021 Osman Great-grandson of Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876–1909).[as 11] Hereditary 1922
Ryūkyū Kingdom Ryūkyū Mamoru Shō 30 August 1996 Shō Great-great-grandson of King Shō Tai (1848-1879). Hereditary 1879 [32]
 Sarawak Jason Desmond Anthony Brooke 27 May 2017 Brooke Great-great-nephew of Rajah Vyner (1917–1946). Hereditary 1946 [33]
Sulu Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram 16 February 1986 Kiram Son of the last Sultan of Sulu, Sultan Mohammed Mahakuttah Abdullah Kiram (1974–1986). Hereditary 1915 [34]
Syria Ra'ad bin Zeid 18 October 1970 Hāshim Relative of King Faisal I (1920). Hereditary 1920
 Tibet Tenzin Gyatso 17 March 1959 Last reigning and current recognised Dalai Lama.[as 12] Theocratic[as 13] 1964 [35]
 Vietnam Bảo Ân 15 March 2017 Nguyễn Son of Emperor Bảo Đại (1926–1945). Hereditary 1949
Yemen Yemen Ageel bin Muhammad 6 August 1996 Rassid Eldest son of King Muhammad al-Badr, the last ruling king.[as 14] Hereditary 1962

India and Pakistan

Following the Partition of India in 1947, the majority of princely states in the subcontinent acceded to either the Dominion of Pakistan or the Dominion of India. Official recognition of hereditary royal entitlements and accompanying privy purses was abolished in the Republic of India through a constitutional amendment on 28 December 1971. The same was done in Pakistan on 1 January 1972. In many cases, members of the former ruling families of princely states retain a considerable degree of political influence within their communities. Many leaders continue to be referred to by their claimed titles, including most notably within the Supreme Court. Jammu and Kashmir, subject to an ongoing armed conflict between India, Pakistan and China,[36][37] is the last remaining of the independent princely states once under British suzerainty of which sovereignty continues to be disputed.[38][39]

State Pretender Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Baroda Samarjitsinh Gaekwad 2012 Gaekwad Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Pratap Singh Rao Gaekwad Hereditary 1947
Bhopal State Bhopal state Saif Ali Khan 2011 Great-grandson of Nawab Hamidullah Khan Hereditary 1949
Bharatpur Vishvendra Singh July 1995 Sinsiniwar Jat Son of last ruling Maharaja Brijendra Singh Hereditary 1947
Burdwan Saday Chand Mehtab 1984 Son of last ruling Maharaja Uday Chand Mahtab Hereditary 1947 [40]
Dholpur Hemant Singh 1954 Bamraulia Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Udaybhanu Singh Hereditary 1949
Faridkot Amrit Kaur 1989 Daughter of last ruling Maharaja Harinder Singh Brar Hereditary 1948 [41]
Gwalior Jyotiraditya Scindia 2001 Scindia Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Jivajirao Scindia Hereditary 1948
Hyderabad State Mukarram Jah 1967 Asaf Jah Grandson of last Nizam Osman Ali Khan Hereditary 1948
Indore Usha Devi Holkar 1961 Holkar Daughter of last ruling Maharaja Yashwant Rao Holkar II Hereditary 1948 [42]
Jaipur State Padmanabh Singh 2011 Kachwaha Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Man Singh II Hereditary 1948
Jammu and Kashmir Karan Singh April 1961 Dogra Son of last ruling Maharaja Hari Singh Hereditary
Jodhpur Gaj Singh 26 January 1952 Rathore-Jodhpur Son of last ruling Maharaja Hanwant Singh Hereditary 1947
Khanate of Kalat Suleman Daud 1998 Ahmadzai Grandson of last ruler Ahmad of Kalat Hereditary 1948 [43]
Kolhapur Shahu II 1983 Bhonsle Son of last ruling Maharaja Shahaji II Hereditary 1949
Kota Brijraj Singh 21 June 1991 Son of last ruling Maharaja Bhim Singh II Hereditary 1948
Kutch Pragmulji III 17 October 1991 Jadeja Rajput Son of last ruling Maharaja Madansinhji Hereditary 1948
Maratha Empire (India) Udayanraje Bhosale 4 March 1978 Bhonsle Grandson of Shahu III of Satara, who was adopted by the widow of Pratapsinh Raje-II, who was the younger son of Rajaram Maharaj-III, who was adopted by the widow of Pratapsinh Raje, who was adopted by Venkata Raje, who was adopted by Shahaji II of Satara, who was the adopted son of Chhatrapati Pratap Singh (1808–1818). Hereditary 1818
Mewar Mewar Arvind Singh 19 November 1984 Sisodia Grandson of last Maharana Bhupal Singh Hereditary 1948
Mahendra Singh
Kingdom of Mysore Mysore Yaduveer Krishnadatta Chamaraja Wadiyar 28 May 2015 Wadiyar Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar Hereditary 1948
Nawanagar Shatrusalyasinhji 3 February 1966 Son of last ruling Maharaja Digvijaysinhji Hereditary 1948
Junagadh StateJunagadh State Muhammad Jahangir Khanji 30 July 1989 Khanji Grandson of last ruling Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khan III Hereditary 1948 [44]
Patialia Amarinder Singh June 1974 Phulkian Son of last Maharaja Yadavindra Singh Hereditary 1948
Sikkim Wangchuk Namgyal 29 January 1982 Namgyel Son of Chogyal Palden Thondup Namgyal (1963–1975). Hereditary 1975
Swat Miangul Adnan Aurangzeb September 2014 Miangul Grandson of last Wali Miangul Jahan Zeb Hereditary 1969
Travancore Moolam Thirunal Rama Varma 16 December 2013 Venad Swaroopam Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma Hereditary 1949


