||The neutrality of this article is disputed. (November 2014)|
|King of Israel|
|Reign||c. 1010 – 1002 BC (Judah only)
c. 1002 – 970 BC (Israel)
|House||House of David|
|Born||c. 1040 BC
Bethlehem, Judah, Israel
|Died||c. 970 BC
Jerusalem, Judah, Israel
|Burial||City of David|
David (//; Hebrew: דָּוִד, דָּוִיד, Modern David Tiberian Dāwîḏ; ISO 259-3 Dawid; Arabic: داوُود Dāwūd; Syriac: ܕܘܝܕ Dawid; Greek: Δαβίδ; Strong's: Daveed) was, according to the Bible, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, and according to the New Testament Gospels of Matthew and Luke, an ancestor of Jesus. His life is conventionally dated to c. 1040–970 BC, his reign over Judah c. 1010–1002 BC, and his reign over the United Kingdoms of Israel c. 1002–970 BC.
The Books of Samuel, 1 Kings, and 1 Chronicles are the only sources of information on David, although the Tel Dan Stele (dated c. 850–835 BC) contains the phrase בית דוד (Beit David), read as "House of David", which most scholars take as confirmation of the existence in the mid-9th century BC of a Judean royal dynasty called the House of David.
He is depicted as a righteous king, although not without faults, as well as an acclaimed warrior, musician, and poet, traditionally credited for composing many of the psalms contained in the Book of Psalms.
David is an important figure to members of the Jewish, Christian and Islamic faiths. Biblical tradition maintains the Messiah's direct descent from the line of David. In Islam, he is considered a prophet.
- 1 Biblical narrative
- 2 Historicity
- 3 Abrahamic religious traditions
- 4 Legend and legacy
- 5 Representation in art and literature
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
According to the Biblical narrative, God appointed Saul to be the first king of Israel, after the leading elders of the land demanded a king to replace the Judges who had previously ruled the country. Although successful at first, Saul quickly fell afoul of God by disobeying his instructions. He was told that God had "rejected" him from being king, and that he would give the kingdom instead to "a man after [my] own heart" who was "better than you."
The Bible next says that the prophet Samuel sought a new king from the sons of Jesse of Bethlehem. Samuel examined seven of Jesse's sons, but said to him, "The Lord has not chosen these.” Samuel inquired if Jesse had any other sons. "There is still the youngest", Jesse answered, referring to David. Samuel said, "Send for him," and had him brought in. Then the Lord said, "Rise and anoint him; this is the one." So Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him.
At Saul's court
As punishment for his previous misdeeds, Saul was tormented by an "evil spirit from the Lord" (1 Samuel 16:14) and it was suggested he send for David, a young warrior famed for bravery and his lyre playing. Saul did so, and made David one of his armor-bearers. From then on, whenever "the spirit from God came on Saul, David would take up his lyre and play. Then relief would come to Saul; he would feel better, and the evil spirit would leave him."
David and Goliath
According to 1 Samuel 17, the 'men of Israel' under King Saul faced the Philistines near the Valley of Elah. David heard the Philistine giant Goliath challenge the Israelites to send their own champion to decide the outcome in single combat; Goliath used to regularly stand opposite the Israelite camp and shout insults concerning King Saul and the Israelite people. David told Saul he was prepared to face Goliath alone. David picked five smooth stones from a nearby brook, and struck Goliath in the forehead with a stone from his sling. Goliath fell dead, and David took Goliath's sword and beheaded him. The Philistines fled in terror. Saul inquired about the name of the young champion and David told him that he was the son of Jesse. In 2 Samuel 22, David credited God for delivering him from the hand of the Philistines and saving him from "the snares of death," in his psalm, "David’s Song of Praise."
In some translations 2 Samuel 21:19 states that Goliath was killed by Elhanan son of Jair from Bethlehem. According to some scholars, "most likely, storytellers displaced the deed from the otherwise obscure Elhanan onto the more famous character, David."
David and Jonathan
Saul made David a commander over his armies and offered him his daughter Michal in marriage for bringing 100 foreskins of the Philistines but David brought back 200, saying "God was with me". David was successful in many battles, and his popularity awakened Saul's fears. Saul tried to arrange for David's death, but the plots only endeared David further to the people, and especially to Saul's son Jonathan, who loved David (1 Samuel 18:1, 2 Samuel 1:25–26). Jonathan warned David, who fled into the wilderness, gathered a band of followers and became the champion of the oppressed while evading Saul's pursuit. He accepted the town of Ziklag from the Philistine king Achish of Gath, but continued secretly to champion the Israelites. Achish marched against Saul, but David was excused from the war after suspicion from Philistine nobles that his loyalty could not be trusted.
Jonathan and Saul were killed in battle with the Philistines at Mount Gilboa. David mourned their deaths, especially that of Jonathan. He travelled to Hebron, where he was anointed king over Judah. In the north, Saul's son Ish-Bosheth was anointed by Abner as King of Israel. War ensued between Ish-Bosheth and David, until Ish-Bosheth was murdered. The assassins brought the head of Ish-Bosheth to David hoping for a reward, but David executed them for their crime. With the death of Saul's son, the elders of Israel came to Hebron and David was anointed King over Israel and Judah.
