|City of Baguio|
Summer Capital of the Philippines
City of Pines
|Anthem: Baguio Hymn|
|Region||Cordillera Administrative Region|
|Province||Benguet (geographically only)|
|Incorporated||September 1, 1909 (city)|
|Highly urbanized city||December 22, 1979|
|Barangays||129 (see Barangays)|
|• Type||Sangguniang Panlungsod|
|• Mayor||Benjamin B. Magalong (NPC)|
|• Vice Mayor||Faustino A. Olowan (PDP–Laban)|
|• Representative||Marquez O. Go (NP)|
|• City Council|
|• Electorate||168,218 voters (2022)|
|• Highly urbanized city||57.51 km2 (22.20 sq mi)|
| • Metro|
|1,094.79 km2 (422.70 sq mi)|
|Elevation||853 m (2,799 ft)|
|Highest elevation||2,253 m (7,392 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||26 m (85 ft)|
|• Highly urbanized city||366,358|
|• Density||6,400/km2 (16,000/sq mi)|
| • Metro|
|• Metro density||3,100/km2 (8,000/sq mi)|
|• Gross domestic product||₱139,174 million (2021)|
$2,762 million (2021)
|• Income class||1st city income class|
|• Poverty incidence|
% (2018) 2.28
|• Revenue||₱ 2,162 million (2020)|
|• Assets||₱ 11,278 million (2020)|
|• Expenditure||₱ 1,420 million (2020)|
|• Liabilities||₱ 4,811 million (2020)|
|• Electricity||Benguet Electric Cooperative (BENECO)|
|• Water||Baguio Water District (BWD)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (PST)|
|IDD : area code||+63 (0)74|
Baguio (UK: // BAG-ee-oh, US: / /-, BAH-ghee-oh, -OH), officially the City of Baguio (Ilocano: Siudad ti Baguio; Filipino: Lungsod ng Baguio), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Cordillera Administrative Region, Philippines. It is known as the "Summer Capital of the Philippines", owing to its cool climate since the city is located approximately 4,810 feet (1,470 meters) above mean sea level, often cited as 1,540 meters (5,050 feet) in the Luzon tropical pine forests ecoregion, which also makes it conducive for the growth of mossy plants, orchids and pine trees, to which it attributes its other moniker as the "City of Pines".
Baguio is classified as a highly urbanized city (HUC). It is geographically located within Benguet, serving as the provincial capital from 1901 to 1916, but has since been administered independently from the province following its conversion into a chartered city. The city is the center of business, commerce, and education in northern Luzon, as well as the seat of government of the Cordillera Administrative Region. According to the 2020 census, Baguio has a population of 366,358.
Baguio was called "Kafagway" by indigenous peoples. The name "Baguio" originates from the American period and is derived from the Ibaloi word bagiw (moss), which was then Hispanicized as "Baguio". A demonym for natives of the city, "Ibagiw", is also derived from bagiw. It is also the name for the city's annual arts festival.
Baguio used to be a vast mountain zone with lush highland forests, teeming with various wildlife such as the indigenous deer, cloud rats, Philippine eagles, Philippine warty pigs, and numerous species of flora. The area was a hunting ground of the indigenous peoples, notably the Ibalois and other Igorot ethnic groups. When the Spanish arrived in the Philippines, the area was never fully subjugated by Spain due to the intensive defense tactics of the indigenous Igorots of the Cordilleras.
Igorot oral history states the Benguet upper class, baknang, was founded between 1565 and the early 1600s, by the marriage of a gold trader, Amkidit, and a Kankanay maiden gold panning in Acupan. Their son, Baruy, discovered a gold deposit in the area, which he developed with hired workers and slaves.
Spanish colonial period
In 1755, the Augustinian Fray Pedro de Vivar established a mission in Tonglo (Tongdo) outside Baguio. Before he was driven out the following year, this rancheria included 220 people, including several baknang families. The Spanish tried to regain the mission in 1759, but were ambushed. This prompted the Governor General Pedro Manuel de Arandía Santisteban to send Don Manuel Arza de Urrutia on a punitive expedition, which resulted in the mission being burned to the ground.: 477–478
During the period of Spanish rule in 1846, the Spaniards established a comandancia in the nearby town of La Trinidad, and organized Benguet into 31 rancherías, one of which was Kafagway, a wide grassy area where the present Burnham Park is situated. Kafagway was then a minor rancheria consisting of only about 20 houses; most of the lands in Kafagway were owned by a prominent Ibaloi, Mateo Cariño, who served as its chieftain. The Spanish presidencia, which was located at Bag-iw at the vicinity of Guisad Valley was later moved to Cariño's house where the current city hall stands. Bag-iw, a local term for "moss" once abundant in the area was spelled by the Spaniards as Baguio, which served as the name of the rancheria.
During the Philippine Revolution in July 1899, Filipino revolutionary forces under Pedro Paterno liberated La Trinidad from the Spaniards and took over the government, proclaiming Benguet as a province of the new Philippine Republic. Baguio was converted into a "town", with Mateo Cariño being the presidente (mayor).
American colonial period
When the United States occupied the Philippines after the Spanish–American War, Baguio was selected to become the summer capital of the then Philippine Islands. American zoologist Dean Conant Worcester headed an expedition in 1900 after convincing U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root to order an expedition to a cool place in the northern mountains of the Philippines. Governor-General William Taft, on his first visit in 1901, noted the "air as bracing as Adirondacks or Murray Bay...": 317–319 On November 11, 1901, the American colonial government expropriated lands in Baguio owned by the Ibaloi people, who were forced to sell their lands.
In 1903, Filipinos, Japanese and Chinese workers were hired to build Kennon Road, the first road directly connecting Baguio with the lowlands of La Union and Pangasinan. Before this, the only road to Benguet was Naguilian Road, and it was largely a horse trail at higher elevations. Camp John Hay was established in October 1903, after President Theodore Roosevelt signed an executive order setting aside land in Benguet for a military reservation for the United States Army to rest and recuperate from the lowland heat. It was named after Roosevelt's Secretary of State, John Milton Hay.
The Mansion, built in 1908, served as the official residence of the American Governor-General during the summer to escape Manila's heat. The Mansion was designed by architect William E. Parsons based on preliminary plans by architect Daniel Burnham.
Burnham, one of the earliest successful modern city planners, designed the mountain retreat following the tenets of the City Beautiful movement. In 1904, the rest of the city was planned out by Burnham. On September 1, 1909, Baguio was declared as a chartered city and nicknamed the "Summer Capital of the Philippines".
The succeeding period saw further developments of and in Baguio with the construction of Wright Park in honor of Governor-General Luke Edward Wright, Burnham Park in honor of Burnham, Governor Pack Road, and Session Road.
World War II
Prior to World War II, Baguio was the summer capital of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, and the home of the Philippine Military Academy. As such, it was very important in military and political terms. Philippine President Manuel Quezon was even in Baguio when the war began.
Following the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, the Imperial Japanese Army used Camp John Hay, an American installation in Baguio, as a military base. The nearby Philippine Constabulary base, Camp Holmes, was used as an internment camp for about 500 civilian enemy aliens, mostly Americans, between April 1942 and December 1944.
President José P. Laurel of the Second Philippine Republic, a puppet state established in 1943, departed the city on March 22 and reached Taiwan eight days later, on March 30. The remainder of the Second Republic government, along with Japanese civilians, were ordered to evacuate Baguio on March 30. General Tomoyuki Yamashita and his staff then relocated to Bambang, Nueva Vizcaya.
By late March 1945, Baguio was within range of the American and Filipino military artillery. Between March 4 and 10, United States Fifth Air Force planes dropped 933 tons of bombs and 1,185 gallons of napalm on Baguio, reducing much of the city to rubble. A major offensive to capture Baguio did not occur until April 1945, when the USAFIP-NL's 1st Battalion of the 66th Infantry, attached with the United States Army's 37th Infantry Division, the USAFIP-NL's 2nd Battalion of 66th Infantry, attached with the US 33rd Infantry Division, and the USAFIP-NL's 3rd Battalion of the 66th Infantry, converged on Baguio. By April 27, 1945, the city was liberated and the joint force proceeded to liberate the La Trinidad valley.
