Andhra Pradesh

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Andhra Pradesh
ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్
State of India
Clockwise from top left: Tirupathi, Prakasam Barrage, Lepakshi Nandi (bull)
Clockwise from top left: Tirupathi, Prakasam Barrage, Lepakshi Nandi (bull)
Nickname(s): Rice Bowl of India, Egg bowl of Asia
Location of Andhra Pradesh in India
Location of Andhra Pradesh in India
Map of Andhra Pradesh
Map of Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates (Hyderabad): 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366°N 78.476°E / 17.366; 78.476Coordinates: 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366°N 78.476°E / 17.366; 78.476
Country  India
Region South India
Established 1 November 1956; 57 years ago (1956-11-01)
Capital Hyderabad
Largest city Hyderabad
Districts 23 total
Government
 • Body Government of India, Government of Andhra Pradesh
 • Governor E. S. L. Narasimhan
 • Chief Minister (President's Rule)
 • Legislature Bicameral (294 + 90 seats)
 • High Court Andhra Pradesh High Court
Area
 • Total 275,045 km2 (106,195 sq mi)
Area rank 4th
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 84,655,533
 • Rank 5th
 • Density 310/km2 (800/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
UN/LOCODE AP
ISO 3166 code IN-AP
Vehicle registration AP
HDI Increase 0.473 (low)
HDI rank 15th(2011)
Literacy 67.77% (2011)
Official language Telugu
Website ap.gov.in
Symbols
Emblem Kalasham
Language Telugu[2]
Song Maa Telugu Thalliki
by Sri Sankarambadi Sundaraachari
Dance Kuchipudi
Animal Blackbuck
Bird Indian Roller
Flower Water lily
Tree Neem
Sport Kabaddi

Andhra Pradesh (/ˌɑːndrə prəˈdɛʃ/; Telugu: ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్) abbreviated A.P., is one of the 28 states of India, situated on the country's southeastern coast. It is India's fourth-largest state by area and fifth-largest by population. Andhra Pradesh is bordered by Maharashtra in the northwest, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the east, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west.

Andhra Pradesh has the second longest coastline (of 972 km (604 mi)) among all the states of India, after Gujrat.[3] The small enclave (30 square kilometres (12 sq mi)) of Yanam, a district of Pondicherry, lies in the Godavari delta to the northeast of the state. The state comprises three regions: Coastal Andhra, Telangana and Rayalaseema. Its capital and largest city is Hyderabad.

The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu[4] and the co-official language is Urdu. The Minister of Tourism and Culture has issued declaration of Telugu language as Classical Language.[5] Other languages often spoken in the state include Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Kannada and Oriya.[6]

History[edit]

Kakatiya sculpture at Warangal
A pillar at Ahobilam temple in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh
Rock-cut Buddha statue at Bojjanakonda near Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam

Early history[edit]

The first historical records appear in the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya Andhra was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (800 BCE) and Mahabharata (400 BCE).[7] The Natya Shastra written by Bharatha (1st century BCE) also mentions about the Andhra people.[8] The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district[9] and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the 5th century CE.[10]

Megasthenes, a Greek traveller and geographer who visited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya (322–297 BCE), mentioned that the region had three fortified towns and an army of 100,000 infantry, 200 cavalry, and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that Andhras established their huts or tents near the Godavari River at that time.[11]

Inscriptions shows that there was an early kingdom in coastal Andhra (Guntur District) ruled first by Kuberaka and then by his son Varun, with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as the capital. Around the same time, Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present day Amaravati) appears to have been an important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to the ancient Tibetan scholar Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of 'The Glorious Lunar Mansions' (Kalachakra)".[12][13]

The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in the 4th century BCE. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BCE, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, and Cholas ruled the land.[14]

Scholars have suggested that the Prajñāpāramitā Sutras, the earliest Mahayana Sutras,[15][16] developed among the Mahāsāṃghika along the Krishna River in Andhra country.[17] A.K. Warder holds that "the Mahāyāna originated in the south of India and almost certainly in the Andhra country."[18] Anthony Barber and Sree Padma note that "historians of Buddhist thought have been aware for quite some time that such pivotally important Mahayana Buddhist thinkers as Nāgārjuna, Dignaga, Candrakīrti, Aryadeva, and Bhavaviveka, among many others, formulated their theories while living in Buddhist communities in Andhra."[19] They note that the ancient Buddhist sites in the lower Krishna Valley, including Amaravati, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta "can be traced to at least the third century BCE, if not earlier."[20] Sri Singha, Savari, Maitripa and Virupa lived and taught in the Andhra region for some portion of their lives or were in some cases permanent residents.[21] Ronald Davidson calls the Krishna River valley "a site of extraordinary Buddhist activity for almost a thousand years."[22]

During this period,[clarification needed] Telugu emerged as a popular language, supplanting Prakrit and Sanskrit.[23] Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina kings (5th and 6th centuries), who ruled from their capital city of Vengi. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas; their capital was also Vengi. As early as the 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under the Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler Rajaraja Narendra ruled Rajahmundry around 1022 CE.[24]

