Miami International Airport

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Miami International Airport
Miami International Airport Logo.svg
Miami International Airport (KMIA-MIA) (8204606870).jpg
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Miami-Dade County
Operator Miami-Dade Aviation Department (MDAD)
Serves Greater Miami
Location Miami-Dade County, Florida, U.S.
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL 9 ft / 3 m
Coordinates 25°47′36″N 080°17′26″W / 25.79333°N 80.29056°W / 25.79333; -80.29056Coordinates: 25°47′36″N 080°17′26″W / 25.79333°N 80.29056°W / 25.79333; -80.29056
Website iflymia.com
Maps
FAA airport diagram
FAA airport diagram
MIA is located in Miami
MIA
MIA
Location within Miami / Florida / United States
MIA is located in Florida
MIA
MIA
MIA (Florida)
MIA is located in the US
MIA
MIA
MIA (the US)
MIA is located in North America
MIA
MIA
MIA (North America)
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
8L/26R 8,600 2,621 Asphalt
8R/26L 10,506 3,202 Asphalt
9/27 13,016 3,967 Asphalt
12/30 9,355 2,851 Asphalt
Statistics (2017)
Aircraft operations 413,287
Passengers 44,071,313
Source: Miami International Airport[1]

Miami International Airport (IATA: MIA, ICAO: KMIA, FAA LID: MIA), also known as MIA and historically as Wilcox Field, is the primary airport serving the Miami area. The airport is in an unincorporated area in Miami-Dade County, Florida, 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Downtown Miami, in metropolitan Miami,[2] between the cities of Miami, Hialeah, Doral, Miami Springs, the village of Virginia Gardens, and the unincorporated Fontainebleau neighborhood.

It is South Florida's main airport for long-haul international flights and a hub for the Southeastern United States, with passenger and cargo flights to cities throughout the Americas, Europe and Western Asia, as well as cargo flights to East Asia. It is the largest gateway between the United States and south to Latin America, and is one of the largest airline hubs in the United States, owing to its proximity to tourist attractions, local economic growth, large local Latin American and European populations, and strategic location to handle connecting traffic between North America, Latin America, and Europe.

In 2017, 44,071,313 passengers traveled through the airport, making the airport the 40th busiest airport in the world in terms of passenger traffic. The airport also ranks as the 12th busiest airport in the United States in terms of passenger traffic, and is also the busiest airport in the State of Florida.[3] The airport also handled more international cargo than any other airport in the United States.[4]

The airport is American Airlines' primary gateway to Latin America (Central America, Caribbean Sea / West Indies islands, South America) along with a domestic hub for its regional affiliate American Eagle in the U.S.A. It also serves as a focus city for Avianca, Frontier Airlines, and LATAM, both for passengers and cargo operations. In the past, it has been a hub for Braniff International Airways, Eastern Air Lines, Air Florida, the original National Airlines, the original Pan American World Airways ("Pan Am"), United Airlines, Iberia Airlines and Fine Air.

History[edit]

For the World War II and United States Air Force Reserve use of the airport, see Miami Army Airfield
Pan American World Airways's ("Pan Am") first terminal consisted of a single hangar. The airport was the base of Pan Am's overseas flights to Cuba, but fell into disuse when the airline switched to amphibious seaplanes at International Pan American Airport with the famous Pan American Clipper in the mid-1930s.

The first airport on the site of MIA opened in the 1920s and was known as Miami City Airport. Pan American World Airways opened an expanded facility adjacent to City Airport, Pan American Field, in 1928. Pan American Field was built on 116 acres of land on 36th Street and was the only mainland airport in the eastern United States that had port of entry facilities. Its runways were located around the threshold of today's Runway 26R. Eastern Airlines began to serve Pan American Field in 1931, followed by National Airlines in 1936. National used a terminal on the opposite side of LeJeune Road from the airport, and would stop traffic on the road in order to taxi aircraft to and from its terminal. Miami Army Airfield opened in 1943 during the Second World War to the south of Pan American Field: the runways of the two were originally separated by railroad tracks, but the two airfields were listed in some directories as a single facility.[5] Following World War II in 1945, the City of Miami established a Port Authority and raised bond revenue to purchase Pan American Field, which had been since renamed 36th Street Airport, from Pan Am. It merged with the former Miami Army Airfield, which was purchased from the United States Army Air Force south of the railroad in 1949 and expanded further in 1951 when the railroad line itself was moved south to make more room. The old terminal on 36th Street was closed in 1959 when the center modern passenger terminal (since greatly expanded) opened. United States Air Force Reserve troop carrier and rescue squadrons also operated from the airport from 1949 through 1959, when the last unit relocated to nearby Homestead Air Force Base, (now Homestead Air Reserve Base).

Nonstop flights to Chicago and Newark Liberty International Airport in northeast New Jersey started in late 1946, but nonstops didn't reach west beyond St. Louis and New Orleans until January 1962. Nonstop transatlantic flights to Europe began in 1970. In the late 1970s and early 1980s Air Florida had a hub at MIA, with a nonstop flight to London, England which it acquired from National upon the latter's merger with Pan Am. Air Florida ceased operations in 1982 after the crash of Air Florida Flight 90.[6] British Airways flew a Concorde SST (supersonic transport) triserial between Miami and London via Washington, D.C. (Dulles International Airport) from 1984 to 1991.[7]

After former Apollo 8 astronaut Frank Borman became president of Eastern Airlines in 1975, he moved Eastern's headquarters from Rockefeller Center in New York City to Building 16 in the northeast corner of MIA, Eastern's maintenance base. Eastern remained one of the largest employers in the Miami metropolitan area until ongoing labor union unrest, coupled with the airline's acquisition by union antagonist Frank Lorenzo in 1986, ultimately forced the airline into bankruptcy in 1989.[6]

