Baguio

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Baguio
Highly Urbanized City
City of Baguio
(From top, left to right):    Panagbenga Park; Wright Park; Baguio City Hall; SM City Baguio; Baguio Cathedral; Session Road; Burnham Park Lake
(From top, left to right): Panagbenga Park; Wright Park; Baguio City Hall; SM City Baguio; Baguio Cathedral; Session Road; Burnham Park Lake
Flag of Baguio
Flag
Official seal of Baguio
Seal
Nickname(s): Summer Capital of the Philippines
Benguet Province map locating Baguio
Benguet Province map locating Baguio
Baguio is located in Philippines
Baguio
Baguio
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 16°25′N 120°36′E / 16.42°N 120.6°E / 16.42; 120.6Coordinates: 16°25′N 120°36′E / 16.42°N 120.6°E / 16.42; 120.6
Country Philippines
Region Cordillera Administrative Region
Province Benguet (geographically only)
Congr. districts Lone district of Baguio City
Founded 1900
Incorporated September 1, 1909 (city)
Highly Urbanized City December 22, 1979
Barangays 129
Government
 • Congressman Nicasio Aliping, Jr. (Independent)
 • Mayor Mauricio Domogan (UNA)
 • Vice Mayor Edison Bilog (LP)
Area[1]
 • Total 57.51 km2 (22.20 sq mi)
Elevation 1,540 m (5,050 ft)
Population (2015 census)[2]
 • Total 345,366
 • Density 6,000/km2 (16,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Baguiotes
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP code 2600
Dialing code +63 (0)74
Languages
Website www.baguio.gov.ph

Baguio, officially the City of Baguio (Ibaloi: Ciudad ne Bagiw; Pangasinan: Siyudad na Baguio; Ilocano: Ciudad ti Baguio; Filipino: Lungsod ng Baguio; Spanish: Ciudad de Baguio) and often referred to as Baguio City, is a highly urbanized city in northern Luzon of the Philippines. It is geographically located within Benguet, serving as the provincial capital from 1901 to 1916,[3] but has since been administered independently from the province following its conversion into a chartered city. The city has become the center of business, commerce, and education in northern Luzon, as well as the regional center of the Cordillera Administrative Region.[4] According to the 2015 census, Baguio has a population of 345,366.[2]

Baguio was established as a hill station by the Americans in 1900 at the site of an Ibaloi village known as Kafagway. It was the United States' only hill station in Asia.[5] The name of the city is derived from bagiw, the Ibaloi word for "moss". The city is situated at an altitude of approximately 1,540 meters (5,050 feet) in the Luzon tropical pine forests ecoregion conducive for the growth of mossy plants and orchids.[6]

Because of its cool climate, Baguio was designated by the Philippine Commission as the "Summer Capital of the Philippines" on June 1, 1903. The government was transferred to The City of Baguio to escape the lowland heat during summer. It was incorporated as a chartered city by the Philippine Assembly on September 1, 1909, as authored by former Philippines Supreme Court Justice Atty. George A. Malcolm.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

During the Spanish occupation in 1846, the Spaniards established a comandancia in the nearby town of La Trinidad, and organized Benguet into 31 rancherias, one of which was Kafagway, a wide grassy area where the present Burnham Park is situated. Most of the lands in Kafagway were owned by the Ibaloi chieftain Mateo Cariño. The Spanish presidencia, which was located at Bagyiw at the vicinity of Guisad Valley was later moved to Cariño's house where the current City Hall stands. Bagyiw, a local term for "moss" once abundant in the area was converted by the Spaniards into Baguio, which served as the name of the rancheria.[3][7]

During the Philippine Revolution in July 1899, Filipino revolutionary forces under Pedro Paterno liberated La Trinidad from the Spaniards and took over the government, proclaiming Benguet as a province of the new Republic of the Philippines. Baguio was converted into a "town", with Mateo Cariño being the presidente (mayor).[3][7]

Shortly after in November 1899, the Philippine–American War ensued. American forces led by Capt. Robert R. Rudd arrived in La Trinidad searching for Pedro Paterno, Mateo Cariño and other rebels, but failing to do so, proceeded to Baguio, setting camp in what is now Camp John Hay.[3]

On November 22, 1900, the Americans established civil government in Benguet with the passage of Act No. 48, converting the rancherias into townships. The Act likewise made Baguio the capital of Benguet, and Sioco Cariño, Mateo Cariño's eldest son was made the president of the township. In September 1909, Baguio became a chartered city through Act No. 1963,[7] but remained the capital of Benguet until August 21, 1916, when the capital was transferred to La Trinidad.[3]

