|Part of a series on|
Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life,[note 1] in South Asia, most notably India. Although Hinduism contains different philosophies, it is united by shared concepts, same textual resources, common ritual techniques, cosmology and pilgrimage to sacred sites. It includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism among other denominations, each with an interwoven diversity of beliefs and practices. Hinduism, with about one billion followers[web 1] is the world's third largest religion, after Christianity and Islam.
Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world,[note 2] and some practitioners refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law" or the "eternal way" beyond human origins. Western scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion[note 3] or synthesis[note 4] of various Indian cultures and traditions,[note 5] with diverse roots[note 6] and no single founder. It prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings (ahimsa), patience, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others.[web 2]
Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include (but are not restricted to), the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma (ethics/duties), Artha (prosperity/work), Kama (emotions/sexuality) and Moksha (liberation/freedom); karma (action, intent and consequences), samsara (cycle of rebirth), and the various Yogas (paths or practices to attain moksha). Hindu practices include rituals such as puja (worship) and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions, then engage in lifelong Sannyasa (ascetic practices) to achieve moksha.
Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered"). These texts discuss theology, philosophy, mythology, Vedic yajna and agamic rituals and temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas, Upanishads (both Śruti), Mahabharata, Ramayana, Bhagavad Gita, Puranas, Manusmṛti, and Agamas (all smriti).
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Definitions
- 3 Diversity and inclusivism
- 4 Beliefs
- 5 Scriptures
- 6 Practices
- 7 Person and society
- 8 Denominations
- 9 Institutions
- 10 History
- 10.1 Periodisation
- 10.2 Origins
- 10.3 Prevedic religions (until c. 1750 BCE)
- 10.4 Vedic period (c. 1750-500 BCE)
- 10.5 "Second Urbanisation" (c. 500-200 BCE)
- 10.6 Classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-1100 CE)
- 10.7 Islam and sects of Hinduism (c. 1200-1700 CE)
- 10.8 Modern Hinduism (from c.1800)
- 11 Demographics
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 Sources
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
The word Hindu is derived (through Persian) from the Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit word Sindhu, the Indo-Aryan name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent (modern day Pakistan and Northern India).[note 7] According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term 'hindu' first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus (Sanskrit: Sindhu)". The term 'Hindu' then was a geographical term and did not refer to a religion.[note 8]
The word Hindu was taken by European languages from the Arabic term al-Hind, which referred to the people who live across the River Indus. This Arabic term was itself taken from the Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus".[note 9]
The term Hinduism was later used occasionally in some Sanskrit texts such as the later Rajataranginis of Kashmir (Hinduka, c. 1450) and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. It was usually used to contrast Hindus with Yavanas or Mlecchas. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism was introduced into the English language in the 19th century to denote the religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India.
The study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism,[note 10] and have also been taken over by critics of the Western view on India.[note 11]
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, and "a way of life."[note 1] From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the western term "religion". Hindu traditionalists prefer to call it Sanatana Dharma (the eternal or ancient dharma).
The notion of common denominators for several religions and traditions of India was already noted from the 12th century CE on. The notion of "Hinduism" as a "single world religious tradition" was popularised by 19th-century European Indologists who depended on the "brahmana castes" for their information of Indian religions. This led to a "tendency to emphasise Vedic and Brahmanical texts and beliefs as the "essence" of Hindu religiosity in general, and in the modern association of 'Hindu doctrine' with the various Brahmanical schools of the Vedanta (in particular Advaita Vedanta)."[note 12]
To its adherents, Hinduism is a traditional way of life. Many practitioners refer to Hinduism as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law" or the "eternal way". It refers to the "eternal" duties all Hindus have to follow, regardless of class, caste, or sect, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, purity, goodwill, mercy, patience, forbearance, self-restraint, generosity, and asceticism. This is contrasted with svadharma, one's "own duty", the duties to be followed by members of a specific caste and stage of life.[web 2] According to Knott, this also
... refers to the idea that its origins lie beyond human history, and its truths have been divinely revealed (shruti) and passed down through the ages to the present day in the most ancient of the world's scriptures, the Veda. (Knott 1998, p. 5)
According to the Encyclopædia Britannica;-
The term has also more recently been used by Hindu leaders, reformers, and nationalists to refer to Hinduism as a unified world religion. Sanatana dharma has thus become a synonym for the "eternal" truth and teachings of Hinduism, the latter conceived of as not only transcendent of history and unchanging but also as indivisible and ultimately nonsectarian.[web 2]
The Sanskrit word dharma has a much more deeper meaning than religion and is not its equivalent. All aspects of a Hindu life, namely acquiring wealth (Artha), fulfillment of desires (kama), and attaining liberation (moksha) are part of dharma which encapsulates the "right way of living" and eternal harmonious principles in their fulfillment.
Growing Hindu identity
This sense of unity and ancientness has been developed over a longer period. According to Nicholson, already between the 12th and the 16th centuries "certain thinkers began to treat as a single whole the diverse philosophical teachings of the Upanishads, epics, Puranas, and the schools known retrospectively as the "six systems" (saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu philosophy." The tendency of "a blurring of philosophical distinctions" has also been noted by Burley. Hacker called this "inclusivism" and Michaels speaks of "the identificatory habit". Lorenzen locates the origins of a distinct Hindu identity in the interaction between Muslims and Hindus, and a process of "mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim other",[note 13] which started well before 1800. Michaels notes:
As a counteraction to Islamic supremacy and as part of the continuing process of regionalization, two religious innovations developed in the Hindu religions: the formation of sects and a historicization which preceded later nationalism [...] [S]aints and sometimes militant sect leaders, such as the Marathi poet Tukaram (1609-1649) and Ramdas (1608-1681), articulated ideas in which they glorified Hinduism and the past. The Brahmins also produced increasingly historical texts, especially eulogies and chronicles of sacred sites (Mahatmyas), or developed a reflexive passion for collecting and compiling extensive collections of quotations on various subjects.
Beginning in the 19th century, Indian modernists re-asserted Hinduism as a major asset of Indian civilisation. Western stereotypes were reversed, emphasizing the universal aspects, and introducing modern approaches of social problems. This approach had a great appeal, not only in India, but also in the west. Major representatives of "Hindu modernism" are Raja Rammohan Roy, Vivekananda, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Mahatma Gandhi.
Raja Rammohan Roy is known as the father of the Hindu Renaissance. He was a major influence on Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902), who, according to Flood, was "a figure of great importance in the development of a modern Hindu self-understanding and in formulating the West's view of Hinduism." Central to his philosophy is the idea that the divine exists in all beings, that all human beings can achieve union with this "innate divinity", and that seeing this divine as the essence of others will further love and social harmony. According to Vivekananda, there is an essential unity to Hinduism, which underlies the diversity of its many forms. According to Flood, Vivekananda's vision of Hinduism "is one generally accepted by most English-speaking middle-class Hindus today."
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was "one of India's most erudite scholars to engage with western and Indian philosophy". He sought to reconcile western rationalism with Hinduism, "presenting Hinduism as an essentially rationalistic and humanistic religious experience." This "Global Hinduism" has a worldwide appeal, transcending national boundaries and, according to Flood, "becoming a world religion alongside Christianity, Islam and Buddhism", both for the Hindu diaspora communities and for westerners who are attracted to non-western cultures and religions. It emphasizes universal spiritual values such as social justice, peace and "the spiritual transformation of humanity." It has developed partly due to "re-enculturation", or the Pizza effect, in which elements of Hindu culture have been exported to the West, gaining popularity there, and as a consequence also gained greater popularity in India. This globalization of Hindu culture was initiated by Swami Vivekananda and his founding of the Ramakrishna Mission, an effort continued by other teachers, "bringing to the West teachings which have become an important cultural force in western societies, and which in turn have become an important cultural force in India, their place of origin."
Hinduism's tolerance to variations in belief and its broad range of traditions make it difficult to define as a religion according to traditional Western conceptions.
Some academics suggest that Hinduism can be seen as a category with "fuzzy edges" rather than as a well-defined and rigid entity. Some forms of religious expression are central to Hinduism and others, while not as central, still remain within the category. Based on this idea Ferro-Luzzi has developed a 'Prototype Theory approach' to the definition of Hinduism.
Diversity and inclusivism
Hinduism has been described as a tradition having a "complex, organic, multileveled and sometimes internally inconsistent nature." Hinduism does not have a "unified system of belief encoded in a declaration of faith or a creed", but is rather an umbrella term comprising the plurality of religious phenomena of India. According to the Supreme Court of India,
Unlike other religions in the World, the Hindu religion does not claim any one Prophet, it does not worship any one God, it does not believe in any one philosophic concept, it does not follow any one act of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not satisfy the traditional features of a religion or creed. It is a way of life and nothing more".
Part of the problem with a single definition of the term "Hinduism" is the fact that Hinduism does not have a single historical founder. It is a synthesis of various traditions, the "Brahmanical orthopraxy, the renouncer traditions and popular or local traditions."
Some Hindu philosophies postulate a theistic ontology of creation, of sustenance, and of the destruction of the universe, yet some Hindus are atheists, they view Hinduism more as philosophy than religion.
Despite the differences, there is also a sense of unity. Most Hindu traditions revere a body of religious or sacred literature, the Vedas, although there are exceptions. Halbfass cites Renou, according to whom this reverence is a mere
"tipping of the hat", a traditional gesture of saluting an "idol" without any further commitment."
Halbfass does not agree with this characterization and states that, although Shaivism and Vaishaism may be regarded as "self-contained religious constellations", there is a degree of interaction and reference between the "theoreticians and literary representatives" of each tradition which indicates the presence of "a wider sense of identity, a sense of coherence in a shared context and of inclusion in a common framework and horizon".
Hinduism as it is commonly known can be subdivided into a number of major currents. Of the historical division into six darsanas, two prominent schools, Vedanta and Yoga. The main divisions of Hinduism today are Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism.[web 3] Hinduism also recognises numerous divine beings subordinate to the Supreme Being or regards them as lower manifestations of it. Other notable characteristics include a belief in existence of ātman (soul, self), reincarnation of one's ātman, and karma as well as a belief in personal duty, or dharma.
McDaniel (2007) distinguishes six generic "types" of Hinduism, in an attempt to accommodate a variety of views on a rather complex subject:
- Folk Hinduism, based on local traditions and cults of local deities and extending back to prehistoric times, or at least prior to written Vedas.
- Shrauta or "Vedic" Hinduism as practised by traditionalist brahmins (Shrautins).
- Vedantic Hinduism, including Advaita Vedanta (Smartism), based on the philosophical approach of the Upanishads.
- Yogic Hinduism, especially the sect based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
- "Dharmic" Hinduism or "daily morality", based on Karma and upon societal norms such as Vivāha (Hindu marriage customs).
- Bhakti or devotionalist practices
Michaels distinguishes three Hindu religions and four forms of Hindu religiosity. The three Hindu religions are "Brahmanic-Sanskritic Hinduism,", "folk religions and tribal religions," and "founded religions," such as Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Sikhism, but also new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Transcendental Meditation. The four forms of Hindu religiosity are the classical "karma-marga", jnana-marga, bhakti-marga, and "heroism," which is "rooted in militaristic traditions," such as Ramaism and parts of political Hinduism. This is also called virya-marga.
Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include (but are not restricted to), Dharma (ethics/duties), Samsāra (the continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth), Karma (action, intent and consequences), Moksha (liberation from samsara or liberation in this life), and the various Yogas (paths or practices).
Purusharthas (objectives of human life)
Dharma (righteousness, ethics)
Dharma is considered the foremost goal of a human being in Hinduism. The concept Dharma includes behaviors that are considered to be in accord with rta, the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and ‘‘right way of living’’. Hindu dharma includes the religious duties, moral rights and duties of each individual, as well as behaviors that enable social order, right conduct, and those that are virtuous. Dharma, according to Van Buitenen, is that which all existing beings must accept and respect to sustain harmony and order in the world. It is, states Van Buitenen, the pursuit and execution of one’s nature and true calling, thus playing one’s role in cosmic concert. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad states it as:
Nothing is higher than Dharma. The weak overcomes the stronger by Dharma, as over a king. Truly that Dharma is the Truth (Satya); Therefore, when a man speaks the Truth, they say, "He speaks the Dharma"; and if he speaks Dharma, they say, "He speaks the Truth!" For both are one.
In the Mahabharata, Krishna defines dharma as upholding both this-worldly and other-worldly affairs. (Mbh 12.110.11). The word Sanātana means 'eternal', 'perennial', or 'forever'; thus, 'Sanātana Dharma' signifies that it is the dharma that has neither beginning nor end.
Artha (livelihood, wealth)
Artha is objective and virtuous pursuit of wealth for livelihood, obligations and economic prosperity. It is inclusive of political life, diplomacy and material well-being. The Artha concept includes all “means of life”, activities and resources that enables one to be in a state one wants to be in, wealth, career and financial security. The proper pursuit of artha is considered an important aim of human life in Hinduism.
Kāma (sensual pleasure)
Kāma (Sanskrit, Pali; Devanagari: काम) means desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the senses, the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, with or without sexual connotations. In Hinduism, Kama is considered an essential and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing Dharma, Artha and Moksha.
Mokṣa (liberation, freedom from samsara)
Moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्ष mokṣa) or mukti (Sanskrit: मुक्ति) is the ultimate, most important goal in Hinduism. In one sense, Moksha is a concept associated with liberation from sorrow, suffering and saṃsāra (birth-rebirth cycle). A release from this eschatological cycle, in after life, particularly in theistic schools of Hinduism is called moksha. In other schools of Hinduism, such as monistic, moksha is a goal achievable in current life, as a state of bliss through self-realization, of comprehending the nature of one's soul, of freedom and of "realizing the whole universe as the Self".
Karma and samsara
Karma translates literally as action, work, or deed, and also refers to a Vedic theory of "moral law of cause and effect". The theory is a combination of (1) causality that may be ethical or non-ethical; (2) ethicization, that is good or bad actions have consequences; and (3) rebirth. Karma theory is interpreted as explaining the present circumstances of an individual with reference to his or her actions in past. These actions may be those in a person's current life, or, in some schools of Hinduism, possibly actions in their past lives; furthermore, the consequences may result in current life, or a person's future lives. This cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth is called samsara. Libration from samsara through moksha is believed to ensure lasting happiness and peace. Hindu scriptures teach that the future is both a function of current human effort derived from free will and past human actions that set the circumstances.
The ultimate goal of life, referred to as moksha, nirvana or samadhi, is understood in several different ways: as the realization of one's union with God; as the realization of one's eternal relationship with God; realization of the unity of all existence; perfect unselfishness and knowledge of the Self; as the attainment of perfect mental peace; and as detachment from worldly desires. Such realization liberates one from samsara, thereby ending the cycle of rebirth, sorrow and suffering. Due to belief in the indestructibility of the soul, death is deemed insignificant with respect to the cosmic self.
The meaning of moksha differs among the various Hindu schools of thought. For example, Advaita Vedanta holds that after attaining moksha a person knows their "soul, self" and identifies it as one with Brahman and everyone in all respects. The followers of Dvaita (dualistic) schools, in moksha state, identify individual "soul, self" as distinct from Brahman but infinitesimally close, and after attaining moksha expect to spend eternity in a loka (heaven). To theistic schools of Hinduism, moksha is liberation from samsara, while for other schools such as the monistic school, moksha is possible in current life and is a psychological concept. According to Deutsche, moksha is transcendental consciousness to the latter, the perfect state of being, of self-realization, of freedom and of "realizing the whole universe as the Self". Moksha in these schools of Hinduism, suggests Klaus Klostermaier, implies a setting free of hitherto fettered faculties, a removing of obstacles to an unrestricted life, permitting a person to be more truly a person in the full sense; the concept presumes an unused human potential of creativity, compassion and understanding which had been blocked and shut out. Moksha is more than liberation from life-rebirth cycle of suffering (samsara); Vedantic school separates this into two: jivanmukti (liberation in this life) and videhamukti (liberation after death).
