Brewster County, Texas

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Brewster County, Texas
Brewster County Courthouse - Alpine, TX.JPG
The Brewster County Courthouse in Alpine
Map of Texas highlighting Brewster County
Location in the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location in the U.S.
Founded 1887
Named for Henry Percy Brewster
Seat Alpine
Largest city Alpine
Area
 • Total 6,192 sq mi (16,037 km2)
 • Land 6,184 sq mi (16,016 km2)
 • Water 8.5 sq mi (22 km2), 0.1%
Population
 • (2010) 9,232
 • Density 1.5/sq mi (1/km²)
Congressional district 23rd
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Website www.brewstercountytx.com

Brewster County is a county located in the western part of the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,232.[1] Its county seat and only city is Alpine.[2] The county is named for Colonel Henry Percy Brewster, a Secretary of War for the Republic of Texas.

Brewster County is the largest county by area in the state, over three times the size of the state of Delaware, and more than 500 square miles (1,300 km2) bigger than Connecticut.[3] It is one of the nine counties that comprise the Trans-Pecos region of West Texas, and borders Mexico.

Oilman, geologist, and historian Clayton Wheat Williams, Sr., operated a ranch near Alpine in Brewster County, though his residence was in Fort Stockton.

History[edit]

Native Americans[edit]

Paleo-Indian hunter-gatherers existed there at least 9000 years ago. Mescalaro Apaches emerged later and conducted raids that discouraged settlers. Between 1779 and 1787, Col. Juan de Ugalde drove the Mescalaros back across the Rio Grande and into the Chisos Mountains. The three leading Mescalero chiefs, Patula Grande, Quemado, and Zapato Tuerto, agreed in March 1789 to submit to Spanish rule.[4] Comanche raiding parties continued through much of the 19th century.[5]

Early explorations[edit]

Chihuahuan Desert landscape in Brewster County

Spanish explorers Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca in 1535 and Antonio de Espejo in 1583 crossed Brewster County on their way to La Junta de los Ríos, the junction of the Rio Grande and the Rio Conchos.[6]

In 1684, Juan Domínguez de Mendoza camped at Kokernot Spring and wrote the earliest recorded description of it.[7]

Pedro de Rábago y Terán, Governor of Coahuila in the 1740s, led an expedition to La Junta de los Ríos.[8]

Northern Mexican military governor Lt. Col. Hugo Oconór led a 1772 expedition to locate sites for forts on the Comanche Trail along the Rio Grande.[9][10]

In October 1851, Danish-born Col. Edvard Emil Langberg, Mexican commandant of Chihuahua, visited southern Brewster County.[11]

Surveyor William H. Emory in 1852 sent M. T. W. Chandler to survey what is now the heart of Big Bend National Park. Chandler explored Santa Elena Canyon, the Chisos Mountains Mariscal Canyon, and Boquillas Canyon.[12]

An 1859 expedition of the U.S. Camel Corps under 2d Lt. Edward L. Hartz explored the Comanche Trail through Persimmon Gap and down Tornillo Creek to the Rio Grande. A year later, a second camel expedition under 2d Lt. William Echols also explored along the Rio Grande.[5]

County established and growth[edit]

Map of Presidio County, Texas and the counties of Brewster, Buchel, Foley, and Jeff Davis created from Presidio in 1887: Buchel and Foley were abolished and joined to Brewster in 1897.

Brewster County was marked off in 1887 from Presidio County and named for Henry Percy Brewster. Murphyville, later renamed Alpine, was selected as county seat.[13]

In response to threats of ongoing Indian attacks, Camp Peña Colorado was established in 1879 a few miles south of the future site of Marathon.[14]

Word of mouth about the open rangeland in the area was spread by freighters John W Burgess and August Santleben, leading the way for settlers.[15]

The Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio Railway built through the area in 1882, opening up opportunity for entrepreneurs who came on railroad-related business and stayed.[16]

Alfred S. Gage moved to the area in 1882 to help his brother’s ranching operation, founding the A. S. Gage Ranch, one of the largest ranching operations in Texas, in 1883. In 1927, he built the Gage Hotel in Marathon.[17][18][19]

Legendary lawman and later Texas Rangers Hall of Fame member James B. Gillett served as sheriff of Brewster County, and operated a ranch in Alpine in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He later retired to his Barrel Spring Ranch in Jeff Davis County.[20][21][22]

