German submarine U-413
|Career (Nazi Germany)|
|Ordered:||15 August 1940|
|Builder:||Danziger Werft AG, Danzig|
|Laid down:||25 April 1941|
|Launched:||15 January 1942|
|Commissioned:||3 June 1942|
|Fate:||Sunk on 20 August 1944 in the English Channel, by depth charges. 45 dead and one survivor|
|General characteristics |
|Class & type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Displacement:||769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
|Length:||67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Height:||9.6 m (31 ft 6 in)|
|Draft:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490
2 × electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW) and max rpm: 296
|Speed:||17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
|Range:||8,500 nmi (15,700 km) at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
80 nmi (150 km) at 4 kn (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
|Complement:||44–52 officers and ratings|
1st U-boat Flotilla (Front [operational] Boat)
1 November 1942 - 20 August 1944
|Identification codes:||M 03 918|
Oberleutnant zur See Dietrich Sachse
20 April - 20 August 1944
Five ships sunk for a total of 36.885 gross register tons (GRT)
She was commissioned in mid 1942, with Oberleutnant zur See Gustav Poel in command. Poel commanded her (receiving promotion to Kapitänleutnant), until 19 April 1944, when he was relieved by Oberleutnant zur See Dietrich Sachse who commanded her until her loss.
U-413 was laid down on 25 April 1941 at the Danziger Werft (as yard number 114), launched on 15 January 1942 and commissioned on 3 June. She conducted eight patrols in World War II, sinking six ships totalling 37,985 tons.
1st and 2nd patrols
The U-boat departed Kiel on 22 October 1942, on her first patrol.
On 14 November 1942, she sank the 20,107-ton troop transport ship MV Warwick Castle (one of the largest sunk in World War II).
At 8:44 am, the ship, under the command of Henry Richard Leepman-Shaw in convoy MKF-1X was hit by one of two torpedoes fired, about 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) NW of Cape Espichel, Portugal. The U-boat hit her again at 8:57 am, causing the ship to sink about one hour later. The master, 61 crew members and 34 service personnel died. 201 crew members, 29 gunners and five naval and 131 service personnel were rescued by HMS Achates, HMS Vansittart, HMCS Louisburg, and the British MV Leinster. The latter ship had been in Convoy KMF-1 for Operation Torch, (the invasion of North Africa).
On 19 November 1942, U-413 was attacked by a British Lockheed Hudson aircraft with five bombs and was damaged so severely that she had to return to a new base - Brest in occupied France.
Her second patrol was marked by sinking the American ship West Portal in mid-Atlantic on 5 February 1943; there were no survivors. She also attacked and sank the Greek Mount Mycale on 22 January 1943, northeast of Newfoundland.
3rd and 4th patrols
Her third patrol saw her leave Brest on 29 March 1943, once more for the Atlantic. There, she sank the British vessel Wanstead south of Greenland, whose survivors were picked up by the corvette HMS Poppy and the ASW (anti-submarine warfare) HMS Northern Gift.
Her fourth sortie was a frustrating one; it was split into three parts, but she failed to sink any ships.
5th and 6th patrols
On 20 February 1944, she sank the British 1,100 ton destroyer HMS Warwick about 15 miles off Trevose Head, north Cornwall. This was Poel's last patrol. He moved to the Marineschule (naval academy) at Mürwik in Flensburg.
7th patrol and sinking
Her last victory was when she sank the Saint Enogat on 19 August 1944 in the English Channel.
U-413 did not suffer any casualties until 20 August 1944, when she was sunk, also in the English Channel, by depth charges from the British escort destroyer HMS Wensleydale and the destroyers HMS Forester and Vidette. 45 of her crew were killed; there was one survivor.
The wreck of U-413 was located and identified by marine archaeologist Innes McCartney in 2000 close to the official sinking position.
U-413 took part in 15 wolfpacks, namely.
- Westwall (8–19 November 1942)
- Jaguar (10–31 January 1943)
- Pfeil (1–9 February 1943)
- Adler (11–13 April 1943)
- Meise (13–27 April 1943)
- Star (27 April - 4 May 1943)
- Fink (4–6 May 1943)
- Naab (12–15 May 1943)
- Donau 2 (15–26 May 1943)
- Schlieffen (14–22 October 1943)
- Siegfried (22–27 October 1943)
- Siegfried 2 (27–30 October 1943)
- Körner (30 October - 2 November 1943)
- Tirpitz 2 (2–8 November 1943)
- Eisenhart 8 (9–11 November 1943)
Summary of Raiding Career
|14 November 1942||Warwick Castle||United Kingdom||20,107||Sunk|
|22 January 1943||Mount Mycale||Greece||3,556||Sunk|
|21 April 1943||Wanstead||United Kingdom||5,486||Sunk|
|21 April 1944||HMS Warwick||Royal Navy||1,100||Sunk|
|19 August 1944||Saint Enogat||United Kingdom||2,360||Sunk|
- Edwards, Bernard (1996). Dönitz and the Wolf Packs - The U-boats at War. Cassell Military Classics. p. 145. ISBN 0-304-35203-9.
- Busch, Rainer; Röll, Hans-Joachim (1999). Deutsche U-Boot-Verluste von September 1939 bis Mai 1945. Der U-Boot-Krieg (in German) IV (Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn: Mittler). ISBN 3-8132-0514-2.
- Gröner, Erich (1985). U-Boote, Hilfskreuzer, Minenschiffe, Netzleger, Sperrbrecher. Die deutschen Kriegsschiffe 1815-1945 (in German) III (Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe). ISBN 3-7637-4802-4.
- Innes McCartney (2002). Lost Patrols: Submarine Wrecks of the English Channel.
- Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-413". German U-boats of WWII - uboat.net. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Ubootwaffe.net". U-413. Retrieved 29 March 2007.[dead link]