Fascism in North America

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An example of Fascism in America

Fascism in North America refers to political movements in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean that are variants of fascism. Fascist movements in North America never gained power, unlike their counterparts in Europe.

Canada[edit]

In Canada, fascism was divided between two main political parties. The Winnipeg-based Canadian Union of Fascists was modelled after the British Union of Fascists and led by Chuck Crate. The Parti national social chrétien, later renamed the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party, was founded by Adrien Arcand and inspired by Nazism. The Canadian Union of Fascists in English Canada never reached the level of popularity that the Parti national social chrétien enjoyed in Quebec. The Canadian Union of Fascists focused on economic issues while the Parti national social chrétien concentrated on racist themes. The influence of the Canadian fascist movement reached its height during the Great Depression and declined from then on.[1]

Central America[edit]

The dominance of right-wing politics in Central America by populism and the military has meant that there has been little space for the development of proper fascist movements.

As a minor movement, the Nazi Party was active among German immigrants in El Salvador, where the government cracked down on activity,[2] and Guatemala, which outlawed the Nazi Party and the Hitler Youth in May 1939,[3] among others. They also organised in Nicaragua although Falangism was more important, especially in the Colegio Centro América in Managua where this brand of fascism flourished in the 1930s.[4]

Costa Rica[edit]

The existence of figures sympathetic to Nazism in high political positions has been pointed out in the administrations of León Cortés Castro and Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia. Cortés in particular (who spent some time in Nazi Germany) was famous as sympathizer since he was a presidential candidate.[5][6]

In the 1930s, a movement sympathetic to Nazism developed among the large community of German origin.[7] Supporters of Nazism used to meet in the German Club.[7]

Since the declaration of war on the Third Reich by Costa Rica during Calderón Guardia's presidency, many citizens and residents of German and Italian origin were imprisoned and their properties nationalized, even though the vast majority had no links with Nazism or Fascism.[6] The doctrinal origins of racism and the allegations of European racial superiority in Costa Rica had previous origins, as for example among the racist writings of Costa Rican scientist Clodomiro Picado Twight.[8]

Panama[edit]

The Central American leader who came closest to being an important domestic fascist was Arnulfo Arias of Panama who, during the 1940s, became a strong admirer of Italian fascism and advocated it following his ascension to the presidency in 1940.[9]

Caribbean[edit]

Fascism was rare in Caribbean politics, not only for the same reasons as those in Central America but also due to the continuation of colonialism into the 1950s. However Falangist movements have been active in Cuba, notably under Antonio Avendaño and Alfonso Serrano Vilariño from 1936 to 1940.[10] A Cuban Nazi party was also active but this group, which attempted to change its name to the 'Fifth Column Party' was banned in 1941.[11] As in Cuba, Falangist groups have been active in Puerto Rico, especially during World War II, when an 8000 strong branch came under FBI scrutiny.[12]

Mexico[edit]

In 1922, the Mexican Fascist Party was founded by Gustavo Sáenz de Sicilia. The party was viewed with dismay by Italian fascists, and in 1923, the Italian ambassador stated that "This party was not anything else than a bad imitation of ours".[13]

The National Synarchist Union was founded in 1937 by José Antonio Urquiza. The group espoused some of the aspects of the palingenetic ultranationalism which is at the core of fascism because it sought a rebirth of society away from the anarchism, communism, socialism, liberalism, Freemasonry, secularism and Americanism which it believed were dominating Mexico. However, it differed from European fascism because it was very Roman Catholic in nature.[14] Although supportive of corporatism the National Synarchist Union was arguably too counterrevolutionary to be considered truly fascist.[15]

A similar group, the Gold Shirts, founded in 1933 by Nicolás Rodríguez Carrasco, also bore some of the hallmarks of fascism.

A Falange Española Tradicionalista was also formed in Mexico by Spanish merchants who were based there and opposed the consistent level of support which was given to the Republican side during the Spanish Civil War by Lázaro Cárdenas. However, the group was peripheral because it did not seek to acquire any amount of influence outside this immigrant population.[16] A Partido Nacional Socialista Mexicano was also active, with most of its 15,000 members being of German background.[17]

A more modern group, the Nationalist Front of Mexico was founded in San Luis Potosí in 2006 by Juan Carlos López Lee. It has strongly promoted the Reconquista ideology.