Joseph Daniel Jackson came to the area in 1882 as part of Company B of the Texas Rangers assigned to protect the railroad. By 1882, he had settled near Alpine and taken up ranching, branching out later to merchant and civic leader. Jackson is known locally as the father of Sul Ross University due to his efforts that helped lead to the establishment of the school.[23] Sul Ross University, named for Texas Governor Lawrence Sullivan Ross, was created by an act of the 35th Legislature in 1917 as a state normal college to train teachers.[24]

Population boom[edit]

The population grew from 710 in 1890 to 5,220 in 1910 due for the most part to industries that relied on natural resources.[5]

From the turn of the 20th century through World War II, the Terlingua Mining District was a boom town due to the extraction of cinnabar, a mercury ore, in the Chisos Mountains. Silver and lead from mines on the Mexican side of the river in the Boquillas area were shipped north, as were candelilla wax produced at factories at Glenn Spring and Mariscal and the guayule rubber from a factory in Marathon.[25]

Pancho Villa and bandidos[edit]

Brewster County became targeted by incursions of bandits from Mexico, due at least in part to Pancho Villa. In June 1915, Governor James E. Ferguson asked President Woodrow Wilson to station troops in the Big Bend. The request was denied by Maj. Gen. Frederick Funston, who believed such security was a state issue. Although a number of events took place to effect policy change, the tipping point was the May 5, 1916, raid at Glenn Spring. Only nine soldiers had been stationed in the area for protection against the bandits. Estimates vary as to the number of Mexican raiders who attacked the soldiers, from 60 to several hundred. The raid caused a larger military presence in the area. President Wilson mobilized the National Guard to reinforce the Army, and by the end of 1916, an estimated 116,957 guardsmen were stationed along the border from California to Texas. As the mines and wax factories played out after World War I, raiders from across the border abated.[26]

During the 1918 influenza epidemic, an African American nurse (Viola Pettus) living in the border area of Brewster County became legendary for her courageous and selfless treatment of anyone with the disease – including raiders and refugees from Mexico, and local members of the Ku Klux Klan.[27]

Big Bend[edit]

Big Bend National Park was established as a state park in 1933 by the state legislature, and expanded the same year by Governor Miriam A. Ferguson. In 1935, the United States Congress passed legislation founding it as a national park. Big Bend opened to the public in 1944.[28]

Big Bend Ranch State Park opened to the public in 1991; at 300,000 acres (1,200 km2), it is the largest state park in Texas.[29]

Terlingua Chili Cookoffs[edit]

Terlingua produced 40% of the nation’s quicksilver in 1920, but declining population has since qualified it as a ghost town. In 1962, The Dallas Morning News columnist Francis X. Tolbert published his ode to chili Bowl of Red and founded the Chili Appreciation Society. Fellow columnist Wick Fowler joined in the fun and became a charter member. The World Championship Chili Cookoff at Terlingua began as a tongue-in-cheek challenge between Wick Fowler and humorist H. Allen Smith in 1967 and has become a November tradition, celebrated across the state and nation. The first Saturday in November, Terlingua now hosts two competing international chili championships: the Terlingua International Chili Championship, and the Original Terlingua International Chili Cookoff.[30]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,192 square miles (16,040 km2), of which 6,184 square miles (16,020 km2) is land and 8.5 square miles (22 km2) (0.1%) is covered by water.[31] It is the largest county in Texas by area. The only substantial water is half the width of the Rio Grande.

The county's area is larger than the area of Connecticut, Delaware, and Rhode Island individually, and larger than the combined area of Delaware and Rhode Island.

Adjacent counties and municipios[edit]

National protected areas[edit]

Major highways[edit]

U.S. Highway 90 crosses the county in the north; U.S. Highway 385 enters Brewster County from the northeast and proceeds south to the county's main attraction, Big Bend National Park, part of the Big Bend. The Sunset Route of the Union Pacific Railroad crosses northern parts of the county, and a recently revived portion of the Kansas City, Mexico and Orient Railway traverses the county en route to Presidio.