American colonial period[edit]

Summer Offices of the Philippine Insular Government in Baguio about 1909
The tents and dormitories of Teachers Camp in Baguio, 1909, the summer retreat for American educators

When the United States took possession of the Philippines after the Spanish–American War, Baguio was selected to become the summer capital of the Philippine Islands. Governor-General William Taft on his first visit in 1901, noted the "air as bracing as Adirondacks or Murray Bay ... temperature this hottest month in the Philippines on my cottage porch at three in the afternoon sixty-eight."[8]:317–319

In 1903, Filipino, Japanese and Chinese workers were hired to build Kennon Road, the first road directly connecting Baguio with the lowlands of Pangasinan. Before this, the only road to Benguet was Naguilian Road, and it was largely a horse trail at higher elevations.

The Americans declared Baguio the "Summer Capital of the Philippines" on July 1, 1903.[citation needed] Every year between March and June, the entire American government transferred operations to Baguio to escape Manila's summer heat, a practice abolished in 1913 when Governor-General Francis B. Harrison took office. Mansion House was built to become the residence of the Governor-General, while in 1904 the rest of the city was planned out by the American architect Daniel Burnham, one of the earliest successful modern city planners. On September 1, 1909 Baguio was declared a chartered city, the second after the City of Manila, and the period after saw further development of Baguio with the construction of Wright Park in honor of Governor-General Luke E. Wright, Burnham Park in honor of Burnham, Governor Pack Road, and Session Road.

World War II[edit]

On April 26, 1945, Filipino troops of the 1st, 2nd, 11th, 12th, 13th, 15th and 16th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, 1st Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary and the USAFIP-NL 66th Infantry Regiment and the American troops of the 33rd and 37th Infantry Division of the United States Army entered Baguio and fought against the Japanese Imperial Army forces led by General Tomoyuki Yamashita which started the Battle for the Liberation of Baguio during World War II.

Baguio is the site of the formal surrender of General Tomoyuki Yamashita and Vice Admiral Okochi. It is where they gave up the entire Imperial Japanese Armed Forces to American authorities at the High Commissioner's Residence (now the United States Ambassador's Residence) in Camp John Hay on September 3, 1945, marking the end of World War II.

1990 earthquake[edit]

The 1990 Luzon earthquake (Ms = 7.8) destroyed much of the city of Baguio on July 16, 1990.[9] A significant number of buildings and infrastructure were damaged; major highways were temporarily severed; and a number of houses were leveled or severely-shaken with a significant loss of life. Some of the fallen buildings were built on or near fault lines. Baguio was rebuilt with the aid from the national government and various international donors such as Japan, Singapore and other countries.

Geography[edit]

The city as viewed from Tuba

Baguio is located some 1,540 meters (5,050 feet) above sea level, nestled within the Cordillera Central mountain range in northern Luzon. The city is enclosed by the province of Benguet. It covers a small area of 57.5 square kilometres (22.2 sq mi). Most of the developed part of the city is built on uneven, hilly terrain of the northern section. When Daniel Burnham draughted plans for the city, he made the City Hall a reference point where the city limits extend 8.2 kilometres (5.1 mi) from east to west and 7.2 kilometres (4.5 mi) from north to south.

Barangays[edit]

Baguio is politically subdivided into 129 barangays.[1]

