Heads of former ruling families

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These individuals may or may not claim titles associated with an abolished monarchy. Individuals who stake claims to monarchical titles but who are not part of former dynasties are not included. Note that a country may have multiple houses with a claim to the defunct position.

Africa[edit]

State Head Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Kingdom of Burundi Burundi Rosa Paula Iribagiza[af 1] 1 May 1977 Ntwero Daughter of Mwami Mwambutsa IV (1915–1966). Hereditary 1966
 Central African Empire Jean-Bédel Bokassa Jr. 3 November 1996 Bokassa Heir apparent and son of Emperor Bokassa I (1976–1979).[af 2] Hereditary 1979
Kingdom of Egypt Egypt Fuad II 18 June 1953[af 3] Muhammad Ali Last reigning King (1952–1953). Hereditary 1953
Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia Zera Yacob Amha Selassie[af 4] 7 February 1997 Solomon[af 5] Grandson of Emperor Haile Selassie (1930–1974). Hereditary [af 6] 1975
Girma Yohannes Iyasu[af 7] 1977 Grandson of Emperor Iyasu V (1913–1916).[af 8]
Kingdom of Libya Libya Muhammad bin Hasan 18 June 1992 Senussi Grandnephew of King Idris I (1916–1969). Hereditary 1969
Idris bin Abdullah May 1989 Relative of King Idris I (1916–1969).
Kingdom of Rwanda Rwanda Emmanuel Bushayija (Yuhi VI) 9 January 2017[af 9] Abanyiginya[af 10] Nephew of Mwami Kigeli V Ndahindurwa (1959–1961). Hereditary and Elective[af 11] 1961 [6]
Kingdom of Tunisia Tunisia Muhammad Al Husain 17 June 2013 Al Husain Grandson of Bey Muhammad VI al-Habib (1922–1929). Hereditary 1957
Sultanate of Zanzibar Zanzibar Jamshid bin Abdullah 12 January 1964[af 12] Al Bu Sa'id Last reigning Sultan (1963–1964). Hereditary 1964

Americas[edit]

State Head Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
 Brazil Bertrand 15 July 2022 Orléans-Braganza[am 1] Great-great-grandson of Emperor Pedro II (1831–1889). Hereditary 1889 [7][8][9][10]
[11][12][13]

[14]

Pedro Carlos 27 December 2007
Mexico Mexico Maximilian November 1949 Iturbide[am 2] Great-great-great-grandson of Emperor Agustín I (1822–1823). Hereditary 1867 [16]
Carlos Felipe 6 September 2011 Habsburg-Lorraine Great-great-grandnephew of Emperor Maximilian I (1864–1867) [17][18][19]
[20]
Mosquitia Josephenie Hendy Twaska
Clarence Robertson
1957 Hendy Great-granddaughter of George William Albert Hendy (1879–1888) Hereditary 1894 [21][22][23]
[24][25][26]

Asia[edit]

State Head Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Afghanistan Afghanistan Ahmad Shah 23 July 2007 Barakzai Heir apparent and son of King Zahir Shah (1933–1973).[as 1] Hereditary 1973
Burma Soe Win 12 January 2019 Konbaung Great-grandson of Thibaw Min (1878-1885) Hereditary 1885 [27][28]
China China Jin Yuzhang 10 April 2015 Aisin Gioro Great-great-grandson of the Daoguang Emperor (1820–1850) and nephew of the Xuantong Emperor (1908–1912; 1932–1945) Hereditary 1912
(Qing dynasty)
1945
(Manchukuo)
Iran Iran
(Pahlavi)
Reza Pahlavi 27 July 1980 Pahlavi Heir apparent and son of Shah Mohammad Rezā (1941–1979).[as 2] Hereditary 1979
Iran
(Qajar)
Mohammad Hassan Mirza II 5 May 1988 Qajar Great-grandson of Shah Mohammad Ali (1907–1909). Hereditary 1925
 Iraq Ra'ad bin Zeid 18 October 1970 Hāshim[as 3] Relative of King Faisal II (1939–1958).[as 4] Hereditary 1958
Johor-Singapore Muhammad Shawal 31 October 1996 Bendahara-Johor 4th-great-grandson of Sultan Hussein Shah (1819–1835). Hereditary 1824 [30]
 Korea Yi Won[as 5] 16 July 2005 Yi[as 6] Grandnephew of Emperor Sunjong (1907–1910). Hereditary 1910 [31][32][33][34]
Yi Seok[as 7] Nephew of Emperor Sunjong. [35][36][37][38]
Laos Laos Soulivong Savang 19 September 1997[as 8] Khun Lo Grandson of King Sisavang Vatthana (1959–1975). Hereditary 1975
Maldives Muhammad Nooraddeen 27 May 1969 Huraa Son of Sultan Hassan Nooraddeen II (1935–1943). Hereditary 1968
 Ottoman Empire (Turkey) Harun Osmanoğlu 18 January 2021 Osman Great-grandson of Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876–1909).[as 9] Hereditary 1922
Ryūkyū Kingdom Ryūkyū Mamoru Shō 30 August 1996 Shō Great-great-grandson of King Shō Tai (1848–1879). Hereditary 1879 [40]
 Sarawak Jason Desmond Anthony 27 May 2017 Brooke Great-grandnephew of Rajah Vyner (1917–1946). Hereditary 1946 [41]
Sulu Muedzul Lail Tan Kiram 16 February 1986 Kiram Son of the last Sultan of Sulu, Sultan Mohammed Mahakuttah Abdullah Kiram (1974–1986). Hereditary 1915 [42]
Syria Ra'ad bin Zeid 18 October 1970 Hāshim Half-nephew of King Faisal I (1920). Hereditary 1920
Vietnam Bao Ngoc 15 March 2017 Nguyen Phuc Eldest son of Emperor Duy Tân (1907–1916) Hereditary 1945 [43]
Yemen Yemen Ageel bin Muhammad 6 August 1996 Rassid Eldest son of King Muhammad al-Badr (1962), the last ruling king.[as 10] Hereditary 1962