Jerusalem and the Davidic covenant
David conquered the Jebusite fortress of Jerusalem, and made it his capital. David brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, intending to build a temple. The prophet Nathan, announced that the temple would be built at a future date by one of David's sons (Solomon). Nathan told David that God had made a covenant with David, promising to establish the house of David: "Your throne shall be established forever."
Bathsheba and Uriah the Hittite
David committed adultery with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite. Bathsheba became pregnant. David sent for Uriah, who was with the Israelite army at the siege of Rabbah, so that he could sleep with his wife and conceal the identity of the child's father. Uriah refused to do so while his companions are in the field of battle and David sent him back to Joab, the commander, with a message instructing him to ensure that Uriah died in battle. David married Bathsheba and she bore his child, "but the thing that David had done displeased the Lord." The prophet Nathan confronted David, saying: "Why have you despised the word of God, to do what is evil in his sight? You have smitten Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and have taken his wife to be your wife." Nathan presented three punishments from God. First, that the "sword shall never depart from your house" (2 Samuel 12:10); second, that "Before your very eyes I will take your wives and give them to one who is close to you, and he will sleep with your wives in broad daylight", and finally, that "the son born to you will die" (2 Samuel 12:14).
David repented, yet David's child died. David left his lamentations, dressed himself, went to the House of the Lord and worshiped, and then returned home to eat. His servants asked why he wept when the baby was alive, but ended his mourning when the child dies. David replied: "While the child was still alive, I fasted and wept. I thought, 'Who knows? The LORD may be gracious to me and let the child live.' But now that he is dead, why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I will go to him, but he will not return to me." (2 Samuel 12:22–23)
David's son Absalom rebels
David's son Absalom rebelled, forcing David to flee Jerusalem as the kingdom plunged into civil war. However, David sent his servant Hushai to Absalom's court as a double agent both to thwart the counsel of Absalom's chief adviser, fellow traitor Ahitophel and relay intelligence to David's forces. Hushai is successful in persuading Absalom from immediately pursuing his father in favor of better preparing Absalom's own forces for a major battle, thus allowing David to regroup for it. In the battle of the Wood of Ephraim, Absalom's forces were defeated, and his head was caught in the branches of an oak, and David’s general Joab killed Absalom. When the news of the victory was brought to David, he was grief-stricken, and he cried out "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!"
When David had become old and bedridden, Adonijah, his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declared himself king. Bathsheba, David's favorite wife, and Nathan the prophet went to David and obtained his agreement that Solomon, Bathsheba's son should become king. David gave his final instructions, to Solomon including his promise that the line of Solomon and David will inherit the throne of Judah forever, and his request that Solomon kill his oldest enemies on his behalf. David died and was buried on Mount Zion.
David was born in Bethlehem, in the territory of the Tribe of Judah. His grandfather was Obed, whose mother was the Moabite Ruth and whose grandmother was the former prostitute Rahab. David's father was Jesse. His mother is not named in the Bible, but the Talmud identifies her as Nitzevet daughter of Adael. David had seven older brothers and two sisters, Zeruiah and Abigail.
David had eight wives: Michal, the second daughter of King Saul; Ahinoam the Jezreelite; Abigail the Carmelite, previously wife of Nabal; Maachah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur; Haggith; Abital; Eglah; and Bathsheba. The Book of Chronicles lists his sons by various wives and concubines. In Hebron, David had six sons 1 Chronicles 3:1–3: Amnon, by Ahinoam; Daniel, by Abigail; Absalom, by Maachah; Adonijah, by Haggith; Shephatiah, by Abital; and Ithream, by Eglah. By Bathsheba, his sons were: Shammua; Shobab;Nathan; and Solomon. David's sons born in Jerusalem by other wives included: Ibhar; Elishua; Eliphelet; Nogah; Nepheg; Japhia; Elishama; and Eliada. 2 Samuel 5:14–16 According to 2 Chronicles 11:18, Jerimoth, who is not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his sons. According to 2 Samuel 9:11, David also welcomed Jonathan's son Mephibosheth to his table after giving him the land which previously belonged to King Saul.
David also had at least one daughter, Tamar, by Maachah, who was raped by Amnon, Tamar's half-brother. Tamar's rape leads to Amnon's death.2 Samuel 13:1–29 Absalom, Amnon's half-brother and Tamar's full-brother, waits two years, then avenges his sister by sending his servants to kill Amnon at a feast to which Absalom had invited all the king's sons. 2 Samuel 13
Two archaeological finds, the Tel Dan Stele and the Mesha Stele, have direct bearing on the question of the existence of a historical David. The first of these is an Aramean victory stele (inscribed stone) discovered in 1993 at Tel Dan and dated c. 850–835 BC: it contains the phrase ביתדוד (bytdwd), which has been interpreted as "House of David". The Mesha Stele from Moab, dating from approximately the same period, may also contain the name David in line 12, where the interpretation is uncertain, and in line 31, where one destroyed letter must be supplied, but apparently no other letter produces a word that makes sense in the context.