Nepal's numerous small monarchies were collectively abolished by the federal government on 7 October 2008. At the time, the thrones of both Salyan and Jajarkot had been vacant since the deaths of rajas Gopendra Bahadur and Prakash Bikram respectively (both in 2003), and have remained vacant.

State Pretender Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Nepal Nepal Gyanendra 28 May 2008[as 15] Shah[as 16] Last reigning Maharajdhiraja (2001–2008). Hereditary 2008
Bajhang Binod Bahadur 7 October 2008[as 17] Last reigning Raja (1989–2008). Hereditary[as 18] [45]
Mustang[as 19] Jigme Singhe Palbar 16 December 2016[as 20] Bista[as 21] Nephew and adopted son of last reigning Raja (1964–2008). Hereditary[as 18] [46]


State Pretender Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Chiang Mai Wongsak Na Chiangmai 1989 Thipchak Grandson of Kaew Nawarat, the last King of Lanna and Prince Ruler of Chiang Mai Hereditary 1939 [47]


State Pretender Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Albania Albania Leka Zogu 30 November 2011 Zogu Grandson of King Zog I (1928–1939). Hereditary de facto 1939
de jure 1944
 Austria-Hungary Karl von Habsburg 4 July 2011[eu 1] Habsburg-Lorraine[eu 2] Grandson of Emperor and King Charles I & IV (1916–1918).[eu 3] Hereditary 1918 [48]
 Bulgaria Simeon II 15 September 1946[eu 4] Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[eu 5] Last reigning Tsar (1943–1946). Hereditary 1946
France (Legitimist) Prince Louis, Duke of Anjou 30 January 1989 Bourbon[eu 6] 9th-great-grandson of King Louis XIV (1643–1715). Hereditary 1830 [49][50]
France France (Orléanist) Prince Jean, Count of Paris 21 January 2019 Orléans[eu 7] 4th-great-grandson of King Louis Philippe I (1830–1848). Hereditary 1848 [51][52]
France France (Bonapartist) Charles Napoléon 3 May 1997[eu 8] Bonaparte Direct descendant of Napoleon's youngest brother Jérôme Bonaparte. Hereditary 1870 [53][54]
Jean Christophe
Georgia (country) Georgia David Bagration 16 January 2008 Mukhrani[as 22] Descendant of King Konstantine II (1478–1505). Hereditary 1801
Nugzar Bagration 13 August 1984 Gruzinsky[as 22] Descendant of King Giorgi XII (1798–1800).
 Greece Constantine II 1 June 1973[eu 9] Glücksburg[eu 10] Last reigning King (1964–1973). Hereditary 1973
Lithuania Lithuania Wilhelm Albert[eu 11] 9 February 1991 Urach[eu 12] Grandson of King Wilhelm Karl (1918–1928). Hereditary 1918
 Montenegro Nikola 24 March 1986 Petrović-Njegoš Great-grandson of King Nikola I (1910–1918). Hereditary 1918
Poland Rüdiger 6 October 2012 Wettin[eu 13] 4th-great-grandnephew of King Fryderyk August I (1807-1815). Hereditary 1815
Alexander 23 July 2012 Saxe-Gessaphe
Portugal Portugal Duarte Pio 24 December 1976 Braganza[eu 14] Great-grandson of King Miguel I (1828–1834). Hereditary 1910
 Romania Margareta[eu 15] 5 December 2017 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen[eu 16] Daughter of King Michael I (1927–1930 and 1940–1947). Hereditary 1947 [56]
Paul-Philippe Hohenzollern 27 January 2006 Grandson of King Carol II (1930–1940).
Karl Friedrich 5 December 2017 Great-grand-nephew of King Ferdinand I (1914–1927).[eu 17]
Russia Maria Vladimirovna 21 April 1992 Romanov[eu 18] Great-great-granddaughter of Emperor Alexander II (1855–1881).[eu 19] Hereditary 1917
Karl Emich of Leiningen 1 June 2013 Great-great-grandson of Emperor Alexander II (1855-1881).
Andrew Romanov 31 December 2016 Great-great-grandson of Emperor Nicholas I (1825–1855).[eu 19]
 Serbia Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia 3 November 1970 Karađorđević Great-grandson of King Peter I (1903–1918), of the Karađorđević line of kings. Hereditary 1918


The German Empire was a federation of a score of smaller monarchies, all of which are now abolished under modern republican Germany, although a handful of monarchs never abdicated their titles. Also, some smaller states ceased to exist at an earlier stage e.g. they were annexed by Prussia after the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. As a result, there are a large number of claimants to various German thrones. Since the dissolution of the German empire, however, a number of former royal dynasties have become extinct in the male line, and are therefore not included in the list below. MecklenburgSchwerin became extinct in 2001, Saxe-Altenburg in 1991, and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen in 1971.