Concept of God
Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, pandeism, monism, and atheism among others;[web 4] and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed. It is sometimes referred to as henotheistic (i.e., involving devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of others), but any such term is an overgeneralization.
The Nasadiya Sukta (Creation Hymn) of the Rig Veda is one of the earliest texts which "demonstrates a sense of metaphysical speculation" about what created the universe, the concept of god(s) and The One, and whether even The One knows how the universe came into being. The Raigveda praises various deities, none superior nor inferior, in a henotheistic manner. The hymns repeatedly refer to One Truth and Reality. The "One Truth" of Vedic literature, in modern era scholarship, has been interpreted as monotheism, monism, as well as a deified Hidden Principles behind the great happenings and processes of nature.
Hindus believe that all living creatures have a soul. This soul – the spirit or true "self" of every person, is called the ātman. The soul is believed to be eternal. According to the monistic/pantheistic (non-dualist) theologies of Hinduism (such as Advaita Vedanta school), this Atman is indistinct from Brahman, the supreme spirit. The goal of life, according to the Advaita school, is to realise that one's soul is identical to supreme soul, that the supreme soul is present in everything and everyone, all life is interconnected and there is oneness in all life. Dualistic schools (see Dvaita and Bhakti) understand Brahman as a Supreme Being separate from individual souls. They worship the Supreme Being variously as Vishnu, Brahma, Shiva, or Shakti, depending upon the sect. God is called Ishvara, Bhagavan, Parameshwara, Deva or Devi, and these terms have different meanings in different schools of Hinduism.
The Hindu scriptures refer to celestial entities called Devas (or devī in feminine form; devatā used synonymously for Deva in Hindi), which may be translated into English as "gods" or "heavenly beings".[note 14] The devas are an integral part of Hindu culture and are depicted in art, architecture and through icons, and mythological stories about them are related in the scriptures, particularly in Indian epic poetry and the Puranas. They are, however, often distinguished from Ishvara, a personal god, with many Hindus worshipping Ishvara in one of its particular manifestations as their iṣṭa devatā, or chosen ideal. The choice is a matter of individual preference, and of regional and family traditions. The multitude of devas are considered as manifestations of Brahman.[note 15]
While ancient Vedic literature including Upanishads make no mention of reincarnation of God, the Puranas and the Epics relate several episodes of the descent of God to Earth in corporeal form to restore dharma to society. Such an incarnation is called an avatar. The most prominent avatars are of Vishnu and include Rama (the protagonist of the Ramayana) and Krishna (a central figure in the epic Mahabharata).
Both theistic and atheistic ideas, for epistemological and metaphysical reasons, are profuse in different schools of Hinduism. The early Nyaya school of Hinduism, for example, was non-theist/atheist, but later Nyaya school scholars argued that God exists and offered proofs using its theory of logic. Other schools disagreed with Nyaya scholars. Samkhya, Mimamsa and Carvaka schools of Hinduism, were non-theist/atheist, arguing that "God was an unnecessary metaphysical assumption".[web 5] Its Vaisheshika school started as another non-theistic tradition relying on naturalism and that all matter is eternal, but it later introduced the concept of a non-creator God. The Yoga school of Hinduism accepted the concept of a "personal god" and left it to the Hindu to define his or her god. Advaita Vedanta taught a monistic, abstract Self and Oneness in everything, with no room for gods or deity, a perspective that Mohanty calls, "spiritual, not religious". Bhakti sub-schools of Vedanta taught a creator God that is distinct from each human being.
Ahimsa, vegetarianism and other food customs
Hindus advocate the practice of ahiṃsā (non-violence) and respect for all life because divinity is believed to permeate all beings, including plants and non-human animals. The term ahiṃsā appears in the Upanishads, the epic Mahabharata and ahiṃsā is the first of the five Yamas (vows of self-restraint) in Patanjali's Yoga Sutras. and the first principle for all member of Varnashrama Dharma (brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya and shudra) in Law of Manu (book 10, sutra 63 : Ahimsa, satya, asteya, shaucam and indrayanigraha, almost similar to main principles of jainism).[web 6][web 7]
In accordance with ahiṃsā, many Hindus embrace vegetarianism to respect higher forms of life. Estimates of the number of lacto vegetarians in India (includes adherents of all religions) vary between 20% and 42%. The food habits vary with the community and region: for example, some castes having fewer vegetarians and coastal populations relying on seafood.[web 8] Some avoid meat only on specific holy days. Observant Hindus who do eat meat almost always abstain from beef. The cow in Hindu society is traditionally identified as a caretaker and a maternal figure, and Hindu society honours the cow as a symbol of unselfish giving.
There are many Hindu groups that have continued to abide by a strict vegetarian diet in modern times. Some adhere to a diet that is devoid of meat, eggs, and seafood. Food affects body, mind and spirit in Hindu beliefs. Hindu texts such as Śāṇḍilya Upanishad and Svātmārāma recommend Mitahara (eating in moderation) as one of the Yamas (virtuous self restraints). The Bhagavad Gita links body and mind to food one consumes in verses 17.8 through 17.10.
Some Hindus from certain sects - generally Shakta, and Hindus in regions such as Bali and Nepal practise animal sacrifice. In contrast, most Hindus, including the majority of Vaishnava and Shaivite Hindus abhor it.[web 9]
The ancient scriptures of Hinduism are in Sanskrit. These texts are classified into two: Shruti and Smriti. Hindu scriptures were composed, memorized and transmitted verbally, across generations, for many centuries before they were written down. Over many centuries, sages refined the teachings and expanded the Shruti and Smriti, as well as developed Shastras with epistemological and metaphysical theories of six classical schools of Hinduism.
Shruti (lit. that which is heard) primarily refers to the Vedas, which form the earliest record of the Hindu scriptures. While many Hindus revere the Vedas as eternal truths revealed to the ancient sages (rishis), others do not associate the creation of the Vedas with a god or person. They are thought of as the laws of the spiritual world, which would still exist even if they were not revealed to the sages. Hindus believe that because the spiritual truths of the Vedas are eternal, they continue to be expressed in new ways. There are four Vedas - Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda. Each Veda has been subclassified into four major text types – the Samhitas (mantras and benedictions), the Aranyakas (text on rituals, ceremonies, sacrifices and symbolic-sacrifices), the Brahmanas (commentaries on rituals, ceremonies and sacrifices), and the Upanishads (text discussing meditation, philosophy and spiritual knowledge). The first two parts of the Vedas were subsequently called the Karmakāṇḍa (ritualistic portion), while the last two form the Jñānakāṇḍa (knowledge portion, discussing spiritual insight and philosophical teachings).[web 10]
The Upanishads are the foundation of Hindu philosophical thought and have profoundly influenced its diverse traditions. Of the shrutis (Vedic corpus), they alone are widely known, and the central ideas of the Upanishads are at the spiritual core of Hindus. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan states that the Upanishads have played a dominating role ever since their appearance. There are 108 Muktikā Upanishads in Hinduism, of which between 10 to 13 are variously counted by scholars as Principal Upanishads.
The most notable of the smritis ("memory") are the epics, which consist of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The Bhagavad Gita is an integral part of the Mahabharata and one of the most popular sacred texts of Hinduism. It is sometimes called Gitopanishad, then placed in the Shruti category, being Upanishadic in content. Puranas, which illustrate Hindu ideas through vivid narratives come under smritis. Other texts include Devi Mahatmya, the Tantras, the Yoga Sutras, Tirumantiram, Shiva Sutras and the Hindu Agamas.
Most Hindus observe religious rituals at home. The rituals vary greatly among regions, villages, and individuals. They are not mandatory in Hinduism. The nature and place of rituals is an individual's choice. Devout Hindus perform daily rituals such as worshiping at dawn after bathing (usually at a family shrine, and typically includes lighting a lamp and offering foodstuffs before the images of deities), recitation from religious scripts, singing devotional hymns, yoga, meditation, chanting mantras and others.
Vedic rituals of fire-oblation (yajna) and chanting of Vedic hymns are observed on special occasions, such as a Hindu wedding. Other major life-stage events, such as rituals after death, include the yajña and chanting of Vedic mantras.[web 11]
Life-cycle rites of passage
Major life stage milestones are celebrated as sanskara (saṃskāra, rites of passage) in Hinduism. The rites of passage are not mandatory, and vary in details by gender, community and regionally. Gautama Dharmasutras composed in about the middle of 1st millennium BCE lists 48 sanskaras, while Gryhasutra and other texts composed centuries later list between 12 to 16 sanskaras. The list of sanskaras in Hinduism include both external rituals such as those marking a baby's birth and a baby's name giving ceremony, as well as inner rites of resolutions and ethics such as compassion towards all living beings and positive attitude.
The major traditional rites of passage in Hinduism include Garbhadhana (pregnancy), Pumsavana (rite before the fetus begins moving and kicking in womb), Simantonnayana (parting of pregnant woman's hair, baby shower), Jatakarman (rite celebrating the new born baby), Namakarana (naming the child), Nishkramana (baby's first outing from home into the world), Annaprashana (baby's first feeding of solid food), Chudakarana (baby's first haircut, tonsure), Karnavedha (ear piercing), Vidyarambha (baby's start with knowledge), Upanayana (entry into a school rite), Keshanta and Ritusuddhi (first shave for boys, menarche for girls), Samavartana (graduation ceremony), Vivaha (wedding), Vratas (fasting, spiritual studies) and Antyeshti (cremation for an adult, burial for a child). In contemporary times, there is regional variation among Hindus as to which of these sanskaras are observed; in some cases, additional regional rites of passage such as Śrāddha (ritual of feeding people after cremation) are practiced.[web 12]
Bhakti refers to devotion, participation in and the love of a personal god or a representational god by a devotee. Bhakti marga is considered in Hinduism as one of many possible paths of spirituality and alternate means to moksha. The other paths, left to the choice of a Hindu, are Jnana marga (path of knowledge), Karma marga (path of works), Rāja marga (path of contemplation and meditation).
Bhakti is practiced in a number of ways, ranging from reciting mantras, japas (incantations), to individual private prayers within one's home or in a temple or near a river bank, sometimes in the presence of an idol or image of a deity. Bhakti is sometimes practiced as a community, such as a Puja, Aarti, musical Kirtan or singing Bhajan, where devotional verses and hymns are read or poems are sung by a group of devotees. While the choice of the deity is at the discretion of the Hindu, the most observed traditions of Hindu devotionalism include Vaishnavism (Vishnu), Shaivism (Shiva) and Shaktism (Shakti). A Hindu may worship multiple deities, all as henotheistic manifestations of the same ultimate reality, cosmic spirit and absolute spiritual concept called Brahman in Hinduism.[note 15]
Bhakti marga, states Pechelis, is more than ritual devotionalism, it includes practices and spiritual activities aimed at refining one's state of mind, knowing god, participating in god, and internalizing god. While Bhakti practices are popular and easily observable aspect of Hinduism, not all Hindus practice Bhakti, or believe in god-with-attributes (saguna Brahman). Concurrent Hindu practices include a belief in god-without-attributes, and god within oneself.
Hindu festivals (Sanskrit: Utsava; literally: "to lift higher") are ceremonies that weave individual and social life to dharma. Hinduism has many festivals throughout the year, where the dates are set by the lunisolar Hindu calendar, many coinciding with either the full moon (Holi) or the new moon (Diwali), often with seasonal changes. Some festivals are found only regionally and they celebrate local traditions, while a few such as Holi and Diwali are pan-Hindu.
The festivals typically celebrate events from Hindu mythology, connoting spiritual themes and celebrating aspects of human relationships such as the Sister-Brother bond over the Raksha Bandhan (or Bhai Dooj) festival. The same festival sometimes marks different mythologies depending on the Hindu denomination, and the celebrations incorporate regional themes, traditional agriculture, local arts, family get togethers, Puja rituals and feasts.
Some major regional or pan-Hindu festivals include:
Pilgrimage is not mandatory in Hinduism, though many adherents undertake them. While there are different yet similar pilgrimage routes in different parts of India, all are respected equally well, according to the universality of Hinduism. The following pilgrimage sites are most famous amongst Hindu devotees:
- Old Holy cities as per Puranic Texts: Varanasi formerly known as Kashi, Allahabad formerly known as Prayag, Haridwar-Rishikesh, Mathura-Vrindavan, and Ayodhya.
- Char Dham (Famous Four Pilgrimage sites): The four holy sites Puri, Rameswaram, Dwarka, and Badrinath (or alternatively the Himalayan towns of Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri, and Yamunotri) compose the Char Dham (four abodes) pilgrimage circuit.
- Kumbh Mela: The Kumbh Mela (the "pitcher festival") is one of the holiest of Hindu pilgrimages that is held every 12 years; the location is rotated among Allahabad, Haridwar, Nashik, and Ujjain.
- Major Temple cities: Puri, which hosts a major Vaishnava Jagannath temple and Rath Yatra celebration; Katra, home to the Vaishno Devi temple; Three comparatively recent temples of fame and huge pilgrimage are Shirdi, home to Sai Baba of Shirdi, Tirumala - Tirupati, home to the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple; and Sabarimala, where Swami Ayyappan is worshipped.
- Shakti Peethas: Another important set of pilgrimages are the Shakti Peethas, where the Mother Goddess is worshipped, the two principal ones being Kalighat and Kamakhya.
Person and society
Hindu society has been categorised into four classes, called varnas. They are the Brahmins: Vedic teachers and priests; the Kshatriyas: warriors and kings; the Vaishyas: farmers and merchants; and the Shudras: servants and labourers.
Some mobility and flexibility within the varnas challenge allegations of social discrimination in the caste system, as has been pointed out by several sociologists, although some other scholars disagree. Scholars debate whether the so-called caste system is part of Hinduism sanctioned by the scriptures or social custom.[web 14][note 16] And various contemporary scholars have argued that the caste system was constructed by the British colonial regime.
A renunciant man of knowledge is usually called Varnatita or "beyond all varnas" in Vedantic works. The bhiksu is advised to not bother about the caste of the family from which he begs his food. Scholars like Adi Sankara affirm that not only is Brahman beyond all varnas, the man who is identified with Him also transcends the distinctions and limitations of caste.
In whatever way a Hindu defines the goal of life, there are several methods (yogas) that sages have taught for reaching that goal. Yoga is a Hindu discipline which trains the body, mind and consciousness for health, tranquility and spiritual insight. This is done through a system of postures and exercises to practise control of the body and mind. Texts dedicated to Yoga include the Yoga Sutras, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Bhagavad Gita and, as their philosophical and historical basis, the Upanishads. Yoga is means, and the four major marga (paths) discussed in Hinduism are: Bhakti Yoga (the path of love and devotion), Karma Yoga (the path of right action), Rāja Yoga (the path of meditation), Jñāna Yoga (the path of wisdom) An individual may prefer one or some yogas over others, according to his or her inclination and understanding. Practice of one yoga does not exclude others.
Hinduism has a developed system of symbolism and iconography to represent the sacred in art, architecture, literature and worship. These symbols gain their meaning from the scriptures, mythology, or cultural traditions. The syllable Om (which represents the Brahman and Atman) has grown to represent Hinduism itself, while other markings such as the Swastika sign represent auspiciousness, and Tilaka (literally, seed) on forehead – considered to be the location of spiritual third eye, marks ceremonious welcome, blessing or one's participation in a ritual or rite of passage. Elaborate Tilaka with lines may also identify a devotee of a particular denomination. Flowers, birds, animals, instruments, symmetric mandala drawings, objects, idols are all part of symbolic iconography in Hinduism.
Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and many practising Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular denomination. Four major denominations are, however, more common: Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism. These denominations differ primarily in the central deity worshipped, the traditions and the soteriological outlook.