In the midst of Eastern's turmoil American Airlines CEO Bob Crandall sought a new hub in order to utilize new aircraft which AA had on order. AA studies indicated that Delta Air Lines would provide strong competition on most routes from Eastern's hub at Atlanta Hartsfield International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia, but that MIA had many key routes only served by Eastern. American announced that it would establish a base at MIA in August 1988. Lorenzo considered selling Eastern's profitable Latin American routes to AA as part of a Chapter 11 reorganization of Eastern in early 1989, but backed out in a last-ditch effort to rebuild the MIA hub. The effort quickly proved futile, and American purchased the routes (including the route authority between Miami and London then held by Eastern sister company Continental Airlines) in a liquidation of Eastern which was completed in 1990.[6] Later in the 1990s, American transferred more employees and equipment to MIA from its failed domestic hubs at Nashville, Tennessee and Raleigh–Durham, North Carolina. The hub grew from 34 daily departures in 1989 to 157 in 1990, 190 in 1992 and a peak of 301 in 1995, including long-haul flights to Europe and South America.[8] Today Miami is American's largest air freight hub and is the main connecting point in the airline's north–south international route network.

Pan American World Airways ("Pan Am"), the other longtime key carrier at MIA, was acquired by Delta Air Lines in 1991, but filed for bankruptcy shortly thereafter. Its remaining international routes from Miami to Europe and Latin America were sold to United Airlines for $135 million as part of Pan Am's emergency liquidation that December.[6] United's Latin American hub offered 24 daily departures in the summer of 1992, growing to 36 daily departures to 21 destinations in the summer of 1994, but returned to 24 daily departures in the summer of 1995 and never expanded further.[9] United ended flights from Miami to South America, and shut down its Miami crew base, in May 2004, reallocating most Miami resources to its main hub in O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois.[10] United ceased all mainline service to Miami in 2005 with the introduction of its low-cost product Ted.[9]

MIA in 1999

Iberia also established a Miami hub in 1992, positioning a fleet of DC-9 aircraft at MIA to serve destinations in Central America and the Caribbean. The hub took advantage of rights granted under the 1991 bilateral aviation agreement between the United States and Spain.[11] However, the September 11, 2001 attacks made it necessary for many aliens to obtain a visa in order to transit the United States, and as a result Iberia closed its hub in 2004.[12] Miami remains the most important hub between Europe and Latin America, and today more European carriers serve Miami International Airport than any other airport in the United States, except John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York.[citation needed]

Operations[edit]

In the year ending April 30, 2009 the airport had 358,705 aircraft operations, average 982 per day: 82% scheduled commercial, 12% air taxi, 5% general aviation and <1% military.[2] The budget for operations was $600 million in 2009.[13]

Facilities and aircraft[edit]

Miami International Airport covers 1,335 hectares (3,300 acres) and has four runways:[2]

  • 8L/26R: 8,600 ft × 150 ft (2,621 m × 46 m)
  • 8R/26L: 10,506 ft × 200 ft (3,202 m × 61 m)
  • 9/27: 13,016 ft × 150 ft (3,967 m × 46 m)
  • 12/30: 9,355 ft × 150 ft (2,851 m × 46 m)

28 aircraft are based at this airport: 46% multi-engine and 54% jet.[2]

MIA has a number of air cargo facilities. The largest cargo complex is located on the west side of the airport, inside the triangle formed by Runways 12/30 and 9/27. Cargo carriers such as LAN Cargo, Atlas Air, Southern Air, Amerijet International and DHL operate from this area. The largest privately owned facility is the Centurion Cargo complex in the northeast corner of the airport, with over 51,000 m2 (550,000 sq ft) of warehouse space.[14] FedEx and UPS operate their own facilities in the northwest corner of the airport, off of 36th Street. In addition to its large passenger terminal in Concourse D, American Airlines operates a maintenance base to the east of Concourse D, centered around a semicircular hangar originally used by National Airlines which can accommodate three widebody aircraft.[15]

Fire protection at the airport is provided by Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department[16] Station 12.[17]

Terminals and concourses[edit]

A satellite image of Miami International Airport superimposed over the noted locations of old Miami City Airport / Pan American Field / 36th Street Airport of the 1920s to 1950s era, in the upper right corner facing 36th Street

The airport has 131 gates in total. The main terminal at MIA dates back to 1959, with several new additions. Semicircular in shape, the terminal has one linear concourse (Concourse D) and five pier-shaped concourses, lettered counter-clockwise from E to J (Concourse A is now part of Concourse D; Concourses B and C were demolished so that Concourse D gates could be added in their place; naming of Concourse I was skipped to avoid confusion with the number 1.). From the terminal's opening until the mid-1970s the concourses were numbered clockwise from 1 to 6.

Level 1 of the terminal contains baggage carousels and ground transportation access. Level 2 contains ticketing/check-in, shopping and dining, and access to the concourses. The airport currently has two immigration and customs facilities (FIS), located in Concourse D, Level 3 and in Concourse J, Level 3. The Concourse D FIS can be utilized by flights arriving at all gates in Concourse E and all gates in Concourses D and some gates in Concourse F. The Concourse J FIS can be utilized by flights arriving at all gates in Concourse J and most gates in Concourse H. However, all gates in Concourse G and some gates in Concourses F and H, do not have the facilities to route passengers to any FIS, and therefore can only be used for domestic arrivals. MIA is unique among American airports in that all of its facilities are common-use, meaning that they are assigned by the airport and no one airline holds ownership or leases on any terminal space or gates, thus giving the airport much more flexibility in terminal and gate assignments and allowing it to make full use of existing facilities. The entire airport became common-use by the 1990s.

The free MIA Mover connects the airport with the Miami Intermodal Center, where the car rental facility and bus terminal has relocated. The MIC also houses the airport Metrorail station and Tri-Rail terminal.

