Zamboanga City

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Zamboanga City
Highly Urbanized City
City of Zamboanga
ZAMBOANGA CITY Asia's Latin City City Hall and Plaza Rizal (Ayunamiento y Plaza Rizal).jpg
Santa Barbara Mosque1.JPG
Isla Great Santa Cruz.JPG
Modern Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception 07-07-10.JPG
Paseo del Mar overlooking the Santa Cruz Islands.JPG
Zamboanga City from Garden Orchid Hotel.jpg
Clockwise from top: Zamboanga City Hall, Great Santa Cruz Island, Paseo del Mar, Zamboanga City view, Metropolitan Cathedral of Immaculate Conception, Santa Barbara Mosque
Official seal of Zamboanga City
Seal
Nickname(s): City of Flowers
Asia's Latin City
Sardines Capital of The Philippines
Motto(s): Build Back Better Zamboanga
Anthem: Zamboanga Hermosa
Map of Zamboanga Peninsula with Zamboanga City highlighted
Map of Zamboanga Peninsula with Zamboanga City highlighted
Zamboanga City is located in Philippines
Zamboanga City
Zamboanga City
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 6°55′N 122°05′E / 6.92°N 122.08°E / 6.92; 122.08Coordinates: 6°55′N 122°05′E / 6.92°N 122.08°E / 6.92; 122.08
Country  Philippines
Region Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX)
Province Zamboanga del Sur (statistically only)
District 1st (West Coast) and 2nd (East Coast) districts of Zamboanga City
Founded June 23, 1635
Chartered October 12, 1936
Cityhood February 26, 1937
Barangays 98 (see Barangays)
Government[1]
 • Type Sangguniang Panlungsod
 • Mayor Beng Climaco
 • Vice Mayor Cesar Iturralde
 • Congressman
 • Electorate 412,795 voters (2016)
Area[2]
 • Total 1,414.7 km2 (546.2 sq mi)
Area rank 3rd (city)
Elevation 16.0 m (52.5 ft)
Population (2015 census)[3]
 • Total 861,799
 • Density 610/km2 (1,600/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Zamboangueño
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 7000
PSGC 097332000
IDD:area code +63 (0)62
Climate type tropical climate
Income class 1st city income class
Website www.zamboanga.gov.ph

Zamboanga City, officially the City of Zamboanga, (Chavacano: Ciudad de Zamboanga, Filipino: Lungsod ng Zamboanga), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Zamboanga Peninsula, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 861,799 people.[3] It is the 6th most populous and 3rd largest city by land area in the Philippines.[3][4] It is the commercial and industrial center of the Zamboanga Peninsula Region.[5]

On October 12, 1936, Zamboanga became a chartered city under Commonwealth Act No. 39.[6][7] It was inaugurated on February 26, 1937.[8]

Zamboanga City is an independent, chartered city and was designated highly urbanized on November 22, 1983.[9]

Although geographically separated, Zamboanga City is grouped with the province of Zamboanga del Sur for statistical purposes, yet governed independently from it.[10][11]

History[edit]

Zamboanga City was founded in the late 12th or early 13th century as a settlement by the Subanen people. Zamboanga peninsula was also the homelands of the ancestors of the Yakan, the Balanguingui, and other closely related Sama-Bajau peoples.[12][13]

The area was inhabited by the Subanen people and was the site of trade among the Chinese, Malays and different native ethnic groups around the area.

During the 13th century, the Tausūg people started migrating to Zamboanga and the Sulu archipelago from their homelands in northeastern Mindanao. They became the dominant ethnic group after they were Islamized in the 14th century and established the Sultanate of Sulu in the 15th century. A majority of the Yakan, the Balanguingui, and the Sama-Bajau were also Islamized, though most of the Subanen remained animist (with the exception of the Kolibugan subgroup in southwestern Zamboanga).[12][14][15]

The city used to be known as Samboangan in historical records.[16][16][17][18][19][20][21][22] Samboangan is a Sinama term for "mooring place" (also spelled sambuangan; and in Subanen, sembwangan), from the root word samboang ("mooring pole").[23] The name was later Hispanicized and named as Zamboanga.

This is commonly contested by folk etymologies which instead attribute the name to the Indonesian word jambangan (claimed to mean "place of flowers", but actually means "pot" or "bowl"), usually with claims that all ethnic groups in Zamboanga were "Malays". However, this name has never been attested in any historical records prior to the 1960s.[24]

Spanish rule[edit]

Aerial view of Fort Pilar

Spanish explorers arrived in the Philippine archipelago in 1521.[25] In 1569 Zamboanga was chosen as the site of the Spanish settlement and garrison on La Caldera (now part of Barangay Recodo).[26] Zamboanga City was one of the main strongholds in Mindanao, supporting colonizing efforts in the south of the island and making way for Christian settlements. It also served as a military outpost, protecting the island against foreign invaders and Moro pirates.