Climate[edit]

Approximately 39.4% of Brewster County is classified as having a hot arid desert climate (Köppen BWh). The remainder has a semi-arid steppe climate with 32.1% experiencing a cold steppe climate (Köppen BSk) while 28.5% is assigned as a hot steppe climate (Köppen BSh).[32] Temperatures are coolest and rainfall most abundant in the county's northern highlands and in the upper elevations of the Chisos Mountains in the south. In the southern lowlands along the Rio Grande, snowfall is uncommon, rainfall much reduced, and summer high temperatures can be extreme. Throughout the county, precipitation occurs mostly from May through October with the remainder of the year predominantly is dry.

Alpine
Climate data for Alpine, Texas (Mar 1, 1900–Mar 31, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 60.5
(15.8)
64.5
(18.1)
70.9
(21.6)
78.7
(25.9)
85.4
(29.7)
90.8
(32.7)
89.4
(31.9)
88.5
(31.4)
83.8
(28.8)
77.8
(25.4)
67.8
(19.9)
61.5
(16.4)
76.63
(24.8)
Average low °F (°C) 32.7
(0.4)
35.2
(1.8)
40.1
(4.5)
47.5
(8.6)
55.5
(13.1)
62.7
(17.1)
64.0
(17.8)
63.1
(17.3)
58.0
(14.4)
49.5
(9.7)
39.3
(4.1)
33.9
(1.1)
48.46
(9.16)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.53
(13.5)
0.48
(12.2)
0.36
(9.1)
0.50
(12.7)
1.24
(31.5)
2.30
(58.4)
2.75
(69.9)
2.65
(67.3)
2.57
(65.3)
1.30
(33)
0.51
(13)
0.60
(15.2)
15.79
(401.1)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[34]


Castolon
Climate data for Castolon, Texas (Feb 1, 1947–Mar 31, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 68.3
(20.2)
74.4
(23.6)
82.9
(28.3)
91.9
(33.3)
99.8
(37.7)
103.4
(39.7)
102.2
(39)
101.1
(38.4)
96.3
(35.7)
88.5
(31.4)
77.7
(25.4)
68.4
(20.2)
87.91
(31.07)
Average low °F (°C) 34.5
(1.4)
39.5
(4.2)
47.1
(8.4)
56.2
(13.4)
66.2
(19)
73.1
(22.8)
74.4
(23.6)
73.5
(23.1)
68.6
(20.3)
57.7
(14.3)
44.2
(6.8)
35.4
(1.9)
55.87
(13.27)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.37
(9.4)
0.29
(7.4)
0.23
(5.8)
0.41
(10.4)
0.96
(24.4)
1.45
(36.8)
1.71
(43.4)
1.62
(41.1)
1.47
(37.3)
1.06
(26.9)
0.36
(9.1)
0.30
(7.6)
10.23
(259.6)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[35]


Chisos Basin
Climate data for Chisos Basin, Texas (Aug 1, 1943–Mar 31, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 58.3
(14.6)
61.8
(16.6)
68.7
(20.4)
76.3
(24.6)
82.8
(28.2)
86.8
(30.4)
84.8
(29.3)
83.7
(28.7)
79.5
(26.4)
73.8
(23.2)
65.2
(18.4)
59.4
(15.2)
73.43
(23)
Average low °F (°C) 36.9
(2.7)
39.1
(3.9)
44.1
(6.7)
51.5
(10.8)
58.5
(14.7)
63.3
(17.4)
63.7
(17.6)
62.7
(17.1)
58.6
(14.8)
51.9
(11.1)
43.2
(6.2)
37.9
(3.3)
50.95
(10.53)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.68
(17.3)
0.58
(14.7)
0.41
(10.4)
0.62
(15.7)
1.59
(40.4)
2.21
(56.1)
3.39
(86.1)
3.12
(79.2)
2.48
(63)
1.51
(38.4)
0.57
(14.5)
0.51
(13)
17.67
(448.8)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[36]


