German submarine U-97 (1940)
|Ordered:||30 May 1938|
|Builder:||Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft, Kiel|
|Yard number:||Werk 602|
|Laid down:||27 September 1939|
|Launched:||15 August 1940|
|Commissioned:||28 September 1940|
|Fate:||Sunk on 16 June 1943, by an Australian aircraft|
|Type:||Type VIIC submarine|
|Displacement:||769 tonnes (757 long tons) surfaced
871 t (857 long tons) submerged
|Length:||67.1 m (220 ft 2 in) o/a
50.5 m (165 ft 8 in) pressure hull
|Beam:||6.2 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
4.7 m (15 ft 5 in) pressure hull
|Draft:||4.74 m (15 ft 7 in)|
|Propulsion:||2 × supercharged Germaniawerft 6-cylinder 4-stroke F46 diesel engines, totalling 2,800–3,200 bhp (2,100–2,400 kW). Max rpm: 470-490
2 × electric motors, totalling 750 shp (560 kW) and max rpm: 296
|Speed:||17.7 kn (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) surfaced
7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph) submerged
|Range:||15,170 km (8,190 nmi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
150 km (81 nmi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
|Test depth:||230 m (750 ft)
Crush depth: 250–295 m (820–968 ft)
|Complement:||44–52 officers & ratings|
|Armament:||5 × 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four bow, one stern)
14 × G7e torpedoes or 26 TMA mines
1 × 8.8 cm (3.46 in) deck gun (220 rounds)
Various AA guns
7th U-boat Flotilla (Training)
7th U-boat Flotilla (Operational Boat, 11 patrols)
24th U-boat Flotilla (Training)
22nd U-boat Flotilla (Schoolboat)
|Commanders:||Kptlt. Udo Heilmann
Oblt.z.S. Friedrich Bürgel
Kptlt. Hans-Georg Trox
17 February–7 March 1941
20 March–10 April 1941
1–30 May 1941
2 July–8 August 1941
20 September–27 October 1941
23 December–9 January 1942
12–31 January 1942
14–30 March 1942
5 April–12 May 1942
15 June–4 July 1942
22 July 1942–4 August 1942
22 July 1942–10 April 1943
5–16 June 1943
|Victories:||15 ships sunk for a total of 64,404 gross register tons (GRT)
One auxilary warship sunk - of 6,833 GRT
One ship damaged - of 9,718 GRT
German submarine U-97 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during the Second World War. She carried out thirteen patrols during her career, sinking sixteen ships and damaging a seventeenth. She was a member of two wolfpacks.
Construction and deployment
Serving with the 7th U-boat Flotilla, U-97 completed training in late 1940 and early 1941 before commencing operations.
She sank three ships on the 24th; the Mansepool, the Jonathon Holt, both southwest of the Faroe Islands and theBritish Gunner 273 nautical miles (506 km) northwest of Cape Wrath (northern Scotland). The Flower-class corvette HMS Petunia had ordered the crew of British Gunner to abandon their vessel even though the master had said the ship could be towed to safety.
The U-boat then damaged the G.C. Brøvig. The Norwegian tanker was a victim of U-97's third attack on Convoy OB-289. The torpedo strike caused her to lose her bow, but the bulkhead held and the engines remained usable. With assistance from HMS Petunia, she arrived at Stornoway (in the Outer Hebrides), on 27 February. She was subsequently repaired and returned to service.
The patrol was somewhat marred when a crew-member was lost overboard on 3 March. The submarine docked at Lorient in occupied France on 7 March.
U-97 sank three more ships between Cape Farewell (Greenland) and southern Ireland in March and April 1941. They were: the Chama and the Hørda (on 23 and 24 March respectively) and the Conus on 4 April. There were no survivors from the Hørda or the Conus.
3rd and 4th patrols
The boat sank HMS Camito, an Elders & Fyffes banana boat that had been requisitioned as an Ocean Boarding Vessel and the Sangro, west southwest of Cape Clear (southern Ireland) on 6 May 1941. On 8 May she struck again, sinking the Ramillies southeast of Cape Farewell.
Sortie number four was relatively uneventful, starting from St. Nazaire on 2 July 1941 and terminating in the same port on 8 August.
Departing St. Nazaire on 20 September 1941, U-97 went south, slipped past the heavily-guarded British base at Gibraltar and into the Mediterranean. She sank the Pass of Balmaha 50 nautical miles (93 km) west of Alexandria on 17 October. The merchant ship had been part of the fourth convoy of Operation Cultivate, the relief of Tobruk. She also sank the Samos on the same day.
An accident which left the IIWO (second watch officer) badly injured on 24 October forced the boat to cut her patrol short. She arrived at Salamis in Greece on the 27th.
6th and 7th patrols
Human frailties also came to the fore during the boat's sixth patrol when, having crossed the Aegean towards Turkey, she was obliged by a sick crew-member, on 7 January 1942, to return to Salamis on the 9th.
The submarine's seventh patrol started and finished in Salamis.
8th and 9th patrols
Having moved to La Spezia in northwest Italy in February, U-97 was attacked by a Sunderland flying boat of No. 230 Squadron RAF off the North African coast. The aircraft dropped five bombs on the boat, but caused no damage.
Patrol number nine continued the shuttle-sequence between Salamis and La Spezia.
The situation improved for the crew when they sank the Zealand and the Memos 14 nautical miles (26 km) southwest of Haifa on 28 June 1942. The Marilyese Moller went to the bottom on 1 July about 27 nautical miles (50 km) west of Rafah in Palestine. The armed trawler HMS Burra reacted with three depth charges, but was unsuccessful.
11th and 12th patrols
These patrols began in Salamis and La Spezia; the latter finished in Pola (now Pula) in Croatia in May 1943.
13th patrol and loss
U-97's final patrol started with her departure from Pola on 5 June 1943. She sank the Palima 30 nautical miles (56 km) south southwest of Beirut on the 12th. She was also successful against the Athelmonarch northwest of Jaffa on the 15th.
Summary of Raiding Career
|24 February 1941||British Gunner||UK||6,894||Sunk|
|24 February 1941||G.C. Brøvig||Norway||9,718||Damaged|
|24 February 1941||Johnathon Holt||UK||4,973||Sunk|
|24 February 1941||Mansepool||UK||4,894||Sunk|
|24 March 1941||Chama||UK||8,077||Sunk|
|24 March 1941||Hørda||Norway||4,301||Sunk|
|4 April 1941||Conus||UK||8,132||Sunk|
|6 May 1941||HMS Camito||Royal Navy||6,833||Sunk|
|6 May 1941||Sangro||Italy||6,466||Sunk|
|8 May 1941||Ramilles||UK||4,553||Sunk|
|17 October 1941||Pass of Balmaha||UK||758||Sunk|
|17 October 1941||Samos||Greece||1,208||Sunk|
|28 June 1942||Memas||Greece||1,755||Sunk|
|28 June 1942||Zealand||UK||1,433||Sunk|
|1 July 1942||Marilyse Moller||UK||786||Sunk|
|12 June 1943||Palima||Netherlands||1,179||Sunk|
|15 June 1943||Athelmonarch||UK||8,995||Sunk|