The airport has three parking facilities: a two-level short-term parking lot directly in front of Concourse E, and two seven-story parking garages (North and South) within the terminal's curvature and connected to the terminal via overhead walkways on Level 3.[18] In the late 1990s, the Dolphin Garage was expanded to better serve the then-new Concourse A; it is expected that the Flamingo Garage will be similarly expanded in the near future to serve the new Concourse J. The two parking garages are connected at their west ends; at the top of this connection are the airport's SIDA and ID Section offices. The single terminal facility is divided into three sections known as the North Terminal, Central Terminal, and South Terminal.

North Terminal (Blue)[edit]

The North Terminal was previously the site of Concourses A, B, C, and D, each a separate pier. Concourse D was one of the airport's original 1959 concourses, having opened as Concourse 5. After modifications similar to that of former Concourse C during the mid-1960s, it was extended in 1984, and the original portion was completely rebuilt from 1986 to 1989[19] and connected to the immigration and customs hall in Concourse E, allowing it to handle international arrivals. Concourse D FIS currently provides immigration and customs services instead of the now-closed Concourse E FIS.[20] Along with former Concourses B and C, the concourse once housed the Eastern Air Lines base of operations. Another Texas Air Corporation affiliate joined the eastern side during the 1980s; Continental Airlines used gates on the west side of the concourse during the 1980s.

The North Terminal construction merged the four piers into a single linear concourse designated Concourse D. This configuration was adopted in order to increase the number of aircraft that can simultaneously arrive and depart from the terminal, allowing each gate to handle approximately twice as many operations per day.[21] The construction process started with the extension of the original A and D concourses in the late 1990s. By the mid-2000s, the gates on the east side of Concourse D were closed in order to make room for new gates being constructed as part of the North Terminal Development project. In 2004, a new extension to the west was opened, consisting of Gates D39 through D51. Concourse B was demolished in 2005; in summer 2009, Gates D21 to D25 entered service where Concourse B once stood. Concourse C was demolished in 2009.[22] Concourse A closed in November 2007 and re-opened in July 2010 as a 14-gate eastern extension of Concourse D. In August 2010, a further extension for American Eagle flights was opened, designated as Gate D60.[23]

The Skytrain automated people mover, built by Parsons and Odebrecht with trains from Sumitomo Corporation and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, opened in September 2010.[23] It transports domestic passengers between four stations within Concourse D, located at gates D17, D24, D29 and D46; it also connects arriving international passengers who have not yet cleared border customs to the Concourse D FIS.[24]

The North Terminal construction began in 1998 and was slated for completion in 2005, but was delayed several times due to cost overruns. The project was managed by American Airlines until the Miami-Dade County Aviation Department took over in 2005.[25] The project was designed by Corgan Associates, Anthony C Baker Architects and Planners, Perez & Perez, and Leo A Daly.[26] A new international arrivals facility opened in August 2012, and the project reached substantial completion in January 2013. Gates D-26, D-27, and D-28 opened in August 2013. The Baggage Handling System's international-to-domestic transfer, which was the last component of the project, was completed in February 2014.[27]

Concourse D[edit]

American Airlines planes at Concourse D
Interior view of concourse D

Concourse D is the only concourse located within the North Terminal, and is a 3,600,000-square-foot (330,000 m2) linear concourse 1.2 miles (1.9 km) long with a capacity of 30 million passengers annually. Concourse D has one bus station and 51 gates: D1–D12, D14–D17, D19–D34, D36–D51, D53, D55, D60.[28] American operates two Admirals Clubs within the concourse; one located near Gate D30, and another near Gate D15. American Eagle uses Gates D53, D55, and D60.[29]

Central Terminal (Yellow)[edit]

The Central Terminal consists of three concourses, labeled E, F, and G, with a combined total of 52 gates.[28] The Miami-Dade Aviation Department began a three-year, $657 million renovation of the terminal in November 2015, to include a new train in Concourse E and new gates and ticket counters.[30] The airport authority plans to demolish and replace the terminal in stages between 2025 and 2036, while funding upgrades to keep the facilities usable in the interim.[31]

Concourse E[edit]

Concourse E has two bus stations and 18 gates: E2, E4–E11, E20–E25, E30-E31, and E33.[28]

Concourse E dates back to the terminal's 1959 opening, and was originally known as Concourse 4. From the start, it was the airport's only international concourse, containing its own immigration and customs facilities. In the mid-1960s, it underwent renovations similar to the airport's other original concourses, but didn't receive its first major addition until the International Satellite Terminal was opened in 1976. Featuring Gates E20–E35 (commonly known as "High E"), the satellite added 12 international gates capable of handling the largest jet aircraft as well as an international intransit lounge for arriving international passengers connecting to other international flights. At the same time, Concourse E's immigration and customs facilities were radically overhauled and expanded. During the late-1980s, the original portion of Concourse E ("Low E") was rebuilt to match the satellite.

The concourse and its satellite were briefly linked by buses then the airport's first automated people mover (Adtranz C-100) opened in 1980, which was replaced in 2016 by a cable propelled MIA e Train — a MiniMetro people mover by Leitner-Poma of America.[32]

Since then, Gate E3 was closed in the 1990s to accommodate a connector between Concourses D and E. In the mid-2000s, the Low E and High E security checkpoints were expanded and merged into one, linking both portions of the concourse without requiring passengers to reclear security. At the same time Gates E32, E34, and E35 were closed to make way for a second parallel taxiway between the Concourse D extension and Concourse E. Concourse E also contains the (currently closed) Central Terminal's immigration and customs halls. The airport authority plans to maintain the "high E" area until 2034, and the "low E" area until 2035.[31]

Concourse E serves Oneworld member airlines British Airways, Finnair, Iberia, and Qatar, along with some American Airlines flights. The concourse contains a premium lounge for international passengers flying in first and business class as well as OneWorld Emerald and Sapphire elite members. On October 25, 2015, British Airways became the third carrier at MIA to operate the Airbus A380, after Lufthansa and Air France. The flight to London–Heathrow boards at gates E6/E8.

