Coastal Kadazan dialect

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Coastal Kadazan
Boos Kadazan (Bōs Kadazan)
Kadazan Tangaa'
Native toNorth Borneo (East Malaysia)
RegionSabah
Ethnicity220,000 Kadazan people (2018)
Native speakers
200,000
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottologcoas1294[1]

Coastal Kadazan, also known as Kadazan Tangaa', is a dialect of the Kadazan Dusun language as well as a minority language primarily spoken in Sabah, Malaysia. It is the primary dialect spoken by the Kadazan people in west coast of Sabah especially in the districts of Penampang, Papar and Beaufort (Membakut sub-district).

The dialect has adopted many loanwords, particularly from other northern Borneo indigenous languages and also Malay.

The use of the dialect has been declining due to the use of Malay by the Malaysian federal government and by the use of English by missionaries, which was done through the method of language shift enforced by the work of both the colonial and federal governments. The state of Sabah has introduced policies to prevent this decline, which is also happening to other native Sabahan languages. This included the policy of using Kadazan and other indigenous languages in public schools. Efforts have also been done to allow the language to become official in the state.

Kadazan is one of the Austronesian languages which extensively employ the voiced alveolar sibilant fricative /z/ in their native lexicons. The Tsou and Paiwan languages also have these particular elements, spoken by the Taiwanese aborigines. Another language is Malagasy spoken in the island of Madagascar thousands of miles away off the coast of Africa. The Kadazan-Dusun language is closely related to, and mutually intelligible with, the Dusun language.

Pronunciation[edit]

Miller (1993) lists the following phonemes for consonants [p t k ʔ b d ɡ ɓ ɗ s h v z l m n ŋ] and vowels [i u ɤ~o a].

/o/ can range from unrounded as /ɤ/ to a partially rounded /o/. Four borrowed consonants from Malay and English include /dʒ r w j/.[2]

Sample prayers[edit]

Our Father[edit]

Tapa za doid surga, apantang daa o ngaan nu, koikot no daa kopomolintaan nu, kaandak nu, adadi doiti id tana miaga doid Surga. Pataako dagai do tadau diti, oh takanon za do tikid tadau, om pohiongo zikoi do douso za, miaga dagai do popohiong di pinapakaus doid dagai. Kada zikoi pohogoso doid koimbazatan, katapi pahapaso zikoi mantad kalaatan. Amen.

Translation:

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our sins, as we forgive those who sin against us. Do not lead us into temptation, but deliver us from evil. Amen.

Hail Mary[edit]

Ave Maria, noponu do graasia, miampai diau o Kinoingan, obitua ko do id saviavi tondu, om obitua o tuva' tinan nu Jesus. Sangti Maria, tina' do Kinoingan, pokiinsianai zikoi tu' tuhun do momimidouso, baino om ontok jaam do kapatazon za. Amen.

Translation:

Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with you. Blessed are you amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us, sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen.

Austronesian languages comparison table[edit]

Below is a table of Kadazan and other Austronesian languages comparing thirteen words.

English one two three four person house dog coconut day new we (inclusive) what fire
Kadazan iso duvo tohu apat tuhun hamin tasu piasau tadau vagu tokou onu tapui
Dusun iso duo tolu apat tulun walai tasu piasau tadau wagu tokou onu/nu tapui
Tombulu (Minahasa) esa zua (rua) telu epat tou walé asu po'po' endo weru kai, kita apa api
Tagalog isa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo ano apoy
Central Bikol saro duwa tulo apat tawo harong ayam niyog aldaw ba-go kita ano kalayo
Rinconada Bikol əsad darwā tolō əpat tawō baləy ayam noyog aldəw bāgo kitā onō kalayō
Waray usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam/ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita anu kalayo
Cebuano usa/isa duha tulo upat tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo
Hiligaynon isa duha tatlo apat tawo balay ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Aklanon isaea, sambilog, uno daywa, dos tatlo, tres ap-at, kwatro tawo baeay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kaeayo
Kinaray-a sara darwa tatlo apat tawo balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Tausug hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu
Maranao isa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso neyog gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy
Kapampangan metung adwa atlu apat tau bale asu ngungut aldo bayu ikatamu nanu api
Pangasinan sakey dua, duara talo, talora apat, apatira too abong aso niyog ageo balo sikatayo anto pool
Ilocano maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso niog aldaw baro datayo ania apoy
Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango apoy
Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu niuk aggaw bagu sittam anni afi
Yogad tata addu tallu appat tolay binalay atu iyyog agaw bagu sikitam gani afuy
Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy
Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih
Malay satu dua tiga empat orang rumah anjing kelapa/ nyior hari baru/ baharu kita apa api
Indonesian satu dua tiga empat orang rumah/balai anjing kelapa/nyiur hari baru kita apa/anu api
Javanese siji loro telu papat uwong omah asu klapa/kambil hari anyar/enggal kita apa/anu geni
Acehnese sa duwa lhèë peuët ureuëng rumoh/balèë asèë u uroë barô (geu)tanyoë peuë apuy
Lampung sai khua telu pak jelema lamban asu nyiwi khani baru kham api apui
Buginese sedi dua tellu eppa tau bola asu kaluku esso baru idi' aga api
Toba Batak sada dua tolu opat halak jabu biang harambiri ari baru hita aha api
Tetum ida rua tolu haat ema uma asu nuu loron foun ita saida ahi
Samoan tasi lua tolu fa tagata fale taifau niu aso fou matou ā afi
Maori tahi rua toru wha tangata whare kuri kokonati ra hou taua aha ahi
Tuvaluan tasi lua tolu toko fale kuri moku aso fou tāua ā afi
Hawaiian kahi lua kolu kanaka hale 'īlio niu ao hou kākou aha ahi
Banjarese asa duwa talu ampat urang rūmah hadupan kǎlapa hǎri hanyar kita apa api
Malagasy isa roa telo efatra olona trano alika voanio andro vaovao isika inona afo
Iban satu dua tiga empat orang rumah asu nyur ari baru kitai nama api
Melanau satu dua telou empat apah lebok asou nyior lau baew teleu nama apui

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Coastal Kadazan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Miller, Carolyn (1993). Phonological descriptions of Sabah languages : Studies from Ten Languages, Bonggi, Ida'an, Kadazan/Dusun, Kalabuan, Kimaragang, Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan, Lotud, Tagal, Tatana', Tombonuwo. Kadazan/Dusun Phonology Revisited.

External links[edit]