Federated state

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Not to be confused with Sovereign state.

A federated state (which may be referred to as a state, a province, a canton, a Land, etc.) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federal union.[1] Such states differ from fully sovereign states, in that they have transferred a portion of their sovereign powers to a federal government.[2] Importantly, when states choose to federate, they lose their standing as persons of international law. Instead, the federal union as a single entity becomes the sovereign state for purposes of international law.[3] A federated state holds administrative jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and is a form of regional government.

In some cases, a federation is created from a union of political entities, which are either independent, or dependent territories of another sovereign entity (most commonly a colonial power).[4] In other cases, federated states have been created out of the regions of previously unitary states.[5] Once a federal constitution is formed, the rules governing the relationship between federal and regional powers become part of the country's constitutional law and not international law.

In countries with federal constitutions, there is a division of power between the central government and the component states. These entities - states, provinces, cantons, Länder, etc. - are partially self-governing and are afforded a degree of constitutionally guaranteed autonomy that varies substantially from one federation to another.[6] Depending on the form the decentralization of powers takes, a federated state's legislative powers may or may not be overruled or vetoed by the federal government. Laws governing the relationship between federal and regional powers can be amended through the federal constitution and state constitutions.

List of constituents by federation[edit]

The "federated units" in the table below have inherent governmental authority in the federation's constitutional system, while the "other units" are delegated authority by the federal government or are administered directly by it. * indicates federal capital (or federated units that contain it) ** actively disputed by other sovereign state(s) and/or international community

Federation Federated units Other units
 Argentina[7] 23 provinces:
1 autonomous city:
 Autonomous City of Buenos Aires*
 Australia[8] 6 states:
10 territories:
 Australian Capital Territory*
 Northern Territory
 Christmas Island
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands
 Norfolk Island[9]
 Jervis Bay Territory
 Ashmore and Cartier Islands
 Australian Antarctic Territory
 Coral Sea Islands Territory
 Heard Island and McDonald Islands
 Austria[10] 9 states:
 Belgium[11]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2 entities:[9]
 Republika Srpska
 Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina*
1 self-governing district:
Brčko (officially condominium of both constituents)
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself a federation with 10 cantons:
Una-Sana • Posavina • Tuzla • Zenica-Doboj • Bosnian Podrinje • Central Bosnia • Herzegovina-Neretva • West Herzegovina • Sarajevo* • West Bosnia
 Brazil[12] 26 states:
1 federal district:
Federal District (Brazil) Distrito Federal (Brasília)*[Federated states 3]
5,564 municipalities[Federated states 4][13]
 Canada[14] 10 provinces:
3 territories:
 Northwest Territories
 Nunavut
 Yukon
 Comoros 3 islands:[9]
 Anjouan
Grande Comore*
Mohéli
 Ethiopia[15] 9 regions:
Afar • Amhara • Benishangul-Gumuz • Gambela • Harari • Oromiya • Somali • Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region • Tigray
2 chartered cities:
Addis Ababa* • Dire Dawa
 Germany[16] 16 states:
 India[17] 29 states:
Andhra Pradesh • Arunachal Pradesh • Assam • Bihar • Chhattisgarh • Goa • Gujarat • Haryana • Himachal Pradesh • Jammu and Kashmir • Jharkhand • Karnataka • KeralaMadhya Pradesh • Maharashtra • Manipur • Meghalaya • Mizoram • Nagaland • Odisha • Punjab • Rajasthan • Sikkim • Tamil Nadu • Telangana • Tripura • Uttar Pradesh • Uttarakhand • West Bengal
7 union territories:
Andaman and Nicobar Islands • Chandigarh • Dadra and Nagar Haveli • Daman and Diu • Lakshadweep • National Capitol Territory of Delhi* • Puducherry
 Iraq[18] 18 governorates:
Baghdād* • Salāh ad-Dīn • Diyālā • Wāsit • Maysān • Al-Basrah • Dhī Qār • Al-Muthannā • Al-Qādisiyyah • Bābil • Karbalā' • An-Najaf • Al-Anbar • Nīnawā • Duhok • Arbīl • Kirkuk (or At-Ta'mim) • As-Sulaymāniyyah
Autonomous region:
 Iraqi Kurdistan[9]
(The region overlaps the area of the governorates)
 Malaysia[19] 13 states:
3 federal territories:
 Putrajaya
 Kuala Lumpur*
 Labuan
 Mexico[20] 31 states:
1 federal district:
Distrito Federal (Ciudad de México)*
 Micronesia, Federated States of[21] 4 states:
 Chuuk
 Kosrae
 Pohnpei*
 Yap
   Nepal 14 zones:
Bagmati* • Bheri • Dhawalagiri • Gandaki • Janakpur • Karnali • Koshi • Lumbini • Mahakali • Mechi • Narayani • Rapti • Sagarmatha • Seti
 Nigeria[22] 36 states:
Anambra • Enugu • Akwa Ibom • Adamawa • Abia • Bauchi • Bayelsa • Benue • Borno • Cross River • Delta • Ebonyi • Edo • Ekiti • Gombe • Imo • Jigawa • Kaduna • Kano • Katsina • Kebbi • Kogi • Kwara • Lagos • Nasarawa • Niger State • Ogun • Ondo • Osun • Oyo • Plateau • Rivers • Sokoto • Taraba • Yobe • Zamfara
1 capital territory:
Abuja*
 Pakistan[23] 4 provinces:
Balochistan • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa • Punjab • Sindh
2 autonomous areas:[9]
Azad Kashmir Azad Kashmir
 Flag of Muslim League.png Gilgit–Baltistan
2 territories:
Islamabad Capital Territory* • Federally Administered Tribal Areas
 Russia[24][25] 46 oblasts:
22 republics:[9]
9 krais:
4 autonomous okrugs:[9]
3 federal-level cities:
Moscow*
Saint Petersburg
Sevastopol**
1 autonomous oblast:[9]
Jewish Autonomous Oblast
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 2 states:
 Somalia[26][27] 4 states:[Federated states 6]
 Somaliland  •  Puntland  • Jubaland  • Galmudug
 South Sudan 10 states:

Central Equatoria*  • Eastern Equatoria  • Jonglei  • Lakes  • Northern Bahr el Ghazal  • Unity  • Upper Nile  • Warrap  • Western Bahr el Ghazal  • Western Equatoria

 Sudan[28] 15 states:

Al Jazirah • Blue Nile  • Sennar  • White Nile  • North Darfur • South Darfur  • West Darfur  • Kassala • Al Qadarif • Red Sea  • Khartoum*  • Kurdufan • North Kurdufan • South Kurdufan  • Northern • River Nile

  Switzerland[29] 26 cantons:
 United Arab Emirates[30] 7 emirates:
 United States[31] 50 states:
1 federal district:
Washington, D.C.*
1 incorporated territory:
Palmyra Atoll
15 Unincorporated territories:
 American Samoa
 Guam
 Northern Mariana Islands
 Puerto Rico
 U.S. Virgin Islands
Baker Island  • Howland Island  • Jarvis Island  • Johnston Atoll  • Kingman Reef  • Midway Atoll  • Navassa Island  • Wake Island
(The United States also claims Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank).
 Venezuela[32] 23 states:
1 federal district:
Capital District (Caracas)*
1 federal dependency:
Federal Dependencies of Venezuela

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Flanders and Wallonia are subdivided into five provinces each, which are mandated by the Constitution of Belgium. Provincial governance are the responsibility of the regional governments.
  2. ^ The communities and regions are separate government institutions with different areas of responsibility. The communities are organized based on linguistic boundaries, which are different from regiBold textonal boundaries.
  3. ^ The federal city has a level of self-ruling equal to the other main federal units.
  4. ^ The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not simply dependent subdivisions of the states.
  5. ^ Saint Kitts is governed directly by the federal government.
  6. ^ Adopted constitution accommodates existing regional governments, with the ultimate number and boundaries of the Federal Member States to be determined by the House of the People of the Federal Parliament.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Australian National Dictionary: Fourth Edition, pg 1395. (2004) Canberra. ISBN 978-0-19-551771-2.
  2. ^ Constitution of the United States of America: Tenth Amendment, Reserved Powers
  3. ^ Crawford, J. (2006). The Creation of States in International Law. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  4. ^ Examples are Australia and the United States.
  5. ^ This occurred in Belgium in 1993. The Belgian regions had previously devolved powers.
  6. ^ For instance, Canadian provinces and Swiss cantons possess substantially more powers and enjoy more protection against interference and infringments from the central government than most non-Western federations.
  7. ^ Daniel, Kate; Special Broadcasting Service Corporation (2008). SBS World Guide: The Complete Fact File on Every Country, 16th ed.. Prahran, Victoria, Australia: Hardie Grant Books. p. 827. ISBN 978-1-74066-648-0. p26. 
  8. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p38
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Autonomous region. See more at List of autonomous areas by country
  10. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p46
  11. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p74
  12. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p101
  13. ^ Article 18
  14. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p132
  15. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p239
  16. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p275
  17. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p328
  18. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p346
  19. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p460
  20. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p481
  21. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p486
  22. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p537
  23. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p549
  24. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p600
  25. ^ Federal structure of Russia, Article 65 of Russian Constitution.
  26. ^ "The Federal Republic of Somalia - Harmonized Draft Constitution". Federal Republic of Somalia. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  27. ^ "Guidebook to the Somali Draft Provisional Constitution". Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  28. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p687
  29. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p700
  30. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p760
  31. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p774
  32. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p798