  • A. Bonifacio-Caguioa-Rimando (ABCR)
  • Abanao-Zandueta-Kayong-Chugum-Otek (AZKCO)
  • Alfonso Tabora
  • Ambiong
  • Andres Bonifacio (Lower Bokawkan)
  • Apugan-Loakan
  • Asin Road
  • Atok Trail
  • Aurora Hill Proper (Malvar-Sgt. Floresca)
  • Aurora Hill, North Central
  • Aurora Hill, South Central
  • Bagong Lipunan (Market Area)
  • Bakakeng Central
  • Bakakeng North
  • Bal-Marcoville (Marcoville)
  • Balsigan
  • Bayan Park East
  • Bayan Park Village
  • Bayan Park West (Bayan Park)
  • BGH Compound
  • Brookside
  • Brookspoint
  • Cabinet Hill-Teacher's Camp
  • Camdas Subdivision
  • Camp 7
  • Camp 8
  • Camp Allen
  • Campo Filipino
  • City Camp Central
  • City Camp Proper
  • Country Club Village
  • Cresencia Village
  • Dagsian, Lower
  • Dagsian, Upper
  • Dizon Subdivision
  • Dominican Hill-Mirador
  • Dontogan
  • DPS Area
  • Engineers' Hill
  • Fairview Village
  • Ferdinand (Happy Homes-Campo Sioco)
  • Fort del Pilar
  • Gabriela Silang
  • General Emilio F. Aguinaldo (Quirino‑Magsaysay, Lower)
  • General Luna, Upper
  • General Luna, Lower
  • Gibraltar
  • Greenwater Village
  • Guisad Central
  • Guisad Sorong
  • Happy Hollow
  • Happy Homes (Happy Homes-Lucban)
  • Harrison-Claudio Carantes
  • Hillside
  • Holy Ghost Extension
  • Holy Ghost Proper
  • Honeymoon (Honeymoon-Holy Ghost)
  • Imelda R. Marcos (La Salle)
  • Imelda Village
  • Irisan
  • Kabayanihan
  • Kagitingan
  • Kayang Extension
  • Kayang-Hilltop
  • Kias
  • Legarda-Burnham-Kisad
  • Liwanag-Loakan
  • Loakan Proper
  • Lopez Jaena
  • Lourdes Subdivision Extension
  • Lourdes Subdivision, Lower
  • Lourdes Subdivision, Proper
  • Lualhati
  • Lucnab
  • Magsaysay Private Road
  • Magsaysay, Lower
  • Magsaysay, Upper
  • Malcolm Square-Perfecto (Jose Abad Santos)
  • Manuel A. Roxas
  • Market Subdivision, Upper
  • Middle Quezon Hill Subdivision (Quezon Hill Middle)
  • Military Cut-off
  • Mines View Park
  • Modern Site, East
  • Modern Site, West
  • MRR-Queen of Peace
  • New Lucban
  • Outlook Drive
  • Pacdal
  • Padre Burgos
  • Padre Zamora
  • Palma-Urbano (Cariño-Palma)
  • Phil-Am
  • Pinget
  • Pinsao Pilot Project
  • Pinsao Proper
  • Poliwes
  • Pucsusan
  • Quezon Hill Proper
  • Quezon Hill, Upper
  • Quirino Hill, East
  • Quirino Hill, Lower
  • Quirino Hill, Middle
  • Quirino Hill, West
  • Quirino-Magsaysay, Upper (Upper QM)
  • Rizal Monument Area
  • Rock Quarry, Lower
  • Rock Quarry, Middle
  • Rock Quarry, Upper
  • Saint Joseph Village
  • Salud Mitra
  • San Antonio Village
  • San Luis Village
  • San Roque Village
  • San Vicente
  • Sanitary Camp, North
  • Sanitary Camp, South
  • Santa Escolastica
  • Santo Rosario
  • Santo Tomas Proper
  • Santo Tomas School Area
  • Scout Barrio
  • Session Road Area
  • Slaughter House Area (Santo Niño Slaughter)
  • SLU-SVP Housing Village
  • South Drive
  • Teodora Alonzo
  • Trancoville
  • Victoria Village

Climate[edit]

Sunset in Baguio

Temperature[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Baguio features a subtropical highland climate (Cwb)[10] that closely borders a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The city is known for its mild climate owing to its high elevation. The temperature in the city is usually about 7-8 degrees Celsius lower compared to the average temperature in the lowland area.[11] Average temperature ranges from 15 to 23 °C (59 to 73 °F) with the lowest temperatures between November and February. The lowest recorded temperature was 6.3 °C (43.3 °F) on January 18, 1961 and in contrast, the all-time high of 30.4 °C (86.7 °F) was recorded on March 15, 1988 during the 1988 El Niño season.[12] The temperature seldom exceeds 26 °C (79 °F) even during the warmest part of the year.

Climate data for Baguio
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 22.6
(72.7)
23.6
(74.5)
24.7
(76.5)
25.1
(77.2)
24.6
(76.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.0
(73.4)
22.0
(71.6)
22.9
(73.2)
23.5
(74.3)
23.2
(73.8)
22.8
(73)
23.47
(74.25)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.8
(64)
18.4
(65.1)
19.6
(67.3)
20.4
(68.7)
20.5
(68.9)
20.0
(68)
19.6
(67.3)
18.9
(66)
19.3
(66.7)
19.5
(67.1)
19.0
(66.2)
18.4
(65.1)
19.28
(66.7)
Average low °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
13.1
(55.6)
14.3
(57.7)
15.5
(59.9)
16.2
(61.2)
16.2
(61.2)
16.0
(60.8)
15.9
(60.6)
15.7
(60.3)
15.4
(59.7)
14.8
(58.6)
14.0
(57.2)
15
(59)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 12.1
(0.476)
35.8
(1.409)
55.9
(2.201)
102.9
(4.051)
331.1
(13.035)
480.6
(18.921)
670.8
(26.409)
847.9
(33.382)
582.3
(22.925)
262.4
(10.331)
152.3
(5.996)
28.8
(1.134)
3,562.9
(140.27)
Average rainy days 4 2 4 9 19 22 26 27 25 17 9 5 169
Average relative humidity (%) 80 78 78 80 86 88 90 92 90 87 83 80 84
Source: PAGASA[13]