The seven-story Miami–International Airport hotel and many Miami-Dade Aviation Department executive offices are in the Concourse E portion of the terminal. Level 1 houses two domestic baggage carousels. Level 2 is used for check-in by several North American carriers. Concourse E, along with Concourse F, was once the base of operations for Pan Am and many of MIA's international carriers.

Concourse F[edit]

Concourse F has one bus station and 19 gates: F3–F12, F14–F23.[28]

Concourse F dates back to 1959 and was originally known as Concourse 3. Like Concourses D and E, it received renovations in the mid-1960s and was largely rebuilt from 1986 to 1988.[33][34] The gates at the far end of the pier were demolished and replaced by new widebody Gates F10-F23, all of which were capable of processing international arrivals. The departure lounges for Gates F3, F5, F7, and F9 were also rebuilt, and these also became international gates. Currently, the concourse retains a distinctly 1980s feel, and is part of the Central Terminal area. The airport authority plans to maintain the concourse until 2036.[31]

The south side of the concourse was used by Northeast Airlines until its 1972 merger with Delta Air Lines. Likewise, National Airlines flew out of the north side of Concourse F until its 1980 merger with Pan Am, which continued to use the concourse until its 1991 shutdown. When United Airlines acquired Pan Am's Latin American operations, the airline carried on operating a focus city out of Concourse F until completely dismantling it by 2004. From 1993 to 2004, Concourse F was also used by Iberia Airlines for its Miami focus city operation, which linked Central American capitals to Madrid using MIA as the connecting point.

Level 1 of the Concourse F portion of the terminal is used for domestic baggage claim and cruise line counters. Level 2 contains check-in facilities for European airlines. Concourse F is unusual in that the TSA security checkpoint is located on Level 3. Passengers must ascend to the checkpoint, pass through security and then descend back down to Level 2 to board their flights.

Avianca Airlines[35] and Latam Airlines operate VIP lounges on this terminal.

Concourse G[edit]

A Panoramic View of Concourses G and H, as well as the new Concourse J, from the south

Concourse G has one bus station and 15 gates: G2–G12, G14–G16, and G19.[28]

Concourse G is the only one of the original 1959 concourses that has largely remained in its original state, save for the modifications the rest of the airport received in the mid-1960s and an extension in the early 1970s. It is the only concourse at the airport incapable of handling international arrivals, although it is frequently used for departing international charters. The airport authority plans to maintain the concourse until 2025.[36]

South Terminal (Red)[edit]

The South Terminal consists of two concourses, H and J, with a combined total of 28 gates.[28]

The South Terminal building and Concourse J opened on August 29, 2007. The new addition is seven stories tall and has 15 international-capable gates, and a total floor area of 1.3 million square feet (120,000 m2), including two airline lounges and several offices. Concourse H serves Delta Air Lines and its partners in the SkyTeam alliance. Concourse J serves United Airlines and its partners in the Star Alliance.

Concourse H[edit]

Concourse H has one bus station and 13 gates: H3–H12, H14-H15, and H17.[28]

Concourse H was the 20th Street Terminal's first extension, originally built in 1961 as Concourse 1 for Delta Air Lines, which remains in the concourse to this day. This concourse featured a third floor, the sole purpose of which was to expedite access to the "headhouse" gates at the far end. In the late 1970s, a commuter satellite terminal was built just to the east of the concourse. Known as "Gate H2", it featured seven parking spaces (numbered H2a through H2g) designed to handle smaller commuter aircraft. The concourse was dramatically renovated from 1994 to 1998, to match the style of the then-new Concourse A. Moving walkways were added to the third floor, the H1 Bus Station and Gates H3–H11 were completely rebuilt, and the H2 commuter satellite had jetways installed. Due to financial difficulties, headhouse gates H12–H20 were left in their original state.

With the construction of the Concourse J extension in the 2000s, the H2 commuter satellite was demolished. In 2007, with the opening of the South Terminal's immigration and customs facilities, the third floor of Concourse H was closed off and converted into a "sterile circulation" area for arriving international passengers. Gates H4, H6, H8, and H10 were made capable of handling international arrivals, and they currently serve Aeromexico, Air France, Alitalia, KLM and Swiss. Simultaneously, headhouse gates H16, H17, H18, and H20 were closed to allow for the construction of a second parallel taxiway leading to the new Concourse J.

There are plans to convert Gates H11 and H15 into additional international-capable gates, but the concourse does not yet require their use. Instead, the airport is focusing on finishing up the final components of the North Terminal project.

Concourse H historically served as the base of operations for Piedmont's Miami focus city and US Airways Express's commuter operations. Concourse H continues to serve original tenant Delta Air Lines, which uses all of the gates on the west side of the pier and usually 2 on the east side plus 1 for the arrival of the Havana flight.

Concourse J[edit]

Concourse J at Miami International Airport

Concourse J has one bus station and 15 gates: J2–J5, J7–J12, J14–J18.[28]

American Airlines Boeing 757-200 landing at MIA; in the background International Concourse J

Concourse J is the newest concourse, having opened on August 29, 2007. Part of the airport's South Terminal project,[37] the concourse was designed by Carlos Zapata and M.G.E., one of the largest Hispanic-owned architecture firms in Florida. The concourse features 15 international-capable gates as well as the airport's only gate capable of handling the Airbus A380 that has 3 jet bridges. The concourse added a third international arrivals hall to the airport, supplementing the existing ones at Concourses B (now closed) and E while significantly relieving overcrowding at these two facilities.

In the initial stages of its development, the South Terminal (Concourses H and J) was planned to serve United Airlines and its partners in the Star Alliance. Concourse H would serve United's partner airlines, while Concourse J would be the new home of United's Latin American hub. When United dismantled its MIA hub in 2004, Concourse H became intended to serve Delta Air Lines and its partners in the SkyTeam alliance, while Concourse J would serve United's remaining operations as well as their partner carriers. Once the North Terminal is completed, oneworld member airlines will be housed in Concourse D (North Terminal), with SkyTeam and Star Alliance members in Concourses H and J (South Terminal)

Former concourses[edit]

Concourse A[edit]

At the time of its closure, Concourse A had one bus station and 16 gates: A3, A5, A7, A10, A12, A14, A16–A26.