Vaishnavism is the devotional religious tradition that worships Vishnu and his avatars, particularly Krishna and Rama. The adherents of this sect are generally non-ascetic, monastic, oriented towards community events and devotionalism practices inspired by "intimate loving, joyous, playful" Krishna and other Vishnu avatars. These practices sometimes include community dancing, singing of Kirtans and Bhajans, with sound and music believed by some to have meditative and spiritual powers. Temple worship and festivals are typically elaborate in Vaishnavism. The Bhagavad Gita and the Ramayana, along with Vishnu-oriented Puranas provide its theistic foundations. Philosophically, their beliefs are rooted in the dualism sub-schools of Vedanta Hinduism.
Shaivism is the denomination that focuses on Shiva. Shaivas are more attracted to ascetic individualism, and it has several sub-schools. Their practices include Bhakti-style devotionalism, yet their beliefs lean towards nondual, monistic schools of Hinduism such as Advaita and Yoga. Some Shaivas worship in temples, while others emphasize yoga, striving to be one with Shiva within. Avatars are uncommon, and some Shaivas visualize god as half male, half female, as a fusion of the male and female principles (Ardhanarishvara). Shaivism is related to Shaktism, wherein Shakti is seen as spouse of Shiva. Community celebrations include festivals, and participation, with Vaishnavas, in pilgrimages such as the Kumbh Mela. Shaivism has been more commonly practiced in the Himalayan north from Kashmir to Nepal, and in south India.
Shaktism focuses on goddess worship of Shakti or Devi as cosmic mother, and it is particularly common in northeastern and eastern states of India such as Assam and Bengal. Devi is depicted as in gentler forms like Parvati, the consort of Shiva; or, as fierce warrior goddesses like Kali and Durga. Followers of Shaktism recognize Shakti as the power that underlies the male principle. Shaktism is also associated with Tantra practices. Community celebrations include festivals, some of which include processions and idol immersion into sea or other water bodies.
Smartism centers its worship simultaneously on all the major Hindu deities: Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti, Ganesha, Surya and Skanda. This tradition traces its origin to the efforts of Adi Shankara, the Advaita Vedanta scholar, who considered worship of God-with-attributes (saguna Brahman) as a journey towards ultimately realizing God-without-attributes (nirguna Brahman, Atman, Self-knowledge). The term Smartism is derived from Smriti texts of Hinduism, meaning those who remember the traditions in the texts. This Hindu sect practices a philosophical Jnana yoga, scriptural studies, reflection, meditative path seeking an understanding of Self's oneness with God.
A Hindu temple is a house of god(s). It is a space and structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, infused with symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs of Hinduism. A temple incorporates all elements of Hindu cosmology, the highest spire or dome representing Mount Meru – reminder of the abode of Brahma and the center of spiritual universe, the carvings and iconography symbolically presenting dharma, kama, artha, moksa and karma. The layout, the motifs, the plan and the building process recite ancient rituals, geometric symbolisms, and reflect beliefs and values innate within various schools of Hinduism. A Hindu temple is a spiritual destination for many Hindus (not all), as well as landmarks for arts, annual festivals, rite of passage rituals, and community celebrations.
Hindu temples come in many styles, diverse locations, deploy different construction methods and are adapted to different deities and regional beliefs. Two major styles of Hindu temples include the Gopuram-style found in south India, and Nagara-style found in north India. Other styles include cave, forest and mountain temples. Yet, despite their differences, almost all Hindu temples share certain common architectural principles, core ideas, symbolism and themes.
Many temples feature one or more idols (murtis). The idol and Grabhgriya in the Brahma-pada (the center of the temple), under the main spire, serves as a focal point (darsana, a sight) in a Hindu temple. In larger temples, the central space typically is surrounded by an ambulatory for the devotee to walk around and ritually circumambulate the Purusa (Brahman), the universal essence.
Traditionally the life of a Hindu is divided into four Āshramas (phases or life stages; unrelated meanings include monastery). The four asramas are: Brahmacharya (student), Grihastha (householder), Vanaprastha (retired) and Sannyasa (renunciation).
Brahmacharya represents the bachelor student stage of life. Grihastha refers to the individual's married life, with the duties of maintaining a household, raising a family, educating one's children, and leading a family-centred and a dharmic social life. Grihastha stage starts with Hindu wedding, and has been considered as the most important of all stages in sociological context, as Hindus in this stage not only pursued a virtuous life, they produced food and wealth that sustained people in other stages of life, as well as the offsprings that continued mankind. Vanaprastha is the retirement stage, where a person hands over household responsibilities to the next generation, took an advisory role, and gradually withdrew from the world. The Sannyasa stage marks renunciation and a state of disinterest and detachment from material life, generally without any meaningful property or home (Ascetic), and focussed on Moksha, peace and simple spiritual life.
The Ashramas system has been one facet of the Dharma concept in Hinduism. Combined with four proper goals of human life (Purusartha), the Ashramas system traditionally aimed at providing a Hindu with fulfilling life and spiritual liberation. While these stages are typically sequential, any person can enter Sannyasa (ascetic) stage and become an Ascetic at any time after the Brahmacharya stage. Sannyasa is not religiously mandatory in Hinduism, and elderly people are free to live with their families.
Some Hindus choose to live a monastic life (Sannyāsa) in pursuit of liberation or another form of spiritual perfection. Monastics commit themselves to a life of simplicity, celibacy, detachment from worldly pursuits, and the contemplation of God. A Hindu monk is called a Sanyāsī, Sādhu, or Swāmi. A female renunciate is called a Sanyāsini. Renunciates receive high respect in Hindu society because their simple living, renunciation of worldly desires, and dedication to spiritual liberation (moksha) – believed to be the ultimate goal of life. Some monastics live in monasteries, while others wander from place to place, depending on donated food and charity for their needs.
|Outline of South Asian history|
James Mill (1773–1836), in his The History of British India (1817), distinguished three phases in the history of India, namely Hindu, Muslim and British civilisations. This periodisation has been criticised, for the misconceptions it has given rise to. Another periodisation is the division into "ancient, classical, mediaeval and modern periods". An elaborate periodisation may be as follows:
- Prevedic religions (pre-history and Indus Valley Civilisation)(until c. 1750 BCE);
- Vedic period (c. 1750-500 BCE);
- "Second Urbanisation" (c. 500-200 BCE);
- Classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-1100 CE);[note 17]
- Pre-classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-300 CE);
- "Golden Age" (Gupta Empire) (c. 320-650 CE);
- Late-Classical Hinduism - Puranic Hinduism (c. 650-1100 CE);
- Islam and Sects of Hinduism (c. 1200-1700 CE);
- Modern Hinduism (from c.1800).
Among the roots of Hinduism are the historical Vedic religion of Iron Age India, itself already the product of "a composite of the indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures and civilizations",[note 18] but also the Sramana or renouncer traditions of northeast India, and mesolithic and neolithic cultures of India, such as the religions of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Dravidian traditions, and the local traditions and tribal religions.[note 19]
Prevedic religions (until c. 1750 BCE)
The earliest prehistoric religion in India that may have left its traces in Hinduism comes from mesolithic as observed in the sites such as the rock paintings of Bhimbetka rock shelters dating to a period of 30,000 BCE or older,[note 20] as well as neolithic times.[note 21] Some of the religious practices can be considered to have originated in 4,000 BCE. Several tribal religions still exist, though their practices may not resemble those of prehistoric religions.[web 17]
According to anthropologist Possehl, the Indus Valley Civilization "provides a logical, if somewhat arbitrary, starting point for some aspects of the later Hindu tradition". The religion of this period included worship of a Great male god, which is compared to a proto-Shiva, and probably a Mother Goddess, that may prefigure Shakti. However these links of deities and practices of the Indus religion to later-day Hinduism are subject to both political contention and scholarly dispute.
Vedic period (c. 1750-500 BCE)
The Vedic period, named after the Vedic religion of the Indo-Aryans,[note 22] lasted from c. 1750 to 500 BCE.[note 23] The Indo-Aryans were pastoralists who migrated into north-western India after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization,[note 24]
During the early Vedic period (c. 1500 - 1100 BCE) Vedic tribes were pastoralists, wandering around in north-west India. After 1100 BCE the Vedic tribes moved into the western Ganges Plain, adapting an agrarical lifestyle. Rudimentary state-forms appeared, of which the Kuru-tribe and realm was the most influential. It was a tribal union, which developed into the first recorded state-level society in South Asia around 1000 BCE. It decisively changed the Vedic heritage of the early Vedic period, collecting the Vedic hymns into collections, and developing new rituals which gained their position in Indian civilization as the orthodox srauta rituals, which contributed to the so-called "classical synthesis" or "Hindu synthesis".
The Indo-Aryans brought with them their language and religion. The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion, and the Indo-Iranian religion.[note 25]
The Vedic religion of the later Vedic period co-existed with local religions, such as the Yaksha cults,[web 18] and was itself the product of "a composite of the indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures and civilizations". David Gordon White cites three other mainstream scholars who "have emphatically demonstrated" that Vedic religion is partially derived from the Indus Valley Civilizations. [note 18] Their religion was further developed when they migrated into the Ganges Plain after c. 1100 BCE and became settled farmers, further syncretising with the native cultures of northern India.
This is the period when the Vedas and early Upanishads were composed. The oldest of these Vedic texts is the Rigveda, composed between c.1500-1200 BCE, though a wider approximation of c.1700-1100 BCE has also been given. The 9th and 8th centuries BCE witnessed the composition of the earliest Upanishads.:183 Upanishads form the theoretical basis of classical Hinduism and constitute the Vedanta (conclusion of the Veda) literature.
"Second Urbanisation" (c. 500-200 BCE)
Increasing urbanisation of India in the 7th and 6th centuries BCE led to the rise of ascetic circles and of new ideas which challenged the orthodoxy of rituals. These ideas led to Sramana movements, of which Mahavira (c. 549–477 BCE), proponent of Jainism, and Buddha (c. 563-483), founder of Buddhism, were the most prominent icons.:184
The ascetic tradition of Vedic period in part created the concept of samsara and suffering, and the concept of liberation, which became characteristic for Hinduism, along with Buddhism and Jainism.[note 26]
These ascetic concepts were adopted by schools of Hinduism as well as other major Indian religions, but key differences between their premises defined their further development. Hinduism, for example, developed its ideas with the premise that every human being has a soul (atman, self), while Buddhism developed with the premise that there is no soul or self.
The chronology of these religious concepts is unclear, and scholars contest which religion affected the other as well as the chronological sequence of the ancient texts. Pratt notes that Oldenberg (1854-1920), Neumann (1865-1915) and Radhakrishnan (1888-1975) believed that the Buddhist canon had been influenced by Upanishads, while la Vallee Poussin thinks the influence was nihil, and "Eliot and several others insist that on some points the Buddha was directly antithetical to the Upanishads".[note 27]
Classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-1100 CE)
- Pre-classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-300 CE)
The "Hindu synthesis" or "Brahmanical synthesis" incorporated Sramanic and Buddhist influences[which?] and the emerging bhakti tradition into the "Brahmanical fold" via the smriti literature. This synthesis emerged under the pressure of the success of Buddhism and Jainism.
According to Embree, several other religious traditions had existed side by side with the Vedic religion. These indigenous religions "eventually found a place under the broad mantle of the Vedic religion". The smriti texts of the period between 200 BCE-100 CE proclaimed the authority of the Vedas, and acceptance of the Vedas became a central criterium for defining Hinduism over and against the heterodoxies, which rejected the Vedas and relied on their own Sutras (texts).
The major Sanskrit epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, which belong to the smriti, were compiled over a protracted period during the late centuries BCE and the early centuries CE.[web 19] They contain mythological stories about the rulers and wars of ancient India, and are interspersed with religious and philosophical treatises. The later Puranas recount tales about devas and devis, their interactions with humans and their battles against rakshasa. The Bhagavad Gita was composed in this period and consolidated diverse ideas.
- "Golden Age" (Gupta Empire) (c. 320-650 CE)
During the Gupta period, the first Hindu temples dedicated to the gods of the Hindu deities, emerged.[note 29] During the Gupta reign the first Puranas were written. According to P.S. Sharma, "the Gupta and Harsha periods form really, from the strictly intellectual standpoint, the most brilliant epocha in the development of Indian philosophy", as Hindu and Buddhist philosophies flourished side by side.
- Late-Classical Hinduism - Puranic Hinduism (c. 650-1100 CE)
After the end of the Gupta Empire, power became decentralised in India. The disintegration of central power also lead to regionalisation of religiosity, and religious rivalry. Rural and devotional movements arose within Hinduism, along with Shaivism, Vaisnavism, Bhakti and Tantra, that competed with each other, as well as with numerous sects of Buddhism and Jainism. During this period, the non-dualistic Advaita Vedanta was reformulated by Adi Shankara who systematised the works of preceding philosophers.
Islam and sects of Hinduism (c. 1200-1700 CE)
Though Islam came to Indian subcontinent in the early 7th century with the advent of Arab traders, it started impacting Indian religions after the 10th century, and particularly after the 12th century with the establishment and then expansion of Islamic rule. Will Durant calls the Muslim conquest of India "probably the bloodiest story in history". During this period, Buddhism declined rapidly while Hinduism faced military-led and Sultanates-sponsored religious violence. There was a widespread practice of raids, seizure and enslavement of families of Hindus, who were then sold in Sultanate cities or exported to Central Asia. Some texts suggest a number of Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam. Starting with 13th century, for a period of some 500 years, very few texts, from the numerous written by Muslim court historians, mention any "voluntary conversions of Hindus to Islam", suggesting its insignificance and perhaps rarity of such conversions. Typically enslaved Hindus converted to Islam to gain their freedom. There were occasional exceptions to religious violence against Hinduism. Akbar, for example, recognized Hinduism, banned enslavement of the families of Hindu war captives, protected Hindu temples, and abolished discriminatory Jizya (head taxes) against Hindus. However, many Muslim rulers of Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire, before and after Akbar, from 12th century to 18th century, destroyed Hindu temples[web 20][web 21][note 30] and persecuted non-Muslims.
Hinduism underwent profound changes, aided in part by teachers such as Ramanuja, Madhva, and Chaitanya. Followers of the Bhakti movement moved away from the abstract concept of Brahman, which Adi Shankara consolidated a few centuries before, with emotional, passionate devotion towards the more accessible avatars, especially Krishna and Rama. According to Nicholson, already between the 12th and the 16th century, "certain thinkers began to treat as a single whole the diverse philosophical teachings of the Upanishads, epics, Puranas, and the schools known retrospectively as the "six systems" (saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu philosophy."[note 31] Michaels notes that a historicization emerged which preceded later nationalism, articulating ideas which glorified Hinduism and the past.
Modern Hinduism (from c.1800)
With the onset of the British Raj, the colonization of India by the British, there also started a Hindu renaissance in the 19th century, which profoundly changed the understanding of Hinduism in both India and the west. Indology as an academic discipline of studying Indian culture from a European perspective was established in the 19th century, led by scholars such as Max Müller and John Woodroffe. They brought Vedic, Puranic and Tantric literature and philosophy to Europe and the United States. Western orientalist searched for the "essence" of the Indian religions, discerning this in the Vedas, and meanwhile creating the notion of "Hinduism" as a unified body of religious praxis and the popular picture of 'mystical India'. This idea of a Vedic essence was taken over by Hindu reform movements as the Brahmo Samaj, which was supported for a while by the Unitarian Church, together with the ideas of Universalism and Perennialism, the idea that all religions share a common mystic ground. This "Hindu modernism", with proponents like Vivekananda, Aurobindo and Radhakrishnan, became central in the popular understanding of Hinduism.
Popularity in the west
Influential 20th-century Hindus were Ramana Maharshi, B.K.S. Iyengar, Paramahansa Yogananda, Prabhupada (founder of ISKCON), Sri Chinmoy, Swami Rama and others who translated, reformulated and presented Hinduism's foundational texts for contemporary audiences in new iterations, raising the profiles of Yoga and Vedanta in the West and attracting followers and attention in India and abroad.