The evidence from surface surveys indicates that Judah at the time of David was a small tribal kingdom. The Bronze and Iron Age remains of the City of David, the original urban core of Jerusalem identified with the reigns of David and Solomon, were investigated extensively in the 1970s and 1980s under the direction of Yigal Shiloh of the Hebrew University, but failed to discover significant evidence of occupation during the 10th century BC. In 2005 Eilat Mazar reported the discovery of a Large Stone Structure which she claimed was David's palace, but the site is contaminated and cannot be accurately dated.
In December 2014, archaeologists from Mississippi State University announced the discovery of six bullae which suggests that some type of government activity was being conducted in the 10th century, and thus supports the existence of David.
Academic views on the biblical account
The biblical account about David comes from the Books of Samuel and the Books of Chronicles. Chronicles merely retells Samuel from a different theological vantage point, and contains little (if any) information not available there, and the biblical evidence for David is therefore dependent almost exclusively on the material contained in the chapters from 1 Samuel 16 to 1 Kings 2.
Since Martin Noth put forward his analysis of the Deuteronomistic history, biblical scholars have accepted that these two books form part of a continuous history of Israel, compiled no earlier than the late 7th century BC, but incorporating earlier works and fragments. Samuel's account of David "seems to have undergone two separate acts of editorial slanting". The original writers show a strong bias against Saul, and in favour of David and Solomon. Many years later the Deuteronomists edited the material in a manner that conveyed their religious message, inserting reports and anecdotes that strengthened their monotheistic doctrine. Some of the materials in Samuel I and II—notably the boundary, allotment and administrative lists—are believed to be very early, since they correspond closely to what we know of the territorial conditions of the late Davidic-early Solomonic period.
Beyond this, the full range of possible interpretations is available. The late John Bright, in his History of Israel takes Samuel at face value. Donald B. Redford, however, thinks all reconstructions from biblical sources for the United Monarchy period are examples of "academic wishful thinking". Thomas L. Thompson rejects the historicity of the biblical narrative, "The history of Palestine and of its peoples is very different from the Bible's narratives, whatever political claims to the contrary may be. An independent history of Judea during the Iron I and Iron II periods has little room for historicizing readings of the stories of I-II Samuel and I Kings." Amihai Mazar however, concludes that based on recent archeological findings, like those in City of David, Khirbet Qeiyafa, Tel Dan, Tel Rehov, Khirbet en-Nahas and others "the deconstruction of United Monarchy and the devaluation of Judah as a state in 9th century is unacceptable interpretation of available historic data". According to Mazar, based on archeological evidences, United Monarchy can be described as a "state in development".
Some studies of David have been written: Baruch Halpern has pictured David as a lifelong vassal of Achish, the Philistine king of Gath; Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman have identified as the oldest and most reliable section of Samuel those chapters which describe David as the charismatic leader of a band of outlaws who captures Jerusalem and makes it his capital. Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor of the Hebrew Bible at Rhodes College and author of King David: A Biography, states the belief that David actually came from a wealthy family, was "ambitious and ruthless" and a tyrant who murdered his opponents, including his own sons.
Critical Bible scholarship holds that the biblical account of David’s rise to power is a political apology—an answer to contemporary charges against him, of his involvement in murders and regicide.
Jacob L. Wright, Associate Professor of Hebrew Bible at Emory University, has written that the most popular legends about David, including his killing of Goliath, his affair with Bathsheba, and his ruling of a United Kingdom of Israel rather than just Judah, are the creation of those who lived generations after him, in particular those living in the late Persian or Hellenistic period.
1 Samuel 16:12 "And he sent and brought him in. Now he was ruddy and had beautiful eyes and was handsome. And the LORD said, "Arise, anoint him, for this is he." - Holy Bible; English Standard Version. 1 Samuel 17:41-43 "And the Philistine moved forward and came near to David, with his shield-bearer in front of him. And when the Philistine looked and saw David, he disdained him, for he was but a youth, ruddy and handsome in appearance."
The Hebrew word for 'ruddy' used in the above passages is admoni (אדמני), from the root ADM (אדם, see also Adam and Edom). "Admoni", reddish-brown, was the ideal colour for men, and indicates David's heroic nature. Despite the fact his hair is not mentioned in the passages, the description led to a later Sephardic and Ashkenazi tradition that David was a red-head.
Abrahamic religious traditions
|King David the Prophet|
King David in Prayer, by Pieter de Grebber (c. 1640)
|Holy Monarch, Prophet, Reformer, Spiritual Poet & Musician, Vicegerent of God, Psalm-Receiver|
|Born||c. 1040 BC
|Died||c. 970 BC
|Feast||December 29 - Roman Catholicism|
|Attributes||Psalms, Harp, Head of Goliath|
David as Psalmist
While almost half of the Psalms are headed "A Psalm of David" (though the phrase can also be translated as "to David" or "for David") and tradition identifies several with specific events in David’s life (e.g., Psalms 3, 7, 18, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63 and 142), the headings are late additions and no psalm can be attributed to David with certainty.
