Fascism in North America
Fascism in North America is composed of a set of related political movements in Canada, the United States, Mexico and elsewhere that are variants of fascism. Fascist movements in North America never realized power, unlike their counterparts in Europe. Although the geopolitical definition of North America varies, for the sake of convenience it can be assumed to include Central America and the Caribbean, where fascist variants also flourished.
In Canada, fascism was divided between two main political parties. The Winnipeg-based Canadian Union of Fascists was modelled on the British Union of Fascists and led by Chuck Crate. The Parti national social chrétien, later renamed the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party, was founded by Adrien Arcand and inspired by Nazism. The Canadian Union of Fascists in English Canada never reached the level of popularity that the Parti national social chrétien enjoyed in Quebec. The Canadian Union of Fascists focused on economic issues while the Parti national social chrétien concentrated on racist themes. The influence of the Canadian fascist movement reached its height during the Great Depression and declined from then on.
Fascism has also been a rare feature of politics in this region, not only for the same reasons as those in Central America but also due to the continuation of colonialism well after the main era of fascism in much of the area. However Falangist movements have been active in Cuba, notably under Antonio Avendaño and Alfonso Serrano Vilariño from 1936 to 1940. A Cuban Nazi party was also active but this group, which attempted to change its name to the 'Fifth Column Party' was banned in 1941. As in Cuba, Falangist groups have been active in Puerto Rico, especially during World War II, when an 8000 strong branch came under FBI scrutiny.
Support, of sorts, for fascism was also briefly logged in British Jamaica during the 1930s. Although based in London for much of that decade, Marcus Garvey remained an important political figure on the island which had often been his home base. In the early 1930s Garvey expressed a strong admiration for Benito Mussolini and argued that "we were the first fascists", comparing the mass membership and discipline of Mussolini's followers to that of his own. Garvey changed his opinion following the Italian invasion of Abyssinia in 1935 and soon denounced Mussolini as "a tyrant, a bully, [and] an irresponsible upstart".
The dominance of right-wing politics in Central America by populism and the military has meant that there has been little space for the development of proper fascist movements. The Central American leader who came closest to being an important domestic fascist was Arnulfo Arias of Panama who, during the 1940s, became a strong admirer of Italian fascism and advocated it following his ascension to the presidency in 1940.
As a minor movement, the Nazi Party was active among German immigrants in El Salvador, where the government cracked down on activity, and Guatemala, which outlawed the Nazi Party and the Hitler Youth in May 1939, among others. They also organised in Nicaragua although Falangism was more important, especially in the Colegio Centro América in Managua where this brand of fascism flourished in the 1930s.
The existence of figures sympathetic to Nazism in high political positions has been pointed out in the administrations of León Cortés Castro and Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia. Cortés in particular (who spent some time in Nazi Germany) was famous as sympathizer since he was a presidential candidate.
In the 1930s, a movement sympathetic to Nazism developed among the large community of German origin. Supporters of Nazism used to meet in the German Club. In 2005 a Nazi monument was found in Cartago dating from the 1930s, built in a mountainous area of difficult access and on an aquifer. Since the declaration of war on the Third Reich by Costa Rica during Calderón Guardia's presidency, many citizens and residents of German and Italian origin were imprisoned and their properties nationalized, even though the vast majority had no links with Nazism or Fascism. The doctrinal origins of racism and the allegations of European racial superiority in Costa Rica had previous origins, as for example among the racist writings of Costa Rican scientist Clodomiro Picado Twight.
The National Synarchist Union was founded in 1937 by José Antonio Urquiza. The group demonstrated some of the palingenetic ultranationalism at the core of fascism because it sought a rebirth of society away from the anarchism, communism, socialism, liberalism, Freemasonry, secularism and Americanism which it saw as dominating Mexico. It differed from European fascism however by being very Roman Catholic in nature. Although supportive of corporatism the National Synarchist Union was arguably too counterrevolutionary to be considered truly fascist.
A Falange Española Tradicionalista was also formed in Mexico by Spanish merchants based there who opposed the consistent support given to the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War by Lázaro Cárdenas. The group neither sought nor had influence outside this immigrant population, however. A Partido Nacional Socialista Mexicano was also active, with most of its 15,000 members being of German background.
In the so-called Business Plot in 1933, anti-war speaker Smedley Butler claimed that wealthy businessmen were plotting to create a fascist veterans' organization and use it in a coup d'état to overthrow American President Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1934, Butler testified to the Special Committee on Un-American Activities (the "McCormack-Dickstein Committee") on these claims. Dickstein, however, was a paid Soviet spy, and historians have not identified any business leaders as a plotter.
During the 1930s Virgil Effinger led the paramilitary Black Legion, a violent offshoot of the Ku Klux Klan that sought a revolution to establish fascism in the United States. Although responsible for a number of attacks, the Black Legion was very much a peripheral band of militants. More important were the Silver Legion of America, founded in 1933 by William Dudley Pelley, and the German American Bund, which emerged the same year from a number of older groups, including the Friends of New Germany and the Free Society of Teutonia. Both of these groups looked to Nazism for their inspiration.
While these groups enjoyed some support, they were largely peripheral. A more prominent leader, Father Charles Coughlin, sparked concern among some on the left at the time. Coughlin, who publicly endorsed fascism, was unable to become involved in active politics because of his status as a priest. Other fascists active in the US included the publisher Seward Collins, the broadcaster Robert Henry Best, the inventor Joe McWilliams and the writer Ezra Pound.