The battle of Palnadu (1182) resulted in the weakening of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty and led to the emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas were at first vassals of the Rashtrakutas, and ruled over a small territory near Warangal. Eventually all the Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and captured Warangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner.Reddy dynasty started from here they ruled more than 100 years after them. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years

Modern history[edit]

Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal.[25] In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century.[26] Although Hyderabad was founded less than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites near the city that could date back to 500 BCE. Approximately over 1000 years ago this region was ruled by Kakatiyas until 1310 CE, and fell under Delhi sultanate from (1310–1345), when the central sultanate became weak the Bahmani Sultan revolted against the Sultan of Delhi Muhammad bin Tughluq and established an independent state in Deccan within the Delhi Sultanates southern provinces and ruled until 1518 CE. Quli Qutb-ul-Mulk, governor of Golconda, declared independence from the Bahmani Dynasty and proclaimed himself Sultan of Golconda in that year, and he founded the Qutb Shahi dynasty.[27]

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, a fifth Sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (the ruling family of the Golconda Sultanate, previously a feudatory of Bahmani sultanate that declared independence in 1512) founded the city of Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591 to relieve a water shortage the dynasty had experienced at its old headquarters in Golconda city (11 kilometres west of Hyderabad city on the other side of Musi). He also ordered the construction of the Charminar. The Mughal emperor Aurangzeb captured the kingdom of Golconda including the city of Hyderabad in 1687 and, during this short Mughal rule, Mughal-appointed governors of the city soon gained autonomy.[28]

In 1724, Asaf Jah I, who was granted the title Nizam-ul-Mulk ("Governor of the country") by the Mughal emperor, defeated a rival official to establish control over kingdom of Golconda renamed it as Hyderabad state. Thus began the Asaf Jahi dynasty that ruled Hyderabad State until a year after India's independence from Britain. Asaf Jah's successors ruled as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The rule of the seven Nizams saw the growth of Hyderabad city both culturally and economically. Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the kingdom (Hyderabad state) and Golkonda city was almost abandoned. Huge reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabhadra, Osman Sagar, and Himayat Sagar, were built. Survey work on Nagarjuna Sagar had also begun during this time; the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969. The wealth and grandeur of the Nizams is demonstrated by the fabled Jewels of The Nizams, which is a tourist attraction. The state was the richest and the largest among the princely states of India. The land area of the state was 90,543 mi²; its population in 1901 was 50,073,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £90,029,000.[29][30]

In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. However, Komaram Bheem, a tribal leader, started his fight against the erstwhile Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State.[31] Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.

India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.[32]

State reorganisation[edit]

Hyderabad state in 1956 (in yellowish green)

In an effort to gain an independent state based on the linguistic basis and protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted until death in 1952. As Madras city became bone of contention, in 1949 JVP committee report stated "Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai)". After Potti Sreeramulu's death, the Telugu speaking areas i.e., Andhra state was carved out of Madras State on 1 November 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city.[33]

The State Reorganisation Commission had recommended that the residual Hyderabad State continue as a separate entity. On the basis of Agreement called Gentlemen Agreement on 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging the Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking areas of the already existing Hyderabad State.[34] Hyderabad was made the capital of the new state. The Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad State merged with Bombay State and the Kannada-speaking areas were merged with Mysore State.

Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh[edit]

Seemandhra marked in yellow within the state of Andhra Pradesh

Seemandhra is the term used to refer the combined regions of Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra in Andhra Pradesh. During the bifurcation process of Andhra Pradesh state, this word was used to refer the residual Andhra Pradesh i.e., without Telangana districts.

On February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.[35] Hyderabad to remain a joint capital for 10 years.[36] The new state will come into existence on 2 June 2014 after the approval from the President of India.[37] In order to avoid an amendment to the constitution, the two states will be named as Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. [38]

Geography and climate[edit]

The Mouth of the Godavari River (East) emptying into the Bay of Bengal
Greater Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus roseus) taking off Pocharam lake

Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is composed of most of the eastern half of the Deccan plateau and the plains to the east of the Eastern Ghats. Andhra Pradesh comprices three regions. The Andhra region is Coastal Andhra.[39] The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Kadapa Basin[40] formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral-rich area. The coastal plains are for the most part delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penna rivers. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. The Eastern Ghat region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The west and southwest parts of Andhra Pradesh have semi-arid conditions. The northern part is the Telangana region and the southern part is known as Rayalaseema. These two regions are separated by the River Krishna.