Hindu practices such as Yoga, Ayurvedic health, divination (astrology, palmistry, numerology), Tantric sexuality through Neotantra and the Kama Sutra have spread beyond Hindu communities and have been accepted by several non-Hindus:
"Hinduism is attracting Western adherents through the affiliated practice of yoga. Yoga centers in the West—which generally advocate vegetarianism—attract young, well-educated Westerners who are drawn by yoga's benefits for the physical and emotional health; there they are introduced to the Hindu philosophical system taught by most yoga teachers, known as Vedanta."
It is estimated that around 30 million Americans and 5 million Europeans regularly practice some form of Hatha Yoga. In Australia, the number of practitioners is about 300,000.[web 22] In New Zealand the number is also around 300,000.[web 23]
In the 20th century, Hinduism also gained prominence as a political force and a source for national identity in India. With origins traced back to the establishment of the Hindu Mahasabha in the 1910s, the movement grew with the formulation and development of the Hindutva ideology in the following decades; the establishment of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in 1925; and the entry, and later success, of RSS offshoots Jana Sangha and Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in electoral politics in post-independence India. Hindu religiosity plays an important role in the nationalist movement.[note 32][note 33]
Part of a series on
Hinduism is a major religion in India. Hinduism was followed by around 80.5% of the country's population of 1.21 billion (2012 estimate) (960 million adherents).[web 24] Other significant populations are found in Nepal (23 million), Bangladesh (15 million) and the Indonesian island of Bali (3.9 million). The majority of the Vietnamese Cham people also follow Hinduism.
- Nepal 81.3%[web 25]
- India 80.5%
- Mauritius 48.5%
- Guyana 28%[web 26]
- Fiji 27.9%[web 27]
- Bhutan 25%[web 28]
- Trinidad and Tobago 22.5%
- Suriname 20%[web 29]
- Sri Lanka 12.6%[web 30]
- Bangladesh 9.6%[web 31]
- Qatar 7.2%
- Réunion 6.7%
- Malaysia 6.3%[web 32]
- Bahrain 6.25%
- Kuwait 6%
- Singapore 5.1%[web 33]
- United Arab Emirates 5%
- Oman 3%
- Belize 2.3%
- Seychelles 2.1%[web 34]
In the modern era, religious conversion from and to Hinduism has been a controversial subject. Some state the concept of missionary conversion, either way, is anathema to the precepts of Hinduism.
Religious conversion to Hinduism has a long history outside India. Merchants and traders of India, particularly from the Indian peninsula, carried their religious ideas, which led to religious conversions to Hinduism in southeast Asia. Within India, archeological and textual evidence such as the 2nd century BCE Heliodorus pillar suggest that Greeks and other foreigners converted to Hinduism. The debate on proselytization and religious conversion between Christianity, Islam and Hinduism is more recent, and started in the 19th century.[note 34]
Religious leaders of some Hindu reform movements such as the Arya Samaj launched Shuddhi movement to proselytize and reconvert Muslims and Christians back to Hinduism, while those such as the Brahmo Samaj suggested Hinduism to be a non-missionary religion. All these sects of Hinduism have welcomed new members to their group, while other leaders of Hinduism's diverse schools have stated that given the intensive proselytization activities from missionary Islam and Christianity, this "there is no such thing as proselytism in Hinduism" view must be re-examined.
In recent decades, mainstream Hinduism schools have attempted to systematize ways to accept religious converts, with an increase in inter-religious mixed marriages. The appropriateness of conversion from major religions to Hinduism, and vice versa, has been and remains an actively debated topic in India, and in Indonesia.
- Hinduism in Southeast Asia
- Balinese Hinduism
- Atheism in Hinduism
- Criticism of Hinduism
- Hindu calendar
- Hindu deities
- Hindu denominations
- Hindu mythology
- Hindu reform movements
- Hinduism by country
- Ethics of Hinduism
- Rulership in Hinduism
- List of Hindu temples
- List of notable Hindus
- List of converts to Hinduism
- List of related articles
- Related systems and religions
- Hinduism is variously defined as a "religion", "set of religious beliefs and practices", "religious tradition", "a way of life" (Sharma 2003, pp. 12–13) etc. For a discussion on the topic, see: "Establishing the boundaries" in Flood 2008, pp. 1–17
- "Oldest religion":
- The "oldest living religion" (Sarma 1987, p. 3)
- The "oldest living major religion" in the world (Merriam-Webster 2000, p. 751; Klostermaier 2007, p. 1)
- Lockard 2007, p. 50: "The encounters that resulted from Aryan migration brought together several very different peoples and cultures, reconfiguring Indian society. Over many centuries a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian occurred, a complex process that historians have labeled the Indo-Aryan synthesis." Lockard 2007, p. 52: "Hinduism can be seen historically as a synthesis of Aryan beliefs with Harappan and other Dravidian traditions that developed over many centuries."
- Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 12: "A period of consolidation, sometimes identified as one of "Hindu synthesis," Brahmanic synthesis," or "orthodox synthesis," takes place between the time of the late Vedic Upanishads (c. 500 BCE) and the period of Gupta imperial ascendency" (c. 320-467 CE)."
- See also:
- J.H. Hutton (1931), in Ghurye, Govind Sadashiv (1980), The Scheduled Tribes of India, Transaction Publishers, pp. 3–4[subnote 5]
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1951), Philosophies of India, Princeton University Press, pp. 218–219
- Tyler (1973), India: An Anthropological Perspective, Goodyear Publishing Company. In: Sjoberg 1990, p. 43[subnote 6]
- Sjoberg, Andree F. (1990), "The Dravidian Contribution To The Development Of Indian Civilization: A Call For A Reassesment", Comparative Civilizations Review. 23:40-74
- Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, p. 16
- Nath, Vijay (2001), "From 'Brahmanism' to 'Hinduism': Negotiating the Myth of the Great Tradition", Social Scientist 2001, pp. 19-50
- Werner, karel (2005), A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, Routledge, pp. 8–9
- Lockard, Craig A. (2007), Societies, Networks, and Transitions. Volume I: to 1500, Cengage Learning, p. 50
- Hiltebeitel, Alf (2007), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge
- Hopfe, Lewis M.; Woodward, Mark R. (2008), Religions of the World, Pearson Education, p. 79[subnote 7]
- Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press
- Among its roots are the Vedic religion of the late Vedic period (Flood 1996, p. 16) and its emphasis on the status of Brahmans (Samuel 2010, pp. 48–53), but also the religions of the Indus Valley Civilisation (Narayanan 2009, p. 11; Lockard 2007, p. 52; Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 3; Jones & Ryan 2006, p. xviii) the Sramana or renouncer traditions of north-east India (Flood 1996, p. 16; Gomez 2013, p. 42) and "popular or local traditions" (Flood 1996, p. 16).
- The Indo-Aryan word Sindhu means "river", "ocean". It is frequently being used in the Rigveda. The Sindhu-area is part of Āryāvarta, "the land of the Aryans".
- Gavin Flood adds: "In Arabic texts, Al-Hind is a term used for the people of modern-day India and 'Hindu', or 'Hindoo', was used towards the end of the eighteenth century by the British to refer to the people of 'Hindustan', the people of northwest India. Eventually 'Hindu' became virtually equivalent to an 'Indian' who was not a Muslim, Sikh, Jain or Christian, thereby encompassing a range of religious beliefs and practices. The '-ism' was added to Hindu in around 1830 to denote the culture and religion of the high-caste Brahmans in contrast to other religions, and the term was soon appropriated by Indians themselves in the context of building a national identity opposed to colonialism, though the term 'Hindu' was used in Sanskrit and Bengali hagiographic texts in contrast to 'Yavana' or Muslim as early as the sixteenth century".(Flood 1996, p. 6)
- In ancient literature the name Bharata or Bharata VRasa was being used.(Garg 1992, p. 3)
- Sweetman mentions:
- Wilhelm Halbfass (1988), India and Europe
- IXth European Conference on Modern Asian Studies in Heidelberg (1989), Hinduism Reconsidered
- Ronald Inden, Imagining India
- Carol Breckenridge and Peter van der Veer, Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament
- Vasudha Dalmia and Heinrich von Stietencron, Representing Hinduism
- S.N. Balagangadhara, The Heathen in his Blindness...
- Thomas Trautmann, Aryans and British India
- Richard King (1989), Orientalism and religion
- See Rajiv Malhotra and Being Different for a critic who gained widespread attention outside the academia, Invading the Sacred, and Hindu studies.
- Sweetman identifies several areas in which "there is substantial, if not universal, agreement that colonialism influenced the study of Hinduism":
- The wish of European Orientalists "to establish a textual basis for Hinduism," akin to the Protestant culture, which was also driven by a preference among the colonial powers for "written authority" rather than "oral authority."
- The influence of Brahmins on European conceptions of Hinduism. According to Sweetman, colonialism has been "a significant factor in the reinforcement of their position and the acceleration of the 'brahmanization' of Hindu society." The Brahmana castes preserved the texts which were studied by Europeans, and provided access to them. The authority of those texts was expanded by being the focus of study by Europeans. Brahmins and Europeans scholars shared a perception of "a general decline from an originally pure religion".
- "[T]he identification of Vedanta, more specifically Advaita Vedanta, as 'the paradigmatic example of the mystical nature of the Hindu religion'"[subnote 1] and the "central philosophy of the Hindus". Several factors led to the favouring of Advaita Vedanta:
- Fear of French influence, especially the impact of the French Revolution; the hope was that "the supposed quietist and conservative nature of Vedantic thought would prevent the development of revolutionary sentiment";
- "The predominance of Idealism in nineteenth century European philosophy";
- "The amenability of Vedantic thought to both Christian and Hindu critics of 'idolatry' in other forms of Hinduism".
- The European conception of caste which dismissed former political configurations and insisted upon an "essentially religious character" of India. During the colonial period, caste was defined as a religious system and was divorced from political powers. This made it possible for the colonial rulers to portray India as a society characterised by spiritual harmony in contrast to the former Indian states which they criticised as "despotic and epiphenomenal",[subnote 2] with the colonial powers providing the necessary "benevolent, paternalistic rule by a more 'advanced' nation".
- "[T]he construction of Hinduism in the image of Christianity" as "a systematic, confessional, all-embracing religious entity".[subnote 3] Several forces played a role in this construction:
- See also Arvind Sharma (2002), On Hindu, Hindustān, Hinduism and Hindutva. Numen Vol. 49, Fasc. 1 (2002), pp. 1-36.
- For translation of deva in singular noun form as "a deity, god", and in plural form as "the gods" or "the heavenly or shining ones", see: Monier-Williams 2001, p. 492. For translation of devatā as "godhead, divinity", see: Monier-Williams 2001, p. 495.
- Lisa Hark, Lisa Hark, PH.D., R.D., Horace DeLisser, MD (7 September 2011). Achieving Cultural Competency. John Wiley & Sons.
Three gods, Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva, and other deities are considered manifestations of and are worshipped as incarnations of Brahman.
- John McCannon (1 January 2006). World History Examination. Barron's Educational Series.
In addition to the Brahman, Hinduism recognises literally hundreds of gods and goddesses. Thus, Hinduism is a polytheistic religion. However, Hindus consider all deities to be avatars, or incarnations of the Brahman.
- Toropov & Buckles 2011: The members of various Hindu sects worship a dizzying number of specific deities and follow innumerable rituals in honor of specific gods. Because this is Hinduism, however, its practitioners see the profusion of forms and practices as expressions of the same unchanging reality. The panoply of deities are understood by believers as symbols for a single transcendent reality.
- Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff (2007). An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies. Liturgical Press.
The devas are powerful spiritual beings, somewhat like angels in the West, who have certain functions in the cosmos and live immensely long lives. Certain devas, such as Ganesha, are regularly worshiped by the Hindu faithful. Note that, while Hindus believe in many devas, many are monotheistic to the extent that they will recognise only one Supreme Being, a God or Goddess who is the source and ruler of the devas.
- Lisa Hark, Lisa Hark, PH.D., R.D., Horace DeLisser, MD (7 September 2011). Achieving Cultural Competency. John Wiley & Sons.
- Venkataraman and Deshpande: "Caste-based discrimination does exist in many parts of India today.... Caste-based discrimination fundamentally contradicts the essential teaching of Hindu sacred texts that divinity is inherent in all beings."[web 15]
- Different periods are designated as "classical Hinduism":
- Smart calls the period between 1000 BCE and 100 CE "pre-classical". It is the formative period for the Upanishads and Brahmanism[subnote 8] Jainism and Buddhism. For Smart, the "classical period" lasts from 100 to 1000 CE, and coincides with the flowering of "classical Hinduism" and the flowering and deterioration of Mahayana-buddhism in India.
- For Michaels, the period between 500 BCE and 200 BCE is a time of "Ascetic reformism", whereas the period between 200 BCE and 1100 CE is the time of "classical Hinduism", since there is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions".
- Muesse discerns a longer period of change, namely between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, which he calls the "Classical Period". According to Muesse, some of the fundamental concepts of Hinduism, namely karma, reincarnation and "personal enlightenment and transformation", which did not exist in the Vedic religion, developed in this time.
- David Gordo White: "[T]he religion of the Vedas was already a composite of the indo-Aryan and Harappan cultures and civilizations."
- Richard Gombrich: "It is important to bear in mind that the Indo-Aryans did not enter an unhabitated land. For nearly two millennia they and their culture gradually penetrated India, moving east and south from their original seat in the Punjab. They mixed with people who spoke Munda or Dravidian languages, who have left no traces of their culture beyond some archaeological remains; we know as little about them as we would about the Indo-Aryans if they had left no texts. In fact we cannot even be sure whether some of the aerchaeological finds belong to Indo-Aryans, autochthonous populations, or a mixture. It is to be assumed - though this is not fashionable in Indian historiography - that the clash of cultures between Indo-Aryans and autochtones was responsible for many of the changes in Indo-Aryan society. We can also assume that many - perhaps most - of the indigenous population came to be assimilated into Indo-Aryan culture.
- Tiwari mentions the Austric and Mongoloid people. See also Peopling of India for the variety of Indian people.
- Doniger 2010, p. 66: "Much of what we now call Hinduism may have had roots in cultures that thrived in South Asia long before the creation of textual evidence that we can decipher with any confidence. Remarkable cave paintings have been preserved from Mesolithic sites dating from c. 30,000 BCE in Bhimbetka, near present-day Bhopal, in the Vindhya Mountains in the province of Madhya Pradesh."
- Jones & Ryan 2006, p. xvii: "Some practices of Hinduism must have originated in Neolithic times (c. 4,000 BCE). The worship of certain plants and animals as sacred, for instance, could very likely have very great antiquity. The worship of goddesses, too, a part of Hinduism today, may be a feature that originated in the Neolithic."
- Michaels: "They called themselves arya ("Aryans," literally "the hospitable," from the Vedic arya, "homey, the hospitable") but even in the Rgveda, arya denotes a cultural and linguistic boundary and not only a racial one."
- There is no exact dating possible for the beginning of the Vedic period. Witzel mentions a range between 1900 and 1400 BCE. Flood mentions 1500 BCE.
- The Aryan migration theory has been challenged by some researchers, due to a lack of archaeological evidence and signs of cultural continuity, hypothesizing instead a slow process of acculturation or transformation. Nevertheless, linguistic and archaeological data clearly show a cultural change after 1750 BCE, with the linguistic and religious data clearly showing links with Indo-European languages and religion. According to Singh, "The dominant view is that the Indo-Aryans came to the subcontinent as immigrants."
- According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion probably emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River (present-day Uzbekistan) and (present-day) Iran. It was "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements", which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices" from the Bactria–Margiana Culture. At least 383 non-Indo-European words were borrowed from this culture, including the god Indra and the ritual drink Soma. The oldest inscriptions in Old Indic, the language of the Rig Veda, are found not in northwestern India and Pakistan, but in northern Syria, the location of the Mitanni kingdom. The Mitanni kings took Old Indic throne names, and used Old Indic technical terms were used for horse-riding and chariot-driving. The Old Indic term r'ta, meaning "cosmic order and truth", the central concept of the Rig Veda, was also employed in the mitanni kingdom. And Old Indic gods, including Indra, were also known in the Mitanni kingdom.