United States[edit]

In the 1920s, American intellectuals paid a considerable amount of attention to Mussolini's early Fascist movement in Italy, but few of them became his supporters. However, he was initially very popular in the Italian American community.[18][19] During the 1930s, Virgil Effinger led the paramilitary Black Legion, a violent offshoot of the Ku Klux Klan that sought a revolution to establish fascism in the United States.[20] Although it was responsible for a number of attacks, the Black Legion was only a peripheral band of militants.

The German American Bund (1936–1940)[edit]

The German American Bund, was the most prominent and well-organised fascist organization in the United States. It was founded in 1936, following the model of Hitler's Nazi Germany. It appeared shortly after the launching of several smaller groups, including the Friends of New Germany (1933) and the Silver Legion of America, founded in 1933 by William Dudley Pelley and the Free Society of Teutonia. Membership in the German-American Bund was only open to American citizens of German descent.[21] Its main goal was to promote a favorable view of Nazi Germany.

The Bund was very active. Its members were issued uniforms and they also attended training camps.[22] The Bund held rallies with Nazi insignia and procedures such as the Hitler salute. Its leaders denounced the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jewish-American groups, Communism, "Moscow-directed" trade unions and American boycotts of German goods.[23] They claimed that George Washington was "the first Fascist" because he did not believe that democracy would work.[24]

The high point of the Bund's activities was the rally at Madison Square Garden in New York City on February 20, 1939.[25] Some 20,000 people attended, The anti-Semetic Speakers repeatedly referred to President Roosevelt "Frank D. Rosenfeld", calling his New Deal the "Jew Deal", and denouncing the Bolshevik-Jewish American leadership.[26] The rally ended with violence between protesters and Bund "storm-troopers".[27] In 1939, America's top fascist, the leader of the Bund, Fritz Julius Kuhn, was investigated by the city of New York and found to be embezzling Bund funds for his own use. He was arrested, his citizenship was revoked, and he was deported. After the War, he was arrested and imprisoned again.

In 1940, the U.S. Army organised a draft in an attempt to bring citizens into military service. The Bund advised its members not to submit to the draft. On this basis, the Bund was outlawed by the U.S. government, and its leader fled to Mexico.

Father Charles Coughlin[edit]

Father Charles Coughlin was a Roman Catholic priest who hosted a very popular radio program in the late 1930s, on which he often ventured into politics. in 1932 he endorsed the election of President Franklin Roosevelt, but he gradually turned against Roosevelt and became a harsh critic of him. His radio program and his newspaper, "Social Justice", denounced Roosevelt, the big banks, and the Jews. When the United States entered World War II, the U.S. government took his radio broadcasts off the air and blocked his newspaper from the mail. He abandoned politics but he continued to be a parish priest until his death in 1979.[28]

The future American architect Philip Johnson was a correspondent in Germany for Coughlin's newspaper between 1934 and 1940, before he began his architectural career. He wrote articles which were favorable to the Nazis and critical of the Jews, and he also took part in a Nazi-sponsored press tour in which he covered the invasion of Poland in 1939. He quit the newspaper in 1940, was investigated by the FBI and was eventually cleared for army service in World War II. Years later he would refer to these activities as "the stupidest thing I ever did ... [which] I never can atone for".[29]

Ezra Pound[edit]

The American poet Ezra Pound moved from the United States to Italy in 1924, and he became a staunch supporter of Benito Mussolini, the founder of a fascist state. He wrote articles and made radio broadcasts which were critical of the United States, international bankers, Franklin Roosevelt, and the Jews. His propaganda was not well received in the U.S.[30] After 1945, he was taken to the United States, where he was imprisoned for his actions on behalf of fascism. He was placed in a psychiatric hospital for twelve years, but in 1958, he was finally released after a campaign was launched on his behalf by American writers. He returned to Italy, where he died in 1972.