In September 1945, the Japanese forces in the Philippines, headed by General Yamashita and Vice Admiral Okochi, formally surrendered at Camp John Hay's American Residence in the presence of lieutenant generals Arthur Percival and Jonathan Wainwright.
Post-World War II
Baguio ceased to be the official "Summer Capital of the Philippines" in 1976.
In the wake of the Snap Presidential elections of 1986 antidictatorship organizers were based largely in the Azotea Building midway up Session Road, and in Cafe Amapola further up Session, on its intersection with Governor Pack road. Because the United States' Armed Forces Radio and Television Network station at Camp John Hay was transmitting news from Manila, they learned early on that the People Power revolution had begun in Manila. Deciding that their locations were too unsafe, they encamped in the courtyard of the Baguio Cathedral, which was located on higher ground. They were later joined by Lt. Benjamin Magalong, of the Philippine Constabulary detachment in Buguias, Benguet, who had defected from the government, gone to the nearby Central Police Station in Baguio, and disarmed its personnel to prevent any untoward incidents while Baguio residents continued to gather at the cathedral to protest the abuses of the Marcos administration. The Baguio Cathedral, and Session Road adjacent to it, thus became the center of the People Power revolution in Baguio - paralleling similar protests in Cebu, Davao, Bacolod, Manila, and other major Philippine cities, eventually leading to the ouster of President Ferdinand Marcos on February 25, 1986.
On July 15, 1987, President Corazon Aquino issued Executive Order 220 which created the Cordillera Administrative Region, and made the highly urbanized city of Baguio its seat of government. Various attempts at legally turning the Cordillera Administrative Region into an autonomous region have been pursued, but failed to gather enough public support in two separate autonomy plebiscites.
The 1990 Luzon earthquake (Ms = 7.7) destroyed some parts of Baguio and the surrounding province of Benguet on the afternoon of July 16, 1990. A significant number of buildings and infrastructure were damaged, including the Hyatt Terraces Plaza, Nevada Hotel, Baguio Park Hotel, FRB Hotel and Baguio Hilltop Hotel; major highways were temporarily blocked due to landslides and pavement breakup; and a number of houses were leveled or severely shaken with numerous casualties. Some of the fallen buildings were built on or near fault lines; local architects later admitted structural building codes should have been followed more religiously, particularly regarding concrete and rebar standards, and "soft stories." Baguio has been rebuilt with aid from the national government and international donors such as Japan, Singapore and the United States.
Baguio is located some 1,400 meters (4,600 feet) above sea level, nestled within the Cordillera Central mountain range in northern Luzon. Enclosed by the province of Benguet, the city covers a small area of 57.5 square kilometres (22.2 sq mi). Most of the developed part of the city is built on uneven, hilly terrain of the northern section. When Daniel Burnham drew plans for the city, he made the City Hall a reference point where the city limits extend 8.2 kilometres (5.1 mi) from east to west and 7.2 kilometres (4.5 mi) from north to south.
- A. Bonifacio-Caguioa-Rimando (ABCR)
- Abanao-Zandueta-Kayong-Chugum-Otek (AZKCO)
- Alfonso Tabora
- Andres Bonifacio (Lower Bokawkan)
- Asin Road
- Atok Trail
- Aurora Hill Proper (Malvar-Sgt. Floresca)
- Aurora Hill, North Central
- Aurora Hill, South Central
- Bagong Lipunan (Market Area)
- Bakakeng Central
- Bakakeng North
- Bal-Marcoville (Marcoville)
- Bayan Park East
- Bayan Park Village
- Bayan Park West (Bayan Park, Leonila Hill)
- BGH Compound
- Cabinet Hill-Teacher's Camp
- Camdas Subdivision
- Camp 7
- Camp 8
- Camp Allen
- Campo Filipino
- City Camp Central
- City Camp Proper
- Country Club Village
- Cresencia Village
- Dagsian, Lower
- Dagsian, Upper
- Dizon Subdivision
- Dominican Hill-Mirador
- DPS Compound
- Engineers' Hill
- Fairview Village
- Ferdinand (Happy Homes-Campo Sioco)
- Fort del Pilar
- Gabriela Silang
- General Emilio F. Aguinaldo (Quirino‑Magsaysay, Lower)
- General Luna, Upper
- General Luna, Lower
- Greenwater Village
- Guisad Central
- Guisad Sorong
- Happy Hollow
- Happy Homes (Happy Homes-Lucban)
- Harrison-Claudio Carantes
- Holy Ghost Extension
- Holy Ghost Proper
- Honeymoon (Honeymoon-Holy Ghost)
- Imelda R. Marcos (La Salle)
- Imelda Village
- Kayang Extension
- Loakan Proper
- Lopez Jaena
- Lourdes Subdivision Extension
- Lourdes Subdivision, Lower
- Lourdes Subdivision, Proper
- Magsaysay Private Road
- Magsaysay, Lower
- Magsaysay, Upper
- Malcolm Square-Perfecto (Jose Abad Santos)
- Manuel A. Roxas
- Market Subdivision, Upper
- Middle Quezon Hill Subdivision (Quezon Hill Middle)
- Military Cut-off
- Mines View Park
- Modern Site, East
- Modern Site, West
- MRR-Queen of Peace
- New Lucban
- Outlook Drive
- Padre Burgos
- Padre Zamora
- Palma-Urbano (Cariño-Palma)
- Pinsao Pilot Project
- Pinsao Proper
- Quezon Hill Proper
- Quezon Hill, Upper
- Quirino Hill, East
- Quirino Hill, Lower
- Quirino Hill, Middle
- Quirino Hill, West
- Quirino-Magsaysay, Upper (Upper QM)
- Rizal Monument Area
- Rock Quarry, Lower
- Rock Quarry, Middle
- Rock Quarry, Upper
- Saint Joseph Village
- Salud Mitra
- San Antonio Village
- San Luis Village
- San Roque Village
- San Vicente
- Sanitary Camp, North
- Sanitary Camp, South
- Santa Escolastica
- Santo Rosario
- Santo Tomas Proper
- Santo Tomas School Area
- Scout Barrio
- Session Road Area
- Slaughter House Area (Santo Niño Slaughter)
- SLU-SVP Housing Village
- South Drive
- Teodora Alonzo
- Victoria Village
Proposed merger of barangays
A proposed merging of the city's 130 barangays had not been implemented since its inception in 2000. Several local officials stressed that many of the city's barangays did not comply with the minimum requirements in the Local Government Code of the Philippines that a highly urbanized city must have a certified population of least 5,000 inhabitants. According to Mayor Mauricio Domogan, in the past, benefits granted to local governments were based on the number of existing barangays; this led former local officials to create as many barangays as possible in the city in order to acquire additional benefits from the national government. The proposed merger, which will reduce the barangays from 130 to about 40 to 50 by merging adjacent ones, is believed to solve several issues concerning barangay boundary disputes, seemingly biased allocation of funds for larger barangays in relation to barangays with lesser area and population, as well as the inadequate honorarium of barangay officials.
|Climate data for Baguio (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1909–2021)|
|Record high °C (°F)||28.4
|Average high °C (°F)||23.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||18.1
|Average low °C (°F)||13.0
|Record low °C (°F)||6.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||16.4
|Average rainy days (≥ 1 mm)||3||3||5||8||18||19||24||25||22||13||7||5||152|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85||85||84||85||88||90||92||93||92||90||86||85||88|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||226.5||228.0||242.6||254.9||224.9||206.3||168.0||145.5||178.9||232.2||223.2||210.9||2,541.8|
|Percent possible sunshine||66||71||66||69||57||53||42||37||49||65||66||62||58|
|Source 1: PAGASA|
|Source 2: DWD (sunshine 1978-2022)|
Under the Köppen climate classification, Baguio features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification: Am). The city is known for its mild climate owing to its high elevation. The temperature in the city is usually about 7 to 8 °C (12.6 to 14.4 °F) cooler than the lowland temperature. Average temperature ranges from 15 to 23 °C (59 to 73 °F), with the lowest temperatures between November and February. The lowest recorded temperature was 6.3 °C (43.3 °F) on January 18, 1961; in contrast, the all-time high of 30.4 °C (86.7 °F) was recorded on March 15, 1988, during the 1988 El Niño season. The temperature seldom exceeds 26 °C (78.8 °F) even during the warmest part of the year.