In all cases the succession is hereditary.

State Pretender Since House Claim Abolition Ref(s)
 Germany Georg Friedrich 26 September 1994 Hohenzollern Great-great-grandson of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888–1918). Hereditary 1918 [57][58]
 Bavaria Franz, Duke of Bavaria[59] 8 July 1996 Wittelsbach Great-grandson of King Ludwig III (1913–1918). Hereditary 1918
 Hanover Ernst August 9 December 1987 Hanover[eu 20] Great-great-grandson of King Georg V (1851–1866). Hereditary 1866 [60]
 Prussia Georg Friedrich 26 September 1994 Hohenzollern Great-great-grandson of King Wilhelm II (1888–1918). Hereditary 1918
 Saxony Rüdiger 6 October 2012 Wettin[eu 13] Great-grandson of King Friedrich August III (1904–1918). Hereditary 1918
Alexander 23 July 2012 Saxe-Gessaphe Great-grandson of King Friedrich August III (1904–1918).
 Württemberg Charles 17 April 1975 Württemberg Grandnephew of King Wilhelm II (1891–1918). Hereditary 1918
Grand Duchies
 Baden Maximilian 27 October 1963 Zähringen Great-great-grandson of Grand Duke Leopold I (1830–1852). Hereditary 1918
Hesse and by Rhine Donatus 23 May 2013 Hesse 11th cousin twice removed of Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig (1892–1918). Hereditary 1918
Mecklenburg-Strelitz Borwin 26 January 1996 Mecklenburg[eu 21] Great-great-great-grandson of Grand Duke Georg (1816–1860). Hereditary 1918
Oldenburg Christian 20 September 2014 Holstein-Gottorp[eu 22] Great-grandson of Grand Duke Friedrich August II (1900–1918). Hereditary 1918
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Michael 14 October 1988 Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach[eu 5] Grandson of Grand Duke Wilhelm Ernst (1901–1918). Hereditary 1918
Anhalt Julius Eduard 9 October 1963 Ascania Son of Duke Joachim Ernst (1918). Hereditary 1918
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Andreas 23 January 1998 Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[eu 5] Grandson of Duke Carl Eduard (1900–1918). Hereditary 1918 [61]
Saxe-Meiningen Konrad 4 October 1984 Saxe-Meiningen[eu 5] Great-grandson of Duke Georg II (1866–1914). Hereditary 1918
Schleswig-Holstein Christoph 30 September 1980 Glücksburg[eu 10] Great-great-grandnephew of Duke Frederik VII (1808–1863). Hereditary 1866
Hohenzollern[eu 23] Karl Friedrich 16 September 2010 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen[eu 24] Great-great-grandson of Prince Karl Anton (1848–1849). Hereditary 1850 [62]
Lippe Stephan 20 August 2015 Lippe Grandson of Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe (1905–1918). Hereditary 1918
Friedrich Wilhelm 15 June 1990 Grandnephew of Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe (1905–1918).
Reuss[eu 25] Heinrich XIV 20 June 2012 Reuss Relative of Prince Heinrich XXVII (1913–1918).[eu 26] Hereditary 1918
Schaumburg-Lippe Alexander 28 August 2003 Lippe Grandnephew of Prince Adolf II (1911–1918). Hereditary 1918 [63]
Waldeck and Pyrmont Wittekind 30 November 1967 Waldeck Grandson of Prince Friedrich (1893–1918). Hereditary 1918 [64]


Until the mid-nineteenth century, the Italian peninsula comprised a number of states, some of which were monarchies. During the Italian unification, the monarchs of such agglomerated states lost their sovereignty and their titles became purely ceremonial. The resultant throne of the Kingdom of Italy was held by the former king of Sardinia.