World War II – The "Great Sedition Trial" (1944)[edit]

During World War II, first Canada and then the United States battled the Axis powers to the death. As part of the war effort, they suppressed the fascist movements within their borders, which were already weakened by the widespread public perception that they were fifth columns. This suppression consisted of the internment of fascist leaders, the disbanding of fascist organizations, the censorship of fascist propaganda, and pervasive government propaganda against fascism.

In the US, this campaign of suppression culminated in November 1944 in "The Great Sedition Trial," in which George Sylvester Viereck, Lawrence Dennis, Elizabeth Dilling, William Dudley Pelley, Joe McWilliams, Robert Edward Edmondson, Gerald Winrod, William Griffin, and, in absentia, Ulrich Fleischhauer were all put on trial for aiding the Nazi cause, supporting fascism and isolationism. After the death of the judge, however, a mistrial was declared and all of the charges were dropped.[31]

Later years – The American Nazi Party (1959–1983)[edit]

The American Nazi Party was founded in 1959 by George Lincoln Rockwell, a former U.S. Navy commander, who was dismissed from the Navy for his fascist political views. On August 25, 1967, Rockwell was shot and killed in Arlington by John Patler, a former party member who had previously been expelled by Rockwell for his alleged "Bolshevik leanings".[32] The Party was dissolved in 1983.

Hierarchy of Fascism[edit]

In the view of philosopher Jason Stanley, white supremacy in the United States is an example of the fascist politics of hierarchy, because it "demands and implies a perpetual hierarchy" in which whites dominate and control non-whites.[33]

Donald Trump and allegations of fascism[edit]

A growing number of scholars have argued that the political style of Donald Trump resembles the political style of fascist leaders, beginning with his election campaign in 2016,[34][35] continuing over the course of his presidency as he appeared to court far-right extremists,[36][37][38][39] including his failed efforts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election results after losing to Joe Biden,[40] and culminating in the 2021 United States Capitol attack.[41] As these events have unfolded, some commentators who had initially resisted applying the label to Trump came out in favor of it, including conservative legal scholar Steven G. Calabresi and conservative commentator Michael Gerson.[42][43] After the attack on the Capitol, the historian of fascism Robert O. Paxton went so far as to state that Trump is a fascist, despite his earlier objection to using the term in this way.[44] Henry Giroux wrote in "Trump and the legacy of a menacing past," Cultural Studies, "The inability to learn from the past takes on a new meaning as a growing number of authoritarian regimes emerge across the globe. This essay argues that central to understanding the rise of a fascist politics in the United States is the necessity to address the power of language and the intersection of the social media and the public spectacle as central elements in the rise of a formative culture that produces the ideologies and agents necessary for an American-style fascism."[45] Other historians of fascism such as Richard J. Evans,[46] Roger Griffin, and Stanley Payne continue to disagree that fascism is an appropriate term to describe Trump's politics.[41] The 2021 book Rising Fascism in America: It Can Happen Here by Lehigh University professor Anthony R. Dimaggio includes a chapter called, "The Bridge – How Donald Trump Normalized Neofascistic Politics," discussing "Trump’s neofascistic politics via his failed efforts to execute a rolling coup through judicial, state legislative, congressional, and insurrectionist attempts to overturn the 2020 presidential election."[47]

In 2017, the Hamburg, Germany-based magazine Stern depicted Trump giving a Nazi salute and referred to neo-Nazis and the Ku Klux Klan.[48]

As reported by The Guardian in July 2021, the book Frankly, We Did Win This Election[49] by Michael C. Bender of the Wall Street Journal, recounts that White House Chief of Staff John F. Kelly was reportedly shocked by an alleged statement made by Trump that, “Hitler did a lot of good things.” Liz Harrington, Trump spokesperson, denied the claim: “This is totally false. President Trump never said this. It is made-up fake news, probably by a general who was incompetent and was fired.” [50] Kelly further stated in his book that Trump had asked him why his generals couldn't be loyal like Hitler's generals. [51] [52]