Like many other cities with a subtropical highland climate, Baguio receives noticeably less precipitation during its dry season. However, the city has an extraordinary amount of precipitation during the rainy season from June to October. The city averages over 3,914 mm (154 in) of rainfall annually, the highest in the country.
Baguio suffers from air pollution and is one of the cities with the dirtiest air in the Philippines, according to a 2014 WHO report; a slight improvement in the city's air quality was cited in 2017 by the DENR's Environmental Management Bureau. In a 2018 WHO report, the city was listed as having the most polluted air among 8 other local cities (Cebu, Dagupan, Davao, Manila, San Carlos, Urdaneta and Zamboanga). Eco-vehicles and Euro 4 compliant vehicles have been tested whether or not they are suited for the city's steep slopes in line with efforts to modernize its Public Utility Vehicles (PUVs). PUVs, specifically jeepneys, have been pushed for its modernization, in line with President Duterte's PUV modernization initiative.
Another problem that plagues Baguio is its garbage and waste disposal. The city has been dumping its garbage in a landfill in Urdaneta City, but rising costs are putting a strain on the city's budget. In early 2018, the city government started using its garbage transfer station in the city outskirts near Marcos Highway, drawing protests from residents of the nearby town of Tuba, who cited the facility poses health hazards to their communities. As of 2019, the Philippine National Oil Company has offered to test a waste-to-energy technology as a possible solution to its garbage woes. Baguio's waste water treatment plant is also eyed for an expansion as it has been unable to fully cater to the city's needs; wastewater which the plant could not accommodate were dumped in the Balili River, leading to its high coliform levels—even higher than that of Manila Bay's.
Baguio is also a planned city. American Architect and Urban Planner Daniel Burnham was commissioned to design the new capital; his design for the city was based on the City Beautiful movement, which features broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles.
During the Second World War, Baguio was razed to the ground during the Japanese forces' invasion and the subsequent shelling by American forces during the liberation. After the liberation, rebuilding began and most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, some of the historic buildings from the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated or otherwise left to deteriorate. The 1990 Luzon earthquake further devastated Baguio's old buildings, which include 28 collapsed buildings such as hotels, factories, government and university buildings, and many private homes and establishments.
Baguio's current landscape is mostly of contemporary architecture.
Baguio's contemporary architecture is largely of American build, owing to the fact that Americans were the ones to establish a station here. A few examples include those built at Teacher's Camp and Camp John Hay, previous American installations in the city as well as the current Baguio City Hall. Some buildings are also influenced by Spanish building concepts, such as Porta Vaga Mall and La Azotea. One of the more modern buildings in the city is SM City Baguio, established in 2003.
Moves by various groups with the goal to preserve these buildings have been made. As a historic building, the Baguio City Hall has faced opposition to renovation of its grounds, since that may be against laws on national cultural heritage sites; the renovations, however, continued as there has been no documentation supporting the City Hall as a national heritage site. The construction of the City Hall park was finished in May 2019 as was said to define the city's new moniker as a creative center for crafts and folk arts.
|Source: Philippine Statistics Authority|
The original inhabitants of Baguio are the Ibaloi people (natively pronounced as "Ivadoi"). When the Americans established the city in the early 1900s, early settlers in the city include members of other Igorot tribes (Igudut in Ibaloi), the lowlander Ilocanos (Iduko), Americans (Merikano), and mestizos. A significant number of Chinese (both Cantonese and Hokkien) and Japanese laborers were also hired to build Kennon Road, many of whom later settled in the city.
The city's population as of May 2000 was placed at 250,000 persons. The city has a very young age structure as 65.5 percent of its total population is below thirty years old. Females comprise 51.3 percent of the population as against 48.7 percent for males. The household population comprises 98 percent of the total population or 245,000 persons. With an average of 4.6 members per household, a total of 53,261 household are gleaned. During the peak of the annual tourist influx, particularly during the Lenten period, transients triple the population.
Crime in Baguio is concentrated in theft and vehicular accidents. Crime in the city is also directly related to its changing demographics and unique criminal justice system. The illegal drug trade is also a problem of the city as 24 of its 129 barangays are considered as drug affected as of December 2017.
In 2018, Baguio was listed as one of the safest cities both in the ASEAN region, ranking sixth with a crime index of 40.57 and safety index of 59.43. The Baguio City Police Office also has the highest crime solution efficiency nationwide of 84%, compared to the national 77% and the region's 70%. In May 2019 BCPO also reported a drop of 27% in crimes, from 1,150 in 2018 to 834 in 2019. The BCPO was awarded as the country's best city police station in 2018.
Baguio is a predominantly Christian city, as of 2015; Roman Catholics at 74% (254,716), Evangelicals (Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches) at 7% (24,236), National Council of Churches in the Philippines at 5% (17,968), and Iglesia ni Cristo at 4% (12,897).
As of 2015, Muslims comprise 1% (3,269) of the city's total population. The largest mosque in the area is Masjid Al-Maarif, which is a centre of Islamic studies in the Philippines. The city also has smaller numbers of Buddhists and atheists, along with members of other faiths.
Graphs are temporarily unavailable due to technical issues.
As a melting pot of different peoples and cultures in the Cordillera Administrative Region, numerous investments and business opportunities are lured to Baguio. Baguio has a large retail industry, with shoppers coming to the city to take advantage of the diversity of competitively priced commercial products on sale. The city is also popular with bargain hunters; some of the most popular bargaining areas include Baguio Market and Maharlika Livelihood Center. The city is home to numerous shopping centers and malls catering to increasing commercial and tourist activity; these include: SM City Baguio, Baguio Center Mall, Abanao Square, and Tiong San.
Various food and retail businesses run by local residents proliferate, forming a key part of Baguio's cultural landscape. Several retail outlets and dining outlets are situated along Bonifacio Street, Session Road, Teacher's Camp, Mines View Park and Baguio Fastfood Center near the market.
The areas of Session Road, Harrison Road, Magsaysay Avenue and Abanao Street comprise the trade center of the city, where commercial and business structures such as cinemas, hotels, restaurants, department stores, and shopping centers are concentrated. The City Market offers a wide array of locally sourced goods and products, usually from Benguet province, which includes colorful woven fabrics and hand-strung beads to primitive wood carvings, cut flowers, strawberries and "Baguio" vegetables, the latter often denoting vegetable types that do well in the cooler growing climate. Strawberries and string beans—referred to as Baguio beans across the Philippines—are shipped to major urban markets across the archipelago.
Another key source of income for Baguio is its position as the economic hub of the Cordillera Administrative Region. The economy of the city has benefited from the vibrant mining industry in several towns of Benguet. Many agricultural goods produced in Benguet pass through Baguio for processing, sale or further distribution to the lowlands.
A Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA)-accredited business and industrial park called the Baguio City Economic Zone (BCEZ) is located in the southern part of the city between Camp John Hay Country Club and Philippine Military Academy in Barangay Loakan. Firms located in the BCEZ mostly produce and export knitted clothing, transistors, small components for vehicles, electronics and computer parts. Notable firms include Texas Instruments Philippines, which is the second largest exporter in the country. Other companies headquartered within the economic zone include Baguio Ayalaland Technohub, Moog Philippines, Inc., Linde Philippines, Inc., LTX Philippines Corporation, Texas Instruments Philippines, and Sitel Philippines, Baguio.
