Euston railway station

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Euston National Rail London Overground
London Euston
Euston Station London - geograph.org.uk - 1309275.jpg
Main entrance in 2009, showing the statue of Robert Stephenson
Euston is located in Central London
Euston
Euston
Location of Euston in Central London
Location Euston Road
Local authority London Borough of Camden
Managed by Network Rail
Station code EUS
DfT category A
Number of platforms 18
Accessible Yes[1]
Fare zone 1
OSI Euston tube station London Underground [2]
Euston Square London Underground
St Pancras London Underground National Rail
King's Cross London Underground National Rail
Cycle parking Yes – platforms 17–18 and external
Toilet facilities Yes
National Rail annual entry and exit
2011–12 Increase 36.607 million[3]
2012–13 Increase 38.299 million[3]
2013–14 Increase 41.911 million[3]
2014–15 Increase 42.952 million[3]
2015–16 Decrease 41.678[a] million[3]
– interchange  Increase 3.854 million[3]
Railway companies
Original company London & Birmingham Railway
Pre-grouping London & North Western Railway
Post-grouping London Midland & Scottish Railway
Key dates
20 July 1837 Opened
1849 Expanded
1962–1968 Rebuilt
Other information
Lists of stations
External links
WGS84 51°31′42″N 0°07′59″W / 51.5284°N 0.1331°W / 51.5284; -0.1331Coordinates: 51°31′42″N 0°07′59″W / 51.5284°N 0.1331°W / 51.5284; -0.1331
Underground sign at Westminster.jpg London Transport portal
170433 at Edinburgh Waverley.JPG UK Railways portal

Euston railway station (also known as London Euston, /ˈlʌndən.ˈjstən/) is a central London railway terminus on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden, managed by Network Rail. It is the southern terminus of the West Coast Main Line to Liverpool Lime Street, Manchester Piccadilly, Edinburgh Waverley and Glasgow Central. It is also the mainline station for Birmingham New Street, Crewe, Chester, Shrewsbury and Holyhead connecting with ferries to Dublin.

The station is the fifth-busiest station in Britain and the country's busiest inter-city passenger terminal, providing a gateway from London to the West Midlands, North West England, North Wales and Scotland. High-speed services are run by Virgin Trains and overnight services to Scotland are provided by the Caledonian Sleeper, while regional and commuter services are accommodated by London Midland. The station is also connected to Euston tube station and is close to Euston Square tube station, both on the London Underground, and close to King's Cross and St Pancras railway stations. London Overground provide local services via the Watford DC Line.

Euston was the first intercity railway terminal in London, planned by George and Robert Stephenson. The original station was designed by Philip Hardwick and built by William Cubitt, and became known for its distinctive Arch over the station entrance. It opened as the terminus of the London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) on 20 July 1837. Euston was expanded after the L&BR was amalgamated with other companies to form the London and North Western Railway, leading to the original sheds being replaced by the Great Hall in 1849. Capacity was increased throughout the 19th century from two platforms to fifteen. The station was controversially rebuilt in the mid-1960s, including the demolition of the Arch and the Great Hall, to accommodate the electrified West Coast Main Line, and the revamped station still attracts criticism over its architecture. Euston remains a significant station into the 21st century, and is proposed to be the London terminus of the future High Speed 2 project.

Location[edit]

Euston Station is set back from Euston Square and Euston Road on the London Inner Ring Road, between Cardington Street and Eversholt Street in the London Borough of Camden.[4] It is one of 19 stations in the country that are managed by Network Rail.[5] As of 2016, it is the fifth-busiest station in Britain[b][6] and the busiest inter-city passenger terminal in the country.[7] It is the sixth-busiest terminus in London by entries and exits.[8][9][10][11]

There is a bus station directly in front of the main entrance for several key bus services, including 10, 59, 73, 205 and 390.[12]

History[edit]

Euston was the first intercity railway station in London. It opened on 20 July 1837 as the terminus of the London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR).[13] The old station building was demolished in the 1960s and replaced with the present building in the international modern style.[14]

The site was chosen in 1831 by George and Robert Stephenson, engineers of the L&BR. The area was mostly farmland at the edge of the expanding city, and adjacent to the New Road (now Euston Road), which had caused urban development.[15][16] The station was named after Euston Hall in Suffolk, the ancestral home of the Dukes of Grafton, the main landowners in the area.[17]

The station and railway have been owned by the L&BR (1837–1846),[18] the London and North Western Railway (LNWR) (1846–1923), the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) (1923–1948),[19] British Railways (1948–1994), Railtrack (1994–2002)[20] and Network Rail (2002–present).[21]

Old station[edit]

An early print of Euston showing the wrought iron roof of 1837.