The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 41 °C.[41]

July to September is the season for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall from the Southwest Monsoon during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the Northeast Monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the Northeast Monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C.[41]

Demographics[edit]

Population Trend 
Census Pop.
1961 35,983,000
1971 43,503,000 20.9%
1981 53,550,000 23.1%
1991 66,508,000 24.2%
2001 75,727,000 13.9%
2011 84,655,533 11.8%
Source:Census of India[42]




Circle frame.svg

First Languages of Andhra Pradesh in 2010[43]

  Telugu (83.88%)
  Urdu (8.63%)
  Hindi (3.23%)
  Tamil (1.01%)

Population statistics[edit]

Telugu is the first official language of the state, spoken by 84.02% followed by Urdu, which is the second official language of the state and is spoken by 11.76% of the population. Major linguistic minority groups are Hindi (1.05%), and Tamil (1.01%). Other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh by less than 1% are Kannada (0.74%), Marathi (0.80%), and Oriya (0.64%). Languages spoken by less than 0.2% of the population include Malayalam (0.09%), Gujarati (0.02%), Bengali (0.05%), Gorkhali/Nepali (0.03%), Punjabi (0.02%) and Sindhi (0.01%).[44]

Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth of all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores[45] with a score of 0.416. The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Khammam, Krishna, West Godavari, Chittoor, and Medak are the five districts in rural AP with the highest Human Development Index scores in ascending order.

The data show that the poor make up 16.3% of the total population in rural AP, and expenditure on consumption is around 13.5% of the total consumption expenditure. The female literacy rate is 0.66 compared to male literacy rate in rural AP. The district-wise variations for poverty ratio are high and low for the ratio of female/male literacy rate.[46] The gender gap in illiteracy is one of the issues being addressed by Asmita Resource Centre for Women, an Indian NGO based in Andhra Pradesh that works to better the socio-economic status of women and communities in India.

Religions[edit]

Tirumala Temple entrance
Religion in Andhra Pradesh
Percent
Hinduism
  
89.01%
Islam
  
9.16%
Christianity
  
1.54%
Jainism
  
0.05%
Sikhism
  
0.04%
Others
  
0.68%

The state is home to Hindu saints of all castes. An important figure is Saint Yogi Sri Potuluri Virabrahmendra Swami. He was born in the Vishwabrahmin (goldsmith) caste and had Brahmin and Dalit disciples.[47] Fisherman Raghu was a Shudra saint[48] where as Saint Kakkayya was a chura (sweeper) Harijan saint.

Islam in Hyderabad, with historical patronizing by the rulers, has a strong Sufi influence, with various movements active in the last two decades. Hyderabad has also produced many renowned religious scholars representing different Islamic sects and trends, including Abul Ala Maududi, Turab-ul-Haq Qadri, and Allamah Rasheed Turabi.[49]

Most Telugu Christians are Protestant belonging to major Indian Protestant denominations such as the Church of South India, the Andhra Evangelical Lutheran Church, the Samavesam of Telugu Baptist Churches and several others.

Administration[edit]

High court of Andhra pradesh

Andhra Pradesh has a Vidhan Sabha (legislative assembly, lower house) of 294 seats, and a Vidhan Parishad (legislative council, upper house) of 90 members. 31 members are elected from local bodies, 31 members are elected from the assembly, eight members are elected from teachers, eight members are elected from graduates, and 12 members are nominated by the Governor. In the Parliament of India Andhra Pradesh has 18 in the Rajya Sabha, the Upper House, and 42 in the Lok Sabha, the Lower House.[50][51] Currently, Andhra Pradesh is administratively divided into 23 districts.

Andhra Pradesh had a series of governments headed by Indian National Congress (INC) Party until 1982. Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao is the founder of Telugu Desam party and served as the first chief minister from the party.[52] N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief minister (1995 to 2004).[53] P. V. Narasimha Rao served as the chief minister of the state from 1971 to 1973, and went on to become the Prime Minister of India in 1991.[54][55] The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy who later served as President of India.[56][57]

Politics[edit]

Until 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties, played an important role as opposition parties. Parties namely Praja Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played an important role in 1950s. In the 1967 state assembly elections, all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition party status. N.G. Ranga's Swatantra Party became the Opposition Party. They also failed to hold control later and became defunct. In 1978 Jalagam Vengal Rao and Kasu Brahmananda Reddy formed the Reddy Congress and contested against INC but lost.

In 1983 the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the state elections and N.T. Rama Rao (NTR) became the chief minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. A few months after the election, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao usurped power when NTR was away in the United States for medical treatment. After coming back, NTR campaigned for a comeback by demonstrating the support of the majority of the elected MLAs. The governor Thakur Ram Lal was ousted by Indira Gandhi and in his place she appointed Shankar Dayal Sharma. NTR was reinstated as chief minister. Within a month NTR recommended the dissolution of the assembly and called for fresh elections. Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 by her Sikh bodyguard and Rajiv Gandhi was made Prime Minister by President Giani Zail Singh. In the ensuing elections for Lok Sabha and the AP Assembly, the Telugu Desam Party won in Andhra Pradesh and NTR came back to power.

The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992. In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the son-in-law of NTR, came to power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu. There was an assassination attempt on Naidu in 2003 in Tirupathi; he survived the attack. In the ensuing elections the party lost power to a resurgent INC and its allies. Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the Chief Minister.

Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the CM again by fending off the Praja Rajyam Party and a major alliance of TDP, TRS, CPI and CPM. He died on 2 September 2009 in a helicopter crash. Konijeti Rosaiah, a senior statesman and former state finance minister, became the Chief Minister on 3 September 2009. On 24 November 2010, Rosaiah submitted his resignation on the grounds of increased work pressure. Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy was sworn in as the new Chief Minister on the following day.