Lajitas
Climate data for Lajitas, Texas (Mar 1, 1978–Mar 31, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 68.8
(20.4)
75.0
(23.9)
83.1
(28.4)
91.2
(32.9)
97.8
(36.6)
102.2
(39)
100.5
(38.1)
99.1
(37.3)
95.1
(35.1)
87.8
(31)
77.4
(25.2)
69.2
(20.7)
87.27
(30.72)
Average low °F (°C) 34.6
(1.4)
39.1
(3.9)
45.8
(7.7)
54.3
(12.4)
63.8
(17.7)
73.0
(22.8)
74.1
(23.4)
72.9
(22.7)
67.6
(19.8)
56.3
(13.5)
43.6
(6.4)
35.2
(1.8)
55.03
(12.79)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.33
(8.4)
0.27
(6.9)
0.23
(5.8)
0.34
(8.6)
0.95
(24.1)
1.47
(37.3)
2.16
(54.9)
1.32
(33.5)
1.57
(39.9)
1.29
(32.8)
0.30
(7.6)
0.24
(6.1)
10.47
(265.9)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[37]


Marathon
Climate data for Marathon, Texas (Jul 1, 1896–Feb 28, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 62.1
(16.7)
65.7
(18.7)
72.9
(22.7)
80.3
(26.8)
86.5
(30.3)
91.1
(32.8)
90.5
(32.5)
90.0
(32.2)
84.9
(29.4)
78.6
(25.9)
69.3
(20.7)
63.0
(17.2)
77.91
(25.49)
Average low °F (°C) 28.8
(−1.8)
31.5
(−0.3)
37.2
(2.9)
44.6
(7)
53.1
(11.7)
60.0
(15.6)
62.4
(16.9)
61.3
(16.3)
56.5
(13.6)
46.4
(8)
35.5
(1.9)
29.8
(−1.2)
45.59
(7.55)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.44
(11.2)
0.40
(10.2)
0.40
(10.2)
0.74
(18.8)
1.62
(41.1)
1.87
(47.5)
2.21
(56.1)
2.14
(54.4)
2.42
(61.5)
1.40
(35.6)
0.52
(13.2)
0.51
(13)
14.67
(372.8)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[38]


Panther Junction
Climate data for Panther Junction, Texas (Apr 1, 1955–Mar 31, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 61.6
(16.4)
66.4
(19.1)
74.5
(23.6)
83.2
(28.4)
89.9
(32.2)
94.3
(34.6)
92.9
(33.8)
91.7
(33.2)
86.9
(30.5)
79.8
(26.6)
70.0
(21.1)
62.6
(17)
79.48
(26.38)
Average low °F (°C) 36.0
(2.2)
39.2
(4)
45.6
(7.6)
53.5
(11.9)
61.4
(16.3)
67.2
(19.6)
68.8
(20.4)
67.8
(19.9)
62.4
(16.9)
53.9
(12.2)
44.1
(6.7)
37.4
(3)
53.11
(11.73)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.48
(12.2)
0.50
(12.7)
0.33
(8.4)
0.54
(13.7)
1.37
(34.8)
1.64
(41.7)
2.13
(54.1)
1.99
(50.5)
1.82
(46.2)
1.42
(36.1)
0.56
(14.2)
0.43
(10.9)
13.21
(335.5)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[39]


Persimmon Gap
Climate data for Persimmon Gap, Texas (May 2, 1952–Mar 31, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 64.5
(18.1)
69.2
(20.7)
77.5
(25.3)
86.3
(30.2)
93.7
(34.3)
97.7
(36.5)
96.4
(35.8)
95.7
(35.4)
90.4
(32.4)
83.3
(28.5)
73.0
(22.8)
64.0
(17.8)
82.64
(28.15)
Average low °F (°C) 33.8
(1)
37.3
(2.9)
44.7
(7.1)
53.4
(11.9)
62.8
(17.1)
70.5
(21.4)
72.1
(22.3)
71.6
(22)
65.3
(18.5)
54.3
(12.4)
42.0
(5.6)
34.3
(1.3)
53.51
(11.96)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.40
(10.2)
0.37
(9.4)
0.34
(8.6)
0.43
(10.9)
1.02
(25.9)
1.36
(34.5)
1.65
(41.9)
1.60
(40.6)
1.71
(43.4)
0.94
(23.9)
0.50
(12.7)
0.34
(8.6)
10.66
(270.6)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[40]