Concourse A is a recent addition to the airport, opening in two phases between 1995 and 1998. The concourse is now part of the North Terminal. Between 1995 and 2007, the concourse housed many of American Airlines' domestic and international flights, as well as those of many European and Latin American carriers.

On November 9, 2007, Concourse A was closed as part of the North Terminal Development Project. It had been closed in order to speed up completion of the North Terminal project, as well as facilitate the addition of the Automated People Mover (APM) system that now spans the length of the North Terminal. The infrastructure of Concourse A reopened on July 20, 2010 as an extension of Concourse D.

Concourse B[edit]

View of the airport

At its peak, Concourse B had one bus station and 12 gates: B1, B2–B12, B15.

Concourse B was built in 1975 for Eastern Air Lines as part of the airport's ambitions "Program 70's" initiative, and first opened in 1983. During the 1980s, the existing concourse was rebuilt and expanded, and a new immigration and customs hall was built in the Concourse B section of the terminal, allowing the concourse to process international arrivals. Along with Concourse C and most of Concourse D, it served as Eastern Air Lines' historical base of operations.

After Eastern's shutdown in 1991 it was used by a variety of European and Latin American airlines; by the 2000s (decade), American Airlines was its sole tenant. The concourse was closed in 2004 and torn down the following year as part of the North Terminal Development project. The immigration and customs hall remained open until 2007, when it was closed along with Concourse A.

Concourse C[edit]

At the time of its closure, Concourse C had 3 gates: C5, C7, C9.

Concourse C opened as Concourse 6 in 1959, serving Eastern Air Lines. During the mid-1960s, Concourse C received an extension of its second floor and was equipped with air conditioning. Since then, it did not receive any major interior modifications or renovations. Following the renumbering of gates and concourses in the 1970s, Concourse C had Gates C1 to C10. The opening of an international arrivals hall in Concourse B during the 1980s saw Gate C1 receive the ability to process international arrivals.

Following the demise of Eastern Air Lines in 1991 the concourse was used by a variety of African and Latin American carriers. Many of these airlines' flights would arrive at Concourse B and then be towed to Concourse C for departure. By the end of the decade, the construction of American's baggage sorting facility between Concourses C and D saw the closure of all gates on the west side of the concourse, with Gate C1 following soon afterward. From the 2000s (decade) on, the concourse consisted of just four domestic-only gates, each of which were capable of accommodating small-to-medium jet aircraft from the Boeing 737 up to the Airbus A300, and American was its sole tenant.