Economy[edit]

Visakhapatnam city skyline view

According to the Planning Commission of India, in the financial year 2011–12 the state was ranked second in nominal GDP, and fourth in GDP per capita.[58] Andhra Pradesh's GDP for 2011 was approximately INR 5,676.36 billion,[59] placing it third among the states. The service sector of the state accounts for 43% of the gross state domestic product (GSDP) and employs 20% of the work force.[60]

GSDP of the state in 2012 is INR 6762.34 billion, placing it second in India.[59] Andhra Pradesh economy has registered over 5.5% annual economic growth rate during the last two decades.[61] In the 2010 list by Forbes Magazine, there are several from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.[62]

Agriculture[edit]

Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Andhra Pradesh is an exporter of many agricultural products. Andhra Pradesh produced 17,796,000 tonnes (19,616,732 short tons) of rice in 2006.[63] and hence it is known as Rice Bowl of India. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra flow through the state, providing irrigation. Besides Rice, farmers of this state also grow sugarcane, cotton, Chili pepper, mango nuts and tobacco. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.[60][64] AP's farms depend on child labour rather than mechanization to remain competitive.[65]

Mineral Wealth[edit]

Andhra Pradesh is the second largest store house of Mineral Resources in India. Andhra Pradesh with varied geological formations, contain rich & variety of industrial minerals and building stones.

A total of 48 minerals were located with vast explored resources of coal, limestone, slabs, etc. and good resources of oil and Natural Gas, Manganese, Asbestos, Iron Ore, Ball Clay, Fire Clay, Gold Diamonds, Graphite, Dolomite, Quartz, Tungsten, Steatitic, Feldspar, Silica Sand etc. It has about one third of India's limestone reserves and is known for large exclusive deposits of Barytes and Galaxy granite in the international market.

The State has identified the mining sector as one of the growth engines for the overall development of industry and infrastructure. The Tummalapalle Uranium mine in Andhra has confirmed 49,000 tonnes of ore and there are indications that it could hold reserves totalling three times its current size. 700 million tonnes of metal grade Bauxite deposits in close proximity to Visakhapatnam Port.

Reliance Industries Limited struck 9 Trillion cubic Feed of gas reserves in the Krishna Godavari Basin Basin, 150 km off the Andhra Pradesh Coast near Kakinada. Discovery of large quantity of natural gas in KG Basin is expected to provide rapid economic growth.[66]

Power Generation[edit]

Srisailam Dam - Hydro Electric Power Source

The state ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation, with a national market share of over 11%. Andhra Pradesh has the fourth largest power generating utility in the country, with an installed capacity of around 10,650 MW. The two cheapest sources of thermal power generation – coal and natural gas – are in abundance.[67][68]

Industry[edit]

IIabs in Hyderabad

The state banks on two major sectors - Information technology and biotechnology. Two major cities Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam has emerged as the main hub of industrialisation. The IT exports in Andhra Pradesh reached INR350.22 billion (US$5.8 billion) in 2010-11, contributed to 13.9% per cent of national IT exports and ranked fourth in India.[69] Other key sectors include, Biopharmaceuticals, Power, Automobile, Tourism, Textiles, Retail, Leather and Religious Tourism.

Transportion[edit]

Major road links of Andhra Pradesh

Roadways[edit]

A total of 146,954 km (91,313 mi) of roads are maintained by the State, of which State Highways comprise 42,511 km (26,415 mi), National Highways 2,949 km (1,832 mi), and District Roads 101,484 km (63,059 mi). NH 5, with a highway network of around 1000 km in the state, is a part of Golden Quadrilateral Project undertaken by National Highways Development Project.

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public transport corporation owned by the government of Andhra Pradesh that connects all the cities and villages. APSRTC is in the Guinness Book of World Records for having the largest fleet of vehicles (approximately 21,000), and the longest distance covered daily. Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station [M.G.B.S] in Hyderabad and Nehru Bus stand in Vijayawada are among the largest bus stand in Asia.[70] Thousands of private operators also run buses connecting major cities and towns. Private vehicles like cars, motorised scooters, and bicycles occupy a major share of the local transport in the cities and adjoining villages. The growth rate for vehicle ownership in Andhra Pradesh is the highest in the country at 16%.[71]

Railways[edit]

The railroad bridge between Rajahmundry and Kovvur
The New look of Vijayawada Railway Station

Railways are a major means of transportion in Andhra Pradesh connecting the whole state and has a good connectivity with other states too. The history of railways in Andhra Pradesh dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad. Andhra Pradesh has a railway network of 5,046 km. One of the highest broad gauge tracks in the world is in eastern ghats route that run from Visakhapatnam to Anantagiri.[72] The state boasts of 182 railway stations in the state and also many railway junctions as well.

Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad, the Land Mark Building is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway. The East Coast Railway serves Srikakulam, Vizianagaram District, and part of Visakhapatnam district including Visakhapatnam City. Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Guntur, Guntakal are the main divisions of SCR in Andhra Pradesh. Vijayawada railway station is one of the busiest railway junction in India and connects the north and the south Indian rail routes. It handle more than 320 trains including both passenger and freight trains per day next to Howrah and Mumbai.