India and Pakistan[edit]

State Head Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Alwar Jitendra Singh 15 February 2009 Kachhwaha Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Tej Singh Prabhakar Hereditary 1949 [44]
Bahawalpur Nawab Salahuddin Abbasi 14 April 1988 Abbasi Grandson of last ruling Nawab Sadeq Mohammad Khan V Hereditary 1955 [45]
Balasinor Salauddinkhan Babi 25 January 2018 Babi Son of last ruling Nawab Muhammad Salabat Khan Hereditary 1949 [46][47]
Bamra Nitesh Ganga Deb 1997 Grandson of last ruling Raja Bhanuganga Tribhuban Deb Hereditary 1948 [48]
Baroda Samarjitsinh Gaekwad 2012 Gaekwad Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Pratap Singh Rao Gaekwad Hereditary 1949 [49]
Bastar Kamal Chandra Bhanj Deo 1996 Bhanj Grand nephew of last ruling Maharaja Pravir Chandra Bhanj Deo Hereditary 1948 [50]
Benares Anant Narayan Singh 25 December 2000 Narayan Son of last ruling Maharaja Vibhuti Narayan Singh Hereditary 1948 [51]
Bengal and Murshidabad Abbas Ali Meerza 13 August 2014 Najafi Nephew of Nawab Waris Ali Mirza Hereditary 1884 [52]
Bharatpur Vishvendra Singh July 1995 Sinsiniwar Jat Son of last ruling Maharaja Brijendra Singh Hereditary 1947 [53]
Bhavnagar Vijayrajsinhji Virbhadrasinhji Gohil 26 July 1994 Gohil Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Rao Krishna Kumarsinhji Bhavsinhji Hereditary 1948 [54]
Bhopal State Bhopal Saif Ali Khan 2011 Mirazi Khe Great-grandson of last ruling Nawab Hamidullah Khan Hereditary 1949 [55]
Shahryar Khan 11 May 2002 Grandson of last ruling Nawab Hamidullah Khan [56]
Bikaner Ravi Raj Singh 24 October 2003 Rathore Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Sadul Singh Hereditary 1947 [57]
Bundi Vanshvardhan Singh 2 April 2022 Hada Chauhan Hereditary 1949 [58]
Burdwan Saday Chand Mehtab 1984 Son of last ruling Maharaja Uday Chand Mahtab Hereditary 1947 [59]
Bushahr Vikramaditya Singh 10 July 2021 Son of last ruling Raja Virbhadra Singh Hereditary 1948 [60]
Carnatic Sultanate Muhammed Abdul Ali 4 July 1993 Son of Prince Ghulam Mohammed Abdul Khader of Arcot Hereditary 1855 [61]
Chamba Prem Singh 21 May 1971 Mosana Son of last ruling Raja Lakshman Singh Hereditary 1948 [62][63]
Charkhari Jayant Singh 1977 Bundela Son of last ruling Maharaja Jayendra Singh Hereditary 1947 [64]
Chhatarpur Kunwar Vikram Singh 2006 Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Bhawani Singh Bahadur Hereditary 1950 [65][66]
Chhota Udaipur Jai Pratap Sinhji 2005 Chauhan Son of last ruling Maharawal Virendrasinhji Hereditary 1948 [67]
Chitral Fateh-ul-Mulk Ali Nasir 20 October 2011 Katur Son of last ruling Mehtar Muhammad Saif ul-Mulk Nasir Hereditary 1969 [68]
Danta Mahipendra Singh 1989 Parmar Grandson of last ruling Maharana Bhavanisinhji Hereditary 1948 [69]
Datia Arunaditya Singh Judeo April 2020 Bundela Great-great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Govind Singh Judeo Hereditary 1950 [70][71]
Dewas Senior Vikram Singh Rao II Puar 19 June 2015 Puar Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Krishnajirao III Hereditary 1948 [72]
Dhar Hemendra Singh Rao Pawar 15 January 2015 Pawar Hereditary 1947 [73]
Dhenkanal Kamakhya Prasad Singh Deo August 1965 Son of last ruling Raja Shankar Pratap Singh Dev Hereditary 1948 [74]
Dholpur Hemant Singh 1954 Bamraulia Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Udaybhanu Singh Hereditary 1949 [75]
Dhrangadhra Sodhsalji Mayurdhwajsinhji 1 August 2010 Jhala Son of last ruling Maharaja Meghrajji III Hereditary 1948 [76][77][78]
Dungarpur Mahipal Singh II 1989 Sisodia Son of last ruling Maharawal Laxman Singh Hereditary 1947 [79][80]
Faridkot Amarinder Singh Brar 2017 Brar Grand-nephew of last ruling Maharaja Harinder Singh Brar Hereditary 1948 [81][82]