As part of the North Terminal Development project, Concourse C closed on September 1, 2009, and was demolished. The demolition of Concourse C allowed for the construction of new gates where the concourse stood.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Aer Lingus Dublin[38] [39]
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo [40]
Aerolíneas Argentinas Buenos Aires–Ezeiza [41]
Aeroméxico Mexico City [42]
Air Canada Rouge Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson [43]
Air Europa Madrid [44]
Air France Fort-de-France, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Pointe-à-Pitre, Port-au-Prince [45]
Air Italy Seasonal: Milan–Malpensa[46] [47]
Alitalia Rome–Fiumicino [48]
American Airlines Antigua, Aruba, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Barbados, Barcelona (Spain), Barranquilla, Belize City, Belo Horizonte–Confins (ends August 21, 2018),[49] Bermuda, Bogotá, Bonaire, Boston, Brasília, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cali, Cancún, Cap–Haïtien, Caracas, Cartagena, Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Córdoba (begins April 2, 2019),[50] Cozumel, Curaçao, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Detroit, Fort-de-France, Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan (begins November 15, 2018),[51] Grand Cayman, Grenada, Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Hartford, Havana, Holguín, Houston–Intercontinental, Kingston–Norman Manley, Las Vegas, Liberia (CR), Lima, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Madrid, Managua, Manaus, Maracaibo, Medellín–JMC, Mexico City, Milan–Malpensa, Montego Bay, Montevideo, Montréal–Trudeau, New Orleans, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Orlando, Panama City, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Pereira (begins December 20, 2018),[50] Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Pointe-à-Pitre, Port-au-Prince, Port of Spain, Providenciales, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, Quito, Raleigh/Durham, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Roatán, Santa Clara, St. Croix, St. Kitts, St. Louis, St. Lucia–Hewanorra, St. Maarten, St. Thomas, St. Vincent—Argyle (begins December 15, 2018),[52] San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San José de Costa Rica, San Juan, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador, San Salvador (Bahamas), Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru, Santiago de Chile, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo–Las Américas, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa, Tegucigalpa, Toronto–Pearson, Tulsa, Varadero, Washington–Dulles, Washington–National
Seasonal: Buffalo (begins December 19, 2018),[53] Eagle/Vail, Providence (begins December 19, 2018)
Charter: Santiago de Cuba
[54]
American Eagle Atlanta, Austin, Belize City, Birmingham (AL), Camagüey, Charleston (SC), Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus–Glenn, Cozumel, Fort-de-France, Freeport, Gainesville, George Town, Grand Rapids (begins December 19, 2018), Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg (begins December 19, 2018),[55] Houston–Intercontinental, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Kansas City, Key West, Knoxville (begins December 19, 2018),[55] Liberia (CR), Louisville, Marsh Harbour, Memphis, Mérida, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Monterrey, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, New York–LaGuardia, Norfolk, North Eleuthera, Omaha (ends August 21, 2018), Panama City, Pensacola, Pittsburgh, Pointe-à-Pitre, Providenciales, Richmond, Roatán, Savannah,[56] St. Louis, Tallahassee
Seasonal: Detroit, Fort Myers (begins December 19, 2018), Houston–Hobby (begins December 19, 2018), Omaha (begins December 19, 2018), Tampa
[54]
Aruba Airlines Aruba
Charter: Camagüey, Havana, Holguín, Santa Clara
[57]
Austrian Airlines Seasonal: Vienna [58]
Avianca Barranquilla, Bogotá, Cali, Cartagena, Medellín–JMC [59]
Avianca Brazil São Paulo–Guarulhos [60]
Avianca El Salvador Guatemala City, Managua, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador [61]
Avianca Perú Lima [62]
Avior Airlines Barcelona (Venezuela), Caracas [63]
Bahamasair Nassau, San Salvador (Bahamas) (begins October 13, 2018)[64]
Seasonal: Bimini
[65]
Boliviana de Aviación Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru
Seasonal: Cochabamba
[66]
British Airways London–Heathrow [67]
Canadian North Seasonal charter: Halifax, Hamilton (ON), London (ON), Moncton, Ottawa, Québec City [68]
Caribbean Airlines Port of Spain [69]
Cayman Airways Cayman Brac, Grand Cayman [70]
Choice Airways Charter: Atlantic City
Seasonal charter: Havana, Punta Cana, Santa Clara
[71]
Copa Airlines Panama City [72]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Havana, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Orlando (ends October 28, 2018)[73]
Seasonal: Boston, Los Angeles
[74]
Delta Connection Seasonal: Columbus–Glenn, Indianapolis, New York–LaGuardia, Raleigh/Durham, Washington–National [74]
Eastern Airlines Charter: Atlanta, Georgetown, Havana, Holguin, Punta Cana, Santa Clara [citation needed]
El Al Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion [75]
Estelar Latinoamerica Maracaibo [76]
Eurowings Düsseldorf[77] [78]
Finnair Seasonal: Helsinki [79]
Frontier Airlines Denver, Philadelphia, San Juan
Seasonal: Atlanta, Buffalo, Chicago–O'Hare, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Las Vegas, Milwaukee, New York–LaGuardia, Providence, Trenton
[80]
Gol Airlines Brasília (resumes November 4, 2018),[81] Fortaleza (resumes November 4, 2018)[81] [82]
Iberia Madrid [83]
Interjet Mexico City [84]
KLM Seasonal: Amsterdam [85]
LASER Airlines Caracas [86]
LATAM Argentina Buenos Aires–Ezeiza [87]
LATAM Brasil Belém, Fortaleza, Manaus, Recife, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Salvador, São Paulo–Guarulhos [88]
LATAM Chile Punta Cana, Santiago de Chile [88]
LATAM Colombia Bogotá [89]
LATAM Perú Lima [88]
Lufthansa Frankfurt
Seasonal: Munich[90]
[91]
Miami Air International Charter: Fayetteville/Bentonville, Gander, Kansas City, New York—JFK, Newark, Orlando, Punta Cana [citation needed]
Qatar Airways Doha [92]
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen, Oslo–Gardermoen
Seasonal: Stockholm–Arlanda[93]
[94]
Sun Country Airlines Seasonal: Minneapolis/St. Paul
Charter: Havana
[95]
Sunrise Airways Cap-Haïtien, Port-au-Prince [96]
Surinam Airways Aruba, Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan, Paramaribo [97]
Swift Air Caracas, Dallas/Fort Worth, Maracaibo
Charter: Alexandria, Camagüey, Charlotte, Cleveland, Havana, Holguín, New Orleans, Santa Clara, Santiago de Cuba, Seattle/Tacoma
[98]
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich [99]
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon [100]
TUI fly Belgium Brussels [101]
TUI fly Netherlands Amsterdam [101]
Turkish Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk [102]
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark, San Francisco
Seasonal: Denver
Charter: Havana
[103]
United Express Seasonal: Chicago–O'Hare, Houston–Intercontinental, Newark [103]
Virgin Atlantic London–Heathrow [104]
VivaColombia Medellín–Córdova [105]
Volaris Guadalajara, Mexico City [106]
Wamos Air Seasonal charter: Madrid [107]
WestJet Seasonal: Toronto–Pearson [108]
World Atlantic Airlines Charter: Alexandria, Barcelona (Venezuela), Brownsville, Caracas, Columbus, Havana, Holguín, Phoenix, Puerto Plata, Punta Cana, San Antonio, San Juan, San Pedro Sula, Santiago de Cuba, Washington—Dulles [109]
XL Airways France Seasonal: Paris–Charles de Gaulle [110]
Xtra Airways Charter: Atlantic City, Greensboro, Havana, Long Island/Islip [111]

Cargo[edit]

The airport is one of the largest in terms of cargo in the United States, and is the primary connecting point for cargo between Latin America and the world.[112] Ninety-six different carriers are involved in shifting over two million tons of freight annually and ensuring the safe travel of over 40 million passengers, according to the Miami International Airport corporate brochure.[113] It was first in International freight and third in total freight for 2008. In 2000, LAN Cargo opened up a major operations base at the airport and currently operates a large cargo facility at the airport. Most major passenger airlines, such as American Airlines use the airport to carry hold cargo on passenger flights, though most cargo is transported by all-cargo airlines. UPS Airlines and FedEx Express both base their major Latin American operations at MIA.