Railways have played a significant role boosting the economy of the state in developing the industrial and the tourism in the state.

Airports[edit]

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

Hyderabad International Airport, also known as Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, is the international airport for the city of Hyderabad. It has won WORLD NO 1 Airport award twice (2009, 2010) in the 5 - 15 million passenger category. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports nationwide.Visakhapatnam Airport, the other international airport in the state is the second largest serving close to 1 million passengers annually. Other airports in the state are Vijayawada Airport, Rajahmundry Airport, and Tirupati Airport. The government also has plans to start airports in eight other cities: Guntur, Ongole, Nellore, Warangal, Kadapa, Tadepalligudem, Kurnool, Karimnagar, Ramagundam and Kothagudem.

Seaports[edit]

Aerial view of Visakhapatnam port
Gangavaram port view

Ports are gateways to international trade and commerce. Andhra Pradesh has two major ports at Visakhapatnam and Kakinada. Visakhapatnam Port is the second largest port of India in terms of (cargo handling). A private port is being developed at Gangavaram, near Visakhapatnam. This deep seaport can accommodate ocean liners up to 200,000–250,000 DWT.

Andhra Pradesh is well on its way to becoming a major logistics hub in the realm of sea. A recently study by trade body Assocham has pointed out that Andhra Pradesh commanded a lion’s share of over 46 per cent in new port projects being implemented across Indian maritime States. Andhra Pradesh was amongst the first maritime states to recognize the imperative need for increased port infrastructure. Six ports are under various stages of development in the PPP mode.

The 14 notified non-major ports are Bhavanapadu, Meghavaram, Kalingapatnam, Bheemunipatnam, Gangavaram, Nakkapalli, Kakinada SEZ, Kakinada, S.Yanam, Narsapur, Machilipatnam, Nizampatnam, Vadarevu and Krishnapatnam.[73] The State Government has prepared a master plan that envisages increasing the capacity of its non-major ports to handle 175 million tonnes in 2020.[74]

Tourism[edit]

Andhra Pradesh is promoted by its tourism department as the Koh-i-Noor of India.

RK Beach
  • Visakhapatnam attracts many tourists because of its beautiful beaches along the Bay of Bengal namely R.K.Beach, Rishikonda Beach, Lawsons Bay Beach etc. Dolphins Nose, a 358 m (1,175 ft) long rocky mountain outcrop that risees 175 m (574 ft) above the sea. Kailashagiri park near the sea, Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens, The INS Kursura S20 Submarine museum (only one of its kind in India) are other tourist places to visit.
  • The Borra Caves in the Anatagiri Hills of the Eastern Ghats, near Vishakapatnam at an altitude of about 800 to 1300 metres are famous for million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations. They were discovered by British geologist William King George in 1807. The caves got the name from a formation inside the caves that looks like the human brain, which in Telugu language is known as burra.
Terraced, treed valley with mountains in background
Araku Valley
  • Araku Valley, a famous hill station in Visakhapatnam district. The Anantagiri and Sunkarimetta Reserved Forest which are part of Araku Valley, are rich in biodiversity. It has beautiful thick forests, coffee plantations, waterfalls. The place also offers trekking tours and exploration tours in the caves located here. This scenic beauty attracts large number of tourists. The valley is inhabited by different tribes and is a less commercialized tourist destination.
  • Horsley Hills, a summer hill resort in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. It is situated at an elevation of 1,265 metres and attracts lots of tourists owing to its natural flora and fauna magnificence. The town of Madanapalle lies nearby. The major tourist attractions in this place are Lake Gangotri, high view seeing place, EEC Centre Environmental Park, Mallamma temple, Horsley Hills Museum and the Rishi Valley School. Horsley Hills offers adventure activities like Zorbing, Rappelling and Trekking. Horsely Hills is the departure point for the Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary at a distance of 87 km (54 mi).
  • The Belum Caves in Kurnool District have a length of 3,229 metres (10,594 ft), making them the second largest natural caves on the Indian subcontinent. The Belum Caves derive their name from Bilum, the Sanskrit word for caves. The caves have long passages, spacious chambers, freshwater galleries, and siphons. The caves deepest point is 120 feet (37 m) from the entrance and is known as Patalganaga.
  • Kolleru Lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in India located in the state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a located between Krishna and Godavari delta . The lake was declared as a wildlife sanctuary in November 1999 under India's Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, and designated a wetland of international importance in November 2002 under the international Ramsar Convention. The wildlife sanctuary covers an area of 308 km².[75] During the winter season, many birds migrate here to nest at the sanctuary from Siberia, the Philippines, Australia and Egypt, such as Siberian crane, ibis, and painted storks. The lake is visited by an estimate of 20,00,000 birds.
  • Pulicat Lake is located at the border of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, Pulicat Sanctuary covers an area of 500 square kilometres. It is a brackish water lagoon, the second largest in India, and is situated along the coast of Bay of Bengal. The barrier island of Sriharikota separates the lake from the Bay of Bengal. The lake encompasses the Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary. The sanctuary attracts many migratory birds and also is a feeding and nesting ground for aquatic and terrestrial birds such as flamigoes, pelicans, storks, ducks, sandpipers etc.
  • Konaseema is another place in East Godavari for nature lovers with scenic greenery of lush paddy fields and coconut groves. All along the banks of river Godavari and its canals.