In 1599, the Zamboanga fort was closed and transferred to Cebú due to great concerns about attack by the English on that island, which did not occur. After having abandoned the city, the Spaniards as well as some Latin-American mercenaries from Peru and Mexico,[27] joined forces with troops from Pampanga and Visayan soldiers (From Bohol, Cebu and Iloilo) and reached the shore of Zamboanga to bring peace to the island against Moro pirates.[28]

In 1635, Spanish officers and soldiers, along with Visayan laborers, settled in the area and construction began on Fort San José (what is now known as Fort Pilar) to protect the inhabitants of the area from Moro piracy.

Zamboanga became the main headquarters of the Spaniards on June 23, 1635 upon approval of King Philip IV of Spain, and the Spanish officially founded the city.[28] Thousands of Spanish troops headed by a governor general from Spain took the approval to build the first Zamboanga fortress (now called Fort Pilar) in Zamboanga to forestall enemies in Mindanao like Moro pirates and other foreign invaders.[29] The Zamboanga fortress became the main focus of a number of battles between Moros and Spaniards while the Spanish ruled the region from 16th to 18th centuries. Spain was forced to abandon Zamboanga temporarily and withdraw its soldiers to Manila in 1662 after the Chinese under Koxinga threatened to invade the Spanish Philippines.

The Spanish returned to Zamboanga in 1718 and rebuilding of the fort began the following year. The fort would serve as defence for the Christian settlement against Moro pirates and foreign invaders for the next years.

While the region was already dominated by Catholicism, Muslims kept up a protracted struggle against the ruling Spaniards in the country into the 18th century.[30][31] In January 1798 a British naval squadron conducted a Raid on Zamboanga but was driven off by the city's defensive fortifications. In 1831, the custom house in Zamboanga was established as a port, and it became the main port for direct communication, trading some goods and other services to most of Europe, Southeast Asia and Latin America.[32] The Americans arrived in the Philippines, headed by General Weyler with thousands of troops to defeat the Spaniards who ruled it more than three centuries.

The Spanish government sent more than 80,000 Spanish troops to the Philippines. The Spanish government completely and peacefully surrendered the islands to the United States in the 1890s.[33]

Establishing its own Republic[edit]

Inauguration of the Municipality of Zamboanga with Datu Kalun (1901)

Before the end of the 19th century, the Republic of Zamboanga was established right after when the Zamboangueño revolutionary forces defeated the last Spanish Government in Zamboanga and when Fort Pilar was turned over to General Vicente Álvarez, the first genuinely elected president who ruled the República de Zamboanga from 18 May 1899 until November 1899. The Republic of Zamboanga continued to exist until 1903 with Isidoro Midel as the 2nd President under a puppet government of the United States of America, and who was succeeded by Mariano Arquiza.[34]

American Era[edit]

Upon the firm establishment of American colonization and dissolution of the Republic in 1903, Zamboanga City, as a municipality, was placed as the capital of the Moro Province, a semi-military government consisting of five districts: Zamboanga, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao and Sulu. it established itself the center of commerce, trade, and government of Mindanao Island.[35] During this period, Zamboanga hosted a number of American regional governors, including General John J. Pershing, who was military commander/governor of the Moro Province from 1909 to 1914.

In 1920, Zamboanga City ceased to be capital of the Moro Province[36] when the department was divided into provinces in which the city became under the large province of Zamboanga. It encompasses the present-day Zamboanga Peninsula with the inclusion of the whole province of Basilan.

The 1936 City Charter and the commonwealth[edit]

President Manuel L. Quezon signing the City Charter of Zamboanga in a ceremony held at the Malacañang Palace in (1936)

When the Commonwealth government was established in 1935, calls to convert Zamboanga City into a city increased. On September 23, 1936, through Assemblyman Juan Alano, the National Assembly of the Philippines passed Commonwealth Act No. 39 making Zamboanga a chartered city consisting of "the present territorial jurisdiction of the municipality of Zamboanga, the municipality of Bolong, the municipal district of Taluksangay, the whole island of Basilan and the adjacent islands, i.e., the municipality of Isabela, the municipal district of Lamitan, and the municipal district of Maluso."[6][7] It was later signed by President Manuel Quezon in October 12, 1936. The charter made Zamboanga City as the largest city in the world in terms of land area. During these times, Zamboanga was the leading commercial and industrial city of Mindanao.