The original station was built by William Cubitt. The first plan was to construct a building near the Regent's Canal in Islington that would provide a useful connection for London dockland traffic, before Robert Stephenson proposed an alternative site at Marble Arch. This was rejected by a provisional committee, and a proposal to end the line at Maiden Lane was rejected by the House of Lords in 1832. A terminus at Camden Town was announced by Stephenson the following year, receiving Royal Assent on 6 May, before an extension was approved in 1834, allowing the line to reach Euston Grove.[15][16]

Initial services were three outward and inwards trains each, reaching Boxmoor in just over an hour. On 9 April 1838, these were extended to a temporary halt at Denbigh Hall, near Bletchley, providing a coach service to Rugby. The permanent link to Curzon Street, Birmingham, opened on 17 September 1838, covering the 112 miles (180 km) in around 5¼ hours.[22]

The final gradient from Camden Town to Euston involved a crossing over the Regent's Canal that required a gradient of over 1 in 68. Because steam trains at the time could not climb such an ascent, they were cable-hauled on the down line towards Camden until 1844, after which they used a pilot engine.[23] The L&BR's Act of Parliament prohibited the use of locomotives in the Euston area, following concerns of local residents about noise and smoke from locomotives toiling up the incline.[24]

"Euston Arch": the original entrance to Euston Station (photographed in 1896)

The station building was designed by the classically trained architect Philip Hardwick[25][26] with a 200 ft (61 m)-long trainshed by structural engineer Charles Fox. It had two 420-foot (130 m)-long platforms, one each for departures and arrival. The main entrance portico, known as the Euston Arch was also designed by Hardwick, and was designed to symbolise the arrival of a major new transport system as well as being seen as "the gateway to the north".[27] It was 72 feet (22 m) high, and supported four 44 feet 2 inches (13.46 m) x 8 feet 6 inches (2.59 m) hollow Doric propylaeum columns made from Bramley Fall stone, the largest ever built.[28][29] It was completed in May 1838 and cost £35,000 (now £2,842,000).[27]

The first railway hotels in London were built in Euston. Two hotels designed by Hardwick opened in 1839, which each located either side of the Arch; the Victoria on the west had basic facilities while the Euston on the east was designed for first-class passengers.[30]

The Great Hall, Euston Station

The station grew rapidly as traffic increased. Its workload increased from handling 2,700 parcels a month in 1838 to 52,000 a month in 1841.[18] By 1845, 140 people were working there and trains began to run late because of a lack of capacity.[30] The following year, two new platforms (later Nos. 9 and 10) were constructed on vacant land to the west of the station that had been reserved for Great Western Railway services.[31] The L&BR amalgamated with the Manchester & Birmingham Railway and the Grand Junction Railway in 1846 to form the LNWR, with the company headquarters at Euston. This required a new block of offices to be built between the Arch and the platforms.[18]

The station's facilities were greatly expanded with the opening of the Great Hall on 27 May 1849, which replaced the original sheds. It was designed by Hardwick's son Philip Charles Hardwick in classical style, and 125 ft (38 m) long, 61 ft (19 m) wide and 62 ft (19 m) high, with a coffered ceiling and a sweeping double flight of stairs leading to offices at its northern end.[31] Architectural sculptor John Thomas contributed eight allegorical statues representing the cities served by the line.[32] The station stood on Drummond Street, further back from Euston Road than the front of the modern complex; Drummond Street now terminates at the side of the station but then ran across its front.[33] A short road called Euston Grove ran from Euston Square towards the arch.[34]

An additional bay platform (later No. 7) opened in 1863, and was used for local services to Kensington (Addison Road).[35] The station gained two new platforms (Nos. 1 and 2) in 1873 along with a separate entrance for cabs from Seymour Street. At the same time, the station roof was raised by 6 feet (1.8 m) to be able to accommodate smoke from the engines more easily.[36]

Plan of Euston station from 1888.