Precipitation[edit]

Like many other cities with a subtropical highland climate, Baguio receives noticeably less precipitation during its dry season. However, the city has an extraordinary amount of precipitation during the rainy season with the months of July and August having, on average, more than 700 mm (28 in) of rain. The city averages over 3,100 mm (122 in) of precipitation annually.

Demographics[edit]

Population census of Baguio
Year Pop. ±% p.a.
1970 84,538 —    
1980 119,009 +3.48%
1990 183,142 +4.41%
1995 226,883 +4.09%
2000 252,386 +2.31%
2007 301,926 +2.50%
2010 318,676 +1.98%
2015 345,366 +1.54%
Source: National Statistics Office[2][14]

Religion[edit]

The majority of Baguio's population are Roman Catholics. Other religious groups active in the city include the Pentecostal Missionary Church of Christ (4th Watch) , Episcopal Church, Iglesia ni Cristo, Iglesia Filipina Independiente, Jehovah's Witnesses, United Church of Christ in the Philippines (UCCP), Jesus Is Lord Church (JIL), Jesus Miracle Crusade (JMC), the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), the United Methodist Church, Assemblies of God (AG), and Baptist, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Members Church of God International (MCGI), Bible Fundamental, and other Evangelical churches.

There is also a significant number of Muslims in the cities, consisting of Filipino Muslims of different ethnicities and Muslims of other nationalities. The largest mosque in the area is Masjid Al-Maarif, which is a known centre of Islamic studies in the Philippines. The city also has smaller numbers of Buddhists and atheists, along with members of other faiths.

Economy[edit]

View of the city proper

The economy of Baguio is centered on tourism and its educational institutions, of which it has at least eight colleges and universities, as well as a plethora of trade and technical schools. Based on the latest census done in 2007, almost half of the city's population are students,[citation needed] many of whom come from nearby provinces, with numerous foreign students to add to the diversity.

Another key source of income for Baguio is its position as the commercial hub for the province of Benguet. Many of the agricultural and mining goods produced in Benguet pass through Baguio for processing, sale or further distribution to the "lowlands."

Commercial[edit]

Maharlika Livelihood Complex

The city is a major retail center for the Cordilleras and Ilocos provinces[citation needed], with shoppers coming to the city to take advantage of the diversity of competitively priced commercial products on sale, many of which would otherwise only be available in Manila.[citation needed] The city is also popular with bargain hunters—some of the most popular bargaining areas include Baguio Market and Maharlika Livelihood Center. Despite the city's relatively small size, it is home to numerous shopping centers and malls catering to increasing commercial and tourist activity in Baguio: these include SM City Baguio, Baguio Center Mall, Cooyeesan Hotel Plaza, Abanao Square, The Maharlika Livelihood Center, Porta Vaga Mall and Centerpoint Plaza.

Various food and retail businesses run by local residents proliferate, forming a key part of Baguio's cultural landscape. Some of these include Tiong San chain of department stores and supermarkets, Sunshine Supermarket, Star Cafe, Country Mart, Rose Bowl Restaurant, Good Taste Restaurant, Fortune Restaurant, Marosan's Cafe, Patao's, eateries along Bonifacio Street, Session Road, near Teacher's Camp, and Baguio Fastfood Center near the market.

Brooms with price tags being sold in market

The areas of Session Road, Harrison Road, Magsaysay Avenue and Abanao Street comprise the trade center of the city, where commercial and business structures such as cinemas, hotels, restaurants, department stores, and shopping centers are concentrated. The City Market offers a wide array of locally sourced goods and products, usually from Benguet province,[15][16] which includes colorful woven fabrics and hand-strung beads to primitive wood carvings, cut flowers,[15] strawberries and "Baguio" vegetables, the latter often denoting vegetable types that do well in the cooler growing climate. (Strawberries and string beans—referred to as Baguio beans across the Philippines—are shipped to major urban markets across the archipelago.)