Before World War II, Pettit Barracks, a part of the U.S. Army's 43d Infantry Regiment (PS), was stationed there.

World War II[edit]

When the Japanese invaded the Philippines, they were headed by Vice Admiral Rokuzo Sugiyama, accompanied by Rear Admiral Naosaburo Irifune. The Japanese landed at Zamboanga City on March 2, 1942.[37]

The Japanese government in the city was overthrown by American and Filipino forces following a fierce battle on March 10–12, 1945.[34] The rebuilt general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary was stationed in Zamboanga City from March 13, 1945 to June 30, 1946 during the military operations in Mindanao and Sulu against the Japanese.[citation needed]

Post-World War II[edit]

After the war, the citizens in the island of Basilan found it difficult to appear in courts, pay their taxes, seek help from the mayor and other officials. Going from Basilan to the mainland required three or more hours of travel via ferry. To fix the problem, Representative Juan Alano filed a bill in Congress to separate Basilan from Zamboanga City. So the island of Basilan was proclaimed a separate city through Republic Act No. 288 on July 16, 1948.[38]

In April 7, 1953, by virtue of Republic Act No. 840, the city was classified as first-class city according to its revenue.[39][40]

In April 29, 1955, a special law changed the landscape of the city government when Republic Act No. 1210[41] amended the City Charter that made elective the position of city mayor and the creation of an elective vice mayor and eight (8) elective city councilors. The vice mayor is the presiding-officer of the City Council. In November 1955, Liberal Party candidate Cesar Climaco with his running-mate, Tomas Ferrer won the first local elections. They were inducted into office on January 1, 1956 as determined by the Revised Election Code.[42]

Martial law years[edit]

On September 21, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos signed Proclamation No. 1081 placing the Philippines under martial law. Zamboanga City's local government came under presidential control for the first time since 1955. Marcos extended Enriquez's term when his tenure was about to end in 1975.

In November 14, 1975, President Marcos reorganized the local government and the city council was replaced by a Sangguniang Panglungsod with the mayor as its new presiding officer and members including the vice mayor, the chairman of the Katipunan ng mga Kabataang Barangay, the president of the Association of Barangay Captains, and sectoral representatives of agriculture, business and labor.[43]

When Mayor Enriquez resigned and bid for the newly created Interim Batasang Pambansa in 1978, Vice Mayor Jose Vicente Atilano II was appointed by President Marcos to replace him.

Climaco's return (1980–1984)[edit]

In 1980, Cesar Climaco staged his political comeback when he was elected again to the mayoral post under his new party, the Concerned Citizen's Aggregation. He had gone into exile to the United States in protest against Marcos' declaration of Martial Law.[44]

In 1984, Climaco was elected a member of the Regular Batasang Pambansa. Climaco however declined to assume his seat until he had completed his six-year term as mayor in his consistent protest against Marcos.

21st century[edit]

On November 19, 2001, the Cabatangan Government Complex in Barangay Cabatangan, the seat of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao, was raided by former MNLF fighters in protest of Misuari's ouster as Governor of the autonomous region in which they took residents hostage. The complex also houses the different regional government offices such as the Commission on Audit, Population Commission, Civil Service Commission, Area Vocational Rehabilitation Center, DECS Training Center and the Zamboanga Arturo Eustaquio College Department of Criminology. An air strike by the military began on November 27 in which the hostages were later released after the government agreed to escort the rebels to a safe zone in Panubigan where they were allowed to go free.[45]

In 2013, Maria Isabelle Climaco Salazar who is the niece of former Mayor Cesar Climaco was elected became the second woman mayor of the city.[46]

Zamboanga City crisis[edit]

On September 9, 2013, a faction of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) under the leadership of Nur Misuari seized hostages in Zamboanga City and attempted to raise the flag of the self-proclaimed Bangsamoro Republik, a state which declared its independence earlier in August, in Talipao, Sulu. This armed incursion has been met by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, which seeks to free the hostages and expel the MNLF from Zamboanga City. The standoff degenerated into urban warfare, and brought parts of the city under standstill for days.[47]

Mayor Climaco-Salazar and her administration are relocating the internal displaced persons (IDPs) affected by the crisis to transitory sites and later, permanent housings in various places around Zamboanga City.[48] Her rehabilitation plan, "Zamboanga City Roadmap to Recovery and Rehabilitation (Z3R)", envisions building back a better Zamboanga City and rehabilitating the areas affected by the crisis.[49]

Geography[edit]

Location map of barangays of Zamboanga City

Geology[edit]

The southwest and eastern sides of Zamboanga City are bounded by irregular coastlines with generally rocky terrain and occasional stretches of sandy or gravelly beaches. The coastal profile usually descends abruptly towards the sea. Where rivers enter the sea, bays have formed, and the surrounding area has filled up with alluvial soils, producing small to large coastal plains.[citation needed]