Outsourcing contributes to the city's economy and employment. Sitel, whose main office is located in the Baguio City Economic Zone, is the largest BPO company in the city with four sites established within the BCEZ. There are also multiple BPOs present in the city with numerous PEZA-accredited private economic zones established to cater to this industry. The Ayala Technohub located in Camp John Hay hosts Cocentrix and InterContinental Hotels Group alongside other commercial establishments. Teleperformance Baguio and Thoughtfocus is established at the SM Cyberzone Building (also known as SM Fiesta Strip) located in front of Sunshine Park, while other call centers downtown are Optimum Transsource, Sterling Global and Global Translogic. Tech-Synergy operates a large transcription and back office operation near Wright park.
In recent years, there has been a surge of ESL (English as a Second Language) Tutorial Schools throughout Baguio that caters to students from other countries and also provide online services. This industry however has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic with foreign students returning to their home countries.
Arts and museums
The city became a haven for many Filipino artists in the 1970s–1990s. Drawn by the cool climate and low cost of living, artists such as Ben Cabrera (now a National Artist) and filmmaker Butch Perez relocated to the city. At the same time, locals such as mixed-media artist Santiago Bose and filmmaker Kidlat Tahimik were also establishing work in the city. Even today, artists like painters and sculptors from all over the country are drawn to the Baguio Arts Festival which is held annually. The city houses several museums, such as the Baguio Museum, Museo Kordilyera, Emilio F. Aguinaldo Museum, the Laperal White House and the SLU Museum of Arts and Cultures.
Baguio has been included in UNESCO's Creative Cities Network due to craft and folk art traditions of the city particularly ranging on expressions to wood carving, silver craft, traditional weaving and tattooing. Baguio is the first city in the Philippines to be part of the inter-city network which aims to promote the creative industries as well as integrate culture in sustainable urban development.
The languages commonly spoken in Baguio are Ibaloi, Kankana-ey, Ilocano, Tagalog, and Pangasinan. Kapampangan, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Maranao, Maguindanaon and Tausug are also spoken to varying degrees by their respective ethnic communities within the city.
Festivals and holidays
The annual flower festival, called the Panagbenga Festival, is held every February; it was created to highlight the city's flowers and cool temperature and as a way to rise up from the devastation of the 1990 Luzon earthquake. The festival includes floats covered mostly with flowers; it also includes street dancing, presented by dancers clad in flower-inspired costumes inspired by the Bendian, an Ibaloi dance of celebration. The indigenous people were initially wary with government-led tourism due to a perceived threat that the government would interfere with or change their communities' rituals.
Baguio celebrates its city charter anniversary every September 1, which has been declared as a special non-working holiday in 1989 through Republic Act 6710.
Tourism is one of Baguio's main industries due to its cool climate and history. The city is one of the country's top tourist destinations. During the year end holidays some people from the lowlands prefer spending their vacation in Baguio, to experience cold temperatures they rarely have in their home provinces. Also, during summer, especially during Holy Week, tourists from all over the country flock to the city. During this time, the total number of people in the city doubles. To accommodate visitors, there are more than 80 hotels and inns available, as well as numerous transient houses set up by the locals. Local festivities such as the Panagbenga Festival also attracts both local and foreign tourists.
Baguio is the lone Philippine destination in the 2011 TripAdvisor Traveller's Choice Destinations Awards (Asia category) with the city being among the top 25 destinations in Asia. Burnham Park, Mines View Park, Wright Park, The Mansion, and Botanical Garden are among the popular tourist sites in Baguio.
As a highly urbanized city with its own charter, it is not subject to the jurisdiction of Benguet province, of which it was formerly a part.
The City of Baguio is led by its own mayor and vice mayor. The vice mayor leads the city council, composed of 12 elected councilors and 2 ex-officio members (the ABC President and SK President of the city). The City Government holds office at the Baguio City Hall.
The 129 barangays are led by their own captains assisted by a 7-man barangay council.
These officials are term-limited by up to 3 consecutive terms, with each term lasting for 3 years.
|Position||Name||Year elected||Term no.|
|Congressman||Marquez O. Go||2016||3|
|Mayor||Benjamin B. Magalong||2019||2|
|Vice Mayor||Faustino A. Olowan||2019||2|
|Councilor||Benny O. Bomogao||2016||3|
|Jose M. Molintas||2022||1|
|Arthur L. Allad-iw||2016||3|
|Betty Lourdes F. Tabanda||2019||2|
|Leandro B. Yañgot Jr.||2022||1|
|Isabelo B. Cosalan Jr.||2019||2|
|Maria Mylen Victoria G. Yaranon||2016||3|
|Elmer O. Datuin||2022||1|
|Peter C. Fianza||2022||1|
|Vladimir D. Cayabas||2019||2|
|Fred L. Bagbagen||2019||2|
|Lilia A. Fariñas||2016||3|
|Michael L. Lawana||2013||1|
|Levy Lloyd B. Orcales||2018||1|
It is represented in the House of Representatives by its own congressman, the city itself a lone district, separate from the province of Benguet. Currently, the city is represented by Marquez O. Go.
The city hosts the summer residences of the President, Vice President, Senate President and House Speaker at Barangay Lualhati, while the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals and the Cabinet Secretaries cottages are housed at Cabinet Hill. The Supreme Court and Court of Appeals hold summer sessions in the city, usually during the month of April.
Baguio has hosted several sporting events, even those of international standing. The Baguio Athletic Bowl within the grounds of Burnham Park is one of Baguio's primary sporting venues. Baguio hosted the 1978 World Chess Championship match between Anatoly Karpov and Viktor Korchnoi, building the Baguio Convention Center for that purpose. The city is a participant in the CARAA games or the Cordillera Administrative Region Athletic Association, hosting it last in 2016 and 2017. The winners of the said event will eventually represent the region in the annual Palarong Pambansa games, which is also sponsored by the Department of Education. As of 2019, the city is still the overall champion with 205 gold, 110 silver and 79 bronze medals.
Loakan Airport is the lone airport serving the general area of Baguio. The airport is classified as a trunkline airport, or a major commercial domestic airport, by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines. Major commercial operations to Baguio however ceased after Philippine Airlines closed their Baguio route in 1998. There were attempts to reopen Baguio routes throughout the following two decades by different airline operators such as Asian Spirit and Sky Pasada but none were able to sustain continuous operation. Commercial flights have once again resumed in 2022 with Philippine Airlines (operated by PAL Express) operating Baguio–Cebu flights and vice-versa.
The airport is located south of the city center. Due to the limited length of the runway, being only 1,802 m (5,912 ft) long, it is restricted to commuter size aircraft. The airport is used primarily by helicopters, turbo-prop and piston engine aircraft, although on rare occasions light business jets (LBJ) have flown into the airport.
Jeepneys and taxis are the main means of public transportation in the city. The government's push for jeepney modernization has led to an increase of modern EURO 4 compliant PUVs plying Baguio's center. The rollout however for full jeepney modernization had been hampered by the COVID-19 pandemic. There are several bus lines linking Baguio with Manila, Bontoc, Mariveles, Olongapo, Cabanatuan, and provinces such as Pangasinan, Pampanga, Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Aurora, Cavite, La Union, Nueva Vizcaya and those in the Ilocos regions. Notable bus lines that operate the Baguio to Manila routes are Victory Liner, Genesis Transport Service and its premium bus line Joybus, and Pangasinan Solid North.