Gondal Himanshusinhji 31 January 2022 Jadeja Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Thakur Sahib Bhojrajji Bhagwatsimhji Hereditary 1949 [83]
Gwalior Jyotiraditya Scindia 2001 Scindia Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Jivajirao Scindia Hereditary 1948 [84]
Hyderabad Mukarram Jah 1967 Asaf Jah Grandson of last Nizam Osman Ali Khan Hereditary 1948 [85]
Indore Usha Devi Holkar 1961 Holkar Daughter of last ruling Maharaja Yashwant Rao Holkar II Hereditary 1948 [86]
Jaipur Padmanabh Singh 2011 Kachwaha Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Man Singh II Hereditary 1948 [87]
Jaisalmer Chaitanya Raj Singh 28 December 2020 Bhati Great-great-grandson of last ruling Maharawal Jawahir Singh Hereditary 1947 [88]
Jammu and Kashmir Karan Singh April 1961 Dogra Son of last ruling Maharaja Hari Singh Hereditary 1952 [89]
Janjira Sidi Shah Mahmud Khan 1 April 1972 Sidi Son of last ruling Nawab Sidi Muhammad Khan Hereditary 1948 [90]
Jashpur Ranvijay Singh Judev 4 October 1982 Chauhan Grandson of last ruling Raja Bijay Bushan Singh Judeo Hereditary 1948 [91]
Jhalawar Chandrajit Singh 24 April 2004 Jhala Grandson of last ruling Maharaj Rana Harisch Chandra Singh Hereditary 1949 [92][93]
Jind Satbir Singh 7 September 1959 Phulkian Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Ranbir Singh Hereditary 1948 [94]
Jodhpur Gaj Singh 26 January 1952 Rathore Son of last ruling Maharaja Hanwant Singh Hereditary 1947 [95]
Junagadh Muhammad Jahangir Khanji 30 July 1989 Babi Grandson of last ruling Nawab Muhammad Mahabat Khan III Hereditary 1948 [96]
Kalahandi Anant Pratap Deo 2 September 2019 Nagvanshis Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Pratap Keshari Deo Hereditary 1948 [97]
Kalat Suleman Daud 1998 Ahmadzai Grandson of last ruler Ahmad of Kalat Hereditary 1948 [98]
Kapurthala Sukhjit Singh 1955 Ahluwalia Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Jagatjit Singh Hereditary 1947 [99]
Karauli Krishan Chandra Pal 1984 Jadon Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Ganesh Pal Hereditary 1949 [100][101]
Keonjhar Dhananjay Bhanj Deo 1 December 2019 Bhanj Grand-nephew of last ruling Raja Balbhadra Narayan Bhanj Deo Hereditary 1948 [102]
Khairpur George Ali Murad Khan 10 November 1954 Talpur Last ruling Mir Hereditary 1955 [103]
Khilchipur Priyavrat Singh 31 July 2006 Chauhan Grandson of last ruling Raja Yashodar Singh Hereditary 1948 [104]
Kishangarh Brajraj Singh 16 February 1971 Rathore Son of last ruling Maharaja Sumar Singh Hereditary 1947 [105]
Kolhapur Shahu II 1983 Bhonsle Son of last ruling Maharaja Shahaji II Hereditary 1949 [106]
Kota Ijyaraj Singh 29 January 2022 Chauhan Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Bhim Singh II Hereditary 1948 [107]
Kutch Hanvantsinhji 28 May 2021 Jadeja Son of last ruling Maharaja Madansinhji Hereditary 1948 [108]
Kutlehar Budhishwar Pal 4 August 2014 Son of last ruling Raja Saheb Shri Mahendra Pal Hereditary 1947 [109]
Las Bela Jam Kamal Khan 3 February 2013 Grandson of last ruling Jam Jam Ghulam Qadir Khan Hereditary 1955 [110]
Loharu Ala-uddin Ahmad Khan II 12 June 1983 Son of last ruling Nawab Amin ud-din Ahmad Khan Hereditary 1947 [111]
Manipur Leishemba Sanajaoba 1996 Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Bodhchandra Singh Hereditary 1949 [112]
Mayurbhanj Praveen Chandra Bhanj Deo 15 September 2000 Bhanj Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Pratap Chandra Bhanj Deo Hereditary 1949 [113]
Mewar Arvind Singh 19 November 1984 Sisodia Grandson of last Maharana Bhupal Singh Hereditary 1948 [114]
Mahendra Singh