Nirmal is famous for its handicrafts and paintings. Kuntala Waterfall located in Kuntala, Adilabad district, at 45 metres (148 ft), is the biggest in the state. Charminar, Golconda Fort, Chandragiri Fort, Chowmahalla Palace, and Falaknuma Palace are some of the monuments in the state.

  • Charminar: It was built in 1591 CE, is a monument and mosque located in Hyderabad. The landmark has become a global icon of Hyderabad. To the northeast lies the Laad Bazaar and in the west end lies the granite-made richly ornamented Makkah Masjid. The eponymous towers are ornate minarets attached and supported by four grand arches.

Religious Tourism[edit]

Diguva Mangalagiri Temple
Durga Temple in Vijayawada
Mounagiri Hanuman Temple in Anantapur

Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrim centres.

  • Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in the town of Tirumala in Chittoor district is an important pilgrimage site for Hindus throughout India. It is one of the richest pilgrimage temple of any religious faith in the world.[76] Its main temple is dedicated to the god Venkateswara. In 1517, Vijayanagara ruler Sri Krishna Deva Raya, on one of his many visits to the temple, donated gold and jewels, enabling the Vimana (inner shrine) roofing to be gilded. Statues of Sri Krishna Deva Raya and his spouse stand in the premises of the temple.
  • Simhachalam is another popular pilgrimage site of national importance located on a hill 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the Visakhapatnam city centre. Simhachalam is said to be the abode of the savior-god Narasimha, who rescued Prahlada from his abusive father Hiranyakashipu. One of the most exquisitely sculpted shrines of Andhra Pradesh, it has a beautifully carved 16-pillared Natya mantapa and a 96-pillared Kalyana mantapa. The temple was built in 11th century by Kullotunga chola. Engaged couples go to this temple as a ritual just before marriage.
  • Bhadrachalam Temple is a temple to Lord Rama in the town of Bhadrachalam in Khammam district. It is situated on the banks of the river Godavari. This is the place where Kancherla Gopanna (1620–1680) wrote his devotional songs dedicated to lord Rama. It was believed that lord Rama spent some years on the banks of river Godavari here in Treta Yuga. Kancherla Gopanna raised the funds and constructed the temple during the reign of Tanisha in the 17th century. Sri Rama Navami, a celebration of the Marriage of Lord Rama and sita, is celebrated here every year. Government of Andhra Pradesh sends pearls for the event.[79]
  • Thousand Pillar Temple is one of the oldest temples of South India that was built by the kakatiya located in the town of Hanamakonda in the Warangal district. It comprises one temple and other building. There are one thousand pillars in the building and the temple, but no pillar obstructs a person in any point of the temple to see the god in the other temple. The present day engineers have taken out all the pillars from the building. After they lifted all the pillars they encountered a huge mass of sand. It took nearly two weeks for them to take away all the sand. It was wet sand, because of a pipe connection from the nearby water body named Bhadrakali Cheruvu.

Other religious places include, Venkateswara Temple in Dwaraka Tirumala, West Godavari District, Annavaram Satayannarayana Swami temple in East Godavari and Surya temple in Arasavelli in Srikakulam District are also religious places to see in Andhra Pradesh.

The state has numerous Buddhist centres at Amaravati, Nagarjuna Konda, Bhattiprolu, Ghantasala, Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Bavikonda, Thotlakonda, Shalihundam, Pavuralakonda, Bojjannakonda (Sankaram), Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.[80]

Culture[edit]

Bapu's paintings, Nanduri Venkata Subba Rao's Yenki Paatalu (Songs about a washerwoman called Yenki), mischievous Budugu (a character by Mullapudi), Annamayya's songs, Aavakaaya (a variant of mango pickle in which the kernel of mango is retained), Gongura (a chutney from Roselle plant), Atla Taddi (a seasonal festival predominantly for teenage girls), the banks of river Godavari, and the Dudu basavanna (the ceremonial ox decorated for door-to-door exhibition during the harvest festival Sankranthi) have long defined Telugu culture. The village of Durgi is known for stone craft, producing carvings of idols in soft stone that must be exhibited in the shade because they are prone to weathering.[81] Kalamkari is an ancient textile art form dating back to the Indus Valley Civilisation. Andhra Pradesh is famous for doll making. Dolls are made from wood, mud, dry grass, and lightweight metal alloys. Tirupathi is famous for redwood carvings. Kondapalli is famous for mud toys with rich colors. The village of Etikoppaka, located in Visakhapatnam district, produces lacquered toys. Nirmal paintings are expressive and are usually painted over a black background. Story telling in Andhra Pradesh is an art form in itself. Folk dances unique to Andhra Pradesh include Yaksha ganam, Burra katha, Bhamakalpam(evolved from Kuchipudi), Veeranatyam, Butta Bommalu(dance of the Masks), Dappu(dance of Percussion), Tappeta Gullu(dance of the Rain God), Lambadi(dance of Nomads), Dhimsa(dance of the Hills Tribes), Kolattam(usually done by three people, telling stories using three different musical instruments), Jangama kathalu, Hari kathalu, Chekka bajana, Urumula natyam (usually done at festivals, where a group of people dance in circles with loud music), and Ghata natyam (performances done with earthen pots over one's head).[82]