The continued growth of long-distance railway traffic led to a major expansion along the station's west side starting in 1887. The work involved rerouting Cardington Street over a burial ground; to avoid public outcry, the graves were re-interred at St Pancras Cemetery.[36] Two extra platforms (Nos. 4–5) opened in 1891[37], and four further departure platforms (now Nos. 12–15) opened on 1 July 1892, bringing the total to fifteen, along with a separate booking office on Drummond Street.[36][13]

The line between Euston and Camden was doubled between 1901 and 1906.[38] A new booking hall opened in 1914, constructed on part of the cab yard. The Great Hall was fully redecorated and refurbished between 1915 and 1916, and again in 1927.[39] The station's ownership was transferred to the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) in the 1923 grouping.[19]

Apart from the lodges on Euston Road and statues now on the forecourt, few relics of the old station survive.[40] The National Railway Museum's collection at York includes Edward Hodges Baily's statue of George Stephenson, both from the Great Hall;[41] the entrance gates;[42] and an 1846 turntable discovered during demolition.[43]

London, Midland and Scottish Railway redevelopment[edit]

By the 1930s Euston had become congested, and the LMS considered rebuilding it. In 1931 it was reported that a site for a new station was being sought, with the most likely option being behind the existing station in the direction of Camden Town.[44] In 1935, the LMS announced that the station (including the hotel and offices) would be rebuilt using a government loan guarantee.[45]

In 1937 it appointed the architect Percy Thomas to produce designs.[46] He proposed a new American-inspired station that would involve removing or re-siting the arch, and included office frontages along Euston Road and a helicopter pad on the roof.[45][47] The redevelopment work began on 12 July 1938, when 100,000 tons of limestone was extracted for the new building and some new flats constructed to rehouse people displaced by the works. The project was then shelved indefinitely because of World War II.[45]

The station was damaged several times during the Blitz in 1940. Part of the Great Hall's roof was destroyed, and a bomb landed between platforms 2 and 3, destroying offices and part of the hotel.[45]

New station[edit]

The Euston Arch being demolished, February 1962

By the 1950s, passengers considered Euston to be in squalor and covered in soot, leading to a full redecoration and restoration in 1953. Ticket machines were modernised. The Arch was now surrounded by further property development and kiosks, and was in need of restoration.[48]

In 1959, BR announced a complete rebuild of Euston that could accommodate a fully electrified West Coast Main Line.[48] Because of the restricted layout of track and tunnels at the northern end, enlargement could be accomplished only by expanding southwards over the area occupied by the Great Hall and the Arch.[48][49] Consequently, the London County Council were given notice that the Arch and the Great Hall would be demolished, which was granted on the proviso that the Arch would be restored and re-sited. This was financially unviable as BR estimated it would cost at least £190,000 (now £4,780,000).[48]

The Arch demolition was formally announced by the Minister of Transport, Ernest Marples in July 1961, but immediately drew widespread protest. Experts did not believe the £190,000 estimate and suspected foreign firms could move the Arch on rollers for substantially less. The Earl of Euston, the Earl of Rosse and John Betjeman all protested against the redevelopment. On 16 October, 75 architects and students staged a formal demonstration against the demolition inside the Great Hall, and a week later Sir Charles Wheeler led a deputation to speak with the Prime Minister Harold Macmillan against the demolition. Macmillan replied that as well as the cost, there was no place large enough to put the Arch that would look in keeping with its surroundings. Demolition began on 6 November and was completed within four months.[50]

The new station was constructed by Taylor Woodrow Construction to a design by London Midland Region architects of British Railways, William Robert Headley and RL Moorcroft.[51] in consultation with Richard Seifert & Partners,[52] Redevelopment began in summer 1962 and progressed from east to west, including the demolition of the Great Hall, while a 11,000-square-foot (1,000 m2) temporary building housed ticket offices and essential facilities.[50] The project was planned to keep Euston working to 80% capacity during the works, with at least 11 platforms in operation at any time.[53] While services were diverted elsewhere where practical, the station remained operational throughout the works.[50]