Psalm 34 is attributed to David on the occasion of his escape from the Abimelech (king) Achish by pretending to be insane. According to the narrative in 1 Samuel 21, instead of killing the man who had exacted so many casualties from him, Abimelech allows David to depart, exclaiming, "Am I so short of madmen that you have to bring this fellow here to carry on like this in front of me? Must this man come into my house?"
David is an important figure in Judaism. Historically, David's reign represented the formation of a coherent Jewish kingdom centered in Jerusalem. David is an important figure within the context of Jewish messianism. In the Hebrew Bible, it is written that a human descendant of David will occupy the throne of a restored kingdom and usher in a messianic age.
David is also viewed as a tragic figure; his acquisition of Bathsheba, and the loss of his son are viewed as his central tragedies.
Many legends have grown around the figure of David. According to one Rabbinic tradition, David was raised as the son of his father Jesse and spent his early years herding his father's sheep in the wilderness while his brothers were in school. Only at his anointing by Samuel—when the oil from Samuel's flask turned to diamonds and pearls—was his true identity as Jesse's son revealed.
David's adultery with Bathsheba was only an opportunity to demonstrate the power of repentance, and the Talmud states that it was not adultery at all, quoting a Jewish practice of divorce on the eve of battle. Furthermore, according to Talmudic sources, the death of Uriah was not to be considered murder, on the basis that Uriah had committed a capital offence by refusing to obey a direct command from the King. However, in tractate Sanhedrin, David expressed remorse over his transgressions and sought forgiveness. God ultimately forgave David and Bathsheba but would not remove their sins from Scripture.
According to midrashim, Adam gave up 70 years of his life for the life of David. Also, according to the Talmud Yerushalmi, David was born and died on the Jewish holiday of Shavuot (Feast of Weeks). His piety was said to be so great that his prayers could bring down things from Heaven.
The concept of the Messiah is important in Christianity. Originally an earthly king ruling by divine appointment ("the anointed one", as the title Messiah had it), the "son of David" became in the last two pre-Christian centuries the apocalyptic and heavenly one who would deliver Israel and usher in a new kingdom. This was the background to the concept of Messiahship in early Christianity, which interpreted the career of Jesus "by means of the titles and functions assigned to David in the mysticism of the Zion cult, in which he served as priest-king and in which he was the mediator between God and man". The early Church believed that "the life of David [foreshadowed] the life of Christ; Bethlehem is the birthplace of both; the shepherd life of David points out Christ, the Good Shepherd; the five stones chosen to slay Goliath are typical of the five wounds; the betrayal by his trusted counsellor, Achitophel, and the passage over the Cedron remind us of Christ's Sacred Passion. Many of the Davidic Psalms, as we learn from the New Testament, are clearly typical of the future Messiah." In the Middle Ages, "Charlemagne thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars, as a 'new David'. [This was] not in itself a new idea, but [one whose] content and significance were greatly enlarged by him". The linking of David to earthly kingship was reflected in later Medieval cathedral windows all over Europe through the device of the Tree of Jesse, its branches demonstrating how divine kingship descended from Jesse, through his son David, to Jesus.
Western Rite churches (Lutheran, Roman Catholic) celebrate his feast day on 29 December, Eastern-rite on 19 December. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate the feast day of the "Holy Righteous Prophet and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together with Joseph and James, the Brother of the Lord.
Latter Day Saints
In the Latter Day Saint movement, the Book of Mormon offers a negative commentary on David's practice of polygamy. In the Book of Jacob, the Nephite nation begins to practice polygamy, justifying it by the example of David and Solomon. In response the prophet Jacob denounces both David's taking of "many wives" and the Nephites' taking of multiple wives, though he stops short of denouncing polygamy altogether.
Editions of the Doctrine and Covenants utilized by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the largest Latter Day Saint denomination, state that of David's sexual relationships, only his relationship with Bathsheba was a sin. However, in consequence of this sin and the further sin of killing Uriah, David had "fallen from exaltation" and would not be married to any of his wives in the next life.
The Foundation for Apologetic Information & Research argues that there is no contradiction between the Book of Mormon and Doctrine and Covenants because the Lord authorized David to have some wives, but not "many" wives. They see a parallel between Jacob 2:24 and Deuteronomy 17:17, which some rabbis interpreted as a limit of four wives per husband. When David took Bathsheba, he crossed the line into having "many" wives, which he was not authorized to do. Jacob's denunciation then becomes, not a complete denunciation of David's polygamy, but a denunciation of unauthorized indulgence in polygamy.
The Community of Christ, the second-largest Latter Day Saint faction, does not accept the validity of 132nd section of the LDS Doctrine and Covenants; nor does the Church of Christ (Temple Lot), the Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerite), and many other smaller factions. Although the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite) accepted the validity of polygamy as an institution, they do not accept Doctrine and Covenants 132, nor do they believe that Joseph Smith instituted or taught it (they believe that James Strang was responsible for that, when he released his Book of the Law of the Lord in 1850).