Literature[edit]

Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu. Pothana is the poet who composed the classic SriMad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham, authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Nannayya (c. 11th century CE), the earliest known Telugu author, was patronized by the king Rajaraja Narendra who ruled from Rajamahendravaram (now Rajahmundry). The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. The Telugu poet Vemana, a native of Kadapa, is notable for his philosophical poems. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919) is termed modern literature. Known as Gadya Tikkana, Satyavathi Charitam was the author Telugu-language social novel, Satyavathi Charitam. Jnanpith Award winners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.[83]

Other modern writers include Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, the only person nominated from India for a Nobel prize in literature since Rabindranath Tagore. The West Bengal Government conferred on him the title Rashtrendu ("Moon of the Nation"). Telugu University awarded him an honorary Doctorate in Literature in 1994. He received the Kalidas Samman award from the Madhya Pradhesh government, and he won the Central Sahitya Akademi fellowship in 1999. Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu is one of the scholarly poets of Telugu literature. He wrote the books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam. Other notable writers from Andhra Pradesh include Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnayasuri and Viswanatha Satyanarayana.

Dance[edit]

Kuchipudi, dance by Yamini Reddy

Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form. The various dance forms that existed through the state's history are Bonalu, Dappu, Chenchu Bhagotham, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha, Veeranatyam, Butta bommalu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, Kolattam, and Chindu. Jaanapadam theenmar is a popular folk dance.

Jayapa Senani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh.[84] Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise Nrutya Ratnavali.

Artifacts[edit]

Andhra Pradesh has many museums, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts, including the Archaeological Museum[85] at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites, and the Visakha Museum, in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence and thotla konda which depicts the age old budhist stupa's and cultural style, Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow.[86] Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada has a good collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions. Other ancient sites include dozens of ancient Buddhist stupas in Nagarjunakonda which is now an island in Nagarjuna Sagar, an artificial lake that formed after the construction of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam. The Island has a large museum that houses many Buddhist relics.[87]

Festivals[edit]

Just like in other parts of the country, many festivals are celebrated in Andhra Pradesh, which include - Ugadi(Telugu New Year), Sankranthi, Maha Shivaratri, Holi, Sri Rama Navami, Varalakshmi Vratham, Vinayaka Chavithi, Rakhi poornima, Dasara, Deepavali, Batukamma, Christmas, Bonalu, Nagula Chaviti, Eid ul-Fitr, Eid ul-Zuha, Muharram and Milad-un-Nabi.

Cuisine[edit]

Food from Andhra Pradesh is famous for the rich seasoning and lots of variety. Hyderabad Biryani is the most famous cuisine. A lot of spices are produced in the region and hence the cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is spiciest of all. There are many variations to the cuisine based on geographical regions, caste and traditions. Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of dishes. Typically, rice is boiled and eaten with curry. Tamarind rice is very popular. Idli, dosa, vada and uttapam are made of rice. There are varieties in these like sada dosa, masala dosa, rava dosa, Rava idli, masala idle etc.

Pickles and chutneys, locally known as thokku and pachadi in Telugu, are popular in Andhra Pradesh. The chutneys (sauces) are made from chilly, ginger, coconut and other vegetables like tomatoes, brinjals (eggplant), and roselle (Gongura) and are served with meals. Aavakaaya (mango pickle) is probably the best known of the Andhra Pradesh pickles.[88]

The coastal region of the state has abundant seafood supply. The variety of recipes include Chapala Pulusu, Bommidala pulusu, Koramenu kura. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken are also the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes.[89]

Sweets made up of milk are widely eaten. Payasam is one of them made with milk, rice or vermicelli pudding served both warm and cold. Pootharekulu, Bobbattlu; Paalakova; Mamidi Tandra, Khaja, Bandar Laddu, Sunnandalu, Ariselu are famous sweets.