- Flood 2008, pp. 273–274: "The second half of the first millennium BCE was the period that created many of the ideological and institutional elements that characterise later Indian religions. The renouncer tradition played a central role during this formative period of Indian religious history [...] Some of the fundamental values and beliefs that we generally associate with Indian religions in general and Hinduism in particular were in part the creation of the renouncer tradition. These include the two pillars of Indian theologies: samsara - the belief that life in this world is one of suffering and subject to repeated deaths and births (rebirth); moksa/nirvana - the goal of human existence."
- Richard King notes that Radhakrishnan was a representative of Neo-Vedanta, which had a specific understanding of Indian religions: "The inclusivist appropriation of other traditions, so characteristic of neo-Vedanta ideology, appears on three basic levels. First, it is apparent in the suggestion that the (Advaita) Vedanta philosophy of Sankara (c. eighth century CE) constitutes the central philosophy of Hinduism. Second, in an Indian context, neo-Vedanta philosophy subsumes Buddhist philosophies in terms of its own Vedantic ideology. The Buddha becomes a member of the Vedanta tradition, merely attempting to reform it from within. Finally, at a global level, neo-Vedanta colonises the religious traditions of the world by arguing for the centrality of a non-dualistic position as the philosophia perennis underlying all cultural differences."
- Samuel 2010, pp. 193–228, 339–353, specifically pp. 76–79 and p. 199
- Axel Michaels mentions the Durga temple in Aihole and the Visnu Temple in Deogarh. George Michell notes that earlier temples were build of timber, brick and plaster, while the first stone temples appeared during the period of Gupta rule.
- See also "Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records"; more links at the bottom of that page; for Muslim historian's record on major Hindu temple destruction campaigns, from 1193 to 1729 AD, see Richard Eaton (2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, Vol. 11, Issue 3, pages 283-319
- The tendency of "a blurring of philosophical distinctions" has also been noted by Burley. Lorenzen locates the origins of a distinct Hindu identity in the interaction between Muslims and Hindus, and a process of "mutual self-definition with a contrasting Muslim other", which started well before 1800. Both the Indian and the European thinkers who developed the term "Hinduism" in the 19th century were influenced by these philosophers.
- This conjunction of nationalism and religion is not unique to India. The complexities of Asian nationalism are to be seen and understood in the context of colonialism, modernization and nation-building. See, for example, Anagarika Dharmapala, for the role of Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lankese struggle for independence, and D.T. Suzuki, who conjuncted Zen to Japanese nationalism and militarism, in defense against both western hegemony and the pressure on Japanese Zen during the Meiji Restoration to conform to Shinbutsu Bunri.
- Neo-Vedanta also contributed to Hindutva ideology, Hindu politics and communalism. Yet, Rinehart emphasises that it is "clear that there isn't a neat line of causation that leads from the philosophies of Rammohan Roy, Vivekananda and Radhakrishnan to the agenda of [...] militant Hindus."
- The controversy started as an intense polemic battle between Christian missionaries and Muslim organizations in the first half of the 19th century, where missionaries such as Karl Gottlieb Pfander tried to convert Muslims and Hindus, by criticizing Qur'an and Hindu scriptures. Muslim leaders responded by publishing in Muslim-owned newspapers of Bengal, and through rural campaign, polemics against Christians and Hindus, and by launching "purification and reform movements" within Islam. Hindu leaders joined the proselytization debate, criticized Christianity and Islam, and asserted Hinduism to be a universal, secular religion.
- Sweetman cites Richard King (1999) p.128.(King 1999)
- Sweetman cites Dirks (1993), The Hollow Crown, University of Michigan Press, p.xxvii
- Sweetman cites Dirks (2001), Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India, Princeton University Press, p.7
- Sweetman cites Viswanathan (2003), Colonialism and the Construction of Hinduism, p.26
- Ghurye: He [Hutton] considers modern Hinduism to be the result of an amalgam between pre-Aryan Indian beliefs of Mediterranean inspiration and the religion of the Rigveda. "The Tribal religions present, as it were, surplus material not yet built into the temple of Hinduism".(Ghurye 1980, p. 4)
- Tyler, in India: An Anthropological Perspective(1973), page 68, as quoted by Sjoberg, calls Hinduism a "synthesis" in which the Dravidian elements prevail: "The Hindu synthesis was less the dialectical reduction of orthodoxy and heterodoxy than the resurgence of the ancient, aboriginal Indus civilization. In this process the rude, barbaric Aryan tribes were gradually civilised and eventually merged with the autochthonous Dravidians. Although elements of their domestic cult and ritualism were jealously preserved by Brahman priests, the body of their culture survived only in fragmentary tales and allegories embedded in vast, syncretistic compendia. On the whole, the Aryan contribution to Indian culture is insignificant. The essential pattern of Indian culture was already established in the third millennium B.C., and ... the form of Indian civilization perdured and eventually reasserted itself.(Sjoberg 1990, p. 43)
- Hopfe & Woodward 2008, p. 79: "The religion that the Aryans brought with them mingled with the religion of the native people, and the culture that developed between them became classical Hinduism."
- Smart distinguishes "Brahmanism" from the Vedic religion, connecting "Brahmanism" with the Upanishads.
- Frazier, Jessica (2011). The Continuum companion to Hindu studies. London: Continuum. pp. 1–15. ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0.
- Nath 2001, p. 31.
- Lance Nelson (2007), An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies (Editors: Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff), Liturgical Press, ISBN 978-0814658567, pages 561-563
- Bowker 2000; Harvey 2001, p. xiii; Knott 1998, p. 5
- Knott 1998, p. 5.
- Samuel 2010, p. 193.
- Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 12; Flood 1996, p. 16; Lockard 2007, p. 50
- Narayanan 2009, p. 11.
- Osborne 2005, p. 9.
- PV Kane, Samanya Dharma, History of Dharmasastra, Vol. 2, Part 1, pages 4-5;
Alban Widgery, The Principles of Hindu Ethics, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 40, No. 2, pages 232-245
- Bilimoria et al. (eds.), Indian Ethics: Classical Traditions and Contemporary Challenges (2007), p. 103; see also John Koller, Puruṣārtha as Human Aims, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Oct., 1968), pp. 315-319
- Gavin Flood (1997), “The Meaning and Context of the Puruṣārthas”, In The Bhagavadgītā for Our Times (Editor: Julius J. Lipner), Oxford University Press, pages 11–27, ISBN 978-0195650396
- Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism, Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791470824, pages 173-180
- Brodd 2003.
- A Bhattacharya (2009), Applied Ethics, Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, Hokkaido University, ISBN 978-4990404611, pages 63-64
- Andrew Fort and Patricia Mumme (1996), Living Liberation in Hindu Thought, ISBN 978-0-7914-2706-4
- Michaels 2004.
- Flood 2008, p. 3.
- Flood 1996, p. 6.
- Thapar 1993, p. 77.
- Thompson Platts 1884.
- O'Conell, Joseph T. (1973). "The Word 'Hindu' in Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava Texts". Journal of the American Oriental Society 93 (3). pp. 340–344. doi:10.2307/599467.
- Sweetman 2004; King 1999
- Sweetman 2004.
- Nussbaum 2009.
- Knott, Kim (1998). Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-19-285387-5.
- Sharma 2003, p. 12-13.
- Vivekjivandas 2010, p. 1.
- Nicholson 2010, p. 2; Lorenzen 2006, pp. 1–36
- King 1999, p. 171.
- King 1999, p. 169.
- Sweetman 2004, p. 13.
- Sweetman 2004, p. 13-14.
- Sweetman 2004, p. 14.
- Sweetman 2004, p. 14-15.
- Sweetman 2004, p. 15.
- Sweetman 2004, p. 15, 16.
- Insoll, Timothy (2001), Archaeology and world religion, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-22155-9
- Bowker 2000; Harvey 2001, p. xiii
- Knott, Kim (2000). Hinduism, A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press (OUP). p. 111.
- Paul Hacker, Dharma in Hinduism, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 34, No. 5, pages 479–496
- Nicholson 2010, p. 2.
- Burley 2007, p. 34.
- Nicholson 2010.
- Lorenzen 2006, p. 24-33.
- Lorenzen 2006, p. 27.
- Lorenzen 2006, p. 26-27.
- Michaels 2004, p. 44.
- Hackel in Nicholson 2010
- King 2001.
- Feuerstein 2002, p. 600.
- Clarke 2006, p. 209.
- King 1999.
- Flood 1996, p. 258.
- Flood 1996, p. 256-261.
- Young, Serinity (2007). Hinduism. Marshall Cavendish. p. 87. ISBN 9780761421160. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- Flood 1996, p. 257.
- Flood 1996, p. 259.
- Flood 1996, p. 248.
- Flood 1996, p. 249.
- Flood 1996, p. 265.
- Flood 1996, p. 267.
- Flood 1996, p. 267-268.
- Turner 1996-A, p. 275.
- Ferro-Luzzi, (1991)The Polythetic-Prototype Approach to Hinduism in G.D. Sontheimer and H. Kulke (ed.) Hinduism Reconsidered. Delhi: Manohar. pp. 187-95
- Doniger 1999, p. 434.
- Smith 1962, p. 65; Halbfass 1991, pp. 1–22
- Klostermaier 1994, p. 1
- Flood 1996, p. 6; Osborne 2005, p. 9
- Lockard 2007, p. 50; Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 12
- Flood 1996, p. 16.
- Halbfass 1991, p. 15.
- Flood 1996, p. 35.
- Halbfass 1991, p. 1.
- Matthew Clarke (2011). Development and Religion: Theology and Practice. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 28.
- Flood 1996, p. 14.
- J. McDaniel Hinduism, in John Corrigan, The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Emotion, (2007) Oxford University Press, 544 pages, pp. 52-53 ISBN 0-19-517021-0
- Michaels 2004, p. 21.
- Michaels 2004, p. 22.
- Michaels 2004, p. 23.
- Michaels 2004, p. 24.
- Gavin Flood (1996), The meaning and context of the Purusarthas, in Julius Lipner (Editor) - The Fruits of Our Desiring, ISBN 978-1896209302, pp 16-21
- The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Dharma, The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions: "In Hinduism, dharma is a fundamental concept, referring to the order and custom which make life and a universe possible, and thus to the behaviours appropriate to the maintenance of that order."
- Dharma, The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Ed. (2013), Columbia University Press, Gale, ISBN 978-0787650155
- J. A. B. Van Buitenen, Dharma and Moksa, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp 33-40
- Charles Johnston, The Mukhya Upanishads: Books of Hidden Wisdom, Kshetra, ISBN 978-1495946530, page 481, for discussion: pages 478-505
- Paul Horsch (Translated by Jarrod Whitaker), From Creation Myth to World Law: The early history of Dharma, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol 32, pages 423–448, (2004)
- Swami Prabhupādā, A. C. Bhaktivedanta (1986), Bhagavad-gītā as it is, The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, p. 16, ISBN 9780892132683
- John Koller, Puruṣārtha as Human Aims, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 18, No. 4 (Oct., 1968), pp. 315-319
- James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pp 55-56
- Bruce Sullivan (1997), Historical Dictionary of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0810833272, pp 29-30
- Macy, Joanna (1975). "The Dialectics of Desire". Numen (BRILL) 22 (2): 145–60. JSTOR 3269765.
- Monier Williams, काम, kāma Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary, pp 271, see 3rd column
- The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, University of Toronto Archives, pp. 8;
- A. Sharma (1982), The Puruṣārthas: a study in Hindu axiology, Michigan State University, ISBN 9789993624318, pp 9-12; See review by Frank Whaling in Numen, Vol. 31, 1 (Jul., 1984), pp. 140-142;
- A. Sharma (1999), The Puruṣārthas: An Axiological Exploration of Hinduism, The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer, 1999), pp. 223-256;
- Chris Bartley (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, Editor: Oliver Learman, ISBN 0-415-17281-0, Routledge, Article on Purushartha, pp 443
- R.C. Mishra, Moksha and the Hindu Worldview, Psychology & Developing Societies, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp 23, 27
- J. A. B. Van Buitenen, Dharma and Moksa, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 33-40
- E. Deutsch, The self in Advaita Vedanta, in Roy Perrett (Editor), Indian philosophy: metaphysics, Volume 3, ISBN 0-8153-3608-X, Taylor and Francis, pp 343-360
- Karl Potter, Dharma and Mokṣa from a Conversational Point of View, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 8, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1958), pp. 49-63
- Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksha, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 41-48;
- Klaus Klostermaier, Mokṣa and Critical Theory, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1985), pp. 61-71
- * Apte, Vaman S (1997), The Student's English-Sanskrit Dictionary (New ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 81-208-0300-0
- Smith 1991, p. 64
- Karl Potter (1964), The Naturalistic Principle of Karma, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 14, No. 1 (Apr., 1964), pp. 39-49
- Wendy D. O'Flaherty (1980), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp xi-xxv (Introduction) and 3-37
- Karl Potter (1980), in Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions (O'Flaherty, Editor), University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, pp 241-267
- Radhakrishnan 1996, p. 254
- See Vivekananda, Swami (2005), Jnana Yoga, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4254-8288-0 pages 301-302 (8th Printing 1993)
- Christopher Chapple (1986), Karma and creativity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-251-2; pp 60-64
- Rinehart 2004, pp. 19–21
- J. Bruce Long (1980), The concepts of human action and rebirth in the Mahabharata, in Wendy D. O'Flaherty, Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520039230, Chapter 2
- Europa Publications Staff (2003), The Far East and Australasia, 2003 - Regional surveys of the world, Routledge, p. 39, ISBN 978-1-85743-133-9
- Hindu spirituality - Volume 25 of Documenta missionalia, Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana, 1999, p. 1, ISBN 978-88-7652-818-7
- Karl Potter, Dharma and Mokṣa from a Conversational Point of View, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 8, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1958), pp. 49-63
- Daniel H. H. Ingalls, Dharma and Moksha, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 7, No. 1/2 (Apr. - Jul., 1957), pp. 41-48
- Klaus Klostermaier, Mokṣa and Critical Theory, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan., 1985), pp. 61-71
- M. von Brück (1986), Imitation or Identification?, Indian Theological Studies, Vol. 23, Issue 2, pp 95-105
- Andrew Fort (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-3904-6
- Julius J. Lipner (2010), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-45677-7, page 8; Quote: "(...) one need not be religious in the minimal sense described to be accepted as a Hindu by Hindus, or describe oneself perfectly validly as Hindu. One may be polytheistic or monotheistic, monistic or pantheistic, even an agnostic, humanist or atheist, and still be considered a Hindu."
- Chakravarti, Sitansu (1991), Hinduism, a way of life, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., p. 71, ISBN 978-81-208-0899-7
- See Michaels 2004, p. xiv and Gill, N.S. "Henotheism". About, Inc. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
- Flood 1996, p. 226.
- Flood 1996, p. 226; Kramer 1986, pp. 20–21
- Original Sanskrit: Rigveda 10.129 Wikisource;
- Translation 1: Max Muller (1859). A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature. Williams and Norgate, London. pp. 559–565.
- Translation 2: Kenneth Kramer (1986). World Scriptures: An Introduction to Comparative Religions. Paulist Press. p. 21. ISBN 0-8091-2781-4.
- Translation 3: David Christian (2011). Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. University of California Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-0-520-95067-2.
- Max Muller (1878), Lectures on the Origins and Growth of Religions: As Illustrated by the Religions of India, Longmans Green & Co, pages 260-271;
William Joseph Wilkins, Hindu Mythology: Vedic and Purānic, p. 8, at Google Books, London Missionary Society, Calcutta
- HN Raghavendrachar (1944), Monism in the Vedas, The half-yearly journal of the Mysore University: Section A - Arts, Volume 4, Issue 2, pages 137-152;
K Werner (1982), Men, gods and powers in the Vedic outlook, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Volume 114, Issue 01, pages 14-24;
H Coward (1995), Book Review:" The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas", Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies, Volume 8, Issue 1, pages 45-47, Quote: "There is little doubt that the theo-monistic category is an appropriate one for viewing a wide variety of experiences in the Hindu tradition".