State Pretender Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
 Italy Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia 1 June 2021 Savoy Great-great-great-grandson of King Vittorio Emanuele II (1861–1878). Hereditary 1946 [65][66]
Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples[eu 27] 15 December 1969 Heir apparent and son of King Umberto II (1946).
Modena Lorenzo 7 February 1996 Austria-Este[eu 2] Great-grandnephew of Franz Ferdinand, adopted heir of Duke Francesco V (1846–1859). Hereditary 1859
 Parma Carlos 18 August 2010 Bourbon-Parma[eu 7] Great-grandson of Duke Roberto I (1854–1859). Hereditary 1859 [68][69]
Tuscany Sigismondo[eu 28] 18 June 1993 Habsburg-Lorraine[eu 2] Great-great-grandson of Grand Duke Ferdinando IV (1859). Hereditary 1859 [70]
 Two Sicilies Pedro of Calabria 5 October 2015 Bourbon-Two Sicilies[eu 29] Descendants of King Ferdinando II (1830–1859). Hereditary 1861
Carlo of Castro 20 March 2008


State Pretender Since House Claim Abolition Ref(s)
Hawaii Hawaiʻi Abigail Kawānanakoa 20 May 1969 Kawānanakoa[oc 1] Descendant of David Kawānanakoa, heir apparent of Queen Liliʻuokalani (1891–1893). 1895
Quentin Kawānanakoa 29 July 1997
Owana Salazar[oc 2] 19 September 1988 Laʻanui[oc 3] Descendant of Kalokuokamaile, half-brother of King Kamehameha I (1795–1819).
Tahiti Léopold Pōmare[oc 4] Pōmare Descendant of Queen Pōmare IV (1827–1877). 1880 [75]

See also



  1. ^ As the last living sister and daughter of the last and second-to-last kings respectively, Princess Rosa Paula Iribagiza is considered the head of the royal household. According to the relevant laws of succession, however, the crown must pass to a male member of the family.
  2. ^ Jean-Bédel Bokassa was Crown Prince of the Central African Empire from its inception on 4 December 1976 until its abolition on 20 September 1979.
  3. ^ Fuad II previously reigned as King of Egypt and the Sudan during his infancy, from 26 July 1952 until the monarchy's official abolition in 1953. He reigned in absentia, and under a regent.
  4. ^ Designated heir presumptive by his grandfather the Emperor on 14 April 1974. Confirmed as heir apparent by his father Amha Selassie I on 6 April 1988. He has used the title of crown prince since 7 April 1989, when his father was proclaimed emperor-in-exile. He is recognised as heir to the throne by the Imperial Crown Council.
  5. ^ The Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia claims descent from King Solomon of Israel, who belonged to the House of David. Both of the current claimants are from the House of Shoa, which represents the junior branch of the dynasty.
  6. ^ According to the 1955 Constitution,[1] the Emperor designated his successor from members of his own family, with the rule of primogeniture preferred but not necessarily followed. Candidates for the succession must be descendants of the Solomonic dynasty, in the male or female line. They must also be practising members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and their candidature must be approved by the Imperial Crown Council. If the Emperor has no direct descendants, or if the crown prince is unable to perform his dynastic duties, the Crown Council selects the successor from amongst the members of the Solomonic dynasty.
  7. ^ Lij Girma claims that all governments in Ethiopia since the 1916 deposition of his grandfather are illegitimate, and as such, as the seniormost descendant of Iyasu V, he claims to be the nation's rightful monarch.
  8. ^ Iyasu V was heir apparent of Menelik II and succeeded as Emperor upon the latter's death, but was never crowned. His reign was terminated with the sanction of the Church following allegations of conversion to Islam.
  9. ^ Emmanuel Bushayija was chosen on 9 January 2017[2] to succeed his paternal uncle Kigeli V Ndahindurwa, who was deposed on 28 January 1961.[3]
  10. ^ The royal Abanyiginya clan of Tutsis.[4]
  11. ^ The mwami is selected from amongst members of the various royal clans by the Abiru, a traditional council of Tutsi and Hutu elders.[5]
  12. ^ Jamshid previously reigned as sultan from 1 July 1963 until the monarchy's abolition in 1964.


  1. ^ The imperial family of Brazil is descended from the Houses of Bragança and Orléans. The current line of succession is disputed between two branches: the Vassouras branch, headed by Prince Luiz, and the Petrópolis branch, headed by Prince Pedro Carlos.
  2. ^ The current line of succession to the Mexican throne is descended from the House of Iturbide and Habsburg, which respectively ruled the First (1822–1823) and Second (1864–1867) Empires of Mexico. Succession in the Habsburg line passed to the Iturbide family[citation needed] through Emperor Maximilian I's formal adoption of Agustín de Iturbide y Green and Salvador de Iturbide y Marzán, two grandsons of Emperor Agustín I.