Study Butte
Climate data for Study Butte, Texas (May 1, 1993–Jun 30, 2006)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 69.2
(20.7)
73.2
(22.9)
81.0
(27.2)
88.9
(31.6)
98.2
(36.8)
100.6
(38.1)
99.6
(37.6)
98.2
(36.8)
94.7
(34.8)
86.3
(30.2)
75.7
(24.3)
66.3
(19.1)
85.99
(30.01)
Average low °F (°C) 36.5
(2.5)
41.5
(5.3)
47.3
(8.5)
55.2
(12.9)
66.3
(19.1)
72.9
(22.7)
73.8
(23.2)
73.0
(22.8)
67.9
(19.9)
57.2
(14)
45.9
(7.7)
36.5
(2.5)
56.17
(13.43)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.26
(6.6)
0.17
(4.3)
0.37
(9.4)
0.33
(8.4)
0.63
(16)
1.32
(33.5)
1.86
(47.2)
1.77
(45)
0.61
(15.5)
1.09
(27.7)
0.47
(11.9)
0.26
(6.6)
9.14
(232.1)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[41]


Terlingua Ranch
Climate data for Terlingua Ranch, Texas (May 1, 1993–Mar 31, 2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 63.5
(17.5)
66.9
(19.4)
74.2
(23.4)
82.8
(28.2)
91.2
(32.9)
95.0
(35)
93.8
(34.3)
93.2
(34)
88.5
(31.4)
80.3
(26.8)
71.0
(21.7)
62.4
(16.9)
80.23
(26.79)
Average low °F (°C) 34.8
(1.6)
37.9
(3.3)
43.7
(6.5)
51.5
(10.8)
61.0
(16.1)
66.9
(19.4)
68.0
(20)
67.3
(19.6)
61.9
(16.6)
52.6
(11.4)
42.5
(5.8)
35.3
(1.8)
51.95
(11.08)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 0.36
(9.1)
0.38
(9.7)
0.42
(10.7)
0.48
(12.2)
0.98
(24.9)
1.46
(37.1)
2.28
(57.9)
1.27
(32.3)
1.27
(32.3)
1.04
(26.4)
0.44
(11.2)
0.20
(5.1)
10.58
(268.9)
Source: Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute[42]


Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890 710
1900 2,356 231.8%
1910 5,220 121.6%
1920 4,822 −7.6%
1930 6,624 37.4%
1940 6,478 −2.2%
1950 7,309 12.8%
1960 6,434 −12.0%
1970 7,780 20.9%
1980 7,573 −2.7%
1990 8,681 14.6%
2000 8,866 2.1%
2010 9,232 4.1%
Est. 2015 9,145 [43] −0.9%
U.S. Decennial Census[44]
1850–2010[45] 2010–2014[1]

As of the 2010 United States Census, 9,232 people resided in the county; 86.6% were White, 1.1% Black or African American, 1.1% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.6% of some other race and 2.8% of two or more races. About 42.4% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).

As of the census[46] of 2000, 8,866 people, 3,669 households, and 2,216 families resided in the county. The population density was 1 person per square mile (1/km²). The 4,614 housing units averaged 1 per square mile (0/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 81.09% White, 1.22% Black or African American, 0.85%, 0.37% Asian], 0.06% Pacific Islander, 13.44% from other races, and 2.98% from two or more races. About 43.6% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race.

Of the 3,669 households, 26.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.70% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.60% were not families. About 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.96. As of the 2010 census, about 8.3 same-sex couples per 1,000 households were in the county.[47]

In the county, the population was distributed as ith 22.20% under the age of 18, 14.80% from 18 to 24, 24.50% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, and 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $27,386, and for a family was $33,962. Males had a median income of $26,934 versus $21,250 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,183. About 12.60% of families and 18.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.80% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.

Education[edit]

Map of Brewster County, Texas with school district boundaries

These school districts serve Brewster County:

In addition, Sul Ross State University is located in Alpine.