David (Arabic داود, Dāwūd) is a highly important figure in Islam as one of the major prophets sent by God to guide the Israelites. David is mentioned several times in the Qur'an, often with his son Solomon. The actual Arabic equivalent to the Hebrew Davīd is Dawūd. In the Qur'an: David killed Goliath (II: 251), Goliath was a powerful king who used to invade random kingdoms and villages. Goliath was spreading evil and corruption. When David killed Goliath, God granted him kingship and wisdom and enforces it (XXXVIII: 20). David is made God's "vicegerent on earth" (XXXVIII: 26) and God further gives David sound judgment (XXI: 78; XXXVII: 21–24, 26) as well as the Psalms, which are regarded as books of divine wisdom (IV: 163; XVII, 55). The birds and mountains unite with David in uttering praise to God (XXI: 79; XXXIV: 10; XXXVIII: 18), while God made iron soft for David (XXXIV: 10), God also instructed David in the art of fashioning chain-mail out of iron (XXI: 80); an indication of the first use of Wrought iron, this knowledge gave David a major advantage over his bronze and cast iron-armed opponents, not to mention the cultural and economic impact. Together with Solomon, David gives judgment in a case of damage to the fields (XXI: 78) and David judges in the matter between two disputants in his prayer chamber (XXXVIII: 21–23). Since there is no mention in the Qur'an of the wrong David did to Uriah nor is there any reference to Bathsheba, Muslims reject this narrative.
Muslim tradition and the hadith stress David's zeal in daily prayer as well as in fasting. Qur'an commentators, historians and compilers of the numerous Stories of the Prophets elaborate upon David's concise Qur'anic narratives and specifically mention David's gift in singing his Psalms as well as his musical and vocal talents. His voice is described as having had a captivating power, weaving its influence not only over man but over all beasts and nature, who would unite with him to praise God.
In the Baha'i Faith, David is described as a reflection of God and one among a long line of prophets who came in the shadow of the dispensation of Moses to develop and consolidate the process he set in motion. The Kitáb-i-Íqán describes David as being "among the more exalted Manifestations who have appeared during the intervening period between the revelations of Moses and Muhammad, ever altered the law of the Qiblih".
Legend and legacy
In European Christian culture of the Middle Ages, David was made a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of chivalry. His life was thus proposed as a valuable subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect of David in the Nine Worthies was popularised firstly through literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for painters and sculptors.
David was considered as a model ruler and a symbol of the God-ordained monarchy throughout medieval Western Europe and Eastern Christendom. David was perceived as the biblical predecessor to Christian Roman and Byzantine emperors and the name "New David" was used as an honorific reference to these rulers. The Georgian Bagratids and the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia claimed a direct biological descent from him. Likewise, the Frankish Carolingian dynasty frequently connected themselves to David; Charlemagne himself occasionally used the name of David as his pseudonym.
Representation in art and literature
Famous sculptures of David include (in chronological order) those by:
- Donatello (c. 1430 – 1440), David (Donatello)
- Andrea del Verrocchio (1476), David (Verrocchio)
- Michelangelo (1504), David (Michelangelo)
- Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1624), David (Bernini)
- Antonin Mercié (1873)
- Dryden's long poem Absalom and Achitophel is an allegory that uses the story of the rebellion of Absalom against King David as the basis for his satire of the contemporary political situation, including events such as the Monmouth Rebellion (1685), the Popish Plot (1678) and the Exclusion Crisis
- Elmer Davis's 1928 novel Giant Killer retells and embellishes the Biblical story of David, casting David as primarily a poet who managed always to find others to do the "dirty work" of heroism and kingship. In the novel, Elhanan in fact killed Goliath but David claimed the credit; and Joab, David's cousin and general, took it upon himself to make many of the difficult decisions of war and statecraft when David vacillated or wrote poetry instead
- Gladys Schmitt's 1946 novel David the King was a richly embellished biography of David's entire life. The book took a risk, especially for its time, in portraying David's relationship with Jonathan as overtly homoerotic, but was ultimately panned by critics as a bland rendition of the title character
- In Thomas Burnett Swann's 1974 Biblical fantasy novel How are the Mighty Fallen, David and Jonathan are explicitly stated to be lovers. Moreover, Jonathan is a member of a winged semi-human race (possibly nephilim), one of several such races coexisting with humanity but often persecuted by it
- Joseph Heller wrote a 1984 novel based on David called God Knows, published by Simon & Schuster. Told from the perspective of an aging David, the humanity—rather than the heroism—of various biblical characters is emphasized. The portrayal of David as a man of flaws such as greed, lust, selfishness, and his alienation from God, the falling apart of his family is a distinctly 20th-century interpretation of the events told in the Bible
- Juan Bosch, a Dominican political leader and writer, wrote David: Biography of a King in 1966, as a realistic portrayal of David's life and political career
- Allan Massie wrote King David, a 1996 novel about David's career that portrays the king's relationship to Jonathan and others as openly homosexual
- Madeleine L'Engle's 1993 novel Certain Women explores family, the Christian faith, and the nature of God through the story of King David's family and an analogous modern family's saga
- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle used the story of David and Bathsheba as the main structure for the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of the Crooked Man. The betrayal of the Crooked Man is paralleled with David's betrayal of Uriah the Hittite, carried out in order to win Bathsheba
- Stefan Heym wrote The King David Report, a work of fiction published in 1998 by the Northwestern University Press depicting the writings of the Bible historian Ethan, upon King Solomon's orders, of a true and authoritative report on the life of David, Son of Jesse
- Malachi Martin's 1980 factional novel King of Kings: A Novel of the Life of David relates the life of David, Adonai's champion in his battle with the Philistine deity Dagon
- William Faulkner's Absalom, Absalom! (1936) refers to the story of Absalom, David's son; his rebellion against his father and his death at the hands of David's general, Joab. In addition it parallels Absalom's vengeance for the rape of his sister Tamar by his half-brother, Amnon.