Topography[edit]

The overall topography of the city could be described as rolling to very steep. There are some flat lands, mostly narrow strips along the east coast. The urban center is mostly flat with a gentle slope to the interior, ranging from 0 to 3%. The highest registered elevation is 1,200 metres. In terms of slope, a large portion of Zamboanga City, about 38,000 hectares, have slopes ranging from 18 to 30%. Another 26,000 hectares have been described as having slopes pf less than 3% while about 37% of the area or a total of 52,000 hectares have slopes ranging from 30% to more than 50%.[50]

The territorial jurisdiction of the city includes the islands of big and small Sta. Cruz, Tictabon, Sacol, Manalipa, Tumalutap, Vitali, as well as other numerous islands. The total land area of the city is recorded to be 142,099.99 hectares or 1,420.99 kilometers. This does not include the area of about 25 other islands within the territorial jurisdiction of the city — which have an aggregate area of 6,248.5 hectares as verified by the Office of the City Engineer. Putting these all together, the city’s new total land area would come to 148,338.49 hectares.

Climate[edit]

Zamboanga City features a tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification.


Climate data for Zamboanga City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39
(102)
42
(108)
37
(99)
41
(106)
37
(99)
42
(108)
40
(104)
38
(100)
41
(106)
37
(99)
37
(99)
38
(100)
42
(108)
Average high °C (°F) 31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
32
(90)
32
(90)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27
(81)
27
(81)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
28
(82)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(81)
28
(82)
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
25
(77)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
Record low °C (°F) 17
(63)
17
(63)
20
(68)
13
(55)
21
(70)
20
(68)
17
(63)
21
(70)
15
(59)
13
(55)
21
(70)
20
(68)
13
(55)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 40
(1.57)
50
(1.97)
40
(1.57)
50
(1.97)
90
(3.54)
120
(4.72)
130
(5.12)
120
(4.72)
130
(5.12)
160
(6.3)
110
(4.33)
80
(3.15)
1,190
(46.85)
Average rainy days 1 1 2 3 6 4 3 3 4 6 4 1 38
Average relative humidity (%) 90 90 89 91 91 92 93 92 92 93 93 91 92
Source: Canty and Associates LLC [51]
Climate data for Zamboanga, Philippines
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.9
(89.4)
32.0
(89.6)
32.3
(90.1)
32.6
(90.7)
32.4
(90.3)
31.7
(89.1)
31.4
(88.5)
31.7
(89.1)
31.8
(89.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.7
(89.1)
32.1
(89.8)
32
(89.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.2
(81)
27.3
(81.1)
27.7
(81.9)
28.0
(82.4)
28.1
(82.6)
27.7
(81.9)
27.4
(81.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.5
(81.5)
27.5
(81.5)
27.4
(81.3)
27.6
(81.6)
Average low °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
22.5
(72.5)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.9
(75)
23.6
(74.5)
23.3
(73.9)
23.4
(74.1)
23.3
(73.9)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
22.7
(72.9)
23.2
(73.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32.4
(1.276)
45.6
(1.795)
37.1
(1.461)
53.3
(2.098)
81.3
(3.201)
125.8
(4.953)
136.4
(5.37)
114.0
(4.488)
133.9
(5.272)
157.1
(6.185)
98.8
(3.89)
51.0
(2.008)
1,066.7
(41.997)
Source: Hong Kong Observatory[52]

Barangays[edit]

The city of Zamboanga is politically subdivided into 98 barangays. These are grouped into two congressional districts, with 38 barangays in the West Coast and 60 barangays in the East Coast.

District I (West Coast)[edit]

Calle Rizal (Rizal Road) in Zamboanga City
  • Baliwasan
  • Ayala
  • Sta. Maria
  • Baluno
  • Cabatangan
  • Calarian
  • Camino Nuevo
  • Campo Islam
  • Canelar
  • Capisan
  • Cawit
  • Dulian Pasonanca
  • Kasanyangan
  • La Paz
  • Labuan
  • Lamisahan
  • Limpapa
  • Maasin
  • Malagutay
  • Pamucutan
  • Pasonanca
  • Patalon
  • Recodo
  • Lower Calarian
  • Suterville
  • Rio Hondo
  • San Jose Cawa Cawa
  • San Jose Gusu
  • San Ramon
  • San Roque
  • Sinunuc
  • Sinubong
  • Sta. Barbara
  • Sta. Cruz (Island Barangay)
  • Sta. Maria
  • Sto. Niño
  • Talisayan
  • Tulungatung
  • Tumaga
  • Luyahan
  • Zone I
  • Zone II
  • Zone III
  • Zone IV