The first phase of construction involved building 18 new platforms with two track bays to handle parcels above this, along with a signal and communications building and various staff offices. The parcel deck was reinforced by 5,500 tons of structural steelwork.[53] The signalling on the main routes leading out of the station was completely reworked along with the electrification of the lines, including the British Rail Automatic Warning System.[54] Fifteen platforms had been complete by 1966, and the full electric service began on 3 January. A fully automated parcel depot, sited above platforms 3 to 18, opened on 7 August 1966.[14] The new station was opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 14 October 1968.[55]

The modern departure board in 2011

The station is a long, low structure, 200 feet (61 m) wide and 150 feet (46 m) deep under a 36-foot (11 m) high roof. It opened with an integrated automatic ticket facilities and a wide variety of shops; the first of its kind for any British station.[55]

The original plan was to construct office buildings over the station, whose rents would help fund the cost of the rebuilding, but this was scrapped after a government White Paper was released in 1963 that restricted the rate of commercial office development in London.[14] A second phase of development began in 1979, architected by Richard Seifert & Partners, which added 405,000 square feet (37,600 m2) of office space along the front of the station, consisting of three low-rise office towers overlooking Melton Street and Eversholt Street.[56] The offices were occupied by British Rail,[57] then by Railtrack, and finally by Network Rail, which has now vacated[c] all but a small portion of one of the towers. These buildings are in a functional style; the main facing material is polished dark stone, complemented by white tiles, exposed concrete and plain glazing.[58]

The station has a single large concourse, separate from the train shed. Originally, there were no seats installed there to deter vagrants and crime, but these were added following complaints from passengers.[56] A few remnants of the older station remain: two Portland stone entrance lodges and a war memorial. A statue of Robert Stephenson by Carlo Marochetti, previously in the old ticket hall, stands in the forecourt.[40]

There is a large statue by Eduardo Paolozzi named Piscator dedicated to German theatre director Erwin Piscator at the front of the courtyard, which as of 2016 is reported as deteriorating.[59] Other pieces of public art, including low stone benches by Paul de Monchaux around the courtyard, were commissioned by Network Rail in 1990.[60] The station has catering units and shops, a large ticket hall and an enclosed car park with over 200 spaces.[61] The lack of daylight on the platforms compares unfavourably with the glazed trainshed roofs of traditional Victorian railway stations, but the use of the space above as a parcels depot released the maximum space at ground level for platforms and passenger facilities.[62]

Privatisation[edit]

Ownership of the station transferred from British Rail to Railtrack in 1994, passing to Network Rail in 2002 following the collapse of Railtrack.[21] In 2005 Network Rail was reported to have long-term aspirations to redevelop the station, removing the 1960s buildings and providing more commercial space by using the "air rights" above the platforms.[63]

In 2007, British Land announced that it had won the tender to demolish and rebuild the station, spending some £250m of its overall redevelopment budget of £1bn for the area. The number of platforms would increase from 18 to 21.[64] In 2008, it was reported that the Arch could be rebuilt.[65] In September 2011, the demolition plans were cancelled, and Aedas was appointed to give the station a makeover.[66]

In July 2014 a statue of Matthew Flinders, who circumnavigated the globe and charted Australia, was unveiled at Euston; it is thought that his grave lies under platform 15 at the station.[67]

High Speed 2[edit]

Map of the area around Euston, with proposed High Speed 2 redevelopment marked

In March 2010 the Secretary of State for Transport, Andrew Adonis announced that Euston was the preferred southern terminus of the proposed High Speed 2 line, which would connect to a newly-built station near Curzon Street and Fazeley Street in Birmingham.[68] This would require expansion to the south and west to create new sufficiently long platforms. These plans involved a complete reconstruction, involving the demolition of 220 Camden Council flats, with half the station providing conventional train services and the new half high-speed trains. The Command Paper suggested rebuilding the Arch, and included an artist's impression of it.[69]