From Metro Manila, Baguio is accessible via NLEX (from Bulacan to Pampanga), SCTEX (Pampanga to Tarlac) and TPLEX (from Tarlac to La Union). The three main access roads leading to Baguio from the lowlands are Kennon Road (formerly known as the Benguet Road), Aspiras–Palispis Highway (previously known as Marcos Highway) and Naguilian Road, also known as Quirino Highway. The newest road that connects the city to the lowlands is Asin Road (also known as Asin-San Pascual-Tubao, La Union Road). All these roads traverse the municipality of Tuba, Benguet.
- Kennon Road starts in Rosario, La Union and winds upwards through a narrow, steep valley. This is often the fastest route to Baguio but it is particularly perilous, with landslides during the rainy season and sharp dropoffs, some without guardrails. The recently passed Republic Act No. 11604 pushes for the full rehabilitation of Kennon Road as an all-weather highway.
- Aspiras-Palispis Highway starts in Agoo, La Union and connects to Palispis Highway, at the boundary of Benguet and La Union provinces.
- Asin-Tubao Road starts in Tubao, La Union and serves as secondary alternative road if gridlock occurs at Aspiras-Palispis Highway
- Naguilian Road, which starts in Bauang, La Union, are both longer routes but are much safer than Kennon Road especially during rainy season, and are the preferred routes for coaches, buses and trucks.
Another road, Halsema Highway, (also known as the Baguio-Bontoc Road or the Mountain Trail) leads north through the mountainous portion of the provinces of Benguet and Mountain Province; it starts at the northern border of Baguio with La Trinidad.
In an effort to address traffic congestion and the lack of car parking at tourist spots in the city, Baguio operates a free bus shuttle service called the Hop On, Hop Off (HoHo) Tourist Bus. Through a park and ride scheme, the service encourages tourists with private vehicles to park their vehicles at the Baguio Convention Center (BCC) for a fee and ride the bus to various tourists sites free of charge. Relaunched on July 15, 2022, the HoHo bus has scheduled departure and arrival times, operating a looped route between the BCC, the Baguio Botanical Garden, the Mansion House, Mines View Park, Wright Park, and Governor Pack Road. The bus service has an estimated waiting interval of 30 minutes and is operational from 8:30 AM to 6:20 PM daily.
|Destination||First trip||Last trip||Location|
|BCC||8:30 AM||4:30 PM||Military Cut-off||Baguio|
|Botanical Garden||9:05 AM||5:05 PM||Saint Joseph Village|
|The Mansion||9:25 AM||5:25 PM||Lualhati|
|Mines View Park||9:50 AM||5:50 PM||Mines View Park|
|Wright Park||10:20 AM||6:20 PM||Lualhati|
|Governor Pack Road||—||—||Session Road Area|
|Stops, stations and transit systems in italics are either under construction or proposed.|
Possible future modes
- Cable Cars - As of July 8, 2019, Secretary Tugade of the Department of Transportation said that the feasibility study for the installation of the cable cars in Manila may be finished within the year, with Baguio soon to follow. The Philippine government earlier secured a P27 million grant from France for this venture, with Manila and Baguio seen as possible initial sites.
- Monorail - A monorail project from Baguio to La Trinidad is being mulled over by the SSS as a possible investment in CAR. It is seen to further boost tourism and decongest traffic. The project is similar to the one installed by the Department of Science and Technology at the UP Campus in 2012.
Water and electricity
Most of the water supply of the city is provided for by the Baguio Water District, founded in 1975 as the successor to the now-defunct Department of Public Services. It currently operates 60 deep wells to cater to its more than 300,000 consumers. It currently serves 122 out of the 129 barangays in the city and some parts of Tuba, Benguet. In recent years, the BWD has expressed concern over the city's depleting water supply, due in part to the private wells dug by private individuals and companies.
Electric services are provided by Benguet Electric Cooperative (BENECO), the sole electric power distributor in Benguet. In 2012, a bill was filled in the House of Representatives seeking the creation of the Baguio Electric Cooperative or BAELCO, an entity to provide for the city's own electricity needs, separate from BENECO. Its creation has been met with opposition by various groups citing the need of a feasibility study on the separation. The creation of a separate electric franchise for Baguio would also infringe on BENECO's existing franchise that mandated BENECO to provide electricity for both Baguio and Benguet which would create legal implications if it was to be amended.
The city is also the only local government unit to own and operate its own renewable energy plant. Originally constructed in the 1920s, the Asin Mini Hydropower Plants 1, 2 and 3 located in Tuba, Benguet came under the city's possession after the lapse of the 25-year lease agreement with the Aboitiz-owned Hydroelectric Development Corporation (HEDCOR). The plant acted as both a power source and another income-generating asset of the city as BENECO was also its main client. The power plant however was forced to cease operation on 2015 when the Energy Regulatory Commission issued a cease-and-desist order to the city due to the lack of a certificate of compliance from the city. The city currently has plans to rehabilitate the power plants so that they could resume operations once again.
Baguio's healthcare is mainly provided by various private corporations. Private hospitals operating in the city are the Baguio Medical Center, BCU-Santo Niño de Jesus Medical Center Foundation, Notre Dame de Chartres Hospital, Pines City Doctors' Hospital and Saint Louis University's Hospital of Sacred Heart. The BCU-Santo Niño de Jesus Medical Center Foundation ceased operations on 2009 due to financial reasons but was reopened during the COVID-19 pandemic with the local government refurbishing it as an isolation center for COVID-19 patients. In early 2019, several groups were eyeing to establish a hospital in Barangay Scout Barrio, but was met with opposition; as of March 2019, the project has been shelved.
The Baguio City Health Services Office is the office responsible for the health care programs provided by the city government, operating 16 health centers and 15 satellite clinics. Baguio hosts the Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center or BGHMC, a tertiary state-owned hospital administered and operated by the Department of Health. It is the sole government hospital in the city and the largest government tertiary hospital in the Cordillera Administrative Region.
Education is a major contributor to the economy of Baguio. Considered as the "Educational Center of the North", the city has a transient student population who migrate to the city to attend tertiary education.
Baguio is the center of education in the Northern Philippines due to high performances in various professional licensure exams as well as adherence to high educational quality standards, housing some of the best and largest universities in Northern Luzon.
Elementary and secondary
The city has 45 public elementary schools and 21 public secondary schools. Most of its secondary private schools are divisions of the private universities of the city. The Philippine Science High School - CAR campus was established in the city in 2009 and is located in Irisan. In 2016, the city government established in Irisan the Baguio City Science High School to create a unified science high school campus.
The city houses eight major institutions of higher education. Baguio's first private school, Easter College, was set up in 1906 by the Rt. Rev. Charles Brent, who was a bishop of the Episcopalian Church.
The University of the Philippines, the country's premier state university, was established as an extension campus in Vigan, Ilocos Sur before transferring to Baguio in 1938. In 1961, it became a branch campus of UP Diliman, before finally becoming UP Baguio in 2002.
Saint Louis University is the largest university in the city and in the north of Manila, catering to over 30,000 students; it was founded by Belgian CICM missionaries in 1911 initially as a one-storey school for boys. It became a college in the 1950s before becoming a university in 1963. It currently has four campuses spread across the city.
Baguio Central University was founded in 1945 as the Centro Academy by the Fernandez family. The following year, another educational institution, the University of the Cordilleras was established as the Baguio Colleges before becoming the Baguio Colleges Foundation; it became a full-fledged university in 2003. The University of Baguio was established as the Baguio Technical and Commercial Institute in 1948 by the Bautista family; it was upgraded to university status in 1969.
Mainly a nursing and medical school, Pines City Colleges was founded in 1969 as the Pines City Doctors Hospital School of Nursing, three years after the opening of Pines City Doctors' Hospital in 1966.