District II (East Coast)[edit]

R.T. Lim Boulevard, named after Sen. Roseller T. Lim the first Zamboangueño Senator.
  • Arena Blanco
  • Boalan
  • Bolong
  • Buenavista
  • Bunguiao
  • Busay (Island Barangay)
  • Cabaluay
  • Cacao
  • Calabasa
  • Culianan
  • Curuan
  • Dita
  • Divisoria
  • Dulian Bunguiao
  • Guisao
  • Guiwan
  • Landang Gua (Island Barangay)
  • Landang Laum (Island Barangay)
  • Lanzones
  • Lapakan
  • Latuan Curuan
  • Licomo
  • Limaong
  • Lubigan
  • Lumayang
  • Lumbangan
  • Lunzuran
  • Mampang
  • Manalipa
  • Manicahan
  • Mangusu
  • Mariki
  • Mercedes
  • Muti
  • Pangapuyan (Island Barangay)
  • Panubigan
  • Pasilmanta (Island Barangay)
  • Pasabolong
  • Putik
  • Quiniput
  • Salaan
  • Sangali
  • Sibulao Curuan
  • Sta. Catalina
  • Tagasilay
  • Taguiti
  • Talabaan
  • Talon-Talon
  • Taluksangay
  • Tetuan
  • Tictapul
  • Tigbalabag
  • Tictabon (Island Barangay)
  • Tolosa
  • Tugbungan
  • Tumalutab (Island Barangay)
  • Tumitus
  • Victoria
  • Vitali
  • Zambowood

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Population census of Zamboanga City
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1903 20,692 —    
1918 42,007 +4.83%
1939 73,894 +2.73%
1948 103,317 +3.79%
1960 131,489 +2.03%
1970 199,901 +4.27%
1975 265,023 +5.82%
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1980 343,722 +5.34%
1990 442,345 +2.56%
1995 511,139 +2.75%
2000 601,794 +3.56%
2007 774,407 +3.54%
2010 807,129 +1.52%
2015 861,799 +1.26%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[3][56][57][58]

Zamboanga City is the 6th most populous in the Philippines and the 2nd most populous in Mindanao after Davao City. The city's population had an increase of 54,670 over the five years since 2010. It had an annual population growth rate at 1.26%, lower than from in the year 2000 to 2010 which was 2.98%.[3] The city's population is expected to reach 1 million between 2020 to 2025.[59]

Among the city's 98 barangays, Talon-Talon is the most populous with 4.1% share of this city’s population, followed by Mampang (4.0%), Tumaga (3.6%), Tetuan (3.5%), Calarian (3.4%), San Roque and Pasonanca (both with 3.2%).[60]

Religion[edit]

According to statistics compiled by the Philippine government, the most dominant religion in Zamboanga City is Roman Catholic (60%), followed by Islam (35%) Buddhism and and Born-Again Christians (5%).[61][62][63] Other religious practices and dominations in the city were Paganism, Animism, Atheism and Sikhism.[64][65]

Roman Catholic[edit]

Metropolitan Cathedral of Immaculate Conception

With the 60% of the city's population, Roman Catholic remains the predominant religion in the city.[61][62] Zamboanga City was the first to establish it own Catholic diocese in Mindanao (now Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zamboanga). The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception serves as the seat of the Archdiocese of Zamboanga. It was designed by Domingo Abarro III. The first church was located at the front of Plaza Pershing, where the present Universidad de Zamboanga stands. The church was designated a cathedral in 1910 when the diocese of Zamboanga City was created.[citation needed] In 1943, the cathedral was one of the edifices bombarded by Japanese soldiers during World War II.[citation needed] In 1956, the cathedral was relocated beside Ateneo de Zamboanga University, formerly known as the Jardin de Chino.

The titular patroneses is Nuestra Señora La Virgen del Pilar de Zaragoza, and its secondary patron is St. Pius X, Pope.

Islam[edit]

Built by Hadji Abdullah Maas Nuno in 1885. It is the oldest mosque in Western Mindanao.

Muslims have also been an integral part of Zamboanga, with 35% of the city's population.[62] Traditional and folk Muslims in the city were mostly belong to the tribal groups of Sama and Badjao.[66][67] Some barangays like in Campo Islam today are now populated by 100% Muslims due to migration from people of Sulu who are mostly Tausug. The Yakan, a minority group of Muslim people from Basilan also migrated to the city and had their own villages.[68][69] These barangays with Muslim majority population, do not celebrate Fiestas, but instead, they do celebrate Hari Raya (the eid celebration).