  1. ^ Ahmad Shah, second son of the last reigning king, was Crown Prince of Afghanistan from 26 November 1942 until the monarchy's end in 1973.
  2. ^ The House of Champasakti is a branch of the Khun Lo dynasty of Laos.
  3. ^ Rezā, eldest son of the last reigning shah, was Crown Prince of Iran from birth, on 31 October 1960, until the monarchy was deposed in 1979.
  4. ^ Another claimant to the throne (since 1956) is Sharif Ali bin al-Hussein, of the same family, but his claim is not considered by some to fulfill the requirements of the former monarchy's laws of succession. Furthermore, his reigning Hāshemite relatives in Jordan have supported Ra'ad's claim, rather than Sharif Ali's.[20]
  5. ^ The name "Hashimites" refers to members of the Hāshim clan, a sept of the Quraysh tribe to which the Prophet Muhammad belonged.[21]
  6. ^ Ra'ad's father, Prince Zeid, was appointed Head of the Royal House of Iraq following the assassination of King Faisal II during the coup d'état in 1958. Zeid was the son of Hussein bin Ali, King of Hejaz.
  7. ^ Yi Ku appointed Yi Won, one of his first cousins once removed, as his heir in 10 July 2005 before his death.[23] The status of Yi Won as the leader of Jeonju Lee Royal Family Association, however, didn't become valid until 22 July 2005.[24] Yi Won later officially became the director of the family association on June 27, 2007.[25]
  8. ^ The House of Yi consists of the descendants of the Joseon dynasty.
  9. ^ Yi Seok claimed that, in the will of late crown princess Yi Bangja, he was named as "first successor".[27]
  10. ^ After the monarchy was abolished in 1975, the senior members of the royal family were imprisoned by the military. The deaths of the former king, queen, and crown prince were confirmed by the Lao authorities on 17 December 1989. The dates of actual death were not released, but the current heir, who is the eldest son of the late crown prince, escaped imprisonment and arrived in Thailand on 3 August 1981. He was confirmed as the successor to his grandfather by the Royal Council in Exile on 19 September 1997.
  11. ^ The sultans of the Ottoman Empire also held the title Caliph of Islam, thus claiming to be the spiritual leaders of all Muslims. The Ottoman Caliphate was abolished by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in 1924.[31]
  12. ^ The 14th and current Dalai Lama was recognised as the reincarnation of his predecessor in 1939. He was officially inaugurated on 17 November 1950, from which time he reigned as both spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet until he fled into exile in March 1959. He continues to maintain a government-in-exile, in opposition to the Chinese administration, and remains the seniormost spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists until August 2011 when he abdicated and released temporal authority to the democratically elected Prime Minister Lobsang Sangay.
  13. ^ Succession is neither hereditary nor elective, instead being based on theocratic laws.
  14. ^ Many of the kings of the Qasimid dynasty also held the title Imam and Commander of the Faithful, and were the spiritual leaders of the Zaidiyyah branch of Shi'a Islam. The Imamate ended with the republican revolution in 1962.
  15. ^ Gyanendra reigned as King of Nepal between 7 November 1950 and 8 January 1951, and again from 4 June 2001 until the monarchy was abolished in 2008.
  16. ^ Members of the Shah dynasty of Nepal are descended from the Parmar clan of Rajputs from the former state of Narsinghgarh in modern India.
  17. ^ Binod is the eldest son of Princess Shanti Singh of Nepal (one of the ten people who died in the Nepalese royal massacre). Binod is also the Director of Hotel Sherpa.
  18. ^ a b Succession to the throne, whilst hereditary, is also subject to confirmation from the reigning King of Nepal.
  19. ^ A Tibetan kingdom known locally as Lo, the name "Mustang" is actually a Nepalese corruption of Manthang, the state's capital. Its ruler was styled Raja of Mustang by the Nepalese, and Lo rGyal-po (King of Lo) in Tibetan.
  20. ^ Jigme reigned as raja from 1964 until 2008, when the constituent monarchies of Nepal were abolished.
  21. ^ The surname "Bista" was adopted by the last reigning raja and his family.
  22. ^ a b A branch of the House of Bagrationi. During the partition of the kingdom in the 15th Century, the Bagratid dynasty split into two main lineages: the Mukhrani line of Kartli, and the Gruzinsky line of Kakheti. It is between these two lineages that the leadership of the Royal House of Georgia is now disputed.