- Dan Jacobson's The Rape of Tamar (1970) is an imagined account, by one of David's courtiers Yonadab, of the rape of Tamar by Amnon
- Gregory Peck played King David in the 1951 film David and Bathsheba, directed by Henry King
- Jeff Chandler played David in the 1960 film A Story of David
- Finlay Currie played an aged King David in the 1959 film Solomon and Sheba, directed by King Vidor
- Richard Gere portrayed King David in the 1985 film King David directed by Bruce Beresford
- Langley Kirkwood portrayed King David in the 2013 miniseries The Bible produced by Mark Burnett and Roma Downey.
- Josquin des Prez's Planxit autem David is a polyphonic setting of 2 Samuel, chapter one verses 17–27, David's lamentation for the dead Saul and Jonathan. His Absalon fili mi is a polyphonic lamentation from David's perspective on the death of his son.
- George Frideric Handel's oratorio Saul features David as one of its main characters
- Arthur Honegger's oratorio Le Roi David ("King David"), with a libretto by Rene Morax, was composed in 1921 and instantly became a staple of the choral repertoire; it is still widely performed
- Leonard Cohen's song "Hallelujah" (1984) has references to David ("there was a secret chord that David played and it pleased the Lord", "The baffled king composing Hallelujah") and Bathsheba ("you saw her bathing on the roof") in its opening verses
- The song "One of the Broken" by Paddy McAloon, performed by Prefab Sprout on the 1990 album Jordan: The Comeback, has a reference to David ("I remember King David, with his harp and his beautiful, beautiful songs, I answered his prayers, and showed him a place where his music belongs").
- "Mad About You", a song on Sting's 1991 album The Soul Cages, explores David's obsession with Bathsheba from David's perspective
- The Pixies' song "Dead" on Doolittle (1989) is a retelling of David's adultery and repentance
- Eric Whitacre composed a choral piece, "When David Heard" (1999), chronicling the death of Absalom and David's grief over losing his son
- The Song "Gimme a Stone" appears on the Little Feat 2000 album Chinese Work Songs chronicles the duel with Goliath and contains a lament to Absalom as a bridge.
- "The Angel of Death Came to David's Room" (2009) by MewithoutYou is in reference to King David
- "Your Heart" by Chris Tomlin on Music inspired by The Story (2011) is a prayer of David
- TV film David (1997), with Nathaniel Parker portraying King David
- Max von Sydow portrayed an older King David in the TV film Solomon, a sequel to David
- The NBC series Kings (2009), explicitly designed as a modern retelling of the David story
- The episode "Little Big Dog" of the PBS series Wishbone recounts the story of David, his favor with Saul, and his triumphant battle over Goliath
- The season two episode of Xena: Warrior Princess "Giant Killer" features David and his killing of Goliath
For a considerable period, starting in the 15th century and continuing until the 19th, French playing card manufacturers assigned to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology. In this context, the King of Spades was often known as "David".
- Carr, David M. & Conway, Colleen M., An Introduction to the Bible: Sacred Texts and Imperial Contexts, John Wiley & Sons (2010), p. 58
- Alter 2004, p. xii.