Protestsants and other Christian dominations[edit]

With the inception of the American era, Protestant sects were introduced. Christian and Missionary Alliance, Seventh-day Adventist, Church of Latter day Saints, and United Church of Christ in the Philippines are included. Most Protestants are migrants who are mostly of Cebuano or Ilocano ethnicity.[citation needed]

Several members of Iglesia ni Cristo live in Zamboanga City and have created several locales.[citation needed]

Others[edit]

Paganism and Animism were the first to set foot in the Kingdom of Jambangan (present-day: City of Zamboanga, Zamboanga Sibugay Province, Sirawai, Sibuco and Siocon) or as per the actual the territory of the Kingdom of Jambangan's Punta Gorda to Punta Flecha.[citation needed]

Ethnicities[edit]

The ancestors of the present inhabitants of the city are said to also have migrated to other areas in the Southwestern Mindanao. Due to migration, a number of other ethnicities have a visible presence in the city such as the Sama, Yakan, Tausug and Badjao peoples.[70][71][72][73]

Language[edit]

Zamboangueño is one of six Spanish-based creole language varieties of the Philippines identified by linguists, collectively known locally as Chavacano. This creole language, with Spanish as its lexifier and grammar influenced by other Philippine languages, is the native language of inhabitants living around the city and the nearby island of Basilan. Aside from Chavacano, Filipino and English are also understood.

Tausug, Cebuano and Hiligaynon are also spoken, mostly by migrants to the city.[74] Subanon is mainly spoken by Subanons living in the city.

Economy[edit]

A Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas facility in the city

Sardine industry[edit]

Sardines section in a supermarket

Zamboanga City is called the Sardines Capital of the Philippines,[75] because 9 out of 12 sardines companies in the country are operating in the city. The canning factories are converged in the west coast of Zamboanga. Sardine fishing and processing account for about 70 percent of the city's economy.[citation needed] Situated at the western tip of the Mindanao mainland, Zamboanga City is a natural docking point for vessels traversing the rich fishing grounds of the Zamboanga peninsula and the Sulu archipelago.

Canned sardine firms in this city that have upgraded their production to conform to international food safety and quality standards are looking to enter new markets in Russia and other European countries. In 2008, Zamboanga City exported 13,000 tonnes of canned sardines, worth approximately $16 million.[76]

Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone[edit]

Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority

The Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority and Freeport (Zamboecozone), also known as Zamboanga Freeport Authority (ZFA), was created by virtue of the Republic Acts of the Philippines 7903 of the Philippines Constitution in the year 1995.[77] It was authored by the then congresswoman and late mayor of the city of Zamboanga, María Clara Lobregat.[78]

The Special Economic Zone was enacted into law on February 23, 1995 and made operational a year later with the appointment of a chairman and administrator and the members of the Board by former President Fidel V. Ramos. It is located about 23 km from the city proper. It is one of the three current Economic Freeport Zones outside Luzon.

Shopping malls[edit]

Seaweed industry[edit]

Seaweed production plants in Zamboanga City, along with Cebu and Southern Luzon, produce most of the world's supply of carrageenan. Seventy-five percent of the country's eucheuma and kappaphycus seaweed is produced mostly in the Zamboanga peninsula and the Sulu archipelago.[79]

Tourism[edit]

The Department of Tourism has selected Zamboanga City as a flagship tourism destination in Zamboanga Peninsula.[80] Domestic and foreign tourist arrivals increased 8 percent to 439,160 in 2005, according to data from the regional tourism office. The same report notes that Filipinos accounted for 80 percent of the tourist arrivals. Moreover, 50 percent of those tourists visited Zamboanga City before.[81]

Parks, landmarks and other sites[edit]

Numerous landmarks, tourist spots and parks in Zamboanga City include:

Festivals and events[edit]

Governance[edit]

Executive[edit]

Plaza Rizal and the City Hall of Zamboanga since 1907

Zamboanga City is the third oldest city in the Philippines, with a mayor-council form of government.[83]

The city government of Zamboanga was in a commission form shortly between 1912 and 1914 with an appointed mayor.[citation needed] It then was replaced by a municipal form of government headed by a municipal mayor assisted by a municipal vice-president.

When the City Charter of Zamboanga was signed on October 12, 1936,[citation needed] the municipal government was converted into a city one headed by a mayor appointed by the President of the Philippine Commonwealth.

With the passage of Republic Act No. 1210 on April 29, 1955, the position of mayor became elective and the post of vice mayor was created.

Representation in Congress[edit]

Zamboanga City received its own representation for the Philippine Congress in 1984 when the Regular Batasang Pambansa was convened. Previously, the city was part of the representation of the Zamboanga Province from 1935 to 1953, of Zamboanga del Sur from 1953 to 1972 and in Zamboanga Peninsula from 1978 to 1984.