The station will have 24 platforms serving both high-speed and ordinary lines at a low level. The flats demolished for the extension would be replaced by significant building work above. The underground station would be rebuilt and connected to Euston Square tube station. As part of the extension beyond Birmingham, the Mayor of London's office believed it will be necessary to build the proposed Crossrail 2 line via Euston to relieve 10,000 extra passengers forecast to arrive during an average day.[70][71][72][73]

To relieve pressure on Euston during and after rebuilding for High Speed 2, HS2 Ltd has proposed the diversion of some services to Old Oak Common (for Crossrail). This would include eight London Midland trains per hour originating/terminating between Tring and Milton Keynes Central inclusive.[74] In 2016, the Mayor Sadiq Khan endorsed the plans and suggested that all services should terminate at Old Oak Common while a more appropriate solution is found for Euston.[75]

The current scheme does not provide any direct access between High Speed 2 at Euston and the existing High Speed 1 from St Pancras. In 2015, plans were announced to link the two stations via a travelator service.[76]

Criticism[edit]

Euston station seen from above

Euston's 1960s style of architecture has been described as "a dingy, grey, horizontal nothingness"[77] and a reflection of "the tawdry glamour of its time", entirely lacking in "the sense of occasion, of adventure, that the great Victorian termini gave to the traveller".[78] Writing in The Times, Richard Morrison stated that "even by the bleak standards of Sixties architecture, Euston is one of the nastiest concrete boxes in London ... The design should never have left the drawing-board".[79] Michael Palin, explorer and travel writer, in his contribution to Great Railway Journeys titled "Confessions of a Trainspotter", likened it to "a great bath, full of smooth, slippery surfaces where people can be sloshed about efficiently".[80]

Access to parts of the station is difficult for people with physical disability. The introduction of lifts in 2010 made the taxi rank and underground station accessible from the concourse, though customers found them unreliable and frequently broken down.[81] Wayfindr technology was introduced to the station in 2015, to help the visually impaired navigate the station.[82]

The demolition of the original buildings in 1962 has been described as "one of the greatest acts of Post-War architectural vandalism in Britain" and is believed to have been approved directly by Macmillan, the first of a line of Prime Ministers who championed motorway building. The replacement trainshed has a low, flat roof, making no attempt to match the airy style of London's major 19th century trainsheds. The attempts made to preserve the earlier building, championed by Sir John Betjeman, led to the formation of the Victorian Society and heralded the modern conservation movement.[83] This movement saved the nearby high Gothic St Pancras station when threatened with demolition in 1966,[84] ultimately leading to its renovation in 2007 as the terminus of HS1 to the Continent.[85]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

On 26 April 1924, an electric multiple unit was in a rear-end collision with an excursion train carrying passengers from the FA Cup Final in Coventry.[86] Five passengers were killed. The accident was blamed on poor visibility owing to smoke and steam under the Park Street Bridge.[87]

On 27 August 1928, a passenger train crashed through the buffers. Thirty people were injured.[88]

On 10 November 1938, a suburban service collided into empty coaches after a signal was misinterpreted. 23 people were injured.[87]

On 6 August 1949, an empty train was accidentally directed into a service for Manchester, colliding into it at about 5 miles per hour (8.0 km/h). The accident was blamed on a lack of track circuiting and no proper indication of when platforms were occupied.[87]

1973 IRA attack[edit]

Extensive but superficial damage was caused by an IRA bomb that exploded close to a snack bar at approximately 1:10 pm on 10 September 1973, injuring eight people.[89] A similar explosive had detonated 50 minutes earlier at King's Cross.[90] The Metropolitan Police had received a three-minute warning[89] and were unable to evacuate the station completely, but British Transport Police evacuated much of the area just before the explosion.[91] In 1974, the mentally ill Judith Ward confessed to the bombing and was convicted of this and other crimes despite the evidence against her being highly suspect and Ward retracting her confessions. She was acquitted in 1992, and the actual culprit has not been found.[92]

National Rail[edit]

Euston has services from four different train operators:

Virgin Trains operates Intercity West Coast services:[93]

London Midland operates regional and commuter services.[96]

London Overground operates local commuter services.