  1. ^ On 31 May 1961, Karl's father Otto renounced all claims to the Austrian throne in order to return from exile. He relinquished his position as head of the House of Habsburg to Karl on 1 January 2007.
  2. ^ a b c A branch of the House of Lorraine cognatically descended from the House of Habsburg. The ducal family of Modena, which was historically descended from the House of Este, traditionally uses the name Austria-Este, which has continued to be adopted as a title by the current line.
  3. ^ The Austro-Hungarian monarch held the crowns of Austria and Hungary, and also reigned as King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, and more.
  4. ^ Simeon II reigned as Tsar of Bulgaria from 28 August 1943 until the monarchy was deposed in the Communist revolution of 1946. After returning to the country from exile in 1996, he later served as elected Prime Minister between 24 July 2001 and 17 August 2005.
  5. ^ a b c d A sept of the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin.
  6. ^ The House of Bourbon is a branch of the Capetian Dynasty.
  7. ^ a b A branch of the House of Bourbon.
  8. ^ Charles Napoléon is the current head of the House of Bonaparte. His son, Jean Christophe, was posthumously appointed heir to the imperial claim in the will of his grandfather, Louis Napoléon.
  9. ^ Constantine II reigned as King of the Hellenes from 6 March 1964 until the monarchy's abolition in 1973.
  10. ^ a b Officially the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, which is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
  11. ^ Following the country's independence from Russia in 1918, the Council of Lithuania voted to establish a monarchy, and invited Prince Wilhelm, the Duke of Urach, to take the throne as king. Wilhelm accepted the nomination in July 1918, and adopted the regnal name Mindaugas II. During the subsequent German Revolution, however, the Council withdrew its decision in November 1918, and Wilhelm was never crowned. His grandson Wilhelm Albert, Duke of Urach, is the head of the family since 9 February 1991. His marriage in 1992 was morganatic and so in 2009 his brother, Prince Inigo of Urach, visited Lithuania and announced that if offered the throne he would be ready to assume it.[55]
  12. ^ A branch of the House of Württemberg.
  13. ^ a b The kings of Saxony belonged to the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin.
  14. ^ A branch of the House of Aviz.
  15. ^ Margareta's father Michael I reigned as King of Romania between 20 July 1927 and 8 June 1930, and again from 6 September 1940 until the monarchy's abolition during the Communist revolution of 1947. A rival claim to the throne is maintained by the descendants of Carol Lambrino, Michael's elder half-brother from his father's first marriage. Carol Lambrino's eldest son, Paul-Philippe, has maintained his claim to the throne since his father's death on 27 January 2006.
  16. ^ A line of the House of Hohenzollern.
  17. ^ Heir under the 1923 constitution, which stipulates Salic law.
  18. ^ The House of Romanov is a line of the House of Holstein-Gottorp, which itself is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
  19. ^ a b Full title: Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, used since 1721, although commonly designated Tsar. The emperors of Russia were also the Grand Dukes of Finland from 1809 until 1917, and the Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1916.
  20. ^ The House of Hanover is a branch of the House of Welf, which itself is a branch of the House of Este.
  21. ^ The royal family of Mecklenburg-Strelitz belongs to the Strelitz branch of the House of Mecklenburg.
  22. ^ A branch of the House of Oldenburg.
  23. ^ The principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen were created in 1576 from the partition of the territory of Hohenzollern. When the Hechingen lineage became extinct in 1869, the heirs of the Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen reclaimed the title Prince of Hohenzollern.
  24. ^ A branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
  25. ^ The territory of Reuss was partitioned between the sons of the reigning prince in 1564, eventually resulting in the principalities of Reuss Elder Line and Reuss Younger Line. The elder lineage expired in 1927 through the death of Heinrich XXVII, and inheritance passed to the junior line of Köstritz, whose heirs now claim the title Prince Reuss.
  26. ^ For details on the unusual numbering system of the Reuss-Köstritz lineage, see the main article.
  27. ^ Vittorio Emanuele, only son of King Umberto II, was heir presumptive to the throne of Italy from his birth on 12 February 1937 until the monarchy was abolished in 1946. He declared himself King of Italy in 1969, claiming that his father, having agreed to submit to a referendum on his position as head of state, had thereby abdicated his throne. The declaration came after his father called for Amedeo, Duke of Aosta to visit him in Cascais, allegedly to name him his heir.[67] Umberto II died on 18 March 1983.
  28. ^ Leopold Franz, the previous head of the house, abdicated his right to the throne in favour of his son Sigismund upon the date of the former's second marriage in 1993. Sigismund succeeded as Grand Master of the Tuscan Orders (the Order of Saint Joseph and Order of Saint Stephen) on 12 April 1994.
  29. ^ This branch is known as the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. The right to succession is currently disputed between two branches of the family.


  1. ^ The House of Kawānanakoa was a collateral line of succession of the reigning Kalākaua dynasty.[71] The last queen, Liliʻuokalani, not having had any issue of her own, adopted and appointed the head of the Kawānanakoa as heir apparent. The House of Kawānanakoa is historically recognised as providing presumptive heirs to the throne should the monarchy be revived. Because of an early succession dispute within the family, there are currently two claimants from this dynasty.
  2. ^ Noa Kalokuokamaile DeGuair is a descendant of the House of Kalokuokamaile, which was a collateral line of succession of the Kamehameha dynasty, the first line of Hawaiʻian kings. It became extinct in the male line during the time of the monarchy, and now survives through the female line as the House of Laʻanui.[72] The current descendants also belong to the Wilcox lineage of English and Italian descent. His claim on the throne is disputed.
  3. ^ The House of Laʻanui consists of maternal descendants of the House of Kalokuokamaile,[72] the seniormost branch of the chiefly House of Keōua Nui.[73] It descends from the eldest half-brother of Hawaiʻi's first king, Kamehameha the Great, who united the small chiefdoms of the Hawaiʻian Islands under the Kamehameha dynasty in 1810. When the male heirs of this lineage died out in 1872, it was replaced by the Kalākaua dynasty who ruled till 1893. It claims closer kinship to the kingdom's first dynasty while the Kawānanakoa line claims closer kinship to the kingdom's last dynasty.[74]
  4. ^ Recognised as the rightful heir to the Tahitian throne by a majority of the royal family's current members. He has migrated overseas, however, and currently lives in Paris.[75]