According to the Ohio Capital Journal, quoting his roommate, Republican candidate and representative from Georgia J.D. Vance was said to have wondered whether Trump was "America's Hitler." [53] Harvard University professor of government Daniel Ziblatt also drew similarities between Hitler's rise and Trump's. [54] Trump has also been compared to Narendra Modi,[55] and former aide Anthony Scaramucci also compared Trump to Benito Mussolini and Augusto Pinochet.[56]

In July 2021, former George W. Bush speechwriter David Frum wrote in The Atlantic, "Trump’s no Hitler, obviously. But they share some ways of thinking. The past never repeats itself. But it offers warnings. It’s time to start using the F-word again, not to defame—but to diagnose."[57] Nicholas Cohen in The Guardian wrote, "If Trump looks like a fascist and acts like a fascist, then maybe he is one. The F-word is one we are rightly wary of using, but how else to describe the disgraced president?" [58] New York Magazine asked, "Is It Finally Time to Begin Calling Trumpism Fascist?" [59] Dana Milbank also believed the insurrection qualified as fascist, writing in The Washington Post, "To call a person who endorses violence against the duly elected government a “Republican” is itself Orwellian. More accurate words exist for such a person. One of them is “fascist.”" [60] Dylan Matthews writing in Vox quoted Sheri Berman, “I saw Paxton’s essay and of course respect him as an eminent scholar of fascism. But I can’t agree with him on the fascism label.” [41]

The Guardian further reported on Trump's “stand back and stand by” directive during the 2020 United States presidential debates to the Proud Boys and it also made a note of the fact that he had made "positive remarks about far-right and white supremacist groups."[50] During the 2020 debate, Joe Biden asked Trump to condemn white supremacist groups, specifically the Proud Boys.[61] Trump's response was interpreted by some as a call to arms.[62][63][64] The United States House Select Committee on the January 6 Attack public hearings explored the relationships which existed between the Oath Keepers, the Proud Boys and Trump's allies, with evidence of coordination in the run-up to the capitol attack.[65]


Notable neo-fascist and neo-Nazi groups[edit]

United States[edit]