In 1966, Republican Senator Thomas Kuchel said of the Conservative movement, "A fanatical neo-fascist political cult in the GOP, driven by a strange mixture of corrosive hatred and sickening fear, who are recklessly determined to either control our party, or destroy it."
In the view of philosopher Jason Stanley, white supremacy in the United States is an example of the fascist politics of hierarchy, in that it "demands and implies a perpetual hierarchy" in which whites dominate and control non-whites.
World War II
During World War II, first Canada and then the United States came into conflict with the Axis powers, and as part of the war effort they suppressed the fascist movements within their borders, which were already weakened by the widespread public perception that they were fifth columns. This suppression consisted of the internment of fascist leaders, the disbandment of fascist organizations, the censorship of fascist propaganda, and pervasive government propaganda against fascism. In the US this culminated in the Great Sedition Trial of 1944 in which George Sylvester Viereck, Lawrence Dennis, Elizabeth Dilling, William Dudley Pelley, Joe McWilliams, Robert Edward Edmondson, Gerald Winrod, William Griffin, and, in absentia, Ulrich Fleischhauer were all put on trial for aiding the Nazi cause.
Notable neo-fascist and neo-Nazi groups
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- People associated with the Business Plot.
- American Front: an umbrella organisation.
- American Nazi Party: Founded by George Lincoln Rockwell in 1959, this group was central to the foundation of the World Union of National Socialists.
- Aryan Brotherhood: a prison gang.
- Aryan Nations: a Christian Identity organization founded by Richard Girnt Butler.
- Atomwaffen Division: a neo-Nazi paramilitary terrorist organization which is infamous for its killing of 8 people most notably the murder of Blaze Bernstein.
- Creativity Movement: a White separatist religion.
- National Alliance: founded in 1974 by William Luther Pierce, the author of The Turner Diaries.
- National Renaissance Party: of occultist James H. Madole.
- National Socialist Movement: formed in 1974.
- National Socialist Party of America: founded in 1970 by Frank Collin.
- National States' Rights Party: founded in 1958 by J. B. Stoner.
- New Order: led by Matt Koehl with the goal of developing a religion based on Nazism.
- The Order: a revolutionary group established in 1983 by Robert Jay Mathews
- Patriot Front: an alt-right American nationalist movement founded by Thomas Rousseau as an offshoot of Vanguard America.
- Stormfront: a white nationalist website.
- Universal Order: founded by James Mason and heavily influenced by Charles Manson.
- Vanguard America: founded by Dillion Irizarry, part of the Nationalist Front and the alt-right.
- Volksfront: a white power skinhead group led by Randall Krager.
- White Aryan Resistance: a highly racist organization led by Tom Metzger.
- White Patriot Party: a group founded in 1980.
- Canadian Association for Free Expression, founded by Paul Fromm in 1981.
- Heritage Front, founded in 1989 and disbanded in 2005.
- National-Socialist Party of Canada, founded by Terry Tremaine in 2006.
- Nationalist Party of Canada, founded in 1977 by Don Andrews.
- Western Guard Party, an extremist offshoot of the Edmund Burke Society founded in 1967.
- Fascism in Africa
- Fascism in Asia
- Fascism in Europe
- Fascism in South America
- List of Fascist movements
- The Canadian Encyclopedia article on fascism
- Le Falange en Cuba
- Gunther, Inside Latin America, p. 467
- Gunther, Inside Latin America, pp. 434-5
- Colin Grant (2008). Negro with a Hat: The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey and His Dream of Mother Africa. p. 440.
- Grant, Negro with a Hat, p. 441
- "Arnulfo Arias, 87, Panamanian Who Was President 3 Times". The New York Times. August 11, 1988.
- Gunther, Inside Latin America, p. 129
- Gunther, Inside Latin America, p. 125
- Gunther, Inside Latin America, pp. 141-2
- "AFEHC : articulos : Antisemitismo en Costa Rica: una comparación con Alemania : Antisemitismo en Costa Rica: una comparación con Alemania". afehc-historia-centroamericana.org.
- "El fantasma nazi - ÁNCORA". nacion.com.
- "Preludios de miedo y violencia - ÁNCORA". nacion.com.
- Duncan, Quince. "Génesis y evolución del racismo real-doctrinario" (PDF). enlaceacademico.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- Roger Griffin (1993). The Nature of Fascism. p. 149.
- Payne. A History of Fascism 1914-45. pp. 342–3.
- A. Hennessy, "Fascism and Populism in Latin America", W. Laqueur, Fascism: A Reader's Guide, Harmondsworth: Pelican, 1979, p. 283
- John Gunther, Inside Latin America, 1941, p. 113
- John P. Diggins, Mussolini and Fascism: The View from America (Princeton University Press, 1972).
- Francesca De Lucia, "The Impact of Fascism and World War II on Italian-American Communities." Italian Americana 26.1 (2008): 83-95 online.
- Sally Denton, The Plots Against the President: FDR, A Nation in Crisis, and the Rise of the American Right (Bloomsbury Press, 2012.
- Michael E. Birdwell (2001). Celluloid Soldiers. p. 45.
- Stanley G. Payne (2001). A History of Fascism 1914-45. pp. 350–1.
- G. Kabaservice (2012). Rule & Ruin: The Downfall of Moderation and the Destruction of the Republican Party, from Eisenhower to The Tea Party - Studies in Post War US Political Development. Oxford Press. p. 169.
- Stanley, Jason (2018) How Fascism Works: The Politics of Us and Them. New York: Random House. p.13. ISBN 978-0-52551183-0