Industrial[edit]

Baguio is home to one of the country's most profitable and best investment areas,[citation needed] a Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA) accredited business and industrial park called the Baguio City Economic Zone (BCEZ). Located in the southern part of the city between Camp John Hay Country Club and Philippine Military Academy in Barangay Loakan. Firms located in the BCEZ mostly produce and export knitted clothing, transistors, small components for vehicles, electronics and computer parts. Notable firms include Texas Instruments Philippines, which happens to be the second largest exporter in the country,[17] Other companies headquartered inside the economic zone are Moog Philippines, Inc., Linde Philippines, Inc., LTX Philippines Corporation, Baguio-Ayalaland Technohub, and Sitel Philippines, Baguio.

Outsourcing[edit]

Outsourcing also contributes to the city's economy and employment. There are many call centers present in the city. Teleperformance Baguio is headquartered infront of Sunshine Park. Other call centers in downtown are Optimum Transsource, Sterling Global and Global Translogic. While others like Convergys and IHG (InterContinental Hotels Group) have call centers in Camp John Hay away from the city proper. Tech-Synergy operates a large transcription and backoffice operation near Wright park. SitelThoughtFocus Technologies, a leading US provider of Software and KPO services decided to set up its KPO operation center in City of Baguio.

Tourism[edit]

Burnham Park with the Hotel Veniz in the background

Tourism is one of Baguio's main industries due to its weather and history. During the year end holidays some people from the lowlands prefer spending their vacation in Baguio, to experience cold temperatures they rarely have in their home provinces. Also, during summer, especially during Holy Week, tourists from all over the country flock to the city. During this time, the total number of people in the city doubles.[18] To accommodate all these people there are more than 80 hotels and inns available.[19] Local festivities such as the Panagbenga Festival also attracts both local and foreign tourists. Baguio is the lone Philippine destination in the 2011 TripAdvisor Traveller's Choice Destinations Awards, Asia category, with the city being among the top 25 destinations in Asia.[20]

Culture[edit]

A Float by the Scouts Royale Brotherhood used at the 2012 Panagbenga Festival

The city is home to many immigrants from other parts of the country. Baguio also has a significant population of foreigners.[citation needed] The languages commonly spoken in Baguio are Ibaloi, Kankana-ey and Ifugao, as well as Ilocano, Pangasinan and Kapampangan. Filipino and English are also understood by many inhabitants within and around the city. Several restaurants also serve different types of local and foreign cuisine.

Baguio's youth majority in the population has given it a distinct flavour different from those of other cities in the Philippines.[citation needed] Panagbenga Festival, the annual Flower Festival, is celebrated each February to showcase Baguio's rich cultural heritage, its appreciation of the environment, and inclination towards the arts.

The city became a haven for many Filipino artists in the 1970s-1990s. Drawn by the cool climate and low cost of living, artists such as Ben Cabrera (now a National Artist) and filmmaker Butch Perez relocated to the city. At the same time, locals such as mixed-media artist Santiago Bose and filmmaker Kidlat Tahimik were also establishing work in the city. Even today, artists like painters and sculptors from all over the country are drawn to the Baguio Arts Festival which is held annually.[11]

Many Baguio artists used the context of cultural diversity of the Cordillera Region to establish their work. Other notable Baguio artists include Narda Capuyan (weaving), Kawayan de Guia (painting), Kigao (sculpture), Willy Magtibay, Peter Pinder (fiber glass sculpture, painting, mixed media), Art Tibaldo (mixed media-visual arts) and Franklin Cimatu (poetry.) The active student population in Baguio has also spawned various interests in animation and digital arts, with several local artists doing work for large production and advertising agencies in the Philippines and abroad.[citation needed]

Points of interest[edit]

Mines View Park
Façade of Laperal House
Diplomat Hotel
Teacher's Camp
Fort del Pilar
Mines View Park overlooking the mining town of Itogon
The Mansion, the official summer residence of the President of the Philippines

Heritage[edit]

Around May 2003, a petition initiated by Dion Fernandez to declare Baguio a heritage zone was circulated on the Internet and national print media, gaining more than 10,000 signatures. The petition calls upon unspecified officials to create the Zone prior to the Baguio centennial in 2009. In May 2005, the Heritage Conservation Society(HCS) submitted to the Baguio City Council a proposed Special Heritage Bill drafted by HCS Trustee Ivan Henares. It has been approved on second reading but is being opposed by a group of businessmen[citation needed].