Mysore Yaduveer Krishnadatta Chamaraja Wadiyar 28 May 2015 Wadiyar Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Jayachamarajendra Wadiyar Hereditary 1948 [115]
Narsinghgarh Rajyavardhan Singh 24 January 2019 Parmar Son of titular Maharaja Bhanu Prakash Singh Hereditary 1948 [116]
Nawanagar Shatrusalyasinhji 3 February 1966 Jadeja Son of last ruling Maharaja Digvijaysinhji Hereditary 1948 [117][118]
Oudh Sahibzada Shahanshah Mirza 28 January 2022 Awadh Great-Great-Grandson of Wajid Ali Shah Hereditary 1859 [119][120]
Panna Raghavendra Singh Judeo 2009 Bundela Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Yadvendra Singh Judeo Hereditary 1950 [121][122][123]
Pataudi Saif Ali Khan 22 September 2011 Pataudi Grandson of last ruling Nawab Iftikhar Ali Khan Pataudi Hereditary 1948 [124]
Patialia Amarinder Singh June 1974 Phulkian Son of last Maharaja Yadavindra Singh Hereditary 1948 [125]
Patna Kanak Vardhan Singh Deo 2004 Chauhan Grandson of last ruling Maharaja Rajendra Narayan Singh Deo Hereditary 1948 [126]
Phaltan Ramraje Pratapsinh 2004 Naik Nimbalkar Grandson of last ruling Raja Shrimant Sir Malojirao Naik-Nimbalkar Hereditary 1948 [127]
Pratapgarh Jai Singh Sisodia 29 November 2017 Sisodia Grandson of last ruling Maharawat Ram Singh Sisodia Hereditary 1949 [128]
Pudukkottai R. Rajagopala Tondaiman 16 January 1997 Tondaiman Nephew of last ruling Raja Rajagopala Tondaiman Hereditary 1948 [129]
Raghogarh Digvijaya Singh 1967 Son of last ruling Raja Balbhadra Singh Hereditary 1947 [130][131]
Rajkot Mandhatasinhji Jadeja 27 September 2018 Jadeja Grandson of last ruling Thakore Saheb Pradyumansinhji Lakhajirajsinhji Hereditary 1948 [132]
Rajpipla Raghubir Singh 2 February 1963 Gohil Grandson of last ruling Maharana Vijaysinhji Hereditary 1948 [133]
Rampur Muhammad Kazim Ali Khan 5 April 1992 Rohilla Grandson of last ruling Nawab Raza Ali Khan Hereditary 1947 [134]
Rewa Pushparaj Singh 20 November 1995 Baghel Son of last ruling Maharaja Martand Singh Hereditary 1947 [135]
Sailana Vikram Singh 1990 Rathore Grandson of last ruling Raja Dileep Singh Hereditary 1948 [136][137]
Samthar Ranjeet Singh Judeo 1972 Son of last ruling Maharaja Radha Charan Singh Hereditary 1950 [138]
Sikkim Wangchuk Namgyal 29 January 1982 Namgyel Son of Chogyal Palden Thondup Namgyal (1963–1975). Hereditary 1975 [139]
Sirmur Lakshraj Prakash May 2013 Prakash Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Rajendra Prakash Hereditary 1948 [140]
Sirohi Raghuveer Singh 1998 Chauhan Hereditary 1949 [141]
Suket Hari Sen 18 October 1985 Grandson of last ruling Raja Lakshman Sen Hereditary 1948 [142]
Surguja T. S. Singh Deo 2001 Raksel Great-grandson of last ruling Maharaja Ramanuj Saran Singh Deo Hereditary 1948 [143][144]
Swat Miangul Adnan Aurangzeb September 2014 Miangul Grandson of last Wali Miangul Jahan Zeb Hereditary 1969 [145]
Tehri Garhwal Manujendra Shah Sahib Bahadur 7 January 2007 Ponwar Son of last ruling Maharaja Manabendra Shah Hereditary 1949 [146]
Tigiria Bir Pratap Singh Deo 1 December 2015 Son of last ruling Raja Brajraj Mahapatra Hereditary 1948 [147]
Tonk Aftab Ali Khan 4 September 1994 Salarzai Hereditary 1949 [148]
Travancore Moolam Thirunal Rama Varma 16 December 2013 Venad Swaroopam Nephew of last ruling Maharaja Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma Hereditary 1949 [149]
Tripura Pradyot Bikram Manikya Deb Barma 28 November 2006 Manikya Son of last ruling Maharaja Kirit Bikram Kishore Deb Barman Hereditary 1949 [150]
Vijayanagara Empire Krishna Devaraya Aravidu 19th generation descendant of last ruling emperor Hereditary 1646 [151][152]
Wankaner Kesridevsinh Jhala 4 April 2021 Jhala Great-grandson of last ruling Maharana Raj Sahib Amarsinhji Banesinhji Hereditary 1947 [153]