AirlinesDestinations
21 Air Bogotá, Guatemala City, Panama City, Philadelphia
ABX Air Bogotá, Bridgetown, Cincinnati, Georgetown, Kingston–Norman Manley, Lima, Nashville, Panama City, Port of Spain, San José de Costa Rica
AeroUnion Mérida, Mexico City, San José de Costa Rica
Amazon Air Cincinnati
Amerijet International Antigua, Aruba, Barbados, Barcelona (Venezuela), Basseterre, Belize City, Cancún, Curaçao, Dominica–Douglas/Charles, Fort-de-France, Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan, Grenada, Guatemala City, Kingston–Norman Manley, Las Piedras, Managua, Maracaibo, Mexico City, Mérida, Monterrey, Panama City, Paramaribo, Pointe-à-Pitre, Porlamar, Port-au-Prince, Port of Spain, San Juan, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo–Las Américas, St. Kitts, St. Lucia–Hewanorra, St. Maarten, St. Vincent-Argyle, Toledo
Asiana Cargo New York–JFK, Seoul–Incheon
Avianca Cargo Asunción, Barranquilla, Bogotá, Cali, Campinas–Viracopos, Curitiba–Afonso Pena, Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Lima, Manaus, Medellín–Córdova, Montevideo, Panama City, Quito, San José de Costa Rica
Cargolux Houston–Intercontinental, Los Angeles, Luxembourg City
Cathay Pacific Cargo Anchorage, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental
Centurion Air Cargo Amsterdam, Bogotá, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Campinas–Viracopos, Caracas, Ciudad del Este, Dallas/Fort Worth, Houston–Intercontinental, Latacunga, Lima, Los Angeles, Manaus, Medellín–Córdova, Mexico City, Montevideo, Panama City, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, San Francisco, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru, Santiago de Chile, Tulsa
China Airlines Cargo Anchorage, Houston–Intercontinental, New York–JFK, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Taipei–Taoyuan
DHL Aviation Anchorage, Atlanta, Barbados, Bogotá, Caracas, Cincinnati, Guatemala City, Lima, Los Angeles, Nashville, Orlando, Panama City, Paramaribo, Port-au-Prince, Port of Spain, San José de Costa Rica, San Juan, San Pedro Sula, Santo Domingo–Las Américas
Etihad Cargo Abu Dhabi, Amsterdam [114]
FedEx Express Atlanta, Indianapolis, Memphis, Newark
FedEx Feeder Kingston–Norman Manley
IBC Airways Cap–Haïtien, Fort Lauderdale, Freeport, Grand Cayman, Havana, Kingston–Norman Manley, Marsh Harbour, Montego Bay, Nassau, Port-au-Prince, Providenciales, Santiago de los Caballeros
Kalitta Air Anchorage, Chicago–O'Hare, Port-au-Prince, Santiago de Chile
KF Cargo Bogotá, Caracas, Lima, Valencia
Korean Air Cargo Anchorage, Campinas–Viracopos, Lima, Los Angeles, New York–JFK, Seoul–Incheon
LATAM Cargo Brasil Asunción, Belo Horizonte–Confins, Cabo Frio, Campinas–Viracopos, Curitiba–Afonso Pena, Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Manaus, Panama City, Porto Alegre, Quito, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Salvador, San José de Costa Rica, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Vitória
LATAM Cargo Chile Amsterdam, Asunción, Bogotá, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Campinas–Viracopos, Guatemala City, Lima, Medellín–Córdova, Montevideo, Quito, San José de Costa Rica, Santiago de Chile, São Paulo–Guarulhos
LATAM Cargo Colombia Amsterdam, Antofagasta, Asunción, Bogotá, Brussels, Campinas–Viracopos, Guatemala City, Madrid, Medellín–Córdova, Panama City, Quito, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão
LATAM Cargo Mexico Guadalajara, Los Angeles, Mexico City
Martinair Aguadilla, Amsterdam, Bogotá, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Campinas–Viracopos, Guatemala City, Lima, London—Stansted, Mexico City, Quito, San José de Costa Rica, Santiago de Chile
Northern Air Cargo Lima, Port-au-Prince, Saint Martin, San Juan, Santo Domingo
Qatar Airways Cargo Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Doha, Liège, Luxembourg, Quito, São Paulo–Guarulhos
Skybus SAC Lima
Southern Air Anchorage, Cincinnati, Hong Kong
Transportes Aéreos Bolivianos Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru
Turkish Airlines Cargo Houston–Intercontinental, Istanbul–Atatürk, Madrid
UPS Airlines Austin, Bogotá, Campinas–Viracopos, Dallas/Fort Worth, Fort Lauderdale, Greenville/Spartanburg, Guatemala City, Guayaquil, Louisville, Managua, Memphis, Orlando, Panama City, Philadelphia, Quito, San Antonio, San José de Costa Rica, San Pedro Sula, San Salvador, Santo Domingo–Las Américas
Western Global Airlines Asunción, Bogotá, Montevideo, Quito, Santiago de Chile

Additional cargo carriers serving Miami[115]

Statistics[edit]

Top destinations[edit]

An American Airlines Airbus A321 landing at MIA
An Airbus A330-200 from the defunct German airline Air Berlin landing at MIA
Sun Country Boeing 737-800 N809SY
Busiest domestic routes from Miami International
(April 2017 – March 2018)
[116]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 New York–LaGuardia, New York 827,000 American, Delta, Frontier
2 Atlanta, Georgia 776,000 American, Delta, Frontier
3 Chicago–O'Hare, Illinois 679,000 American, Frontier, United
4 Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 597,000 American
5 New York–JFK, New York 533,000 American, Delta
6 Los Angeles, California 500,000 American, Delta
7 Washington–National, D.C. 426,000 American, Delta
8 Newark, New Jersey 413,000 American, United
9 Orlando, Florida 392,000 American, Delta
10 Charlotte, North Carolina 384,000 American
Busiest international routes from MIA (2016)[116]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 United Kingdom London–Heathrow, United Kingdom 992,530 American, British, Virgin Atlantic
2 Argentina Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Argentina 861,429 Aerolíneas Argentinas, American, LATAM Argentina
3 Brazil São Paulo–Guarulhos, Brazil 848,356 American, Avianca Brasil, LATAM Brasil
4 Mexico Mexico City, Mexico 762,079 Aeroméxico, American, Interjet
5 Peru Lima, Peru 719,240 American, Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
6 Panama Panama City, Panama 689,504 American, Copa Airlines
7 Colombia Bogotá, Colombia 679,376 American, Avianca, LATAM Colombia
8 Mexico Cancún, Mexico 601,357 American, InterJet
9 Spain Madrid, Spain 599,028 American, Iberia, Air Europa
10 Venezuela Caracas, Venezuela 529,896 American, SBA
11 Chile Santiago, Chile 513,906 American, LATAM Chile
12 Canada Toronto–Pearson, Canada 494,441 Air Canada Rouge, American, WestJet
13 Dominican Republic Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic 455,328 American, PAWA
14 France Paris–Charles de Gaulle, France 414,406 Air France, American, XL Airways France
15 The Bahamas Nassau, Bahamas 380,500 American Eagle, Bahamasair