Twin towns and sister cities
- Angeles City
- Alaminos, Pangasinan
- Calbayog, Samar
- Daet, Camarines Norte
- Davao City
- Dipaculao, Aurora
- Lopez, Quezon
- Marawi, Lanao del Sur
- Muñoz, Nueva Ecija
- Ormoc, Leyte
- Pavia, Iloilo
- San Carlos, Negros Occidental
- Zamboanga City
- Cusco, Peru
- Gongju, South Korea
- Hangzhou, China
- Hanyū, Saitama, Japan
- Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
- Karuizawa, Nagano, Japan
- Nazareth, Israel
- Vaughan, Canada
- Seoul, South Korea
- San Antonio, United States
- Shepparton, Australia
- Taebaek, South Korea
- Tamuning, Guam, United States
- Taxco, Mexico
- Vallejo, California, United States
- Wakkanai, Hokkaido, Japan
- Capital of the Philippines
- Daniel Burnham
- Hill station
- Kennon Road
- La Trinidad
- Session Road
- "Halalan 2019 Philippine Election Results". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on June 30, 2019. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
- "2019 Election Results:Baguio City". GMA News. Retrieved October 7, 2021.
- "Province: Benguet". PSGC Interactive. Makati, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2013.
- Census of Population (2020). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
- "City of Baguio Leads the Economy of the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) in 2021". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved January 18, 2023.
- "PH₱50.384 per dollar (per International Monetary Fund on Representative Exchange Rates for Selected Currencies for December 2021)". IMF. Retrieved January 18, 2023.
- "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
- "Southeastern Asia: Island of Luzon in the Philippines". WWF. Retrieved August 16, 2014.
- Estoque, Ronald C.; Yuji Murayama (February 2013). "City Profile: Baguio". Cities. 30: 240–51. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2011.05.002.
- Sanidad, Pablito. "Which Baguio Centennial?". No. 99th Baguio Charter Day Anniversary Issue. Baguio Midland Courier. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- "Business Profile". City Government of Baguio. Archived from the original on November 6, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- Jay (April 18, 2017). "Brief History about Baguio City". Baguio City. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- "Baguio braces for ibagiw 2019". City Government of Baguio. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
- Pungayan, Morr. "Bagiw and the Ibagiws". Baguio Midland Courier. Archived from the original on July 19, 2020. Retrieved March 3, 2020.
- Habana, Olivia M. (2000). "Gold Mining in Benguet to 1898" (PDF). Philippine Studies. 48: 475–476. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- Boquiren, Rowena Reyes (August 23, 2015). "Baguio's history and cultural heritage". Northern Dispatch Weekly. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- "Baguio City; History and Government". Department of the Interior and Local Government – Cordillera Administrative Region. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- Fong, Jimmy Balud (2017). "Ibaloys "Reclaiming" Baguio: The Role of Intellectuals" (PDF). Plaridel. UP College of Mass Communication. 14 (2): 57–61. doi:10.52518/2017.14.2-03fong. ISSN 1656-2534. OCLC 9376665232. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
- Kane, S.E. (1933). Life and Death in Luzon or Thirty Years with the Philippine Head-Hunters. New York: Grosset & Dunlap.
- Cabreza, Vincent (January 14, 2014). "How the Ibaloi lost their land". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on January 16, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
- "History". Camp John Hay. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
- Agoot, Liza (September 27, 2018). "Camp John Hay stays on eco-tourism path". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on September 27, 2018. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
- Cody, Jeffrey W (2003). Exporting American Architecture, 1870–2000. Oxford: Alexandrine Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-203-98658-X.
- "About Baguio City". City Government of Baguio. Archived from the original on September 3, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
- "The Americans in Baguio". Go Baguio:Your Complete Guide to Baguio City, Philippines. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
- Sakakida, Richard; Kiyosaki, Wayne S. (July 3, 1995). A Spy in Their Midst: The World War II Struggle of a Japanese-American Hero. Madison Books. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-4616-6286-0.
- Bagamaspad, Anavic; Hamada-Pawid, Zenaida (1985). A People's History of Benguet. Baguio Printing & Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 290–302.
- Bolido, Linda B. (May 25, 2015). "Baguio–where WWII began and ended". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
- Uayan, Jean Uy (June 30, 2017). A Study of the Emergence and Early Development of Selected Protestant Chinese Churches in the Philippines. Langham Publishing. ISBN 9781783682829. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- "Flowers, new song for 72nd year of Baguio war bombings". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- Morton, Gillian (2018). Surviving and Striving for Normalcy: The Endurance of the Americans of Baguio Interned by the Japanese in the Philippines During World War II. Florida State University Libraries. pp. 22–23. Archived from the original on September 16, 2022. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
- Forbidden Diary: A Record of Wartime Internment, 1941–1945 by Natalie Crouter (Burt Franlin & Co. 1980)
- Jose, Ricardo T. "Government in Exile" (PDF). Scalabrini Migration Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2014. Retrieved September 24, 2014.
- Zeiler, Thomas W. (2004). Unconditional Defeat: Japan, America, and the End of World War II. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-8420-2991-9.
- Shaw, Angel Velasco; Francia, Luis H. (December 2002). Vestiges of War: The Philippine-American War and the Aftermath of an Imperial Dream 1899-1999. NYU Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-8147-9791-4.
- General Staff of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (1966). "Chapter XIV: Japan's Surrender". Reports of General MacArthur: The Campaign of MacArthur in the Pacific, Volume I. United States Army. p. 464. ISBN 978-1-78266-035-4. Archived from the original on February 12, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2014."The American Residence in Baguio". Embassy of the United States, Manila, Philippines. United States Department of State. Archived from the original on September 3, 2014. Retrieved September 25, 2014.Farrell, Brian; Hunter, Sandy (December 15, 2009). A Great Betrayal: The Fall of Singapore Revisited. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. p. 163. ISBN 9789814435468.Tucker, Spencer (November 21, 2012). Almanac of American Military History, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 1727. ISBN 978-1-59884-530-3.
- "Baguio City Ecological Profile; History" (PDF). City Government of Baguio. 2018. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 5, 2020. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- "EDSA '86 up north: The day Baguio turned yellow". Rappler. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
- "Remembering the People's Power Revolution in Baguio". Baguio Herald Express. Retrieved March 17, 2021.
- "Regional Profile: Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". CountrySTAT Philippines. Archived from the original on October 22, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- "The Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
- Ferrer, Miriam Coronel (September 4, 2010). "Cordillera autonomy - Miriam Coronel Ferrer". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 4, 2015.
- Punongbayan, Raymundo S.; Rimando, Rolly E.; Daligdig, Jessie A.; Besana, Glenda M.; Daag, Arturo S.; Nakata, Takashi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki. "The July 16 Earthquake; A Technical Monograph". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology; Hiroshima University. Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- Gwen de la Cruz (July 16, 2014). "Remembering the 1990 Luzon Earthquake". Rappler. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- See, Dexter A. "Merger of city's 130 barangays pressed". Official website of the City Government of Baguio. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- "Special body formed for barangay merger". SunStar. March 8, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- Cruz, Maria Aprila W. "More dialogues on merger of barangay pressed". Baguio Midland Courier. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- "Baguio City, Benguet Climatological Normal Values 1991–2020" (PDF). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2022. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
- "Baguio City, Benguet Climatological Extremes" (PDF). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Retrieved January 28, 2023.
- "98328_197802_201912". Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved January 28, 2023.
- "98328". Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved January 28, 2023.
- "Baguio City Travel Information, Philippines". Asia Travel. Archived from the original on November 22, 1997. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "STATION: BAGUIO CITY, BENGUET" (PDF). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2022. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
- Basilan, Jacquelyn; Khristine Love Vicente (December 17, 2008). "Baguio wakes up to coldest morn in 2008". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2009.