Nepal[edit]

Nepal's numerous small monarchies were collectively abolished by the federal government on 7 October 2008. At the time, the thrones of both Salyan and Jajarkot had been vacant since the deaths of rajas Gopendra Bahadur and Prakash Bikram respectively (both in 2003), and have remained vacant.

State Head Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Nepal Nepal Gyanendra 28 May 2008[as 11] Shah[as 12] Last reigning Maharajdhiraja (2001–2008). Hereditary 2008
Bajhang Binod Bahadur 7 October 2008[as 13] Last reigning Raja (1989–2008). Hereditary[as 14] [154]

Thailand[edit]

State Head Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Chiang Mai Wongsak Na Chiangmai 1989 Thipchak Grandson of Kaew Nawarat (1910–1939), the last King of Lanna and Prince Ruler of Chiang Mai Hereditary 1939 [155]

Europe[edit]

Source[156]

State Head Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
Albania Albania Leka 30 November 2011 Zogu Grandson of King Zog I (1928–1939). Hereditary 1939 de facto
1944 de jure
 Austria-Hungary (more) Karl 4 July 2011[eu 1] Habsburg-Lorraine[eu 2] Grandson of Emperor and King Charles I & IV (1916–1918).[eu 3] Hereditary 1918 [157]
 Bulgaria Simeon II 15 September 1946[eu 4] Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry[eu 5] Last reigning Tsar (1943–1946). Hereditary 1946
France (Legitimist) Louis Alphonse 30 January 1989 Bourbon[eu 6] 9th-great-grandson of King Louis XIV (1643–1715). Hereditary 1830 [158]
France France (Orléanist-Unionist) Jean 21 January 2019 Orléans[eu 7] 4th-great-grandson of King Louis Philippe I (1830–1848). Hereditary 1848 [159][160]
France France (Bonapartist) Charles Napoléon 3 May 1997[eu 8] Bonaparte Direct descendant of Emperor Napoleon's (1804–1814, 1815) youngest brother Jérôme Bonaparte. Hereditary 1870 [161][162]
Jean Christophe
Georgia (country) Georgia David 16 January 2008 Mukhrani[as 15] 13th-great-grandson of King Constantine II (1478–1505). Hereditary 1801
Nugzar 13 August 1984 Gruzinsky[as 15] Great-great-great-grandson of King George XII (1798–1800).
 Greece Constantine II 1 June 1973[eu 9] Glücksburg[eu 10] Last reigning King (1964–1973). Hereditary 1973
Lithuania Lithuania Inigo 9 February 1991 Urach[163] Grandson of King Wilhelm Karl (1918–1928). Hereditary 1918 [164]
 Montenegro Nicholas 24 March 1986 Petrović-Njegoš Great-grandson of King Nicholas I (1910–1918). Hereditary 1918
Portugal Portugal Duarte Pio 24 December 1976 Braganza[eu 11] Great-grandson of King Miguel I (1828–1834). Hereditary 1910
 Romania Margareta[eu 12] 5 December 2017 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen[eu 13] Daughter of King Michael I (1927–1930 and 1940–1947). Hereditary 1947 [165]
Paul-Philippe 27 January 2006 Grandson of King Carol II (1930–1940).
Karl Friedrich 5 December 2017 Great-grandnephew of King Ferdinand I (1914–1927).[eu 14]
Russia Maria Vladimirovna 21 April 1992 Romanov[eu 15] Great-great-granddaughter of Emperor Alexander II (1855–1881).[eu 16] Hereditary 1917
Karl Emich 1 June 2013 Great-great-grandson of Emperor Alexander II (1855–1881).
Alexis Andreevich 28 November 2021 Great-great-great-grandson of Emperor Nicholas I (1825–1855).[eu 16]
 Serbia Alexander 3 November 1970 Karađorđević Great-grandson of King Peter I of Serbia (1903–1918) Hereditary 1918
 Yugoslavia Son and heir apparent of King Peter II of Yugoslavia (1934–1945) 1945

Germany[edit]

Source[156]

State Head Since House Claim Abolition Ref(s)
Empire
 Germany Georg Friedrich 26 September 1994 Hohenzollern Great-great-grandson of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888–1918). Hereditary 1918 [166][167]
Kingdoms
 Bavaria Franz 8 July 1996 Wittelsbach Great-grandson of King Ludwig III (1913–1918).
Also heir to the Jacobite succession.[168]
Hereditary 1918
 Hanover Ernst August 9 December 1987 Hanover[eu 17] Great-great-grandson of King Georg V (1851–1866). Hereditary 1866 [169]
 Prussia Georg Friedrich 26 September 1994 Hohenzollern Great-great-grandson of King Wilhelm II (1888–1918). Hereditary 1918
 Saxony Daniel 29 March 2022 Wettin[eu 18] Great-great-grandson of King Frederick Augustus III (1904–1918). Hereditary 1918
Alexander 23 July 2012 Saxe-Gessaphe Great-grandson of King Frederick Augustus III (1904–1918).
 Württemberg Wilhelm 7 June 2022 Württemberg Relative of King William II (1891–1918). Hereditary 1918
Grand Duchies
 Baden Maximilian 27 October 1963 Zähringen Great-great-grandson of Grand Duke Leopold I (1830–1852). Hereditary 1918
Hesse and by Rhine Donatus 23 May 2013 Hesse Relative of Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig (1892–1918). Hereditary 1918
Mecklenburg-Strelitz Borwin 26 January 1996 Mecklenburg[eu 19] Great-great-great-grandson of Grand Duke Georg (1816–1860). Hereditary 1918
Oldenburg Christian 20 September 2014 Holstein-Gottorp[eu 20] Great-grandson of Grand Duke Frederick Augustus II (1900–1918). Hereditary 1918
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Michael 14 October 1988 Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach[eu 5] Grandson of Grand Duke William Ernest (1901–1918). Hereditary 1918
Duchies
Anhalt Julius Eduard 9 October 1963 Ascania Son of Duke Joachim Ernst (1918). Hereditary 1918
 Brunswick Ernst August 9 December 1987 Hanover[eu 17] Grandson of Duke Ernst August (1913–1918). Hereditary 1918
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Andreas 23 January 1998 Saxe-Coburg and Gotha[eu 5] Grandson of Duke Charles Edward (1900–1918). Hereditary 1918 [170]
Saxe-Meiningen Konrad 4 October 1984 Saxe-Meiningen[eu 5] Great-grandson of Duke Georg II (1866–1914). Hereditary 1918
Schleswig-Holstein Christoph 30 September 1980 Glücksburg[eu 10] Relative of Duke Frederick VII (1808–1863). Hereditary 1866
Principalities
Hohenzollern[eu 21] Karl Friedrich 16 September 2010 Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen[eu 22] Great-great-grandson of Prince Karl Anton (1848–1849). Hereditary 1850 [171]
Lippe Stephan 20 August 2015 Lippe Grandson of Prince Leopold IV (1905–1918). Hereditary 1918
Friedrich Wilhelm 15 June 1990 Grandnephew of Prince Leopold IV (1905–1918).
Reuss[eu 23] Heinrich XIV 20 June 2012 Reuss Relative of Prince Heinrich XXVII (1913–1918).[eu 24] Hereditary 1918
Schaumburg-Lippe Alexander 28 August 2003 Lippe Grandnephew of Prince Adolf II (1911–1918). Hereditary 1918 [172]
Waldeck and Pyrmont Wittekind 30 November 1967 Waldeck Grandson of Prince Friedrich (1893–1918). Hereditary 1918 [173]

