Kunal, Haryana

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Archaeological site
Kunal is located in Haryana
Kunal is located in India
Coordinates: 29°30′N 75°41′E / 29.500°N 75.683°E / 29.500; 75.683Coordinates: 29°30′N 75°41′E / 29.500°N 75.683°E / 29.500; 75.683
Country India
Province Haryana
Time zone Indian Standard Time (UTC+5.30)

Kunal is a pre-harappan settlement located in Fatehabad district, Haryana, India. This Indus Valley Civilisation site was a village, in comparison to towns like Kalibangan and cities like Rakhigarhi of IVC. This site is located on Sarasvati plain.[1]

Historical significance[edit]

This small settlement (1 hectare) yielded Hakra ware at entry level. Houses were built on an artificially elevated place.[2]

Button seal[edit]

Discovery of a button seal during 1998-99 excavations by Archaeological Survey of India exhibit this culture's ancestry to the Rehman Dheri examples.[3] This seal contained picture of two deer on one side and geometrical pattern on other side, which is comparable to a specimen from Rehman-Dheri (Baluchistan), datable to c. 4000 BCE.[3]

Earliest pre-Harappan[edit]

This site is recognised as earliest Pre-Harappan site.[1]


Designs on pottery included pipal leaves (ficus religiosa) and humped bull[2] which were important motiffs found on Mature Harappan seals. Bone tools, micro blades made of chalcedony,copper fish hooks and arrow heads were also found here.[2] Six steatite seals and one shell seal with geometric patterns were found.[2] These six seals were of square shape, made of grey stone and resembled typical Mature Harappan seals.[1] Also found at this site are copper rods, rings, bangle pieces, terrecotta objects like bangles, balls, animal figurines,net-sinker, toy cart frames,disk and toys, stone balls, shell bangles etc.[3]


Large Hoards of jewellery were found at this location, including two silver pieces called tiaras, gold ornaments, beads of semi precious stones etc.[2] Number of hoards found at this site included silver bangle, copper tools etc.[1]

Copper smelting[edit]

Excavations on south-west side of mound revealed copper furnaces with smelting material and copper ingots and slags were also found at this site.[3]


Rice (probably wild) is found from Kunal as well as from Balu, both in Haryana.[1]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e McIntosh, Jane R. (2008). The Ancient Indus Valley : New Perspectives. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. pp. 68, 80,82,105,113. ISBN 9781576079072. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India : from the Stone Age to the 12th century. New Delhi: Pearson Education. pp. 109, 145–6. ISBN 9788131711200. 
  3. ^ a b c d Archaeological Survey of, India (2004). "Excavations at Kunal,Haryana" (PDF). Indian Archaeology 1998-99 A Review: 11–12. Retrieved 13 July 2012.