Kibbeh

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This article is about the Middle Eastern dish. For the type of Ethiopian and Eritrean butter, see Niter kibbeh.
Kibbeh
Kibbeh3.jpg
Fried kibbeh Raas with peppermint
Course Meze or mezze /ˈmɛz/
Region or state Levant (the Middle-East)
Serving temperature Hot
Main ingredients Meat, cracked wheat, and Middle Eastern spices
Cookbook: Kibbeh  Media: Kibbeh
Kibbeh b'Sinniyeh with lemon garnish

Kibbeh or kibbe (also kubbeh, kebbah, kubbi or içli köfte) (Arabic: كبة‎) is a Levantine[1] dish made of bulgur (cracked wheat), minced onions and finely ground lean beef, lamb, goat or camel meat. The best-known variety is a torpedo-shaped fried croquette stuffed with minced beef or lamb. Other types of kibbeh may be shaped into balls or patties, and baked or cooked in broth.[2] Kibbeh is considered to be the national dish of many Middle-Eastern countries.[3]

Kibbeh is a popular dish in Middle Eastern or Levantine cuisine of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Palestine, Israel and Iraq as well as in North African countries.[4] It is also found in the Iran, Afghanistan, Egypt (where it is called kubbeh, kebbah, or koubeiba), Cyprus (where it is called koupes), the Arabian Peninsula, Turkey (where it is called içli köfte), and several Latin American nations which received part of the Lebanese, Syrian diaspora, Jordanian diaspora and Palestinian diaspora during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Haiti, Honduras and Mexico.[5]

Brazilian quibe/kibe, stuffed with requeijão, the Portuguese-origined in-between of ricotta and cream cheese. Most Brazilian kibbeh, unlike the traditional recipe, uses carne moída (literally ground [red] meat, though specifically beef in this sense). Other unusual versions include tahini, carne de soja (texturized soy protein), seitan (Japanese wheat gluten-based meat substitute) or tofu (soybean curd) as stuffing.

Etymology[edit]

The word is derived from the Arabic kubbah or kibbeh, which means "ball".[6] Various transliterations of the name are used in different countries: in English, kibbe and kibbeh and in Latin America, quibe, kibe, or quipe (Argentina). Other names for the dish derive either from the Persian word کوفته kofteh (literally "ground [meat]"), such as the Turkish içli köfte.

Variations[edit]

"Kibbeh Raas" One variety of kibbeh is a 7-to-15-cm oblong bulghur shell shaped like an American football, stuffed with a filling of spiced, minced lamb and fried until brown. British soldiers in the Middle East during the Second World War used to call these kibbeh "Syrian torpedoes".[7] It is similar in concept to the Sicilian arancini.

In Levantine cuisine, a variety of dishes made with bulghur (cracked wheat) and minced lamb are called kibbeh. The northern Syrian city of Aleppo (Halab) is famous for having more than 17 different types.[8] These include kibbeh prepared with sumac (kibbe sumāqiyye), yogurt (kibbe labaniyye), quince (kibbe safarjaliyye), lemon juice (kibbe ḥāmḍa), pomegranate sauce, cherry sauce, and other varieties, such as the "disk" kibbeh (kibbe arāṣ), the "plate" kibbeh (kibbe biṣfīḥa or kibbe bṣēniyye) and the raw kibbeh (kibbeh nayyeh).

Kubbat Halab is an Iraqi version of kibbeh created with a rice crust and named after the largest city in Syria "Aleppo". Kubbat Mosul, also Iraqi, is flat and round like a disc. Kubbat Shorba is an Iraqi-Kurdish version prepared as a stew, commonly made with tomato sauce and spices.[9] It is often served with arak and various salads. Kibbeh is sometimes served with a tahini dip. Brazilians, though, tend to add shoyu (Japanese fermented soy sauce), sometimes in addition to raw garlic, or Worcestershire or red chili pepper sauce, directly from the bottle. In Mexico it is commonly found by the name kibis and sold by street merchants in the Yucatan Peninsula. This variation is commonly served with a sour tomato sauce, pickled cabbage and red onions, or occasionally habanero peppers.

Fried, torpedo-shaped kibbe have become popular in Haiti, the Dominican Republic[10][11] and South America – where they are known as quipe or quibe – after they were introduced by Levantine immigrants.

Kubbeh matfuniya

Kibbeh nayyeh is a raw lamb dish frequently served as part of a meze in Syria and Lebanon, garnished with mint leaves and olive oil, and served with green peppers, scallions and pita.

Kibbeh is commonly made of a mixture of finely ground meat (lamb or beef), bulghur (cracked wheat), onion, mint and Middle-Eastern spices pressed into a flat baking pan. Then it is scored with a knife into diamond shapes about one or two inches in length, topped with lightly sauteed pine nuts (snobar) or almond slivers and butter, then baked in the oven until done. Alternatively, this dish usually consists of two layers (top and bottom) of the meat/cracked wheat mixture baked with a ground meat/onion/pine nut mix (hushwi) in between, known as Kibbe b'Sinniyeh (Kibbeh in a pan).

In Israel, Kubba matfuniya, kubba hamusta, kubba shwandar and kubba bamia are soups with sauces and vegetables, or stews, served on rice. Kubba soup, served in many oriental restaurants in Israel and commonly at home, is described as a rich broth with vegetables and dumplings stuffed with meat.

A Syrian soup known as kubbi kishk consists of kubbi "torpedoes" or "footballs" in a yogurt (kishk) and butter broth with stewed cabbage leaves.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Annia Ciezadlo (2012). Day of Honey: A Memoir of Food, Love, and War. p. 361. ISBN 1-4391-5753-7. 
  2. ^ Contemporary kubbeh
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Middle Eastern Recipes
  5. ^ "Kibbeh Recipe". Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Maan Z. Madina, Arabic-English Dictionary of the Modern Literary Language, 1973
  7. ^ Kibbe, Pesach
  8. ^ "NPR web: Food Lovers Discover The Joys Of Aleppo". 
  9. ^ Raw kibbeh
  10. ^ "Kibbeh - Arabic Comfort Food". Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  11. ^ "Kibbeh". Retrieved 26 February 2014.