Italy[edit]

Source[156]

Until the mid-nineteenth century, the Italian peninsula comprised a number of states, some of which were monarchies. During the Italian unification, the monarchs of such agglomerated states lost their sovereignty and their titles became purely ceremonial. The resultant throne of the Kingdom of Italy was held by the former king of Sardinia.

State Head Since House Claim Succession Abolition Ref(s)
 Italy Aimone 1 June 2021 Savoy Great-great-great-grandson of King Victor Emmanuel II (1861–1878). Hereditary 1946 [174][175]
Vittorio Emanuele[eu 25] 18 March 1983 Heir apparent and son of King Umberto II (1946).
Pre-unification
 Parma Carlos 18 August 2010 Bourbon-Parma[eu 7] Great-grandson of Duke Robert I (1854–1859).
Also one of the contested heirs to the Carlist succession.[177]
Hereditary 1859 [178][179]
Tuscany Sigismondo 18 June 1993 Habsburg-Lorraine[eu 2] Great-great-grandson of Grand Duke Ferdinand IV (1859). Hereditary 1859 [180]
 Two Sicilies Pedro of Calabria 5 October 2015 Bourbon-Two Sicilies[eu 26] Great-great-great-grandson of King Ferdinand II (1830–1859). Hereditary 1861
Carlo of Castro 20 March 2008 Great-great-grandson of King Ferdinand II (1830–1859).

Oceania[edit]

State Head Since House Claim Abolition Ref(s)
Hawaii Hawaiʻi Abigail Kawānanakoa 20 May 1969 Kawānanakoa[oc 1] Granddaughter of David Kawānanakoa, heir apparent of Queen Liliʻuokalani (1891–1893). 1895
Quentin Kawānanakoa 29 July 1997 Great-grandson of David Kawānanakoa, heir apparent of Queen Liliʻuokalani (1891–1893).
Owana Salazar[oc 2] 19 September 1988 Laʻanui[oc 3] 5th-great-granddaughter of Kalokuokamaile, half-brother of King Kamehameha I (1795–1819).
Tahiti Léopold Pōmare[oc 4] Pōmare Descendant of Queen Pōmare IV (1827–1877). 1880 [185]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Africa[edit]

  1. ^ As the last living sister and daughter of the last and second-to-last kings respectively, Princess Rosa Paula Iribagiza is considered the head of the royal household. According to the relevant laws of succession, however, the crown must pass to a male member of the family.
  2. ^ Jean-Bédel Bokassa was Crown Prince of the Central African Empire from its inception on 4 December 1976 until its abolition on 20 September 1979.
  3. ^ Fuad II previously reigned as King of Egypt and the Sudan during his infancy, from 26 July 1952 until the monarchy's official abolition in 1953. He reigned in absentia, and under a regent.
  4. ^ Designated heir presumptive by his grandfather the Emperor on 14 April 1974. Confirmed as heir apparent by his father Amha Selassie I on 6 April 1988. He has used the title of crown prince since 7 April 1989, when his father was proclaimed emperor-in-exile. He is recognised as heir to the throne by the Imperial Crown Council.
  5. ^ The Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia claims descent from King Solomon of Israel, who belonged to the House of David. Both of the current claimants are from the House of Shoa, which represents the junior branch of the dynasty.
  6. ^ According to the 1955 Constitution,[1] the Emperor designated his successor from members of his own family, with the rule of primogeniture preferred but not necessarily followed. Candidates for the succession must be descendants of the Solomonic dynasty, in the male or female line. They must also be practising members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and their candidature must be approved by the Imperial Crown Council. If the Emperor has no direct descendants, or if the crown prince is unable to perform his dynastic duties, the Crown Council selects the successor from amongst the members of the Solomonic dynasty.
  7. ^ Lij Girma claims that all governments in Ethiopia since the 1916 deposition of his grandfather are illegitimate, and as such, as the seniormost descendant of Iyasu V, he claims to be the nation's rightful monarch.
  8. ^ Iyasu V was heir apparent of Menelik II and succeeded as Emperor upon the latter's death, but was never crowned. His reign was terminated with the sanction of the Church following allegations of conversion to Islam.
  9. ^ Emmanuel Bushayija was chosen on 9 January 2017[2] to succeed his paternal uncle Kigeli V Ndahindurwa, who was deposed on 28 January 1961.[3]
  10. ^ The royal Abanyiginya clan of Tutsis.[4]
  11. ^ The mwami is selected from amongst members of the various royal clans by the Abiru, a traditional council of Tutsi and Hutu elders.[5]
  12. ^ Jamshid previously reigned as sultan from 1 July 1963 until the monarchy's abolition in 1964.