Casa Vallejo

Built in 1909 to house American workers, Casa Vallejo is now a hotel complex located along Upper Session Road. Its resident restaurant Hill Station has been included in the Miele Guide. The hotel also houses Mountain Cloud Bookshop which sells hard to find books and souvenirs.[22]

Laperal White House

The Victorian style house was built by Roberto Laperal in 1920 as rest house. It gained a reputation as one of Baguio's haunted places after World War II. During the war, the house was taken over by the Japanese soldiers and was used as a garrison where women were raped and suspected spies were tortured and killed. The house is now owned and loaned by business tycoon Lucio Tan's Tan Yan Kee Foundation to the Bamboo Foundation where bamboo exhibits are shown for the public for a fee.[23] It is the setting of the Filipino horror film White House.

Dominican Retreat House

Built in 1913, the Dominican Retreat House is one of the important work of Fray Roque Ruano, a Dominican priest. Fray Roque was commissioned by the Dominican Order to design a retreat house in Baguio. Between 1915-1918, the Dominican retreat house was converted and named Colegio del Santissimo Rosario which was also run by the Dominican order. Due to the lack of enrollment, the school closed two years later and reverted to its original plan as a retreat house. Today, the building is known as the Diplomat Hotel.

The Dominican retreat house was to crown the top of the hill that was later to earn the name of the order, Dominican Hill. The building was designed in the Renaissance Mannerist Revival, the favored style of Fray Roque. The retreat house was a bit ambitious. Larger in scale compared to Fray Roque's previous works and it realized to some extent the original design for the UST Main Building in Sampaloc, Manila. The retreat house followed the same principle of design of Fray Roque's works. Symmetry, Balance and exuding formal dignity. The façade continues to be emphasized by the concrete crucifix mounted on arched pediment.[24]
During the World War 2, the building was occupied by refugees fleeing the Japanese forces. The building also served as the last bastion and garrison of the Japanese Imperial Army during the last days of the World War 2. Then in April 1945, the American forces bombed the building and partially hit the right wing of the building. Between 1945-1947, the retreat house was rebuilt.
In 1973, the retreat house was sold and was acquired by Diplomat Hotels, Inc. The building was successfully remodeled into a 33-bedroom hotel but still retaining the original distinct features of the building established by the Dominican order. The hotel was managed by Agapito Agpao, which was also a famed Baguio faith healer. The Diplomat Hotel operated between 1973-1987. During its heyday as a hotel, the building was a popular to the local and foreign tourists especially to Agpao's patients who are mostly foreigners. With the death of Agapito Agpao in 1987, much of the Diplomat Hotel was looted and sacked until it was abandoned.[25] The building also caused significant damage during the 1990 earthquake. Since then, the property was managed under the protection of Presidential Management Staff. In 2005, the Diplomat Hotel was turned over to the City Government of Baguio and was declared a National Historical Site.

Sports[edit]

The Baguio Athletic Bowl within the grounds of Burnham Park is one of Baguio's primary sporting venues. Baguio has also hosted the 1978 World Chess Championship match between Anatoly Karpov and Viktor Korchnoi.

Local government[edit]

Facade of the Baguio City Hall

Like most Philippine cities, Baguio is governed by a mayor, vice mayor, and twelve (12) councilors. However, being a highly urbanized city with its own charter, it is not subject to the jurisdiction of Benguet province, of which it was formerly a part.

The current mayor of Baguio is Mauricio Domogan, and the lone congressional district is currently represented by Congressman Mark Go. They were elected in May 2016.

Transportation[edit]

Air[edit]

The Loakan Airport runway in the outskirts of the city

Loakan Airport is the lone airport serving the general area of Baguio. The airport is classified as a trunkline airport, or a major commercial domestic airport, by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines but there are currently no regular commercial services in the airport. It is located south of the city center. Due to the limited length of the runway which is 1,802 meters or 5,912 feet, it is restricted to commuter size aircraft. The airport is used primarily by helicopters, turbo-prop and piston engine aircraft, although on rare occasion light business jets (LBJ) have flown into the airport.The runway is also used to land PAF's various military aircrafts.