The former lone congressional district was further divided into two separate districts: the West Coast, comprises from the City Proper to Barangay Limpapa is represented by Congressman Celso Lobregat, while in the East Coast, comprises from Barangay Tetuán to Barangay Licomo is represented by Congressman Manuel Jose "Mannix" Dalipe.

The city's population had reached to 774,407 people since 2007.[84] Under the Republic Act 9269, Zamboanga City is qualified to have its third district in the House of Representatives[85]. However in 2008, the formation of Zamboanga City's Third District was then opposed by the local majority block of the city council.[86]

Legislative[edit]

The building where the Zamboanga City Council (Sangguniang Panglungsod ng Zamboanga) holds its sessions.

The first legislative body of Zamboanga City was established in 1914 composed of councilors who represented the different districts of barrios of then-municipality of Zamboanga.

When the City Charter of Zamboanga was signed on October 12, 1936, the municipal council was replaced by the City Council presided by the mayor and consisted of five councilors, the city treasurer and the city engineer. All members are appointed by the President of the Philippine Commonwealth.

With the passage of Republic Act No. 1210 on April 29, 1955, the position of mayor became elective and the post of vice mayor was created. The Council also became elective and its membership was increased to eight presided by the vice mayor.

During the Marcos regime, the city council was renamed to Sangguniang Panglungsod and its membership shuffled.[citation needed] The mayor became the presiding-officer while the vice mayor became a regular member. Other representatives such as the agriculture, business and labor sectoral representatives; chairman of the Kabataan Barangay Federation and the president of the Association of Barangay Captains was added to the council. All members of the council except for the mayor and the vice mayor are all appointed by the President

After Marcos was deposed, a new Local Government Code was enacted in 1991 and the mayor was restored to the executive branch.[citation needed] The city council organization existed since.

The current local Sangguniang Panglungsod is composed of 19 members:

Judiciary[edit]

Zamboanga City Hall of Justice Building

House Bill 1455 entitled "An Act Amending Sections 14 (J) and 29 of Batas Pambansa Blg. 129, Otherwise Known as The Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980", principally authored by Representative Climaco calls for the creation of four additional Regional Trial Court branches in the Province of Zamboanga del Sur, and the Cities of Pagadian and Zamboanga City with an overall total of nineteen branches.[87]

Out of the 19 branches, ten seats shall be for Zamboanga City, and the remaining seats for Pagadian City, Molave, San Miguel, Ipil, and Aurora.

Armed forces and law enforcement[edit]

Zamboanga City hosts one a large number of military, police and coast guard bases in the country. The Edwin Andrews Air Base hosts the Air Force unit in the city is located at the Zamboanga International Airport complex.[88][89] The Camp General Basilio Navarro in Upper Calarian, is the main operating base of the Western Mindanao Command (WestMinCom).[90][91][92] WesMinCom is one of the unifying commands of the Armed Forces of the Philippines that serves the Western Mindanao. The Coast Guard District South Western Mindanao is located near the Camp General Basilio Navarro while a coast guard station is located inside the Port of Zamboanga.[93][94]

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

The Zamboanga International Airport has a 2,610-metre primary runway and can serve international flights and bigger planes such as the C-17 Globemaster III, Antonov An-124, Airbus A330 and Boeing 747.[95][96] The government has already earmarked more than 240 million pesos to complete the rehabilitation of the existing facilities of the airport.[97] The airport was ranked the tenth busiest airport in the Philippines in 2008.[98]

Land[edit]

The primary modes of transportation within the city are serviced by taxis, jeepneys, tricycles, and habal-habal.[99] Regular and air-conditioned buses of the Yanson Group of Bus Companies serve the long-haul routes from Zamboanga City to other areas in Mindanao and in the Visayas. Other smaller bus companies ply the routes to neighboring municipalities in the Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga Sibugay areas.

Sea[edit]

Zamboanga City has nineteen seaports and wharves, twelve of them are privately owned and the rest are owned by the government. This includes some ports of Basilan which are registered as a part of Zamboanga City port management. The biggest and most modern seaport is the government-operated main port in Zamboanga City, which can accommodate 20 ships at any given time. There are 25 shipping companies whose vessels regularly dock at the port of Zamboanga. The city also has fastcraft services to Sandakan, Malaysia, and one shipping cargo company from Vietnam is also serving the routes from and to Zamboanga City to deliver goods from Vietnam.[100]

In 2002, the Port of Zamboanga City, including the area ports of Basilan, registered 5.57 million passenger movement, surpassing Batangas by 1.3 million passengers, and Manila by over 1.59 million passengers.[101]

On May 28, 2009, the PHP700 million port expansion project, funded by the national government was inaugurated by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo.[102]

Infrastructure[edit]

Telecommunication[edit]

The telecommunication towers as can be seen over the downtown.