- Monier-Williams 1974, pp. 20–37
- & Bhaskarananda 1994
- Vivekananda 1987
- John Koller (2012), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion (Editors: Chad Meister, Paul Copan), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415782944, pages 99-107
- Lance Nelson (1996), Living liberation in Shankara and classical Advaita, in Living Liberation in Hindu Thought (Editors: Andrew O. Fort, Patricia Y. Mumme), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791427064, pages 38-39, 59 (footnote 105)
- R Prasad (2009), A Historical-developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy of Morals, Concept Publishing, ISBN 978-8180695957, pages 345-347
- Mircea Eliade (2009), Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691142036, pages 73-76
- Radhakrishnan and Moore (1967, Reprinted 1989), A Source Book in Indian Philosophy, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691019581, pages 37-39, 401-403, 498-503
- Monier-Williams 2001
- Werner 1994, p. 80
- Renou 1964, p. 55
- Harman 2004, pp. 104–106
- John Clayton (2010), Religions, Reasons and Gods: Essays in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Religion, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521126274, page 150
- Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0365-5, pages 209-10
- Reichenbach, Bruce R. (April 1989), "Karma, causation, and divine intervention", Philosophy East and West (Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press) 39 (2): 135–149 , doi:10.2307/1399374, retrieved 29 December 2009.
- Rajadhyaksha (1959), The six systems of Indian philosophy, p. 95,
Under the circumstances God becomes an unnecessary metaphysical assumption. Naturally the Sankhyakarikas do not mention God, Vachaspati interprets this as rank atheism.
- Coward, Harold (February 2008). The perfectibility of human nature in eastern and western thought. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7914-7336-8.
For the Mimamsa the ultimate reality is nothing other than the eternal words of the Vedas. They did not accept the existence of a single supreme creator god, who might have composed the Veda. According to the Mimamsa, gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. The power of the gods, then, is nothing other than the power of the mantras that name them.
- Sen Gupta 1986, p. viii
- Neville, Robert (2001), Religious truth, p. 51, ISBN 978-0-7914-4778-9,
Mimamsa theorists (theistic and atheistic) decided that the evidence allegedly proving the existence of God was insufficient. They also thought there was no need to postulate a maker for the world, just as there was no need for an author to compose the Veda or an independent God to validate the Vedic rituals.
- A Goel (1984), Indian philosophy: Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika and modern science, Sterling, ISBN 978-0865902787, pages 149-151;
R Collins (2000), The sociology of philosophies, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674001879, page 836
- Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism, Third Edition, State University of New York, ISBN 978-0791470824, pages 337-338
- Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya and Yoga - An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415648875, page 39-41;
Lloyd Pflueger, Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga (Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329, pages 38-39;
Kovoor T. Behanan (2002), Yoga: Its Scientific Basis, Dover, ISBN 978-0486417929, pages 56-58
- Knut Jacobsen (2008), Theory and Practice of Yoga : 'Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329, pages 77-78
- Monier-Williams, Religious Thought and Life in India (New Delhi, 1974 edition)
- Radhakrishnan, S (1929), Indian Philosophy, Volume 1, Muirhead library of philosophy (2nd ed.), London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., p. 148
- For ahiṃsā as one of the "emerging ethical and religious issues" in the Mahābhārata see: Brockington, John, "The Sanskrit Epics", in Flood (2003), p. 125.
- For text of Y.S. 2.29 and translation of yama as "vow of self-restraint", see: Taimni, I. K. (1961), The Science of Yoga, Adyar, India: The Theosophical Publishing House, p. 206, ISBN 81-7059-212-7
- Surveys studying food habits of Indians include: "Diary and poultry sector growth in India", "Indian consumer patterns" and "Agri reform in India"[dead link]. Results indicate that Indians who eat meat do so infrequently with less than 30% consuming non-vegetarian foods regularly, although the reasons may be economical.
- Fox, Michael Allen (1999), Deep Vegetarianism, Temple University Press, ISBN 1-56639-705-7
- Walker 1968:257
- Richman 1988:272
- Williams, Raymond. An Introduction to Swaminarayan Hinduism. 1st. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. 159
- Narayanan, Vasudha. "The Hindu Tradition". In A Concise Introduction to World Religions, ed. Willard G. Oxtoby and Alan F. Segal. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
- Rosen, Steven. Essential Hinduism. 1st. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2006. Page 188
- KN Aiyar (1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 978-1164026419, Chapter 22, pages 173-176
- Hatha Yoga Pradipika verse 1.58-63, pages 19-21
- Lorenzen, David (1972). The Kāpālikas and Kālāmukhas. University of California Press. pp. 186–190. ISBN 978-0520018426.
- Christopher Key Chapple (2009), The Bhagavad Gita: Twenty-fifth–Anniversary Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438428420, pages 641-643
- Harold F., Smith (1 January 2007), "12", Outline of Hinduism, Read Books, ISBN 1-4067-8944-5
- Fuller Christopher John (2004), "4", The camphor flame: popular Hinduism and society in India (Revised and Expanded ed.), Princeton University Press, p. 83, ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5
- Gouyon Anne; Bumi Kita Yayasan (30 September 2005), "The Hiden Life of Bali", The natural guide to Bali: enjoy nature, meet the people, make a difference, Equinox Publishing (Asia) Pte Ltd, p. 51, ISBN 979-3780-00-2, retrieved 12 August 2010
- Fuller C. J. (26 July 2004), "4 Sacrifice", The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India [Paperback] (Revised ed.), Princeton University Press, p. 83, ISBN 0-691-12048-X
- Rigveda is not only the oldest among the vedas, but is one of the earliest Indo-European texts.
- Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., ISBN 1-4051-3251-5, see Michael Witzel quote on pages 68-69
- Sargeant & Chapple 1984, p. 3
- Rinehart 2004, p. 68.
- Vivekananda 1987, Vol III, pp. 118–120
- Flood 2008, p. 4.
- Vivekananda 1987, Vol I, pp. 6–7
- Harshananda 1989
- Vivekananda 1987, p. 374 Vol II
- Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521438780, pages 35-39
- A Bhattacharya (2006), Hindu Dharma: Introduction to Scriptures and Theology, ISBN 978-0595384556, pages 8-14; George M. Williams (2003), Handbook of Hindu Mythology, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195332612, page 285
- Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature: (Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447016032
- Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad at pages 1-5; Quote - "The Vedas are divided in two parts, the first is the karma-kanda, the ceremonial part, also (called) purva-kanda, and treats on ceremonies; the second part is the jnana kanda, the part which contains knowledge, also named uttara-kanda or posterior part, and unfolds the knowledge of Brahma or the universal soul."
- Werner 1994, p. 166
- Monier-Williams 1974, pp. 25–41
- Olivelle, Patrick (1998), Upaniṣads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-282292-6, Introduction chapter
- Wendy Doniger (1990), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, 1st Edition, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226618470, pages 2-3; Quote: "The Upanishads supply the basis of later Hindu philosophy; they alone of the Vedic corpus are widely known and quoted by most well-educated Hindus, and their central ideas have also become a part of the spiritual arsenal of rank-and-file Hindus."
- Wiman Dissanayake (1993), Self as Body in Asian Theory and Practice (Editors: Thomas P. Kasulis et al), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791410806, page 39; Quote: "The Upanishads form the foundations of Hindu philosophical thought and the central theme of the Upanishads is the identity of Atman and Brahman, or the inner self and the cosmic self.";
Michael McDowell and Nathan Brown (2009), World Religions, Penguin, ISBN 978-1592578467, pages 208-210
- Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195352429, page 3; Quote: "Even though theoretically the whole of vedic corpus is accepted as revealed truth [shruti], in reality it is the Upanishads that have continued to influence the life and thought of the various religious traditions that we have come to call Hindu. Upanishads are the scriptures par excellence of Hinduism".
- S Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanishads George Allen & Co., 1951, pages 17-19, Reprinted as ISBN 978-8172231248
- Patrick Olivelle (1998), Upaniṣhads. Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199540259, see Introduction
- Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Robert Hume (Translator)
- Sarvopaniṣado gāvo, etc. (Gītā Māhātmya 6). Gītā Dhyānam, cited in Introduction to Bhagavad-gītā As It Is[dead link].
- Thomas B. Coburn, Scripture" in India: Towards a Typology of the Word in Hindu Life, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 52, No. 3 (September, 1984), pp. 435-459
- Muesse, Mark W. (2011). The Hindu Traditions: A Concise Introduction. Fortress Press. p. 216. ISBN 9780800697907.
- "Domestic Worship". Country Studies. The Library of Congress. September 1995. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
- A Sharma (1985), Marriage in the Hindu religious tradition. Journal Of Ecumenical Studies, 22(1), pages 69-80
- Shiva Bajpai (2011), The History of India - From Ancient to Modern Times, Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA), ISBN 978-1-934145-38-8; see pages 4, 73-74
- R Pandey (1969), Hindu Saṁskāras: Socio-Religious Study of the Hindu Sacraments (2nd Ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0434-1
- David Knipe (2015), Vedic Voices: Intimate Narratives of a Living Andhra Tradition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199397693, page 52
- PV Kane, Samskara, Chapter VI, History of Dharmasastras, Vol II, Part I, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, pages 190-417
- Patrick Olivelle (2009), Dharmasutras - The Law Codes of Ancient India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199555376, pages 90-91
- Carl Olson (2007), The Many Colors of Hinduism: A Thematic-historical Introduction, Rutgers University Press, ISBN 978-0813540689, pages 93-94
- For Vedic school, see: Brian Smith (1986), Ritual, Knowledge, and Being: Initiation and Veda Study in Ancient India, Numen, Vol. 33, Fasc. 1, pages 65-89
- For music school, see: Alison Arnold et al (1999), The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: South Asia, Vol 5, Routledge, ISBN 978-0824049461, page 459; For sculpture, crafts and other professions, see: Heather Elgood (2000), Hinduism and the religious arts, ISBN 978-0304707393, Bloomsbury Academic, pages 32-134
- Thomas N. Siqueira, The Vedic Sacraments, Thought, Volume 9, Issue 4, March 1935, pages 598-609, doi:10.5840/thought1935945
- Bhakti, Encyclopedia Britannica (2009)
- Karen Pechelis (2011), Bhakti Traditions, in The Continuum Companion to Hindu Studies (Editors: Jessica Frazier, Gavin Flood), Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-0826499660, pages 107-121
- John Lochtefeld (2014), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing New York, ISBN 978-0823922871, pages 98-100, also see articles on karmamārga and jnanamārga
- John Martin Sahajananda (2014), Fully Human Fully Divine, Partridge India, ISBN 978-1482819557, page 60
- KN Tiwari (2009), Comparative Religion, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120802933, page 31
- Jan Gonda (1963), The Indian Mantra, Oriens, Vol. 16, pages 244-297
- JD Fowler (1996), Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723608, pages 41-50
- Puja Encyclopedia Britannica (2015)
- Antoinette DeNapoli (2014), Real Sadhus Sing to God, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199940035, pages 19-24
- Robin Reinhart, Contemporary Hinduism: ritual, culture, and practice, ISBN 978-1-57607-905-8, pages 35-47
- Karen Pechilis Prentiss (2014), The Embodiment of Bhakti, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195351903
- Arvind Sharma (2000), Classical Hindu Thought: An Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195644418, pages 72-75
- Karen Pechilis Prentiss (2014), The Embodiment of Bhakti, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195351903, pages 22-29
- Lindsay Jones, ed. (2005). Gale Encyclopedia of Religion. Volume 2. Thompson Gale. pp. 856–857. ISBN 0-02-865735-7.
- Bob Robinson (2011), Hindus meeting Christians, OCMS, ISBN 978-1870345392, pages 288-295;
Hendrick Vroom (1996), No Other Gods, Cambridge: Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 978-0802840974, pages 68-69
- Ninian Smart (2012), The Yogi and the Devotee, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415684996, pages 52-80
- Jane Ardley (2015), Spirituality and Politics: Gandhian and Tibetan cases, in The Tibetan Independence Movement, Routledge, ISBN 978-1138862647, pages 98-99, also ix, 112-113;
Helen Mitchell (2014), Roots of Wisdom: A Tapestry of Philosophical Traditions, ISBN 978-1285197128, pages 188-189
- SN Bhavasar (2004), in Hindu Spirituality: Postclassical and Modern (Editors: K. R. Sundararajan and Bithika Mukerji), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120819375, pages 28-29
- Sandra Robinson (2007), Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Editors: Denise Cush et al), Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712670, pages 908-912
- Karen-Marie Yust (2005), Sacred Celebrations, in Nurturing Child and Adolescent Spirituality (Editor: Karen-Marie Yust), Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0742544635, page 234, see also Chapter 18
- Sandra Robinson (2007), Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Editors: Denise Cush et al), Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712670, page 907
- Lynn Foulston and Stuart Abbott (2009), Hindu Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1902210438, page 155
- Dale Holberg et al (2000), Festival calendar of India, in Students' Britannica India, Volume 2, Encyclopedia Britannica (India), ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5, page 120, Quote: "Raksha Bandhan (also called Rakhi), when girls and women tie a rakhi (a symbolic thread) on their brothers' wrists and pray for their prosperity, happiness and goodwill. The brothers, in turn, give their sisters a token gift and promise protection."
- Jessica Frazier (2015), The Bloomsbury Companion to Hindu Studies, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1472511515, pages 255, 271-273
- The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India [Paperback], Fuller 2004
- Arvind Sharma (2000), Classical Hindu Thought: An Introduction, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195644418, pages 132-180
- Hacker, Paul; Halbfass, Wilhelm (1995), Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedānta, SUNY Press, p. 264, ISBN 978-0-7914-2581-7
- Silverberg 1969, pp. 442–443
- Smelser & Lipset 2005
- Smith, Huston (1994). "Hinduism: The Stations of Life". The Illustrated World's Religions. New York City, USA: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-067440-7.
- Michaels 2004, pp. 188–197
- de Zwart, Frank (July 2000). "The Logic of Affirmative Action: Caste, Class and Quotas in India". Acta Sociologica 43 (3): 235–249. doi:10.1177/000169930004300304. JSTOR 4201209.
- P. 143 Aspects of Hindu Morality By Saral Jhingran
- Encyclopaedia of Hindu Gods and Goddesses - Page 178, Suresh Chandra - 1998
- Bhaskarananda 1994
- Wendy Doniger (2000), Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster, ISBN 978-0877790440, page 1041
- A David Napier (1987), Masks, Transformation, and Paradox, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520045330, page 186-187
- SD Sharma (2010), Rice: Origin, Antiquity and History, CRC Press, ISBN 978-1578086801, pages 68-70
- TA Gopinath Rao (1998), Elements of Hindu iconography, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120808782, pages 1-8
- JN Banerjea, The Development Of Hindu Iconography, Kessinger, ISBN 978-1417950089, pages 247-248, 472-508
- Werner 1994, p. 73
- "The Four Denominations of Hinduism". Himalayan Academy. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Lance Nelson (2007), An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies (Editors: Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff), Liturgical Press, ISBN 978-0814658567, pages 562-563
- SS Kumar (2010), Bhakti - the Yoga of Love, LIT Verlag Münster, ISBN 978-3643501301, pages 35-36
- sometimes with Lakshmi, the spouse of Vishnu; or, as Narayana and Sri; see: Guy Beck (2006), Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu Deity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791464168, page 65 and Chapter 5
- "Iskcon". Retrieved 7 February 2014.