  1. ^ Imperial Constitution of Ethiopia (1955): Art. 2–6.
  2. ^ "Africa highlights: Tuesday 10 January 2017 as it happened". BBC News. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 11 January 2017. Ex-Pepsi Cola employee becomes Rwandan king. Posted at 10:22 UTC. A 56-year-old man who lives in the UK and once worked for a soft drinks company in Uganda has been named Rwanda's king-in-exile. Prince Emmanuel Bushayija succeeds his grandfather, King Kigeli V, who died in the US [sic] in October aged 80. In a statement, the Royal House said the new monarch grew up in exile in Uganda, and later worked for Pepsi Cola in the capital, Kampala. 'He then went on to work in the tourism industry in Kenya, before returning to Rwanda between 1994 and 2000. Since then, His Majesty has lived in the United Kingdom, where he is married with two children,' it added.
  3. ^ Leonhard Praeg (2007). The Geometry of Violence. AFRICAN SUN MEDIA. p. 39. ISBN 9781920109752.
  4. ^ "Rwanda: Clan of the dynasty Abanyiginya". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 31 October 2002.
  5. ^ Pomeray, J.K. (1988). Rwanda. Chelsea House. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-55546-783-8.
  6. ^ Aimable Twagilimana (2007). Historical Dictionary of Rwanda. Scarecrow Press. p. xxx. ISBN 9780810864269.
  7. ^ Gutiérrez, Bernardo (9 January 2008). "La familia real brasileña defiende los nuevos ideales". Diario Público (in Portuguese). Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  8. ^ "Câmara dá título de cidadão de Brasília a dois herdeiros de Dom Pedro". G1. 30 June 2017.
  9. ^ "Em meio ao caos, a família imperial brasileira sonha em voltar a reinar". Estado de Minas. 6 April 2018.
  10. ^ "Assembleia homenageia herdeiro da família real". Legislative Assembly of Minas Gerais. 31 July 2019.
  11. ^ "Danilo Gentili recebe o Príncipe Dom Bertrand no The Noite". Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão. 22 September 2019.
  12. ^ "O que pensam os brasileiros que pedem a volta da monarquia?". Universo Online. 15 November 2019.
  13. ^ "Conheça a árvore genealógica da família imperial, expulsa do Brasil há 130 anos". Folha de S.Paulo. 13 November 2019.
  14. ^ "Herdeiro de Dom Pedro II busca princesa para manter a dinastia". IstoÉ. 14 November 2019.
  15. ^ Charles Mikos de Tarrodhaza; Teodoro Amerlinck y Zirion; David Williamson (1994). The Imperial House of Mexico: The House of Iturbide. Quacks.
  16. ^ " – Your favorite newspapers and magazines". Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  17. ^ "Mitos y presuntos herederos a un inexistente torno de México | La Crónica de Hoy - Jalisco". Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  18. ^ "Archiduques de Habsburgo regresan a Chapultepec". El Siglo (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  19. ^ "#YoMaximiliano: La entrevista con Carlos Felipe de Hasburgo". (in Spanish). Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  20. ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (28 January 2005). "The King Is Dead (Has Been for 46 Years) but Two Iraqis Hope: Long Live the King!". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  21. ^ Business Optimization Consultants B.O.C. "The Hashemites: Introduction". Office of King Hussein I. Government of Jordan, The Royal Hashemite Court. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
  22. ^ Zaccheus, Melody (13 September 2015). "Growing up in a historic monument". The Straits Times. Singapore: Singapore Press Holdings Limited. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  23. ^ a b "끊어진 조선황실 후계 40대 회사원이 잇는다". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  24. ^ a b "황실 후손 생활 담은 다큐 만들고파". The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  25. ^ a b "역대 총재". Jeonju Lee Royal Family Association. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  26. ^ "Jeonju Lee Royal Family Association". Jeonju Lee Royal Family Association. Retrieved 8 July 2020. (English website)
  27. ^ a b "Coronation of Korea's new empress leads to royal family controversy". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  28. ^ "Korean royalty seeks to restore ancestral pride". The Washington Times. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  29. ^ "Prince hopes to bring monarchy back to S.Korea". Reuters. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  30. ^ "Forgotten Korean Prince gets Royal Treatment". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  31. ^ Simon, Reeva S; Mattar, Philip; Bulliet, Richard W (1996). Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East. 1. London: Macmillan Reference USA. p. 437. ISBN 978-0-02-897061-5.
  32. ^ Leavenworth, Charles (1905). The Loochoo Islands. North China Herald Office, Shanghai: General Books. ISBN 978-1-152-20847-6.
  33. ^ Soszynski, Henry. "Sarawak". Genealogical Gleanings. University of Queensland. Archived from the original on 20 February 2005. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  34. ^ Memorandum Order 427, Manila, Philippines: Office of the President of the Philippines, 1974
  35. ^ "From Birth to Exile". The Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama. Retrieved 20 April 2010.
  36. ^ "Kashmir: The origins of the dispute". BBC. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  37. ^ "6.5% Polling in Srinagar Lok Sabha Seat, Clashes Kill 8 in J&K". The Quint. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  38. ^ "Sovereignty of Jammu and Kashmir can not be challenged, says High Court". India TV News. 18 July 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