- "Baguio weakest vs climate change". SunStar. February 8, 2015. Archived from the original on August 23, 2022. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
- "Baguio air is among the dirtiest in the country". GMA News. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Peña, Rox (May 10, 2018). "Peña: The latest WHO air pollution report". SunStar. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Llanes, Jonathan (August 27, 2018). "Euro-4 jeep tested in Baguio". SunStar. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- "PUV Modernized Jeep Suitable in Baguio, Cordilleras". Baguio Herald Express. March 2, 2019. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- "Garbage problem plagues Baguio City — COA". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Agatep, Primo (February 2, 2018). "Tuba residents oppose nearby Baguio waste transfer station". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on February 14, 2018. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- Quitasol, Aldwin (July 6, 2019). "Waste to energy". Daily Tribune. Archived from the original on July 18, 2020. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- "Sewage plant in Baguio needs P250-M rehab funds". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- McKenna, Rebecca Tinio (January 20, 2017). American Imperial Pastoral: The Architecture of US Colonialism in the Philippines. University of Chicago Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-226-41793-6. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
- Locsin, Ma. Rina (February 1, 2013). "A Brief History of the Baguio Sine" (PDF). Plaridel. UP College of Mass Communication. 10 (1): 67–68. doi:10.52518/2013.10.1-04lcsn. ISSN 1656-2534. OCLC 9816707476. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
- "Manila Assesses Damage and High Cost of Quake". The New York Times. July 20, 1990. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- "SM to push through with Baguio project". Philippine Daily Inquirer. July 25, 2001. Retrieved July 20, 2019 – via Google News.
- "Conservation bid in Baguio draws support of architects". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- "Architect says time to rethink Baguio's master dev't plan". Baguio Midland Courier. September 20, 2015. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- Agency, Philippines News. "Baguio City Hall construction violates law on national cultural heritage sites". BusinessMirror. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- Fontanilla, Giovani Joy (April 16, 2015). "Baguio City Hall gets facelift". SunStar. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- "Renovated Baguio City Hall park to reflect UNESCO creative status". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- Census of Population (2015). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. National Statistics Office. Retrieved June 29, 2016.
- Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. National Statistics Office.
- "Province of". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
- Llanes, Jonathan (May 30, 2018). "Baguio's crime solution ranks highest nationwide". SunStar. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
- Llanes, Jonathan (July 30, 2018). "Baguio awarded best city police station in PH". SunStar. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
- "Baguio City Statistical Tables". Philippine Statistics Authority. TABLE 8; Total Population by Religious Affiliation and Sex: 2015. Archived from the original (XLS) on July 14, 2019. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
- Morales, Yusuf Roque; Morales, Sheryl (2020). "Understanding the diversity of cultural and religious learning institutions for Muslim Filipinos" (PDF). UP CIDS Discussion Paper 2020–05. University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies: 12. ISSN 2619-7456. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 16, 2022. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
- "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
- "Estimation of Local Poverty in the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. November 29, 2005.
- "2003 City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. March 23, 2009.
- "City and Municipal Level Poverty Estimates; 2006 and 2009" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. August 3, 2012.
- "2012 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. May 31, 2016.
- "Municipal and City Level Small Area Poverty Estimates; 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. July 10, 2019.
- "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. December 15, 2021. Retrieved January 22, 2022.
- "How small malls compete with big malls". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- Sibayan, Ada (April 19, 2012). "Used bikinis with 'kuto' in 'ukay-ukay'?". ABS-CBN News. Archived from the original on September 14, 2022. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- Padawangi, Rita (October 11, 2018). Routledge Handbook of Urbanization in Southeast Asia. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-79977-0. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- Roque, Anselmo; Martinez-Clemente, Jo; Orejas, Tonette; Cabreza, Vincent; Sotelo, Yolanda (December 22, 2012). "How small malls compete with big malls". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 22, 2012. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- Sinumlag, Alma B. (November 28, 2010). "LT folk clarifies Baguio cut flowers origin". Northern Dispatch Weekly. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
The spokesperson of this town's Municipal Agricultural and Fishery Council (MAPC) and chairperson of the Barangay Agricultural and Fishery Council (BAPC) in Lubas, La Trinidad clarified that cut flowers do not really originate in Baguio. Christina Tiongan in an interview on 24 November lamented that tourists always associate Baguio with cut flowers and other products like temperate vegetables that do not really originate in the city. "We are the ones producing those products but there had been no efforts from the city to correct tourists' perception", she said.
- Lapniten, Karl (February 24, 2016). "Strawberries hit bottom prices in Baguio". CNN Philippines. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
The capital town of Benguet, La Trinidad supplies most of the strawberries sold at the Baguio Public Market. Much of the produce also comes from small strawberry farms in the outskirts of Baguio and in nearby municipalities of Benguet.
- Cabreza, Vincent (October 28, 2019). "Avoid urban decay, Baguio neighbors told". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on October 29, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- See, Dexter A. "Baguio benefitting from robust mining operations in Benguet". City Government of Baguio. Archived from the original on September 14, 2022. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- Quitasol, Kimberlie; Cabreza, Vincent (January 6, 2022). "Holidays good for vegetable, strawberry farmers in Benguet". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on January 5, 2022. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- "Baguio offers investors new profit opportunities". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- "Business booms in Baguio City as 18th Ad Congress draws near". The Philippine Star. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- Cahiles-Magkilat, Bernie (February 13, 2007). "Baguio export zone to get P6.7 B in new investments". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- "Baguio Ayala Land Technohub". Ayala Land Offices. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
- "Moog Controls Corporation". Industry.gov.ph. Department of Trade and Industry. February 10, 2015. Archived from the original on December 19, 2016. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- "List of Enterprises With Approved Investments; As of 30-Nov-2019". Electronic Freedom of Information. Philippine Economic Zone Authority. Archived from the original (XLSX) on September 16, 2022. Retrieved September 16, 2022.
- "Baguio Ayala Land Technohub". AyalaLand Offices.
- "5,286 employed by John Hay economic zone locators". City Government of Baguio.
- Tabios, Hanah. "Puyat bullish on recovery of English schools". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved December 25, 2021.
- "Baguio is Philippines' first UNESCO 'creative city'". CNN Philippines. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
- "Baguio hailed as a UNESCO 'creative city'". ABS-CBN News. November 1, 2017. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
- "2000 CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING; Report No. 2 Volume I; Demographic and Housing Characteristics" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. National Statistics Office. 2003. p. 75. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 14, 2022. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- Cabreza, Vincent (February 29, 2020). "25 years of Panagbenga help Baguio retain its summer capital fame". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on September 6, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
- Cabreza, Vincent (January 26, 2008). "Cordillera tribes realize why they should not fear tourism". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on October 2, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2008.
- "Republic Act No. 6710". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. February 10, 1989. Archived from the original on February 13, 2019. Retrieved March 22, 2023.
- "Statistics: Tourism Special Tables". National Statistical Coordination Board.
- "Complete list of Baguio Hotels". philippines-travel-guide.com. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- Agatep, Primo (February 25, 2018). "DOT chief underscores Panagbenga's role in sustainable development". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on August 27, 2022. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
- "Best Destinations in Asia – Travelers' Choice Awards". TripAdvisor.
- Rodriguez, Fritzie (December 22, 2014). "Baguio City: Your complete weekend itinerary". Rappler. Archived from the original on March 24, 2022. Retrieved August 27, 2022.
- "City Councilors". City Government of Baguio. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- "Baguio City". Department of the Interior and Local Government, Cordillera Administrative Region. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
- "Halalan 2022 Philippine Election Results". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
- "Protest versus elected SK president junked". Baguio Herald Express. June 11, 2018. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- "Balweg's old house to become executive secretary's Baguio cottage". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
- Buan, Lian. "Why Supreme Court justices go to Baguio every April". Rappler. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
- "DepEd Baguio gears up for 2016 CARAA meet". Department of Education. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- "CARAA Meet 2019 | Games of the Cordillerans". www.caraa.ph. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Osis, Roderick (February 26, 2019). "Baguio starts retention bid in Caraa". SunStar. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Jacinto, Christian (March 27, 2020). "The Untold Story Of Team Lakay". ONE Championship. Archived from the original on March 27, 2020. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- "Baguio lauds Team Lakay, archers' victories". SunStar. April 28, 2017. Archived from the original on September 14, 2022. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- Cabreza, Vincent. "Ibaloy folk brace for change as Baguio flights resume". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 16, 2022.