Music[edit]

Balamuralikrishna during a concert in Kuwait on 29 March 2006, accompanied by Mavelikkara Sathees Chandran (violin), Perunna G. Harikumar (mridangom), Manjoor Unnikrishnan (ghatam)

Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Tyagaraja, Kshetrayya, and Bhadrachala Ramadas were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers like Ghantasala and M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. The Telugu film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam, P.Susheela, S. Janaki, P B Srinivas. Telugus have a large number of folk dances. Folk songs are popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.[90]

Cinema[edit]

The Prasads IMAX world's largest 3D-IMAX screen Prasads IMAX

In the early 1980s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted its base to Hyderabad from Madras. The Telugu film culture (or, "Tollywood") is the second-largest film industry in India next to Bollywood Film Industry.[91] Hyderabad houses the Prasads IMAX theatre, which was the biggest 3D IMAX screen in the world when it was built in 2007.[92] It is also home to Ramoji Film City which is the world’s largest integrated film studio complex at over 2,000 acres (809 ha) of land.[93] Prolific film producer from the state, D. Ramanaidu holds a Guinness Record for the most number of films produced by a person.[94] Nandhamuri Taraka Rama Rao and Chiranjeevi are the prominent figures in the Telugu film industry. In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry, has produced the largest number of films in India exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[95][96] The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.[97] The Prasads IMAX located in Hyderabad is the world's largest 3D IMAX screen, and the most attended cinema screen in the world.[98][99][100] The state of Andhra Pradesh, consists of the most number of cinema theatres in India.

Sports[edit]

The Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh, is the governing body which looks after the infrastructure development in Cricket, Field hockey, Association Football, Olympic weightlifting, Chess, Water Sports, Tennis, Badminton, Table Tennis, Cycling etc.[101] Sports like kho kho, kabaddi, chinni daandu and goli (marbles) are played mostly in Andhra Pradesh.

ACA-VDCA Cricket stadium at Madhurawada

One of the most popular sports in Andhra Pradesh is cricket. The Hyderabad cricket team has won the Ranji Trophy twice. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of Hyderabad cricket team and ACA-VDCA Stadium in Visakhapatnam to the Andhra Cricket Team. These venues regularly hosts international as well as domestic matches. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam.

Notable cricketers from Andhra Pradesh, include Maharajkumar of Vizianagram, M. V. Narasimha Rao, Mohammad Azharuddin, M. S. K. Prasad, V.V.S. Laxman, Tirumalasetti Suman, Arshad Ayub, Ambati Rayudu, Venkatapathy Raju, Sravanthi Naidu, Yalaka Venugopal Rao etc.

Other accomplished sports-persons include, A. Ramana Rao, Karnam Malleswari, Pullela Gopichand, Sania Mirza, Saina Nehwal, Sharath Kamal, Chetan Anand (Badminton), Guttikonda Pradeep, (Volley Ball), Mukesh Kumar (Hockey), Saranjeet Singh (Hockey), Abdul Najeeb Qureshi, Jwala Gutta, Raman Subbarao, Kamineni Eswara Rao, etc. Grandmasters in Chess like, Humpy Koneru, Pendyala Harikrishna, Dronavalli Harika and Gogineni Rohit hail from the state.

Education and research[edit]

Andhra Pradesh is served by more than 20 institutes of higher education. All major arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary science are offered, with first degrees and postgraduate awards available.

Andhra Pradesh has 1,330 arts, science and commerce colleges; 1,000 MBA and MCA colleges; 847 engineering colleges; 53 medical colleges, one NIT(in warangal) and one Indian Institute of Technology (in Hyderabad). The student to teacher ratio in higher education is 19:1. According to the 2011 census, Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 67.02% (as per India 2011 Census). The male literacy rate is 74.9% and the female literacy rate is 59.15%.[102]

Osmania University is one of the oldest modern universities in India, and one of the largest university systems in the subcontinent with over 300,000 students on its various campuses and affiliated colleges.[103] The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Andhra Pradesh. The Institute specializes in teaching and research in Information Technology and other emerging disciplines under the control of a common university Governing Council and following a common syllabus.

School children in an elementary school in Andhra Pradesh

The state has recently made strides in setting up several institutes.

Additionally the Dr. N.T.R. University of Health Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,[112] Osmania University,[113] Andhra University,[114] Nagarjuna University,[115] Kakatiya University,[116] Sri Venkateswara University,[117] Sri Krishnadevaraya University,[118] Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University,[119] Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Telangana University Nizamabad, Mahathma Gandhi University Nalgonda, Palamur University Mahaboobnagar, Rayalaseema university, Kurnool,[120] Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University(SVVU)[121] and private engineering colleges like Muffakham Jah College of Engineering and Technology, Chaitanya Bharathi Institute of Technology, VNR Vignana Jyothi Institute of Engineering and Technology, MVSR Engineering College, GRIET, Hyderabad Institute of Technology And Management[122] to serve their people across Andhra Pradesh.

Space Research[edit]

In 1969, Indian Space Research Organisation selected barrier island of Sriharikota in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh for a satellite launching station. Originally called Sriharikota Range (SHAR), an acronym ISRO have retained to the present day. The centre was renamed on 5 September 2002 after the death of ISRO's former chairman, prof Satish Dhawan as Satish Dhawan Space Centre. It is India's primary orbital launch site.

The SHAR has two launch pads. A new third launchpad will built specifically to meet the target of launching a manned space mission by 2017.[123] India's lunar orbiter Chandrayaan-1 was launched from the centre at 6:22 AM IST on 22 October 2008.

Newspapers and journals[edit]

Telugu

Urdu

English

See also[edit]

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