Land[edit]

Session Road, one of Baguio's primary roads

The three main access roads leading to Baguio from the lowlands are Kennon Road (formerly known as the Benguet Road),[26] Aspiras–Palispis Highway (previously known as Marcos Highway)[27] and Naguilian Road, also known as Quirino Highway. Kennon Road starts at Rosario, La Union and winds upwards through a narrow, steep valley. This is often the fastest route to Baguio but it is particularly perilous,[26] with landslides during the rainy season and sharp dropoffs, some without guardrails. The Aspiras Highway, which starts in Agoo, La Union and connects to Palispis Highway, at the boundary of Benguet and La Union provinces, and Naguilian Road, which starts in Bauang, La Union, are both longer routes but are much safer than Kennon Road especially during rainy season, and are the preferred routes for coaches, buses and trucks.

The Benguet-Nueva Vizcaya Road, which links Baguio to Aritao in Nueva Vizcaya province, traverses the towns of Itogon, Bokod, and Kayapa.[28]

Another road, Halsema Highway, (also known as the Baguio-Bontoc Road or the Mountain Trail) leads north through the mountainous portion of the provinces of Benguet and Mountain Province.[29] It starts at the northern border of Baguio with La Trinidad.

There are several bus lines linking Baguio with Manila and Central Luzon, and provinces such as Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Aurora, Quezon, La Union, and those in the Ilocos regions.

Taxis and jeepneys are also common forms of transportation in the city.

The Philippine Military Academy in Fort del Pilar

Education[edit]

Baguio is a university town with 141,088 students out of the 301,926 population count done on the year 2007. It is the center of education in the entire North Luzon. There are eight major institutions of higher education in Baguio: the Saint Louis University, University of the Philippines Baguio, Philippine Military Academy, University of Baguio, University of the Cordilleras, Baguio Central University, Pines City Colleges, and Easter College.[30]

Notable people[edit]

American colonial period
  • Daniel Burnham, the urban planner and architect responsible for the initial design of the city
  • John Hay, United States Secretary of state and namesake of Camp John Hay
  • Luke Edward Wright, for whom Wright Park was named
  • Leonard Wood, for whom Leonard Wood Road was named
  • Lyman W.V. Kennon, builder and namesake for Kennon Road
  • Gov. William F. Pack, then governor of Benguet province who planned the creation of Teacher's Camp[32]
  • F. B. Harrison
  • William Cameron Forbes, American Governor-General of the Philippines who ordered Kennon Road to be built
  • Robb White, (June 20, 1909 – November 24, 1990) American writer of screenplays, television scripts, and adventure novels
  • Dean Conant Worcester, Member of First Philippine Commission and official urging founding of Baguio as the "Summer Capital"