Caledonian Sleeper operates two nightly services to Scotland from Sunday to Friday inclusive.[98]

Preceding station   Overground roundel (no text).svg National Rail logo.svg London Overground   Following station
Watford DC Line Terminus
National Rail National Rail
Watford Junction   Caledonian Sleeper
Lowland Caledonian Sleeper
  Terminus
Crewe   Caledonian Sleeper
Highland Caledonian Sleeper
(southbound)
  Terminus
Watford Junction   Caledonian Sleeper
Highland Caledonian Sleeper
(northbound)
  Terminus
Watford Junction or Milton Keynes Central   London Midland
London – Crewe
  Terminus
Harrow & Wealdstone or Watford Junction or Leighton Buzzard   London Midland
London-Milton Keynes Central/Northampton/Birmingham
  Terminus
Harrow & Wealdstone or Wembley Central or Watford Junction   London Midland
London Euston-Tring
  Terminus
Watford Junction or Milton Keynes Central or Coventry or Rugby   Virgin Trains
WCML London-West Midlands
  Terminus
Watford Junction or Rugby   Virgin Trains
WCML London – Shrewsbury
  Terminus
Nuneaton or Warrington Bank Quay   Virgin Trains
WCML London – Blackpool
  Terminus
Milton Keynes Central or Nuneaton   Virgin Trains
WCML London – Chester/North Wales/Holyhead for Dublin
  Terminus
Watford Junction or Milton Keynes Central or Stafford or Crewe or Runcorn   Virgin Trains
WCML London – Liverpool
  Terminus
Watford Junction or Milton Keynes Central or Stafford or Stoke-on-Trent or Crewe   Virgin Trains
WCML London – Manchester
  Terminus
Watford Junction or Milton Keynes Central or Stafford or Crewe   Virgin Trains
WCML London-Crewe
  Terminus
Watford Junction or Milton Keynes Central or Tamworth or Warrington Bank Quay or Preston   Virgin Trains
WCML London-Glasgow/North West
  Terminus
Milton Keynes Central or Warrington Bank Quay   Virgin Trains
WCML London-Edinburgh
  Terminus
  Future services  
National Rail National Rail
Old Oak Common   TBA
High Speed 2
  Terminus
Old Oak Common or Watford Junction or Milton Keynes Central or Stafford or Crewe or Runcorn   Virgin Trains
West Coast Main Line
  Terminus
Old Oak Common or Watford Junction or Milton Keynes Central   London Midland
West Coast Main Line
  Terminus

London Underground[edit]

Euston was poorly served by the early London Underground network. The nearest station on the Metropolitan line was Gower Street, around five minutes' walk away. A permanent connection did not appear until 12 May 1907, when the City & South London Railway opened an extension north from Angel. The Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway opened an adjacent station on 22 June in the same year; these two stations are now part of the Northern line. Gower Street station was quickly renamed Euston Square in response.[39] A connection to the Victoria line opened on 1 December 1968.[55]

The underground network around Euston is planned to change depending on the construction of High Speed 2. Transport for London (TfL) plans to change the safeguarded route for the proposed Chelsea–Hackney line to include Euston between Tottenham Court Road and King's Cross St Pancras.[99] As part of the rebuilding work for High Speed 2, it is proposed to integrate Euston and Euston Square into a single tube station.[71]

Preceding station   Underground no-text.svg London Underground   Following station
towards Hammersmith
Circle line
Transfer at: Euston Square
towards Edgware Road (via Aldgate)
Hammersmith & City line
Transfer at: Euston Square
towards Barking
Metropolitan line
Transfer at: Euston Square
towards Aldgate
Northern line
Charing Cross branch
Transfer at: Euston
towards Kennington or
Morden (via Charing Cross)
Northern line
Bank branch
Transfer at: Euston
towards Morden (via Bank)
towards Brixton
Victoria line
Transfer at: Euston

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ This decrease was caused by a change in methodology which reduced the figure by 3.519 million. Without the change, the figure would have been 45.197 million.
  2. ^ The busier stations are Waterloo, Victoria, Liverpool Street and London Bridge
  3. ^ Many staff transferred to a new complex in Milton Keynes, see Quadrant:mk