Canada[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Canadian Encyclopedia article on fascism". Archived from the original on October 10, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
  2. ^ Gunther, Inside Latin America, p. 129
  3. ^ Gunther, Inside Latin America, p. 125
  4. ^ Gunther, Inside Latin America, pp. 141–2
  5. ^ "AFEHC : articulos : Antisemitismo en Costa Rica: una comparación con Alemania : Antisemitismo en Costa Rica: una comparación con Alemania". afehc-historia-centroamericana.org. Archived from the original on November 21, 2011. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  6. ^ a b "El fantasma nazi – ÁNCORA". nacion.com.
  7. ^ a b "Preludios de miedo y violencia – ÁNCORA". nacion.com.
  8. ^ Duncan, Quince. "Génesis y evolución del racismo real-doctrinario" (PDF). enlaceacademico.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  9. ^ "Arnulfo Arias, 87, Panamanian Who Was President 3 Times". The New York Times. August 11, 1988.
  10. ^ "La Delegación Nacional del Servicio Exterior de la Falange". www.rumbos.net.
  11. ^ Gunther, Inside Latin America, p. 467
  12. ^ Gunther, Inside Latin America, pp. 434–5
  13. ^ Franco Savarino, "The Sentinel of the Bravo: Italian Fascism in Mexico, 1922–35." Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 2.3 (2001): 97–120.
  14. ^ Roger Griffin (1993). The Nature of Fascism. p. 149.
  15. ^ Payne. A History of Fascism 1914–45. pp. 342–3.
  16. ^ A. Hennessy, "Fascism and Populism in Latin America", W. Laqueur, Fascism: A Reader's Guide, Harmondsworth: Pelican, 1979, p. 283
  17. ^ John Gunther, Inside Latin America, 1941, p. 113
  18. ^ John P. Diggins, Mussolini and Fascism: The View from America (Princeton University Press, 1972).
  19. ^ Francesca De Lucia, "The Impact of Fascism and World War II on Italian-American Communities." Italian Americana 26.1 (2008): 83–95 online.
  20. ^ Michael E. Birdwell (2001). Celluloid Soldiers. p. 45.
  21. ^ Van Ells, Mark D. (August 2007). Americans for Hitler – The Bund. America in WWII. Vol. 3. pp. 44–49. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
  22. ^ "German-American Bund". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
  23. ^ Patricia Kollander; John O'Sullivan (2005). "I must be a part of this war": a German American's fight against Hitler and Nazism. Fordham Univ Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-8232-2528-3.
  24. ^ "Nazis Hail George Washington as First Fascist". Life. March 7, 1938. p. 17. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
  25. ^ "Bund Activities Widespread. Evidence Taken by Dies Committee Throws Light on Meaning of the Garden Rally". The New York Times. February 26, 1939. Retrieved February 19, 2015. Disorders attendant upon Nazi rallies in New York and Los Angeles this week again focused attention upon the Nazi movement in the United States and inspired conjectures as to its strength and influence.
  26. ^ "When Nazis Rallied at Madison Square Garden". WNYC Archives. Event occurs at 1:05:54. Retrieved March 14, 2022. ...and in our political life, where a Henry Morgenthau takes the place of men like Alexander Hamilton, and a Frank D. Rosenfeld takes the place of a George Washington.
  27. ^ Buder, Emily (October 10, 2017). "When 20,000 American Nazis Descended Upon New York City". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 6, 2017. In 1939, the German American Bund organized a rally of 20,000 Nazi supporters at Madison Square Garden in New York City.
  28. ^ Stanley G. Payne (2001). A History of Fascism 1914–45. pp. 350–1.
  29. ^ New York Times obituary, January 27, 2005, accessed March 16, 2022
  30. ^ Victor C. Ferkiss, "Ezra Pound and American Fascism." Journal of politics 17.2 (1955): 173–197.
  31. ^ Piper, Michael Collins, and Ken Hoop. "A Mockery of Justice—The Great Sedition Trial of 1944." The Barnes Review 5 (1999): 5–20 online.
  32. ^ "Killer of American Nazi Chief Paroled". St. Joseph News-Press. August 23, 1975. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  33. ^ Stanley, Jason (2018) How Fascism Works: The Politics of Us and Them. New York: Random House. p.13. ISBN 978-0-52551183-0
  34. ^ Kagan, Robert (May 18, 2016). "This is how fascism comes to America". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 7, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. ^ McGaughey, Ewan (2018). "Fascism-Lite in America (or the Social Ideal of Donald Trump)". British Journal of American Legal Studies. 7 (2): 291–315. doi:10.2478/bjals-2018-0012. S2CID 195842347. SSRN 2773217.
  36. ^ Stanley, Jason (October 15, 2018). "If You're Not Scared About Fascism in the U.S., You Should Be". The New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  37. ^ Snyder, Timothy (October 30, 2018). "Donald Trump borrows from the old tricks of fascism". The Guardian. Retrieved June 11, 2020.
