German submarine U-456

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Career (Nazi Germany)
Name: U-456
Ordered: 16 January 1940
Builder: Deutsche Werke, Kiel
Yard number: 287
Laid down: 3 September 1940
Launched: 21 June 1941
Commissioned: 18 September 1941
Fate: Sunk, after being depth charged, on 12 May 1943 at position 46°39′N 26°54′W / 46.650°N 26.900°W / 46.650; -26.900 by HMS Opportune and a RAF Liberator bomber of 86 Squadron, operating out of Northern Ireland.
General characteristics [1]
Class and type: Type VIIC submarine
Displacement: 769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
Length: 67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
Beam: 6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
Height: 9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)
Draft: 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)
Propulsion: 2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490
2 × electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW) and max rpm: 296
Speed: 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
Range: 8,500 nmi (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
80 nmi (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth: 230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
Complement: 44–52 officers & ratings
Armament:
Service record[2]
Part of: 6th U-boat Flotilla
(28 September 1941 - 1 January 1942) - Training
6th U-boat Flotilla
(1 January 1942 - 30 June 1942)
11th U-boat Flotilla
(1 July 1942 - 30 November 1942)
1st U-boat Flotilla
(1 December 1942 - 12 May 1943)
Commanders: Kptlt. Max-Martin Teichert
(18 September 1941 - 12 May 1943)
Operations: 1st patrol:
31 January 1942 - 15 February 1942
2nd patrol:
24 February 1942 - 22 March 1942
3rd patrol:
29 March 1942 - 2 April 1942
4th patrol:
7 April 1942 - 20 April 1942
5th patrol:
29 April 1942 - 4 May 1942
6th patrol:
7 May 1942 - 12 May 1942
7th patrol:
25 June 1942 - 6 July 1942
8th patrol:
4 August 1942 - 10 August 1942
9th patrol:
15 August 1942 - 19 September 1942
10th patrol:
14 January 1943 - 26 February 1943
11th patrol:
24 April 1943 - 12 May 1943
Victories: 6 merchant ships sunk (31,528 GRT)
1 merchant ship damaged (6,421 GRT)
1 warship damaged (11,500 tons)

German submarine U-456 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II. She was laid down on 3 September 1940 by Deutsche Werke in Kiel as yard number 287, launched on 21 June 1941 and commissioned on 18 September 1941 under Kapitänleutnant Max-Martin Teichert (Knight’s Cross).

Service History[edit]

The boat's service began on 28 September 1941 with training as part of the 6th U-boat Flotilla. She was transferred to the 11th flotilla on 1 July 1942 and then to the 1st flotilla on 1 December 1942.

In 11 patrols she sank 6 ships for a total of 31,528 GRT, plus 2 ships damaged.

HMS Edinburgh[edit]

In the late afternoon of 30 April 1942, during the attack on the Arctic Convoy QP 11, two of her torpedoes struck and crippled the Royal Navy light cruiser HMS Edinburgh. At the time HMS Edinburgh was carrying many tons of gold bullion destined for Russia.

Wolfpacks[edit]

She took part in ten wolfpacks, namely,

  • Umbau (4 – 15 February 1942)
  • Umhang (10 – 16 March 1942)
  • Eiswolf (29 – 31 March 1942)
  • Robbenschlag (7 – 14 April 1942)
  • Blutrausch (15 – 19 April 1942)
  • Strauchritter (29 April – 3 May 1942)
  • Eisteufel (27 June – 5 July 1942)
  • Boreas (27 – 30 November 1942)
  • Landsknecht (19 – 28 January 1943)
  • Dressel (29 April – 12 May 1943)

Fate[edit]

In the early morning light U-456 was caught on the surface by a RAF Liberator bomber of 86 Squadron, operating out of Northern Ireland, as she circled ahead of convoy HX 237. U-456 dived at once, but not before the aircraft had launched the new American Fido acoustic homing torpedo at the submerged submarine. The aircraft, low on fuel, was unable to press home the attack. U-456 was badly damaged and forced to re-surface. On the following day she was depth charged and sunk on 12 May 1943 at position 46°39′N 26°54′W / 46.650°N 26.900°W / 46.650; -26.900 by HMS Opportune.

Summary of Raiding Career[edit]

Date Name Nationality Tonnage
(GRT)
Fate[3]
30 March 1942 Effingham  United States 6,421 Damaged
30 April 1942 HMS Edinburgh  Royal Navy 11,500 Damaged
5 July 1942 Honomu  United Kingdom 6,977 Sunk
22 August 1942 Chalka  Soviet Union 80 Sunk
2 February 1943 Jeremiah Van Rensselaer  United States 7,177 Sunk
3 February 1943 Inverilen  United Kingdom 9,456 Sunk
23 February 1943 Kyleclare  Ireland 700 Sunk
12 May 1943 Fort Concord  United Kingdom 7,138 Sunk

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gröner 1985, pp. 72-74.
  2. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-456". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  3. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U-456". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2. 
  • Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4. 
  • Edwards, Bernard (1996). Dönitz and the Wolf Packs – The U-Boats at War. London, UK: Cassell Military Classics. pp. 141, 208, 210, 211. ISBN 0-304-35203-9. 

External links[edit]