Annual traffic[edit]

Annual passenger traffic (enplaned + deplaned) at MIA, 2000 through 2017[1]
Year Passengers Year Passengers
2016 44,584,603 2017 44,071,313
2015 44,350,247 2007 33,740,416
2014 40,941,879 2006 32,533,974
2013 40,562,948 2005 31,008,453
2012 39,467,444 2004 30,165,197
2011 38,314,389 2003 29,595,618
2010 35,698,025 2002 30,060,241
2009 33,886,025 2001 31,668,450
2008 34,063,531 2000 33,621,273

Ground transportation[edit]

The MIA Mover provides free transportation between the MIA terminals and the Rental Car Center and Miami Airport Station.
The Miami Airport Station serves as a hub for intercity transportation like Tri-Rail, Amtrak, Greyhound and Miami-Dade Transit.

Miami International Airport has direct public transit service to Miami-Dade Transit's Metrorail, Metrobus network; Greyhound Bus Lines and to the Tri-Rail commuter rail system.

Miami International Airport uses the MIA Mover, a free people mover system to transfer passengers between MIA terminals and Miami Airport Station that opened to the public on September 9, 2011. By 2015, the Station also provided direct service to Tri-Rail and Amtrak services.

On July 28, 2012, the Miami Airport Station and the Metrorail Orange Line opened the over two mile segment between Earlington Heights and the MIC, providing rapid passenger rail service from Miami International Airport to downtown and points south.

To/from Metrorail, Downtown and South Beach[edit]

Metrorail operates the Orange Line train from Miami International Airport to destinations such as Downtown, Brickell, Civic Center, Coconut Grove, Coral Gables, Dadeland, Hialeah, South Miami and Wynwood. It takes approximately 15 minutes to get from the airport to Downtown.

Miami-Dade Transit operates an Airport Flyer bus which connects MIA directly to South Beach.[117]

To/from Tri-Rail/Amtrak, Fort Lauderdale and West Palm Beach[edit]

MIA is served directly by Tri-Rail, Miami's commuter rail system, which began service on April 5, 2015. Tri-Rail connects MIA to northern Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties. Tri-Rail directly serves points north such as: Boca Raton, Deerfield Beach, Delray Beach, Fort Lauderdale, Hollywood, Pompano Beach and West Palm Beach.[118]

In the future, Amtrak will also serve Miami Airport Station with the Silver Star and the Silver Meteor trains. These provide daily rail services to Orlando, Jacksonville, Washington, DC, Philadelphia and New York City, and Los Angeles. Service was originally expected to begin in late 2016, but due to the fact that the platforms are at insufficient length for the winter season since the trains exceed 13 cars (despite the platforms being sufficient during all other seasons as the trains normally consist of up to 9 cars), the date of service has been moved to late 2018.

Taxis and shuttles[edit]

Taxis and shuttle buses at Miami International Airport

Taxis and shuttles provide flat rates to destinations within Miami.

Rental cars[edit]

MIA has a newly completed Rental Car Center at the new Miami Central Station.[119]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On October 2, 1959, a Viscount of Cubana de Aviación was hijacked on a flight from Havana to Antonio Maceo Airport, Santiago by three men demanding to be taken to the United States. The aircraft landed at Miami International Airport.[120]
  • On February 12, 1963, Northwest Airlines Flight 705 crashed into the Everglades while en route from Miami to Portland, Oregon via Chicago O'Hare, Spokane, and Seattle. All 43 passengers and crew perished.
  • On June 23, 1969, a Dominicana Air Lines Carvair ATL. 98, a modified DC-4, en route to Santo Domingo was circling back to Miami International Airport with an engine fire when it crashed onto 36th Street. 5 dead; 7 injured.[121]
  • On December 29, 1972, Eastern Air Lines Flight 401, a Lockheed L-1011, crashed into the Everglades. The plane had left JFK International Airport in New York City bound for Miami. (the subject of Hollywood movie, The Ghost of Flight 401). There were 101 fatalities out of the 176 passengers and crew on board.
  • On January 15, 1977, Douglas DC-3 N73KW of Air Sunshine crashed shortly after take-off on a domestic scheduled passenger flight to Key West International Airport, Florida. All 33 people on board survived.[122]
  • On May 11, 1996, ValuJet Flight 592 crashed into the Everglades 10 minutes after taking off from MIA while en route to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport after a fire broke out in the cargo hold, killing 110 people.
  • On August 7, 1997, Fine Air 101, a Douglas DC-8 cargo plane, crashed onto NW 72nd Avenue less than a mile (1.6 km) from the airport. All 4 occupants on board and 1 person on the ground were killed.
  • On February 2, 1998, two Skyway Enterprises Shorts 330-200 aircraft (N2630A and N2629Y) were damaged beyond repair by a tornado at Miami International Airport. Both aircraft had to be written off. No one was injured.[123]
  • On September 15, 2015, Qatar Airways Flight 778 to Doha overran Runway 9 during takeoff and collided with the approach lights for Runway 27. The collision, which went unnoticed during the 13.5-hour flight, tore a 18-inch (46 cm) hole in the pressure vessel of the Boeing 777-300 aircraft just behind the rear cargo door. The crew was confused by a printout from an onboard computer and erroneously begun takeoff on Runway 9 at the intersection of Taxiway T1 rather than at the end of the runway, which trimmed roughly 1,370 m (4,490 ft) from the available length runway for takeoff.[124][125]

See also[edit]

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