  38. ^ Gordon, Peter (January 7, 2020). "Why Historical Analogy Matters". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  39. ^ Szalai, Jennifer (June 10, 2020). "The Debate Over the Word Fascism Takes a New Turn". The New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  40. ^ Cummings, William; Garrison, Joey; Sergent, Jim (January 6, 2021). "By the numbers: President Donald Trump's failed efforts to overturn the election". USA Today. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  41. ^ a b c Matthews, Dylan (January 14, 2020). "The F Word: The debate over whether to call Donald Trump a fascist, and why it matters". Vox. Retrieved August 7, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  42. ^ Calabresi, Steven G. (July 20, 2020). "Trump Might Try to Postpone the Election. That's Unconstitutional". The New York Times. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  43. ^ Gerson, Michael (February 1, 2021). "Trumpism is American fascism". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  44. ^ Paxton, Robert O. (January 11, 2021). "I've Hesitated to Call Donald Trump a Fascist. Until Now". Newsweek. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  45. ^ Trump and the legacy of a menacing past. Giroux, Henry A., Cultural Studies, 09502386, Jul2019, Vol. 33, Issue 4
  46. ^ Evans, Richard J. (January 13, 2021). "Why Trump isn't a fascist". The New Statesman. Retrieved August 7, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  47. ^ Dimaggio, Anthony R. (2021). Rising Fascism in America: It Can Happen Here. United Kingdom: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003198390
  48. ^ "German magazine depicts Trump giving Nazi salute". POLITICO. August 24, 2017.
  49. ^ Bender, Michael C. (2021). Frankly, We Did Win This Election: The Inside Story of How Trump Lost
  50. ^ a b "Trump told chief of staff Hitler 'did a lot of good things', book says". the Guardian. July 7, 2021.
  51. ^ Shear, Michael D. (August 8, 2022). "Trump Asked Aide Why His Generals Couldn't Be Like Hitler's, Book Says". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  52. ^ Glasser, Susan; Baker, Peter (August 8, 2022). "Inside the War Between Trump and His Generals". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
  53. ^ "Vance wondered whether Trump was 'America's Hitler,' says former roommate sharing screenshot". April 19, 2022.
  54. ^ "One Scholar On Similarities, Substantial Differences Between Trump And Hitler / NPR Here & Now". gov.harvard.edu.
  55. ^ the neo-fascist discourse and its normalisation through mediation. By: Cammaerts, Bart, Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 17447143, Sep2020, Vol. 15, Issue 3
  56. ^ Homans, Charles (October 21, 2020). "Donald Trump's Strongman Act, and Its Limits". The New York Times.
  57. ^ David Frum (July 2021). "There's a Word for What Trumpism Is Becoming". The Atlantic.
  58. ^ Nick Cohen (January 16, 2021). "If Trump looks like a fascist and acts like a fascist, then maybe he is one". The Guardian.
  59. ^ Kilgore, Ed (July 14, 2021). "Is It Finally Time to Begin Calling Trumpism Fascism?". Intelligencer.
  60. ^ Milbank, Dana (February 7, 2022). "There's a name for someone who calls violence 'legitimate.' It isn't 'Republican.'". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 15, 2022.
  61. ^ "Read the full transcript from the first presidential debate between Joe Biden and Donald Trump". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  62. ^ Thrush, Glenn; Kanno-Youngs, Zolan (September 29, 2020). "Refusing to categorically denounce white supremacists, Trump falsely says extremist violence is 'not a right-wing problem'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  63. ^ Olorunnipa, Toluse; Wootson Jr., Cleve R. (September 30, 2020). "Trump refused to condemn white supremacists and militia members in presidential debate marked by disputes over race". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020.
  64. ^ Altman-Devilbiss, Alexx (September 30, 2020). "Sen. Tim Scott says Trump 'misspoke' when he told Proud Boys 'stand back and stand by'". WPDE. Archived from the original on November 16, 2020. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  65. ^ Barbara Sprunt (July 12, 2022). "Jan. 6 panel shows evidence of coordination between far-right groups and Trump allies". NPR.
  66. ^ Lemire, Jonathan; Kunzelman, Michael; Jalonick, Mary Clare (October 1, 2020). "Trump Proud Boys remark echoes Charlottesville". Associated Press. Washington, D.C. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  67. ^ Solomon, Molly (November 20, 2018). "FBI Categorizes Proud Boys As Extremist Group With Ties To White Nationalism". NPR. Retrieved December 13, 2020.
  68. ^ Templeton, Amelia; Wilson, Conrad (December 5, 2018). "Portland FBI Head Clarifies Statement On Proud Boys". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Portland, Ore. Retrieved December 13, 2020.

Further reading[edit]

  • Betcherman, Lita-Rose. The swastika and the maple leaf: Fascist movements in Canada in the thirties (Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 1978).
  • Cassels, Alan. "Fascism for export: Italy and the United States in the twenties." American Historical Review 69.3 (1964): 707–712 online.
  • Horne, Gerald. The color of fascism: Lawrence Dennis, Racial passing, and the rise of right-wing extremism in the United States (NYU Press, 2009).
  • Pinto, António Costa. Latin American Dictatorships in the Era of Fascism: The Corporatist Wave (Routledge, 2019).
  • Santos, Theotonio Dos. "Socialism and fascism in Latin America today." Insurgent Sociologist 7.4 (1977): 15–24.