  39. ^ "A land mark judgement". Greater Kashmir. 18 August 2016.
  40. ^ Kamal, Neel. "Daughter of Faridkot's last maharaja passes away | Amritsar News – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  41. ^ Nelson, Dean (29 July 2013). "Indian princesses win battle over maharaja's £2.5bn fortune". Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  42. ^ "Bygone grandeur". Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  43. ^ McCarthy, James (20 April 2014). "Meet Suleman of Balochistan – the KING who lives in exile in Cardiff". walesonline. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  44. ^ Reddy, B. Muralidhar (12 July 2001). "Nawab wants Musharraf to plead Junagadh's case". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  45. ^ "Gyanendra is gone but Nepal still pays for 'kings'". The Hindu. 28 June 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  46. ^ Andrea Oschetti. "Mustang, an isolated part of Nepal, has caves, hikes and royals". CNN. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  47. ^ [A picture of Lanna history]
  48. ^ Brook-Shepherd, Gordon (2003). Uncrowned emperor: the life and times of Otto von Habsburg. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 254. ISBN 978-1-85285-439-3.
  49. ^ "Le Prince Louis XX" (in French). Institut de la Maison de Bourbon. 2006. Archived from the original|archive-url= requires |url= (help) on 16 July 2011. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)[dead link]
  50. ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "The French Legitimist Case". Almanach de la Cour. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  51. ^ "Le Comte de Paris" (in French). Institut de la Maison Royale de France. 2008. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
  52. ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "Genealogy of the Royal House of Orléans". Almanach de la Cour. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  53. ^ "Jean-Christophe, Prínce Napoleón" (in Spanish). Instituto Napoleónico México-Francia. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
  54. ^ Lichfield, John (3 December 1997). "Battle rages for the Napoleonic succession". The Independent. Paris: Independent Print Limited. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
  55. ^ "Direct descendant to the throne of Lithuania, grandson of Mindaugas II, visits Lithuania". Lietuva. Government of Lithuania. 22 November 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
  56. ^ "Biografie" (in Romanian). General Secretariat of His Majesty King Michael I. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
  57. ^ Blankart, Michaela, ed. (2009). "George Frederick The Prince of Prussia". Preussen. Translated by Delaney, Richard. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  58. ^ Velde, François (1998). "The Hohenzollern Succession Dispute". Heraldica. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  59. ^ group=eu
  60. ^ Heinrich, Prinz von Hannover (2002). "Ernst August, Prinz von Hannover, Herzog zu Braunschweig und Lüneburg" (in German). MatrixMedia Verlag. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  61. ^ Männl, Anja. "Andreas Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha" (in German). Herzogliche Hauptverwaltung Coburg. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  62. ^ Schloss Sigmaringen. "The Family Tree". Prince of Hohenzollern Group. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  63. ^ Perl, Alexander. "Biografie Fürst Alexander" (in German). Schloss Bückeburg. Archived from the original on 11 February 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  64. ^ Mergel, Wolfgang; Wagener, Ekkehard; Obst, Carsten (2001). "Genealogie: Wittekind, Fürst zu Waldeck-Pyrmont" (in German). Waldecker Münzen. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
  65. ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "Royal House of Italy". Almanach de la Cour. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  66. ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "Genealogy of the Royal House of Italy". Almanach de la Cour. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  67. ^ de Montjouvent, Philippe. Le Comte de Paris et sa Descendance. Editions du Chaney, 1998, Charenton, France. pp. 34–347. French. ISBN 2-913211-00-3.
  68. ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "Genealogy of the Branch of Bourbon-Parma". Almanach de la Cour. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  69. ^ Agosti, Guido. "La Dinastia". Reale e Ducale Casa di Borbone Parma. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
  70. ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. "Dinastia Gran Ducale di Toscana" (in Italian). Almanach de la Cour. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010.
  71. ^ "Draft Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi". (14 January 1893), Art. 22.
  72. ^ a b Laʻanui, Elizabeth Kekaʻaniau; Downward, Dani and Liam. "Kalokuokamaile's Descendants". The Official website of the Royal Family of Hawaii. Ke Aliʻi Publishing. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
  73. ^ Pratt, Elizabeth Kekaʻaniauokalani Kalaninuiohilaukapu (1920). History of Keoua Kalanikupuapa-i-nui. T.H. Publishing.
  74. ^ Laʻanui, Elizabeth Kekaʻaniau; Downward, Dani and Liam. "Introduction". The Official website of the Royal Family of Hawaii. Ke Aliʻi Publishing. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
  75. ^ a b "Joinville Pomare s'est fait introniser roi Pomare XI". Tahitienne de Presse (in French). 28 May 2009. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 2 June 2010.

Further reading