Major telecommunications firm, Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, maintains operations in the city. Mabuhay Satellite Corporation has set up a facility in Zamboanga City in order to improve existing communications infrastructure.[103]

Power[edit]

Murga Station of the Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative (ZAMCELCO).

The Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative is the franchise holder of electric power distribution covering the entire city.

Conrado Alcantara and Sons (Conal) Holdings constructed a coal-fired power plant with an initial capacity of 100MW on a 60-hectare land inside the Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority. The company expects to complete the power plant in about four years to meet the expected rise in the demand in electricity of the city by 2014.[104]

Water[edit]

The Zamboanga City Watershed is only a few kilometers north of Zamboanga City, at the tip of the Zamboanga Peninsula in southwestern Mindanao. It has the largest block of old growth lowland dipterocarp forest remaining in this part of Mindanao.[citation needed]

Zamboanga City relies heavily on surface water from the Tumaga River for its water supply. The ZCWD is serving only 48% of the total population of the total water production, 38% is accounted water. Given the projected population and the fact that the city is a highly urbanising one, it is likely that future water requirements will not be satisfied unless other sources such as rivers and springs be tapped to augment water supply sources.[105]

The Zamboanga City Water District has 24 production wells. These are located in the following strategic areas within the city of Zamboanga that are producing 1,304 m³ daily.[106]

Health[edit]

Zamboanga Peninsula Medical Center located at Putik, Zamboanga City

There are several medical centres and hospitals in Zamboanga. The Zamboanga Peninsula Medical Center is regarded as one of the largest and most modern in the region likened to the St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig, Bonifacio Global City. The Zamboanga City Medical Center is the largest medical facility in Zamboanga Peninsula in terms of bed capacity.[citation needed] The hospital was founded in 1918 as the Zamboanga City General Hospital. The Brent Hospital and Colleges, Inc. was founded on February 2, 1914 by Charles Henry Brent, the first Protestant Episcopal missionary bishop in the Philippines. Today, it operates a school within its compound, offering nursing and allied health courses.

The Zamboanga City Red Cross chapter was established on June 17, 1946, known originally as Zamboanga City Chapter. The original Zamboanga City Chapter comprised the city of Zamboanga and the 3 provinces of Basilan, Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur.[107]

In 2006, the Military Sealift Command (MSC) hospital ship, USNS Mercy (T-AH-19), anchored off of the coast of Zamboanga City, to provide of medical, dental and veterinary care for the people of the city.[108]

Sports and recreation facilities[edit]

Convention centers that host several events and congregations include the Garden Orchid Convention Centre, Palacio Del Sur, Centro Latino, Astoria Regency, and Patio Palmeras Convention Centres.

Sport venues in Zamboanga City include the Joaquin F. Enriquez Memorial Sports Complex, the Universidad De Zamboanga Summit Centre, Southern City Colleges Citadel Sports Arena, and the Zamboanga City Coliseum.

Education[edit]

One of the oldest institutions in Zamboanga City
The facade of Ateneo de Zamboanga University.

The formal education in Zamboanga City is patterned after the American system, with English as the medium of instruction. There are a number of foreign schools with study programmes.[109][110] Universities and major colleges include: Ateneo De Zamboanga University, Universidad De Zamboanga, Western Mindanao State University, Southern City Colleges, Pilar College, Zamboanga City State Polytechnic College. and Zamboanga State College of Marine Sciences and Technology.

Media[edit]

Zamboanga City has 16 radio stations. There are also 11 regular TV stations and 3 cable TV stations. Several local publications are operating in the various parts of the city and nearby provinces and regions such as, The Daily Zamboanga Times, The Mindanao Examiner Regional Newspaper, Voz de Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula Journal, Zamboanga Star, Zamboanga Today and Zamboanga Forum.

Notable Persons[edit]

Hidelyn Diaz at her homecoming to Zamboanga City, days after her victory in the 2016 Summer Olympics

International relations[edit]

Zamboanga City is a member of East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA), a regional economic cooperation initiative between the several countries in Southeast Asia. As a result of its membership, air and sea routes have been opened between Zamboanga City and Sandakan in Malaysia. The two cities have existing trade relations and have had historical cultural interactions.[119]

Sister cities[edit]

Zamboanga City is twinned with the following cities:

Local
International

See also[edit]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "Zamboanga City".

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External links[edit]