- Cabreza, Vincent (December 16, 2022). "Maiden flight of Baguio-Cebu route lands at Summer Capital's only airport". Inquirer. Retrieved December 16, 2022.
- Cabreza, Vincent (December 16, 2020). "Bus firms resuming Baguio trips". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 16, 2020. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- Cabreza, Vincent (May 16, 2012). "Fighting for century-old Kennon Road". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Inquirer Northern Luzon. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
The colonial government decided then that constructing the Benguet Road (Kennon Road's original name) would provide the Americans a short route up the Benguet mountains. ... When Baguio was devastated by the July 16, 1990 earthquake, then Public Works Secretary Gregorio Vigilar decided to permanently close the damaged Kennon Road, said Cosalan. The government discovered 471 "disaster spots" along the route, which the Mines and Geosciences Bureau attributed to the fragility of the rock base, the abandoned mining operations near the road and the natural ground fractures that were undetectable in the 1900s.
- "Republic Act No. 8971; An Act Naming the Agoo-Tubao-Pugo Section of the Agoo-Baguio Road, the Jose D. Aspiras Highway, and the Benguet-Baguio City Section of the Same Road, the Ben Palispis Highway". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. October 31, 2000. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
- Jimenez, RC (July 8, 2018). "Asin-Tubao Road opens to ease Marcos Highway traffic". Baguio Midland Courier. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
- Dilim, Joanne Namnama P. (December 31, 2017). "DPWH-1 makes travel faster from La Union to CAR". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on October 29, 2018. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
- Dennis, Dionisio Jr. (August 16, 2018). "Buses also diverted to Naguilian Road in Cordillera". Philippine News Agency. Philippine News Agency. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
- Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (September 15, 2018). "Villar: Two roads to Baguio closed". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
Motorists going to Baguio can only use Naguilian Road as both Marcos Highway and Kennon Road are closed due to landslides ...
- Lagasca, Charlie (March 14, 2006). "Vizcaya-Benguet road completed this year". The Philippine Star. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
BAYOMBONG, Nueva Vizcaya – Novo Vizcayanos can now look forward to reaching the country's summer capital in a few hours as the shortest route linking this landlocked province to the mountain city is expected to be completed by the end of this year. ... The new route will traverse the mountain highway from Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya to Baguio via the vegetable-rich upland town of Kayapa and the majestic Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
- Caluza, Desiree (May 26, 2014). "Mountain Trail leads to culture, nature hubs". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Inquirer Northern Luzon. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
BAGUIO CITY, Philippines—Travelers who often frequent the 165-kilometer Mountain Trail may have gotten so used to the view along the scenic route that they often doze off all throughout the trip along this highway linking the provinces of Benguet, Mountain Province and Ifugao in the Cordillera. ... While the road length stretches to only a little more than 100 kilometres (62 miles) from La Trinidad town in Benguet to the Mountain Province capital of Bontoc, those raring for adventure and new sights should be prepared to spend six hours on the road.
- Galacgac, Aure (February 6, 2014). "Halsema Highway to be made 'tourist friendly'". SunStar. Archived from the original on September 14, 2022. Retrieved September 14, 2022.
- Aquino, Leira (July 14, 2022). "Baguio to revive Hop on, Hop off bus. Here's how it works". Interaksyon. Retrieved January 3, 2023.
- Manto, Ina Louise (December 13, 2022). "PSA: You Can Get Free Rides Around Baguio via the Hop-On Hop-Off Tourist Bus". Retrieved January 3, 2023.
- "Government finalizing cable car plan". Manila Standard. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- "French government gives P25-million for metro cable car study". Manila Standard. Archived from the original on September 28, 2020. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Dumlao-Abadilla, Doris. "Baguio monorail also on SSS' shopping list". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
- Catajan, Maria Elena (March 27, 2019). "P80-M Baguio Water District building opens". SunStar. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
- Agoot, Liza (August 29, 2018). "Water district worried on depletion of city's water supply". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
- Palangchao, Harley (December 25, 2011). "Bill that seeks to split Beneco into two filed in Lower House". Baguio Midland Courier. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
- Agoot, Liza (January 15, 2012). "Baelco firm on managing city's EC, but legal existence vague". Baguio Midland Courier. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
- Sinumlag, Alma B. (January 29, 2012). "Beneco says splitting franchise need further study". Northern Dispatch. Retrieved December 15, 2021.
- Cimatu, Frank (September 20, 2019). "Magalong prioritizes preservation of Baguio 'heirlooms'". Rappler. Retrieved December 15, 2021.
- "Titling of Asin hydro plant properties to be pursued". City Government of Baguio. Retrieved December 15, 2021.
- "Sto Niño hospital to stop operation effective July 31". Baguio Midland Courier. July 5, 2009. Archived from the original on October 21, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
- Cimatu, Frank (March 25, 2020). "Unused private hospital becomes medical facility for Baguio City's coronavirus patients". Rappler.
- "Sto. Niño Hospital named Baguio Critical Care Center". SunStar. April 3, 2020.
- "3 groups eying Scout Barrio hospital". SunStar. February 19, 2019. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- Catajan, Maria Elena (January 21, 2019). "Opposition mounts against proposed hospital". SunStar. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- Catajan, Maria Elena (March 12, 2019). "Scout Barrio hospital project shelved". SunStar. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- "The Electives Network: Baguio General Hospital and Medical Centre". The Electives Network. Archived from the original on July 20, 2019. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- "City Health Services Office". City Government of Baguio. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
- Daly, Patrick; Feener, R. Michael (April 6, 2016). Rebuilding Asia Following Natural Disasters: Approaches to Reconstruction in the Asia-Pacific Region. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-107-07357-9. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
- Melanie, Saro. "Baguio City: A fun learning educational hub". Baguio Midland Courier. Archived from the original on February 14, 2019. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
- "Baguio science HS opens in June". Baguio Midland Courier. November 27, 2016. Archived from the original on December 1, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2021.
- Ma, Julie C. (April 1, 2010). When the Spirit Meets the Spirits: Pentecostal Ministry Among the Kankana-ey Tribe in the Philippines. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-60899-464-9. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
- "About Us". Easter College. Archived from the original on April 11, 2021. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
- "History & Overview". University of the Philippines Baguio. Archived from the original on June 23, 2021. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
- Castro, Leia. "A collation of other centenarians in Baguio". Baguio Midland Courier. Archived from the original on June 19, 2009. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
- "Saint Louis University (SLU)". Fédération internationale des Universités Catholiques. Archived from the original on June 19, 2019. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
- Meneses, Nito (January 12, 2007). "SLU celebrates its 95th founding anniversary". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on August 22, 2022. Retrieved August 22, 2022.
- "Baguio Central University". Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities. Archived from the original on October 22, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
- "University of the Cordilleras". Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities. Archived from the original on October 22, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
- "University of Baguio". Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities. Archived from the original on October 29, 2020. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
- "History, Traditions and General Information". Philippine Military Academy. Archived from the original on May 20, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2022.
- Dacuag, Pearl A. (September 6, 2009). "20 sister cities pledge to fortify ties with Baguio". Baguio Midland Courier. Archived from the original on January 24, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
- "Marvil: Baguio and Candon City Sign Sisterhood MOU". SunStar.
- "Honolulu Data: Sister Cities" (official website). Honolulu: City and County of Honolulu. 2013. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
- See, Dexter A. (October 24, 2014). "Twinning ties for Baguio and Nazareth". The Standard. Archived from the original on March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2016.
- "San Antonio to formalize Friendship agreement with Baguio, Philippines". City of San Antionio. October 19, 2022. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
- "Vallejo's Sister Cities". Vallejo Sister Cities Association. Archived from the original on December 27, 2017. Retrieved August 28, 2016.