- 1 Samuel 8:4-22
- 1 Samuel 15:23
- 1 Samuel 13:14
- 1 Samuel 15:28
- 1 Samuel 16:10-12
- John Corbett (1911) King David The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton Company)
- "David’s Song of Praise", Bible Gateway, 2 Samuel 22
- David’s Secret Demons, Baruch Halpern, (2004), p.8
- 2&src=Samuel 1 Samuel 18:1, 2
- See David and Jonathan. There is debate amongst some scholars on whether this relationship might have been platonic, romantic or sexual. The Hebrew word 'ahav, meaning "love," has a very broad range of meanings, including simply the opposite of "hate" (The New Brown-Driver-Briggs-Gesenius Hebrew and English Lexicon , p. 12), which can be shown by loyalty, as in 1 Samuel 18:16, "All Israel and Judah loved David, because he led them in their campaigns." Boswell, John. Same-sex Unions in Premodern Europe. New York: Vintage, 1994; Martti Nissinen, Homoeroticism in the Biblical World, Minneapolis, 1998; When Heroes Love:. The Ambiguity of Eros in the Stories of Gilgamesh and David (New York & Chichester, Columbia University Press, 2005); Homosexuality and Liminality in the Gilgamesh and Samuel (Amsterdam, Hakkert, 2007); Gagnon, The Bible and Homosexual Practice. Texts and Hermeneutics (Nashville, Abingdon Press, 2001); Markus Zehnder, "Observations on the Relationship Between David and Jonathan and the Debate on Homosexuality", Westminster Theological Journal 69 (2007) Nevertheless, the Biblical narrative depicts their relationship favourably.
- 2 Samuel 5
- BibleGateway.com 2 Samuel 8:7
- Stassen, Glen H; Gushee, David P (2003). Kingdom Ethics: Following Jesus in Contemporary Context. InterVarsity Press. p. 200.
- 2 Samuel 11
- 2Samuel 18:14–15
- 2 Samuel 18:33, King James Version
- 1 Kings 1
- 1 Kings 2
- Mathew 1:5-6
- Talmud Tractate Bava Batra 91a
- 1 Chronicles 2:15-16
- McKenzie, Steven F., King David, A Biography, Oxford University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-19-513273-4
- Mykytiuk, Lawrence J. (2004). "Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200–539 B.C.E." (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature), pp. 265–279.
- Finkelstein, Israel; Neil Asher SilbermanDavid and Solomon: In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition Simon & Schuster Ltd (16 October 2006) ISBN 978-0-7432-4362-9 p32
- See David Ussishkin, "Solomon's Jerusalem: The Text and the Facts on the Ground," in: A.G. Vaughn and A.E. Killebrew (eds.), Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period, (Society of Biblical Literature, Symposium Series, No. 18), Atlanta, 2003, pp. 103–115. See also Cahill, J., "David's Jerusalem, Fiction or Reality? The Archaeological Evidence Proves It," and Steiner, M., "David's Jerusalem, Fiction or Reality? It's Not There: Archaeology Proves a Negative," both in Biblical Archaeology Review 24 (July/August 1998). (These two scholars argue opposite sides of the case for a Jerusalem in keeping with the biblical portrayal).
- See Eilat Mazar, "Did I find David's Temple?" in Biblical Archeology Review, Jan/Feb 2006
- MSU department announces major archaeological find
- Norman K. Gottwald, Tribes of Yahweh: A Sociology of the Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250–1050 BCE, Continuum 1999 pp.156–157, p.162.
- Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton University Press, 1992 pp.301–307, p.301.
- Thompson TL. "A view from Copenhagen: Israel and the History of Palestine".
- Mazar A. Archaeology and the Biblical Narrative: The Case of the United Monarchy.
- Baruch Halpern, "David's Secret Demons", 2001.Review of Baruch Halpern's "David's Secret Demons".
- Finkelstein and Silberman, "David and Solomon", 2006. See review "Archaeology" magazine.
- Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee.
- "1 Samuel 16:12".
- "1 Samuel 17:41-43".
- BiblicalTraining.org Red
- "Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible".
- "Biblos Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible".
- "Biblos Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible".
- Tsumura 2007, p. 423.
- Commentary on II Samuel 22, The Anchor Bible, Vol. 9. II Samuel. P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., 1984. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-06808-5
- Psalm 34, Interlinear NIV Hebrew-English Old Testament. Kohlenberger, J.R, 1987. Grand Rapids, Michigan:Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-40200-X
- 1 Samuel 21:15
- Jewish Encyclopedia, "David"
- Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin. pp. 107a.
- Zohar Bereishis 91b
- "David" article from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
- McManners, John. The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. p. 101.
- Saint of the Day for December 29 at St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C.
- "Behold, David and Solomon truly had many wives and concubines, which thing was abominable before me, saith the Lord." Jacob 2:24
- "Wherefore, my brethren, hear me, and hearken to the word of the Lord: For there shall not any man among you have save it be one wife; and concubines he shall have none" Jacob 2:27
- "For if I will, saith the Lord of Hosts, raise up seed unto me, I will command my people; otherwise they shall hearken unto these things." Jacob 2:30
- "David’s wives and concubines were given unto him of me, by the hand of Nathan, my servant, and others of the prophets who had the keys of this power; and in none of these things did he sin against me save in the case of Uriah and his wife; and, therefore he hath fallen from his exaltation, and received his portion; and he shall not inherit them out of the world, for I gave them unto another, saith the Lord." Doctrine and Covenants 132:39
- "Contradiction between Section 132 and Jacob 2". FAIR. 29 March 2012.
- A-Z of Prophets in Islam and Judaism, Wheeler, David
- Encyclopedia of Islam, Dawud
- Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of David
- Cole, Juan (1982). "The Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í Writings". Bahá'í Studies. monograph 9: 1–38.