- Edwin Bryant and Maria Ekstrand (2004), The Hare Krishna Movement, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231122566, pages 38-43
- Lance Nelson (2007), An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies (Editors: Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff), Liturgical Press, ISBN 978-0814658567, pages 1441, 376
- James Lochtefeld (2010), God's Gateway: Identity and Meaning in a Hindu Pilgrimage Place, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195386141
- Natalia Isaeva (1995), From Early Vedanta to Kashmir Shaivism, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791424490, pages 141-145
- Massimo Scaligero (1955), The Tantra and the Spirit of the West, East and West, Vol. 5, No. 4, pages 291-296
- History: Hans Koester (1929), The Indian Religion of the Goddess Shakti, Journal of the Siam Society, Vol 23, Part 1, pages 1-18;
Modern practices: June McDaniel (2010), Goddesses in World Culture, Volume 1 (Editor: Patricia Monaghan), ISBN 978-0313354656, Chapter 2
- William Wainwright (2012), Concepts of God, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, (Accessed on: June 17, 2015)
- Murray Milner (1994), Status and Sacredness, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195084894, pages 194-197
- George Michell (1988), The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226532301, Chapter 4, pages 61-65
- Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, pages 1-16
- Stella Kramrisch (1976), The Hindu Temple, Vol 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, pages 161-169
- Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0222-3, pp. 346-357 and 423-424
- Klaus Klostermaier, The Divine Presence in Space and Time - Murti, Tirtha, Kala; in A Survey of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4, State University of New York Press, pp. 268-277.
- Burton Stein, "The Economic Function of a Medieval South Indian Temple", The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 19 (February 1960), pages 163-176
- George Michell (1988), The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226532301, pages 58-65
- Alice Boner (1990), Principles of Composition in Hindu Sculpture: Cave Temple Period, ISBN 978-8120807051, see Introduction and pp. 36-37.
- "Gopura". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
- "Nagara". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2015-06-16.
- Michael W. Meister, "Forest and Cave: Temples at Candrabhāgā and Kansuān", Archives of Asian Art, Vol. 34 (1981), pages 56-73
- Stella Kramrisch (1976), The Hindu Temple, Vol. 1, ISBN 81-208-0223-3, pages 8-9
- RK Sharma (1999), Indian Society, Institutions and Change, ISBN 978-8171566655, page 28
- Alban Widgery (1930), The Principles of Hindu Ethics, International Journal of Ethics, 40(2): 232-245
- Albertina Nugteren (2005), Belief, Bounty, And Beauty: Rituals Around Sacred Trees in India, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004146013, pages 13-21
- Saraswathi et al (2010), Reconceptualizing Lifespan Development through a Hindu Perspective, in Bridging Cultural and Developmental Approaches to Psychology (Editor: Lene Arnett Jensen), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195383430, page 280-286
- S. Radhakrishnan (1922), The Hindu Dharma, International Journal of Ethics, 33(1): 1-22
- DP Bhawuk (2011), The Paths of Bondage and Liberation, in Spirituality and Indian Psychology, Springer, ISBN 978-1-4419-8109-7, pages 93-110
- Alban Widgery (1930), The Principles of Hindu Ethics, International Journal of Ethics, 40(2): 237-239
- Barbara Holdrege (2004), Dharma, in The Hindu World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0–415–21527–7, page 231
- Patrick Olivelle (1993), The Ashrama System: The History and Hermeneutics of a Religious Institution, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195344783
- Bhaskarananda 1994, p. 112
- Michaels 2004, p. 316
- Khanna 2007, p. xvii.
- Misra 2004, p. 194.
- Kulke & Rothermund 2004, p. 7.
- Flood 1996, p. 21.
- Smart 2003, p. 52, 83-86.
- Smart 2003, p. 52.
- Michaels 2004, p. 36.
- Michaels 2004, p. 38.
- Muesse 2003, p. 14.
- Samuel 2010, pp. 41–42; Flood 1996, p. 16
- White 2006, p. 28.
- Gombrich 1996, p. 35-36.
- Gomez 2013, p. 42.
- Doniger 2010, p. 66.
- Jones & Ryan 2006, p. xvii.
- Narayanan 2009, p. 11; Lockard 2007, p. 52; Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 3; Jones & Ryan 2006, p. xviii
- Tiwari 2002, p. v; Lockard 2007, p. 52; Zimmer 1951, pp. 218–219; Larson 1995, p. 81
- Tiwari 2002, p. v.
- Possehl 2002, p. 154.
- Possehl 2002, p. 141–156.
- Singh 2008, p. 185.
- Michaels 2004, p. 33.
- Michaels 2004, p. 32.
- Witzel 1995, p. 3-4.
- Witzel 1995.
- Flood 1996, p. 30-35.
- Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 5.
- Singh 2008, p. 186.
- Flood 1996, p. 33.
- Samuel 2010, p. 41-48.
- Samuel 2010, p. 41-93.
- Stein 2010, p. 48-49.
- Samuel 2010, p. 61-93.
- Samuel 2010.
- Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 12.
- Samuel 2010, p. 53-56.
- Flood 1996, p. 30.
- Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 5-7.
- B. S. Ahloowalia (2009). Invasion of the Genes Genetic Heritage of India. Strategic Book Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60860-691-7.
- Roger D. Woodard (18 August 2006). Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult. University of Illinois Press. pp. 242–. ISBN 978-0-252-09295-4.
- Beckwith 2009, p. 32.
- Anthony 2007, p. 462.
- Anthony 2007, p. 454-455.
- Anthony 2007, p. 49.
- Anthony 2007, p. 50.
- Flood 2008, p. 68.
- Melton & Baumann 2010, p. 1412.
- Basham 1989, p. 74-75.
- White, David Gordon (2003). Kiss of the Yogini. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-226-89483-5.
- Samuel 2010, p. 48-51, 61-93.
- Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 8-10.
- Flood 1996, p. 37.
- Witzel 1995, p. 4.
- Anthony 2007, p. 454.
- Oberlies 1998 p.158
- Lucas F. Johnston, Whitney Bauman (2014). Science and Religion: One Planet, Many Possibilities. Routledge. p. 179.
- Neusner, Jacob (2009), World Religions in America: An Introduction, Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-664-23320-4
- Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (2010), Religions of the World, Second Edition: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, ABC-CLIO, p. 1324, ISBN 978-1-59884-204-3
- Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, p. 82, ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0
- KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191, pages 246-249, from note 385 onwards;
Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791422175, page 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence.";
Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 2, at Google Books, pages 2-4
Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy Now
- John C. Plott et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism".
- For the impact of "soul exists" concept in later Hinduism, see Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 3, at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad at pages 3-4; Quote - "(...) Lokayatikas and Bauddhas who assert that the soul does not exist. There are four sects among the followers of Buddha: 1. Madhyamicas who maintain all is void; 2. Yogacharas, who assert except sensation and intelligence all else is void; 3. Sautranticas, who affirm actual existence of external objects no less than of internal sensations; 4. Vaibhashikas, who agree with later (Sautranticas) except that they contend for immediate apprehension of exterior objects through images or forms represented to the intellect."
- Richard King (1995), Ācārya, Gauḍapāda - Early Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism: the Mahāyāna context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2513-8, pages 51-58
- Stephen Phillips (2009), Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231144858, Chapter 1
- Pratt, James Bissett (1996), The Pilgrimage of Buddhism and a Buddhist Pilgrimage, Asian Educational Services, p. 90, ISBN 978-81-206-1196-2
- Larson 2009.
- Cousins 2010.
- Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 13.
- Nath 2001, p. 21.
- Embree 1988, p. 277.
- Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 14.
- Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 20.
- Radhakrishnan & Moore 1967, p. xviii–xxi
- Michaels 2004, p. 40.
- Michell 1977, p. 18.
- Nath 2001, p. 19.
- Sharma, Peri Sarveswara (1980). Anthology of Kumārilabhaṭṭa's Works. Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass. p. 5.
- Michaels 2004, p. 42.
- Inden 1998, p. 67.
- Holt, John. The Buddhist Visnu. Columbia University Press, 2004, p.12,15 "The replacement of the Buddha as the "cosmic person" within the mythic ideology of Indian kingship, as we shall see shortly, occurred at about the same time the Buddha was incorporated and subordinated within the Brahmanical cult of Visnu."
- Nakamura 2004, p. 680.
- Basham 1999
- Vincent A. Smith, The early history of India, 3rd Edition, Oxford University Press, pages 381-384
- Will Durant (1976), The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0671548001, page 458-472, Quote: "The Mohammedan Conquest of India is probably the bloodiest story in history. It is a discouraging tale, for its evident moral is that civilization is a precarious thing, whose delicate complex of order and liberty, culture and peace may at any time be overthrown by barbarians invading from without or multiplying within. The Hindus had allowed their strength to be wasted in internal division and war; they had adopted religions like Buddhism and Jainism, which unnerved them for the tasks of life; they had failed to organize their forces for the protection of their frontiers and their capitals."
- Marc Gaborieau (1985), "From Al-Beruni to Jinnah: Idiom, Ritual and Ideology of the Hindu-Muslim Confrontation in South Asia", Anthropology Today, 1(3), pages 7–14
- Richard M. Eaton (2006), Slavery and South Asian History (Editors: Indrani Chatterjee, Richard M. Eaton), Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253348102, page 11, Quote: "In 1562 Akbar abolished the practice of enslaving the families of war captives; his son Jahangir banned sending of slaves from Bengal as tribute in lieu of cash, which had been the custom since the 14th century. These measures notwithstanding, the Mughals actively participated in slave trade with Central Asia, deporting [Hindu] rebels and subjects who had defaulted on revenue payments, following precedents inherited from Delhi Sultanate".
- Andre Wink (1991), Al-Hind: the Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Volume 1, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004095090, pages 14-16, 172-174, etc
- Sharma, Hari (1991), The real Tipu: a brief history of Tipu Sultan, Rishi publications, p. 112
- P Hardy (1977), Modern European and Muslim explanations of conversion to Islam in South Asia: A preliminary survey of the literature, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Volume 109, Issue 02, pages 177-206
- Burjor Avari (2013), Islamic Civilization in South Asia, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415580618, pages 66-70; Quote: "Many Hindu slaves converted to Islam and gained their liberty".
- FHM Grapperhaus (2009), Taxes through the Ages, ISBN 978-9087220549, page 118
- Studies in Islamic History and Civilisation, David Ayalon, BRILL, 1986, p.271;ISBN 965-264-014-X
- J.T.F. Jordens, "Medieval Hindu Devotionalism" in & Basham 1999
- King 2002.
- King 2002, p. 118.
- King 1999-B.
- Jones & Ryan 2006, p. 114.
- King 2002, p. 119-120.
- King 2002, p. 123.
- Muesse 2011, p. 3-4.
- Doniger 2010, p. 18.
- Jouhki 2006, p. 10-11.
- Changing the Game: Why the Battle for Animal Liberation Is So Hard and How We Can Win It By Norm Phelps
- P. 250 Educational Opportunities in Integrative Medicine: The a to Z Healing Arts Guide and Professional Resource Directory By Douglas A. Wengell
- Ram-Prasad, C (2003). "Contemporary political Hinduism". In Flood, Gavin. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Blackwell Publishing. pp. 526–550. ISBN 0-631-21535-2.
- Rinehart 2004, p. 196-197.
- McMahan 2008.
- Sharf 1993.
- Sharf 1995.
- Rinehart 2004, p. 198.
- "Peringatan". sp2010.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2014-05-27.
- "Vietnam". State.gov. 2002-10-22. Retrieved 2014-06-17.
- "Resident population by religion and sex" (PDF). Statistics Mauritius. p. 68. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
- Arvind Sharma (2011), Hinduism as a Missionary Religion, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438432113, pages 31-53
- Jan Gonda, The Indian Religions in Pre-Islamic Indonesia and their survival in Bali, in Handbook of Oriental Studies. Section 3 Southeast Asia, Religions at Google Books, pages 1-47
- Richadiana Kartakusama (2006), Archaeology: Indonesian Perspective (Editors: Truman Simanjuntak et al.), Yayasan Obor Indonesia, ISBN 979-2624996, pp. 406-419
- Reuter, Thomas (September 2004). Java's Hinduism Revivial. Hinduism Today.
- A Sharma (2012), Hinduism as a Missionary Religion, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-1438432120, page 84
- Peter Wick and Volker Rabens (2013), Religions and Trade: Religious Formation, Transformation and Cross-Cultural Exchange Between East and West, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004255289, page 70 with footnotes 13 and 14
- Rafiuddin Ahmed (1992), Muslim-Christian Polemics, in Religious Controversy in British India: Dialogues in South Asian Languages (Editor: Kenneth Jones), State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791408278, pages 93-120
- Ayesha Jalal (2010), Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674047365, pages 117-146
- Martin Parsons (2006), Unveiling God: Contextualising Christology for Islamic Culture, William Carey Press, ISBN 978-0878084548, pages 4-15, 19-27
- Avril Powell (1976), Maulānā Raḥmat Allāh Kairānawī and Muslim-Christian Controversy in India in the Mid-19th Century, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), Volume 108, Issue 01, pages 42-63; Avril Powell (1995), Contested gods and prophets: discourse among minorities in late nineteenth‐century Punjab, Renaissance and Modern Studies, Volume 38, Issue 1, pages 38-59
- CS Adcock (2014), The Limits of Tolerance: Indian Secularism and the Politics of Religious Freedom, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199995448, pages 1-35, 115-168
- Harold Coward (1987), Modern Indian Responses to Religious Pluralism, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887065729, pages 49-60
- Gauri Viswanathan (1998), Outside the Fold: Conversion, Modernity, and Belief, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691058993, pages 153-176
- SS Subramuniyaswami (2000), How to become a Hindu, 2nd Edition, Himalayan Academy, ISBN 0945497822, pages 115-118
- Sebastian Kim (2005), In Search of Identity: Debates on Religious Conversion in India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195677126, pages 1-29
- Muhammad Khalid Masud (2005), Islamic Legal Interpretation: Muftis and Their Fatwas, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0195979114, pages 193-203
- Ankur Barua (2015), Debating 'Conversion' in Hinduism and Christianity, Routledge, ISBN 978-1138847019, Chapters 2 and 8
- Robert Hefner (2003), Hinduism in Modern Indonesia (Editor: Martin Ramstedt), Routledge Curzon, ISBN 978-0700715336, pages 93-108
- Allchin, Frank Raymond; Erdosy, George (1995), The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, Cambridge University Press, retrieved 25 November 2008
- Anthony, David W. (2007), The Horse The Wheel And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World, Princeton University Press
- Banerji, S. C. (1992), Tantra in Bengal (Second Revised and Enlarged ed.), Delhi: Manohar, ISBN 81-85425-63-9
- Basham, Arthur Llewellyn (1989), The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism, Oxford University Press
- Basham, A.L (1999), A Cultural History of India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-563921-9
- Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009), Empires of the Silk Road, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691135894
- Beversluis, Joel (2000), Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and Spirituality (Sourcebook of the World's Religions, 3rd ed), Novato, Calif: New World Library, ISBN 1-57731-121-3
- Bhaktivedanta, A. C. (1997), Bhagavad-Gita As It Is, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, ISBN 0-89213-285-X, retrieved 14 July 2007
- Bhaskarananda, Swami (1994), The Essentials of Hinduism: a comprehensive overview of the world's oldest religion, Seattle, WA: Viveka Press, ISBN 1-884852-02-5[unreliable source?]