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Province: Benguet". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 12 August 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c PSA; Census of Population (2015), "CORDILLERA ADMINISTRATIVE REGION (CAR)", Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay, retrieved 20 June 2016 
  3. ^ a b c d e Sanidad, Pablito. "Which Baguio Centennial?" (99th Baguio Charter Day Anniversary Issue). Baguio Midland Courier. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  4. ^ (2009-08-27)."Business". Official Website of Baguio City. Retrieved on 2011-12-24.
  5. ^ Estoque, Ronald C.; Yuji Murayama (February 2013). "City Profile: Baguio". Cities 30: 240–251. doi:10.1016/j.cities.2011.05.002. 
  6. ^ "Southeastern Asia: Island of Luzon in the Philippines". WWF. Retrieved August 16, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c "Baguio City; History and Government". Department of the Interior and Local Government - Cordillera Administrative Region. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  8. ^ Kane, S.E., 1933, Life and Death in Luzon or Thirty Years with the Philippine Head-Hunters, New York: Grosset & Dunlap
  9. ^ http://earthquake.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/update_SOEPD/Earthquake/1990LuzonEQ_Monograph/pp001/pp001.html Archived October 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "Climate: Baguio - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  11. ^ a b "Baguio City Travel Information, Philippines". Asia Travel. Retrieved 2013-02-26. 
  12. ^ Basilan, Jacquelyn; Khristine Love Vicente (17 December 2008). "Baguio wakes up to coldest morn in 2008". Breaking News / Regions (Philippine Daily Inquirer). Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2009-01-12. 
  13. ^ "Climatological Normals of the Philippines (1951-1985)" (PDF). PAGASA. 2011.  Retrieved on November 22, 2011.
  14. ^ "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Sinumlag, Alma B. (28 November 2010). "LT folk clarifies Baguio cut flowers origin". Northern Dispatch Weekly. Retrieved 29 February 2016. LA TRINIDAD, Benguet —The spokesperson of this town’s Municipal Agricultural and Fishery Council (MAPC) and chairperson of the Barangay Agricultural and Fishery Council (BAPC) in Lubas, La Trinidad clarified that cut flowers do not really originate in Baguio City. Christina Tiongan in an interview on November 24 lamented that tourists always associate Baguio City with cut flowers and other products like temperate vegetables that do not really originate in the city. “We are the ones producing those products but there had been no efforts from the city to correct tourists’ perception,” she said. 
  16. ^ Lapniten, Karl (24 February 2016). "Strawberries hit bottom prices in Baguio". CNN Philippines. Retrieved 29 February 2016. The capital town of Benguet, La Trinidad supplies most of the strawberries sold at the Baguio Public Market. Much of the produce also comes from small strawberry farms in the outskirts of Baguio City and in nearby municipalities of Benguet. 
  17. ^ Cahiles-Magkilat, Bernie (13 February 2007). "Baguio export zone to get P6.7 B in new investments". Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 
  18. ^ "--- Statistics: Tourism Special Tables ---". nscb.gov.ph. 
  19. ^ "Complete list of Baguio Hotels.". philippines-travel-guide.com. 
  20. ^ "Best Destinations in Asia - Travelers' Choice Awards - TripAdvisor". tripadvisor.com. 
  21. ^ "Teacher's Camp". www.cityofpines.com. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  22. ^ Yamsuan, Cathy (26 January 2014). "What’s behind the surprise eviction notice of Casa Vallejo?". Inquirer. Retrieved 9 December 2014. 
  23. ^ Caluza, Desiree (1 November 2013). "Signs of the spirits in ‘White House’". Inquirer. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  24. ^ Noche, Manuel Maximo (2002). "Works of Roque Ruano". Vision Magazine 1 (1). 
  25. ^ "Dominican Hill". www.cityofpines.com. 
  26. ^ a b Cabreza, Vincent (16 May 2012). "Fighting for century-old Kennon Road". Philippine Daily Inquirer (Inquirer Northern Luzon). Retrieved 29 February 2016. The colonial government decided then that constructing the Benguet Road (Kennon Road’s original name) would provide the Americans a short route up the Benguet mountains. ... When Baguio was devastated by the July 16, 1990 earthquake, then Public Works Secretary Gregorio Vigilar decided to permanently close the damaged Kennon Road, said Cosalan. The government discovered 471 “disaster spots” along the route, which the Mines and Geosciences Bureau attributed to the fragility of the rock base, the abandoned mining operations near the road and the natural ground fractures that were undetectable in the 1900s. 
  27. ^ "Republic Act No. 8971; An Act Naming the Agoo-Tubao-Pugo Section of the Agoo-Baguio Road, the Jose D. Aspiras Highway, and the Benguet-Baguio City Section of the Same Road, the Ben Palispis Highway". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. 31 October 2000. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  28. ^ Lagasca, Charlie (14 March 2006). "Vizcaya-Benguet road completed this year". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 29 February 2016. BAYOMBONG, Nueva Vizcaya - Novo Vizcayanos can now look forward to reaching the country's summer capital in a few hours as the shortest route linking this landlocked province to the mountain city is expected to be completed by the end of this year. ... The new route will traverse the mountain highway from Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya to Baguio City via the vegetable-rich upland town of Kayapa and the majestic Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet. 
  29. ^ Caluza, Desiree (26 May 2014). "Mountain Trail leads to culture, nature hubs". Philippine Daily Inquirer (Inquirer Northern Luzon). Retrieved 29 February 2016. BAGUIO CITY, Philippines—Travelers who often frequent the 165-kilometer Mountain Trail may have gotten so used to the view along the scenic route that they often doze off all throughout the trip along this highway linking the provinces of Benguet, Mountain Province and Ifugao in the Cordillera. ... While the road length stretches to only a little more than 100 kilometres (62 miles) from La Trinidad town in Benguet to the Mountain Province capital of Bontoc, those raring for adventure and new sights should be prepared to spend six hours on the road. 
  30. ^ Basoyang, Marianne K. "History of Easter College". Easter College. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  31. ^ "Paulo Avelino Biography ABS-CBN Kapamilya Star; Michael Paulo Lingbanan Avelino ABS-CBN Network". YouSayToo. Archived from the original on 27 November 2014. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  32. ^ "Heritage Conservation Society Website - Article". heritage.org.ph. 
  33. ^ "Marvil: Baguio and Candon City Sign Sisterhood MOU". 
  34. ^ "Vallejo Sister City". Vallejo Sister City Association. Retrieved 2013-09-11. 
  35. ^ See, Dexter A. (2014-10-24). "Twinning ties for Baguio and Nazareth". The Standard. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 

External links[edit]