- All You Want to Know But Didn't Think You Could Ask, Jessica Tinklenberg deVega - 2012, p 136
- The Kitab-i-Iqan: The Book of Certitude - Page 48, Baha'u'llah - 2003
- Garipzanov, Ildar H. The Symbolic Language of Royal Authority in the Carolingian World (c.751-877). BRILL. pp. 128, 225. ISBN 9004166696.
- Rapp, Stephen H., Jr. (1997). Imagining history at the crossroads: Persia, Byzantium, and the architects of the written Georgian past. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan. p. 528.
- "G. F. Handel's Compositions". The Handel Institute. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- "The Four King Truth" at the Urban Legends Reference Pages
- "Courts on playing cards", by David Madore, with illustrations of the Anglo-American and French court cards
Translations of 1 and 2 Samuel
- Samuel 1 and 2 at Bible Gateway
- Kirsch, Jonathan (2000) King David: the real life of the man who ruled Israel. Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-43275-4.
- Dever, William G. (2001) What did the Bible writers know and when did they know it? William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., Cambridge UK.
- Thiele, E.R. (1983). The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings. Eerdmans.
Commentaries on Samuel
- Auld, Graeme (2003). "1 & 2 Samuel". In James D. G. Dunn and John William Rogerson. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Bergen, David T. (1996). 1, 2 Samuel. B&H Publishing Group.
- Gordon, Robert (1986). I & II Samuel, A Commentary. Paternoster Press.
- Hertzberg, Hans Wilhelm (1964, trans. from German 2nd edition 1960). I & II Samuel, A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. Check date values in:
- Tsumura, David Toshio (2007). The First book of Samuel. Eerdmans.
- Breytenbach, Andries (2000). "Who Is Behind The Samuel Narrative?". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past, present, future: the Deuteronomistic history and the prophets. Brill.
- Coogan, Michael D. (2009) A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: the Hebrew Bible in its Context Oxford University Press
- Dick, Michael B (2004). "The History of "David's Rise to Power" and the Neo-Babylonian Succession Apologies". In Bernard Frank Batto and Kathryn L. Roberts. David and Zion: biblical studies in honor of J.J.M. Roberts. Eisenbrauns.
- Eynikel, Erik (2000). "The Relation Between the Eli Narrative and the Ark Narratives". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past, present, future: the Deuteronomistic history and the prophets. Brill.
- Halpern, Baruch (2001). David's secret demons: messiah, murderer, traitor, king. Eerdmans.
- Jones, Gwilym H (2001). "1 and 2 Samuel". In John Barton and John Muddiman. The Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press.
- Klein, R.W. (2003). "Samuel, books of". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. The international standard Bible encyclopedia. Eerdmans.
- Knight, Douglas A (1995). "Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomists". In James Luther Mays, David L. Petersen and Kent Harold Richards. Old Testament Interpretation. T&T Clark.
- Knight, Douglas A (1991). "Sources". In Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard. Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press.
- Rosner, Steven (2012). A Guide to the Psalms of David. Outskirts Press.
- Schleffer, Eben (2000). "Saving Saul from the Deuteronomist". In Johannes Cornelis de Moor and H.F. Van Rooy. Past, present, future: the Deuteronomistic history and the prophets. Brill.
- Soggin, Alberto (1987). Introduction to the Old Testament. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Spieckerman, Hermann (2001). "The Deuteronomistic History". In Leo G. Perdue. The Blackwell companion to the Hebrew Bible. Blackwell.
- Van Seters, John (1997). In search of history: historiography in the ancient world and the origins of biblical history. Eisenbrauns.
- Walton, John H (2009). "The Deuteronomistic History". In Andrew E. Hill, John H. Walton. A Survey of the Old Testament. Zondervan.
- Alexander, David; Alexander, Pat, eds. (1983). Eerdmans' handbook to the Bible ([New, rev.]. ed.). Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-3486-8.
- Bright, John (1981). A history of Israel (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Westminster Press. ISBN 0-664-21381-2.
- Bruce, F. F. (1963). Israel and the Nations. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
- Harrison, R.K. (1969). An Introduction to the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
- Kidner, Derek (1973). The Psalms. Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press. ISBN 0-87784-868-8.
- Noll, K. L. (1997). The faces of David. Sheffield: Sheffield Acad. Press. ISBN 1-85075-659-7.
- Thompson, J.A. (1986). Handbook of life in Bible times. Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press. ISBN 0-87784-949-8.
- Green, Adam (2007). King Saul, The True History of the First Messiah. Cambridge, UK: Lutterworth Press. ISBN 0718830741.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to David.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: David|
- Complete Bible Genealogy David's family tree
- Double Identity: Orpheus as David. Orpheus as Christ? Biblical Archaeology Review
- David engravings from the De Verda collection
- King David at the Christian Iconography web site
- The History of David, by William Caxton
David of the United Kingdom of Israel & Judah
Cadet branch of the Tribe of Judah
||King of Judah
1010 BC–1003 BC
|King of the United
Israel and Judah
1003 BC–970 BC