Communities[edit]

City[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Ghost Towns[edit]

County Sheriff's Office[edit]

  • Alpine is the headquarters of the Brewster County Sheriff's Office. The current elected Sheriff is Ronny Dodson. The County Sheriff's Office conducts patrols and criminal investigations across the county including the incorporated City of Alpine.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 8, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ U.S. States by size
  4. ^ "Mescalero Apache History and Culture". Mescalero Apache Telecom, Inc. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c Kohout, Martin Donell. "Brewster County, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  6. ^ Folsom, Bradley (July 23, 2015). "La Junta de los Ríos". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  7. ^ Kohout, Martin Donell. "Kokernot Spring". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  8. ^ Chipman, Donald E. "Pedro de Rábago y Terán". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  9. ^ Blake, Robert Bruce. "Hugo Oconór". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  10. ^ "The Comanche Trail". National Park Service. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  11. ^ Hewitt, Harry P. "Edvard Emil (Emilio) Langberg". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  12. ^ Klepper, Dan (2009). 100 Classic Hikes Texas: Panhandle Plains / Pineywoods / Gulf Coast / South Texas Plains / Hill Country / Big Bend Country / Prairies & Lakes. Mountaineers Books. pp. 170–172. ISBN 978-1-59485-075-2. 
  13. ^ "Alpine, Texas". Texas Escapes. Texas Escapes – Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  14. ^ Thompson, Richard A. "Camp Pena Colorado". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  15. ^ Ochoa, Ruben E. "August Santleben". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  16. ^ Werner, George C. "Galveston, Harrisburg and San Antonio Railway". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  17. ^ Kohout, Martin Donell. "Alfred Stevens Gage". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  18. ^ Kohout, Martin Donell. "A. S. Gage Ranches". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  19. ^ Ramos, Mary G; Reavis, Dick; Vandivier, Kevin (2004). Compass American Guides: Texas, 3rd Edition. Compass America Guides. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-676-90502-1. 
  20. ^ Metz, Leon Claire (2002). The Encyclopedia of Lawmen, Outlaws, and Gunfighters. Facts on File. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-0-8160-4543-3. 
  21. ^ "James Buchanan Gillett 1856–1937". Texas Ranger Hall of Fame. Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  22. ^ Skelton, Bart. "A Ranch Fit For A Ranger". Guns & Ammo. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  23. ^ Kohout, Martin Donell. "Joseph Daniel Jackson". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  24. ^ Peterson's (2008). Colleges in the South: Compare Colleges in Your Region. Peterson's. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-7689-2695-8. 
  25. ^ "Terlingua". Texas Escapes. Texas Escapes – Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  26. ^ Kohout, Martin Donell. "Glenn Spring Raid". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  27. ^ Montoya, Richard; Culture Clash (2010). "American Night: The Ballad of Juan José". OSF 75th Season. Oregon Shakespeare Festival. Retrieved August 16, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Big Bend". National Park Service. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  29. ^ "Big Bend Ranch State Park". Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  30. ^ Patoski, Joe Nick; Chili Relations (November 1992). Texas Monthly: 78, 80, 82, 8586.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  31. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2015. 
  32. ^ Kottek, M.; Grieser, J.; Beck, C.; Rudolf, B.; Rubel, F. (2006). "Main Köppen-Geiger Climate Classes for US counties". Schweizerbart Science Publishers. Retrieved March 25, 2016. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i "US COOP Station Map". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  34. ^ "ALPINE, TEXAS (410174), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  35. ^ "CASTOLON, TEXAS (411524), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  36. ^ "CHISOS BASIN, TEXAS (411715), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  37. ^ "LAJITAS, TEXAS (414950), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  38. ^ "MARATHON, TEXAS (415579), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  39. ^ "PANTHER JUNCTION, TEXAS (416792), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved May 9, 2015. 
  40. ^ "PERSIMMON GAP, TEXAS (416959), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved May 8, 2015. 
  41. ^ "STUDY BUTTE, TEXAS (418714), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved Mar 22, 2016. 
  42. ^ "TERLINGUA RANCH, TEXAS (418926), Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. Retrieved Mar 24, 2016. 
  43. ^ "County Totals Dataset: Population, Population Change and Estimated Components of Population Change: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015". Retrieved July 2, 2016. 
  44. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2015. 
  45. ^ "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Retrieved April 19, 2015. 
  46. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  47. ^ Where Same-Sex Couples Live, June 26, 2015, retrieved July 6, 2015 

Further reading[edit]

  • Ragsdale, Kenneth Baxter; Frantz, Joe B (1984). Quicksilver: Terlingua and the Chisos Mining Company. TAMU Press. ISBN 978-0-89096-188-9. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 29°48′43″N 103°15′06″W / 29.81185°N 103.2517°W / 29.81185; -103.2517