Americas[edit]

  1. ^ The imperial family of Brazil is descended from the Houses of Bragança and Orléans. The current line of succession is disputed between two branches: the Vassouras branch, headed by Prince Luiz, and the Petrópolis branch, headed by Prince Pedro Carlos.
  2. ^ The current line of succession to the Mexican throne is descended from the House of Iturbide and Habsburg, which respectively ruled the First (1822–1823) and Second (1864–1867) Empires of Mexico. Maximilian I of Habsburg renounced all his incidental Austrian succession rights in April 1864 and later adopted Agustín de Iturbide y Green and Salvador de Iturbide y Marzán, two grandsons of Emperor Agustín I whom he appointed Prince of Iturbide and at the same time heir apparent.[15]

Asia[edit]

  1. ^ Ahmad Shah, second son of the last reigning king, was Crown Prince of Afghanistan from 26 November 1942 until the monarchy's end in 1973.
  2. ^ Rezā, eldest son of the last reigning shah, was Crown Prince of Iran from birth, on 31 October 1960, until the monarchy was deposed in 1979.
  3. ^ The name "Hashimites" refers to members of the Hāshim clan, a sept of the Quraysh tribe to which the Prophet Muhammad belonged.[29]
  4. ^ Ra'ad's father, Prince Zeid, was appointed Head of the Royal House of Iraq following the assassination of King Faisal II during the coup d'état in 1958. Zeid was the son of Hussein bin Ali, King of Hejaz.
  5. ^ Yi Ku appointed Yi Won, one of his first cousins once removed, as his heir in 10 July 2005 before his death.[31] The status of Yi Won as the leader of Jeonju Lee Royal Family Association, however, didn't become valid until 22 July 2005.[32] Yi Won later officially became the director of the family association on June 27, 2007.[33]
  6. ^ The House of Yi consists of the descendants of the Joseon dynasty.
  7. ^ Yi Seok claimed that, in the will of late crown princess Yi Bangja, he was named as "first successor".[35]
  8. ^ After the monarchy was abolished in 1975, the senior members of the royal family were imprisoned by the military. The deaths of the former King, Queen, and Crown Prince were confirmed by the Lao authorities on 17 December 1989. The dates of actual death were not released, but the current heir, who is the eldest son of the late Crown Prince, escaped imprisonment and arrived in Thailand on 3 August 1981. He was confirmed as the successor to his grandfather by the Royal Council in Exile on 19 September 1997.
  9. ^ The sultans of the Ottoman Empire also held the title Caliph of Islam, thus claiming to be the spiritual leaders of all Muslims. The Ottoman Caliphate was abolished by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in 1924.[39]
  10. ^ Many of the kings of the Qasimid dynasty also held the title Imam and Commander of the Faithful, and were the spiritual leaders of the Zaidiyyah branch of Shi'a Islam. The Imamate ended with the republican revolution in 1962.
  11. ^ Gyanendra reigned as King of Nepal between 7 November 1950 and 8 January 1951, and again from 4 June 2001 until the monarchy was abolished in 2008.
  12. ^ Members of the Shah dynasty of Nepal are descended from the Parmar clan of Rajputs from the former state of Narsinghgarh in modern India.
  13. ^ Binod is the eldest son of Princess Shanti Singh of Nepal (one of the ten people who died in the Nepalese royal massacre). Binod is also the Director of Hotel Sherpa.
  14. ^ Succession to the throne, whilst hereditary, is also subject to confirmation from the reigning King of Nepal.
  15. ^ a b A branch of the House of Bagrationi. During the partition of the kingdom in the 15th Century, the Bagratid dynasty split into two main lineages: the Mukhrani line of Kartli, and the Gruzinsky line of Kakheti. It is between these two lineages that the leadership of the Royal House of Georgia is now disputed.