Citations

  1. ^ "London and South East" (PDF). National Rail. September 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2009. 
  2. ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (XLS). Transport for London. May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Station usage estimates". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation.  Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year.
  4. ^ "Euston Station". Google Maps. Retrieved 13 July 2017. 
  5. ^ "Commercial information". Our Stations. London: Network Rail. April 2014. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  6. ^ "Britain's most and least used train stations revealed, with one getting just 12 passengers a year". The Daily Telegraph. 6 December 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2017. 
  7. ^ "Digitising Euston". Rail Engineer. 5 August 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2017. 
  8. ^ "Station Usage 2007/08" (PDF). Network Rail. Retrieved 15 March 2009. 
  9. ^ "Stations Run by Network Rail". Network Rail. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  10. ^ "Station facilities for London Euston". National Rail Enquiries. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  11. ^ "Commercial information" (PDF). Complete National Rail Timetable. London: Network Rail. May 2013. p. 43. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  12. ^ "Key bus routes in central London" (PDF). Retrieved 13 July 2017. 
  13. ^ a b "Euston Station, London". Network Rail. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  14. ^ a b c Jackson 1984, p. 54.
  15. ^ a b Jackson 1984, p. 31.
  16. ^ a b British Rail 1968, p. 5.
  17. ^ "The Family". Euston Hall, Suffolk. Retrieved 9 July 2017. 
  18. ^ a b c British Rail 1968, p. 8.
  19. ^ a b Jackson 1984, p. 46.
  20. ^ "Brexit to bring back BR? What could the vote mean for our railways". rail.co.uk. 24 June 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2017. 
  21. ^ a b "Interview: Network Rail CFO Patrick Butcher". Financial Director. 26 March 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2017. 
  22. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 38.
  23. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 32.
  24. ^ "London and Birmingham Railway". Camden Railway Heritage Trust. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  25. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 35.
  26. ^ Cole 2011, p. 107.
  27. ^ a b Jackson 1984, p. 37.
  28. ^ Jackson 1984, pp. 35–37.
  29. ^ Pile 2005, p. 232.
  30. ^ a b Jackson 1984, p. 39.
  31. ^ a b Jackson 1984, p. 40.
  32. ^ Biddle & Nock 1983, p. 214.
  33. ^ www.motco.com Archived 18 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. – 1862 map, showing position of 1849 station.
  34. ^ Cain, Joe. "Euston Grove, History of a Street". University College London. Retrieved 13 July 2017. 
  35. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 42.
  36. ^ a b c Jackson 1984, p. 43.
  37. ^ McCarthy & McCarthy 2009, p. 71.
  38. ^ Jackson 1984, p. 44.
  39. ^ a b Jackson 1984, pp. 45–46.
  40. ^ a b Jackson 1984, p. 56.
  41. ^ "State of George Stephenson". National Railway Museum. Retrieved 10 July 2017. 
  42. ^ "Euston Station gates". National Railway Museum. Retrieved 10 July 2017. 
  43. ^ "Turntable, Cast Iron, London and Birmingham Railway". National Railway Museum. Retrieved 10 July 2017. 
  44. ^ "New Euston Station". Western Gazette. British Newspaper Archive. 30 January 1931. Retrieved 27 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  45. ^ a b c d Jackson 1984, p. 48.
  46. ^ "Reconstruction of Euston Station". Sheffield Independent. British Newspaper Archive. 27 February 1937. Retrieved 27 August 2016 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). 
  47. ^ Bull, John. "The Euston Arch Part 2: Death". London Reconnections. Retrieved 22 February 2013. 
  48. ^ a b c d Jackson 1984, p. 50.
  49. ^ The New Euston Station 1968. British Rail information booklet.
  50. ^ a b c Jackson 1984, p. 53.
  51. ^ "C20 Society fails in bid to list Euston station". The Architects' Journal. The Twentieth Century Society. 13 May 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  52. ^ "Building of the Month. November 2011". The Twentieth Century Society. The Twentieth Century Society. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
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External links[edit]