Europe[edit]

  1. ^ On 31 May 1961, Karl's father Otto renounced all claims to the Austrian throne in order to return from exile. He relinquished his position as head of the House of Habsburg to Karl on 1 January 2007.
  2. ^ a b A branch of the House of Lorraine cognatically descended from the House of Habsburg. The ducal family of Modena, which was historically descended from the House of Este, traditionally uses the name Austria-Este, which has continued to be adopted as a title by the current line.
  3. ^ The Austro-Hungarian monarch held the crowns of Austria and Hungary, and also reigned as King of Bohemia, King of Croatia, and more.
  4. ^ Simeon II reigned as Tsar of Bulgaria from 28 August 1943 until the monarchy was deposed in the Communist revolution of 1946. After returning to the country from exile in 1996, he later served as Prime Minister between 24 July 2001 and 17 August 2005.
  5. ^ a b c d A branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, A sept of the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin.
  6. ^ The House of Bourbon is a branch of the Capetian Dynasty.
  7. ^ a b A branch of the House of Bourbon.
  8. ^ Charles Napoléon is the current head of the House of Bonaparte. His son, Jean Christophe, was posthumously appointed heir to the imperial claim in the will of his grandfather, Louis Napoléon.
  9. ^ Constantine II reigned as King of the Hellenes from 6 March 1964 until the monarchy's abolition in 1973.
  10. ^ a b Officially the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, which is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
  11. ^ A branch of the House of Aviz.
  12. ^ Margareta's father Michael I reigned as King of Romania between 20 July 1927 and 8 June 1930, and again from 6 September 1940 until the monarchy's abolition during the Communist revolution of 1947. A rival claim to the throne is maintained by the descendants of Carol Lambrino, Michael's elder half-brother from his father's first marriage. Carol Lambrino's eldest son, Paul-Philippe, has maintained his claim to the throne since his father's death on 27 January 2006.
  13. ^ A line of the House of Hohenzollern.
  14. ^ Heir under the 1923 constitution, which stipulates Salic law.
  15. ^ The House of Romanov is a line of the House of Holstein-Gottorp, which itself is a branch of the House of Oldenburg.
  16. ^ a b Full title: Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias, used since 1721, although commonly designated Tsar. The emperors of Russia were also the Grand Dukes of Finland from 1809 until 1917, and the Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1916.
  17. ^ a b The House of Hanover is a branch of the House of Welf, which itself is a branch of the House of Este.
  18. ^ The kings of Saxony belonged to the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin.
  19. ^ The royal family of Mecklenburg-Strelitz belongs to the Strelitz branch of the House of Mecklenburg.
  20. ^ A branch of the House of Oldenburg.
  21. ^ The principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen were created in 1576 from the partition of the territory of Hohenzollern. When the Hechingen lineage became extinct in 1869, the heirs of the Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen reclaimed the title Prince of Hohenzollern.
  22. ^ A branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
  23. ^ The territory of Reuss was partitioned between the sons of the reigning prince in 1564, eventually resulting in the principalities of Reuss Elder Line and Reuss Younger Line. The elder lineage expired in 1927 through the death of Heinrich XXIV (1902–1918), and inheritance passed to the junior line of Köstritz, whose heirs now claim the title Prince Reuss.
  24. ^ For details on the unusual numbering system of the Reuss-Köstritz lineage, see the main article.
  25. ^ Vittorio Emanuele, only son of King Umberto II, was heir apparent to the throne of Italy from his father's ascension until the monarchy was abolished in 1946. He declared himself King of Italy in 1969, claiming that his father, having agreed to submit to a referendum on his position as head of state, had thereby abdicated his throne. The declaration came after his father called for Amedeo, Duke of Aosta to visit him in Cascais, allegedly to name him his heir.[176] Umberto II died on 18 March 1983.
  26. ^ This branch is known as the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. The right to succession is currently disputed between two branches of the family.

Oceania[edit]

  1. ^ The House of Kawānanakoa was a collateral line of succession of the reigning Kalākaua dynasty.[181] The last queen, Liliʻuokalani, not having had any issue of her own, adopted and appointed the head of the Kawānanakoa as heir apparent. The House of Kawānanakoa is historically recognised as providing presumptive heirs to the throne should the monarchy be revived. Because of an early succession dispute within the family, there are currently two claimants from this dynasty.
  2. ^ Noa Kalokuokamaile DeGuair is a descendant of the House of Kalokuokamaile, which was a collateral line of succession of the Kamehameha dynasty, the first line of Hawaiʻian kings. It became extinct in the male line during the time of the monarchy, and now survives through the female line as the House of Laʻanui.[182] The current descendants also belong to the Wilcox lineage of English and Italian descent. His claim on the throne is disputed.
  3. ^ The House of Laʻanui consists of maternal descendants of the House of Kalokuokamaile,[182] the seniormost branch of the chiefly House of Keōua Nui.[183] It descends from the eldest half-brother of Hawaiʻi's first king, Kamehameha the Great, who united the small chiefdoms of the Hawaiʻian Islands under the Kamehameha dynasty in 1810. When the male heirs of this lineage died out in 1872, it was replaced by the Kalākaua dynasty who ruled till 1893. It claims closer kinship to the kingdom's first dynasty while the Kawānanakoa line claims closer kinship to the kingdom's last dynasty.[184]
  4. ^ Recognised as the rightful heir to the Tahitian throne by a majority of the royal family's current members. He has migrated overseas, however, and currently[when?] lives in Paris.[185]

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