- Bhattacharya, Vidhushekhara (1943), Gauḍapādakārikā, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
- Bhattacharyya, N.N (1999), History of the Tantric Religion (Second Revised ed.), Delhi: Manohar publications, ISBN 81-7304-025-7
- Bowker, John (2000), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press
- Brodd, Jefferey (2003), World Religions, Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press, ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5
- Burley, Mikel (2007), Classical Samkhya and Yoga: An Indian Metaphysics of Experience, Taylor & Francis
- Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca; Menozzi, Paolo; Piazza, Alberto (1994), The History and Geography of Human Genes, Princeton University Press
- Chidbhavananda, Swami (1997), The Bhagavad Gita, Sri Ramakrishna Tapovanam
- Clarke, Peter Bernard (2006), New Religions in Global Perspective, Routledge, p. 209, ISBN 0-7007-1185-6
- Comans, Michael (2000), The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass
- Cordaux, Richard; Weiss, Gunter; Saha, Nilmani; Stoneking, Mark (2004), "The Northeast Indian Passageway: A Barrier or Corridor for Human Migrations?", Molecular Biology and Evolution (Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution), doi:10.1093/molbev/msh151, PMID 15128876, retrieved 25 November 2008
- Cousins, L.S. (2010), Buddhism. In: "The Penguin Handbook of the World's Living Religions", Penguin
- Crangle, Edward Fitzpatrick (1994), The Origin and Development of Early Indian Contemplative Practices, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
- Doniger, Wendy (1999), Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster
- Doniger, Wendy (2010), The Hindus: An Alternative History, Oxford University Press
- Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (1963), "Heraclitus and Iran", History of Religions 3 (1): 34–49, doi:10.1086/462470
- Eliot, Sir Charles (2003), Hinduism and Buddhism: An Historical Sketch I (Reprint ed.), Munshiram Manoharlal, ISBN 81-215-1093-7
- Embree, Ainslie T. (1988), Sources of Indian Tradition. Second Edition. volume One. From the beginning to 1800, Columbia University Press
- Feuerstein, Georg (2002), The Yoga Tradition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 3-935001-06-1
- Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press
- Flood, Gavin (2008), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, John Wiley & Sons
- Fowler, Jeaneane D. (1997), Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press
- Fuller, C. J. (2004), The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5
- Gombrich, Richard F. (1996), Theravada Buddhism. A Social History from Ancient Benares to Modern Colombo, London and New York: Routledge
- Growse, Frederic Salmon (1996), Mathura - A District Memoir (Reprint ed.), Asian Educational Services
- Garces-Foley, Katherine (2005), Death and religion in a changing world, M. E. Sharpe
- Garg, Gaṅgā Rām (1992), Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World, Volume 1, Concept Publishing Company
- Gellman, Marc; Hartman, Thomas (2011), Religion For Dummies, John Wiley & Sons
- Ghurye, Govind Sadashiv (1980), The Scheduled Tribes of India, Transaction Publishers
- Georgis, Faris (2010), Alone in Unity: Torments of an Iraqi God-Seeker in North America, Dorrance Publishing, ISBN 1-4349-0951-4
- Gomez, Luis O. (2013), Buddhism in India. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge
- Halbfass, Wilhelm (1991), Tradition and Reflection, SUNY Press
- Halbfass, Wilhelm (1995), Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker on Traditional and Modern Vedānta, SUNY Press
- Halbfass, Wilhelm (2007), Research and reflection: Responses to my respondents / iii. Issues of comparative philosophy (pp. 297-314). In: Karin Eli Franco (ed.), "Beyond Orientalism: the work of Wilhelm Halbfass and its impact on Indian and cross-cultural studies" (1st Indian ed. ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 8120831101
- Harman, William (2004), "Hindu Devotion", in Rinehart, Robin, Contemporary Hinduism: Ritual, Culture, and Practice, ABC-CLIO, pp. 99–122, ISBN 1576079058
- Harshananda, Swami (1989), A Bird's Eye View of the Vedas, in "Holy Scriptures: A Symposium on the Great Scriptures of the World" (2nd ed.), Mylapore: Sri Ramakrishna Math, ISBN 81-7120-121-0
- Harvey, Andrew (2001), Teachings of the Hindu Mystics, Shambhala, ISBN 1-57062-449-6
- Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge
- Hiltebeitel, Alf (2007), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture". Digital printing 2007, Routledge
- Hoiberg, Dale (2001), Students' Britannica India, Popular Prakashan, ISBN 0-85229-760-2
- Hopfe, Lewis M.; Woodward, Mark R. (2008), Religions of the World, Pearson Education
- Hori, Victor Sogen (1994), Teaching and Learning in the Zen Rinzai Monastery. In: Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol.20, No. 1, (Winter, 1994), 5-35 (PDF)[dead link]
- Inden, Ronald (1998), Ritual, Authority, And Cycle Time in Hindu Kingship. In: JF Richards, ed., "Kingship and Authority in South Asia", New Delhi: Oxford University Press
- Inden, Ronald B. (2000), Imagining India, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers
- Johnson, W.J. (2009), A Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-861025-0
- Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase Publishing
- Jouhki, Jukka (2006), "Orientalism and India" (PDF), J@RGONIA 8/2006
- Khanna, Meenakshi (2007), Cultural History Of Medieval India, Berghahn Books
- King, Richard (1999), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge
- King, Richard (1999), "Orientalism and the Modern Myth of "Hinduism"", NUMEN, Vol. 46, pp 146-185 (BRILL)
- King, Richard (2001), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Taylor & Francis e-Library
- King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge
- Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1994), A Survey of Hinduism: Second Edition, SUNY Press
- Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2007), A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition, SUNY Press
- Knott, Kim (1998), Hinduism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press
- Koller, J. M. (1984), "The Sacred Thread: Hinduism in Its Continuity and Diversity, by J. L. Brockington (Book Review)", Philosophy East and West 34 (2): 234–236, JSTOR 1398925
- Kramer, Kenneth (1986), World scriptures: an introduction to comparative religions, ISBN 978-0-8091-2781-8
- Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (1998), High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from central Asia and West Asia into India, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-15482-0, retrieved 25 November 2008
- Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India, Routledge
- Kumar, Dhavendra (2004), Genetic Disorders of the Indian Subcontinent, Springer, ISBN 1-4020-1215-2, retrieved 25 November 2008
- Kuruvachira, Jose (2006), Hindu nationalists of modern India, Rawat publications, ISBN 81-7033-995-2
- Laderman, Gary (2003), Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-238-X
- Larson, Gerald (1995), India's Agony Over Religion, SUNY Press
- Larson, Gerald James (2009), Hinduism. In: "World Religions in America: An Introduction", pp. 179-198, Westminster John Knox Press
- Lockard, Craig A. (2007), Societies, Networks, and Transitions. Volume I: to 1500, Cengage Learning
- Lorenzen, David N. (2006), Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on Religion in History, Yoda Press
- McMahan, David L. (2008), The Making of Buddhist Modernism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195183276
- McRae, John (2003), Seeing Through Zen. Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism, The University Press Group Ltd, ISBN 9780520237988
- Melton, Gordon J.; Baumann, Martin (2010), Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices (6 volumes), ABC-CLIO
- Merriam-Webster (2000), Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia, Merriam-Webster
- Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press
- Michell, George (1977), The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms, University of Chicago Press
- Misra, Amalendu (2004), Identity and Religion: Foundations of Anti-Islamism in India, SAGE
- Monier-Williams, Monier (1974), Brahmanism and Hinduism: Or, Religious Thought and Life in India, as Based on the Veda and Other Sacred Books of the Hindus, Elibron Classics, Adamant Media Corporation, ISBN 1-4212-6531-1, retrieved 8 July 2007
- Monier-Williams, Monier (2001) [first published 1872], English Sanskrit dictionary, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-206-1509-3, retrieved 24 July 2007
- Morgan, Kenneth W. (1953), The Religion of the Hindus, Ronald Press
- Muesse, Mark William (2003), Great World Religions: Hinduism
- Muesse, Mark W. (2011), The Hindu Traditions: A Concise Introduction, Fortress Press
- Mukherjee, Namita; Nebel, Almut; Oppenheim, Ariella; Majumder, Partha P. (December 2001), "High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from central Asia and West Asia into India" (PDF), Journal of Genetics (Springer India) 80 (3), retrieved 25 November 2008
- Nakamura, Hajime (2004), A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy. Part Two, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
- Narayanan, Vasudha (2009), Hinduism, The Rosen Publishing Group
- Nath, Vijay (2001), "From 'Brahmanism' to 'Hinduism': Negotiating the Myth of the Great Tradition", Social Scientist 2001, pp. 19-50
- Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press
- Nikhilananda, Swami (1990), The Upanishads: Katha, Iśa, Kena, and Mundaka I (5th ed.), New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Centre, ISBN 0-911206-15-9
- Nikhilananda, Swami (trans.) (1992), The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna (8th ed.), New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Centre, ISBN 0-911206-01-9
- Nussbaum, Martha C. (2009). The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03059-6. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- Oberlies, T (1998), Die Religion des Rgveda, Vienna: Institut für Indologie der Universität Wien, ISBN 3-900271-32-1
- Osborne, E (2005), Accessing R.E. Founders & Leaders, Buddhism, Hinduism and Sikhism Teacher's Book Mainstream, Folens Limited
- Possehl, Gregory L. (11 November 2002), "Indus religion", The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective, Rowman Altamira, pp. 141–156, ISBN 978-0-7591-1642-9
- Radhakrishnan, S; Moore, CA (1967), A sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01958-4
- Radhakrishnan, S (Trans.) (1995), Bhagvada Gita, Harper Collins, ISBN 1-85538-457-4
- Radhakrishnan, S (1996), Indian Philosophy 1, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-563820-4
- Raju, P.T. (1992), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited
- Ramaswamy, Sumathi (1997), Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891-1970, University of California Press
- Ramstedt, Martin (2004), Hinduism in Modern Indonesia: A Minority Religion Between Local, National, and Global Interests, New York: Routledge
- Rawat, Ajay S. (1993), StudentMan and Forests: The Khatta and Gujjar Settlements of Sub-Himalayan Tarai, Indus Publishing
- Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. De directe bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip
- Renou, Louis (1964), The Nature of Hinduism, Walker
- Richman, Paula (1988), Women, branch stories, and religious rhetoric in a Tamil Buddhist text, Buffalo, NY: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, ISBN 0-915984-90-3
- Rinehart, Robin (2004), Contemporary Hinduism: Ritual, Culture, and Practice, ABC-CLIO
- Rodrigues, Hillary (2006), Hinduism: the Ebook, JBE Online Books
- Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press
- Sarma, D. S. (1987) [first published 1953], "The nature and history of Hinduism", in Morgan, Kenneth W., The Religion of the Hindus, Ronald Press, pp. 3–47, ISBN 8120803876
- Sargeant, Winthrop; Chapple, Christopher (1984), The Bhagavad Gita, New York: State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-87395-831-4
- Sen Gupta, Anima (1986), The Evolution of the Sāṃkhya School of Thought, South Asia Books, ISBN 81-215-0019-2
- Silverberg, James (1969), "Social Mobility in the Caste System in India: An Interdisciplinary Symposium", The American Journal of Sociology 75 (3): 442–443, doi:10.1086/224812
- Sharf, Robert H. (1993), "The Zen of Japanese Nationalism", History of Religions, Vol. 33, No. 1. (Aug., 1993), pp. 1-43.
- Sharf, Robert H. (1995), Whose Zen? Zen Nationalism Revisited (PDF)
- Sharf, Robert H. (2000), The Rhetoric of Experience and the Study of Religion. In: Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7, No. 11-12, 2000, pp. 267-87 (PDF)
- Sharma, Arvind (2003), The Study of Hinduism, University of South Carolina Press
- Singh, Upinder (2008), A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Education India, ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0
- Sjoberg, Andree F. (1990), "The Dravidian Contribution To The Development Of Indian Civilization: A Call For A Reassesment", Comparative Civilizations Review. 23:40-74
- Smart, Ninian (1993), "THE FORMATION RATHER THAN THE ORIGIN OF A TRADITION", DISKUS Vol 1 No.1 (1993) p.1[dead link]
- Smart, Ninian (2003), Godsdiensten van de wereld (The World's religions), Kampen: Uitgeverij Kok
- Smelser, Neil J.; Lipset, Seymour Martin, eds. (2005), Social Structure and Mobility in Economic Development, Aldine Transaction, ISBN 0-202-30799-9
- Smith, W.C. (1962), The Meaning and End of Religion, San Francisco: Harper and Row
- Smith, Huston (1991), The World's Religions: Our Great Wisdom Traditions, San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, ISBN 0-06-250799-0
- Stein, Burton (2010), A History of India, Second Edition (PDF), Wiley-Blackwell
- Stevens, Anthony (2001), Ariadne's Clue: A Guide to the Symbols of Humankind, Princeton University Press
- Sweetman, Will (2004), "The prehistory of Orientalism: Colonialism and the Textual Basis for Bartholomaus Ziegenbalg's Account of Hinduism" (PDF), New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 6, 2 (December, 2004): 12-38
- Thani Nayagam, Xavier S. (1963), Tamil Culture 10, Academy of Tamil Culture, retrieved 25 November 2008
- Thapar, Romila (1978), Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations (PDF), Orient Blackswan[dead link]
- Thapar, R. (1993), Interpreting Early India, Delhi: Oxford University Press
- Thapar, Romula (2003), The Penguin History of Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300, Penguin Books India
- Thompson Platts, John (1884), A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindī, and English, W.H. Allen & Co., Oxford University
- Tiwari, Shiv Kumar (2002), Tribal Roots Of Hinduism, Sarup & Sons
- Toropov, Brandon; Buckles, Luke (2011), The Complete Idiot's Guide to World Religions, Penguin
- Turner, Bryan S. (1996a), For Weber: Essays on the Sociology of Fate
- Turner, Jeffrey S. (1996b), Encyclopedia of relationships across the lifespan, Greenwood Press
- Vasu, Srisa Chandra (1919), The Catechism Of Hindu Dharma, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC
- Vivekananda, Swami (1987), Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama, ISBN 81-85301-75-1
- Vivekjivandas (2010), Hinduism: An Introduction - Part 1, Ahmedabad: Swaminarayan Aksharpith, ISBN 978-81-7526-433-5
- Walker, Benjamin (1968), The Hindu world: an encyclopedic survey of Hinduism
- White, David Gordon (2000), Introduction. In: David Gordon White (ed.), "Tantra in Practice", Princeton University Press
- White, David Gordon (2006), Kiss of the Yogini: "Tantric Sex" in its South Asian Contexts, University of Chicago Press
- Witzel, Michael (1995), "Early Sanskritization: Origin and Development of the Kuru state" (PDF), Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies (Praeger) 1 (4)
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1951), Philosophies of India, Princeton University Press
- "The Global Religious Landscape - Hinduism". A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Major Religious Groups as of 2010. The pew foundation. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica", sanatana dharma, Encyclopedia Britannica
- Adherents.com, which itself references many sources; The World Almanac & Book of Facts 1998 being especially relevant.
- Ninian Smart (2007). "Polytheism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
- Sāṁkhyapravacana Sūtra I.92.
- अहिंसा सत्यमस्तेयं शौचमिन्द्रियनिग्रहः। एतं सामासिकं धर्मं चातुर्वर्ण्येऽब्रवीन् मनु, ahimsâ satyamstenam shaucmindrayanigrahah, etam sâmâsikam dharmam câturvanaryabravîn manu[dead link]
- The Laws of Manu X
- Yadav, Y.; Kumar, S (14 August 2006). "The food habits of a nation". The Hindu. Retrieved 17 November 2006.
- "Religious or Secular: Animal Slaughter a Shame". The Hindu American foundation. 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- "Swami Shivananda's mission". Retrieved 25 June 2007.
- "Hindu Marriage Act, 1955". Retrieved 25 June 2007.[dead link]
- "Life-Cycle Rituals". Country Studies: India. The Library of Congress. September 1995. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
- Manu Smriti Laws of Manu 1.87-1.91
- V, Jayaram. "The Hindu Caste System". Hinduwebsite. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- Venkataraman, Swaminathan; Deshpande, Pawan. "Hinduism: Not Cast In Caste". Hindu American Foundation. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- Jha, Preeti (26 December 2007). "Guinness comes to east Delhi: Akshardham world's largest Hindu temple". ExpressIndia.com. Retrieved 2 January 2008.[dead link]
- PHILTAR, Division of Religion and Philosophy, University of Cumbria, Tribal Religions of India
- Encyclopedia Britannica, yaksha
- "Itihasas". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 1 October 2011.
- "Aurangzeb: Religious Policies". Manas Group, UCLA. Retrieved 26 June 2011.
- "Halebidu - Temples of Karnataka". TempleNet.com. Retrieved 17 August 2006.
- "Yoga Therapy in Australia" by Leigh Blashki, M.H.Sc.[dead link]
- "The Growing Global Interest In Yoga"[dead link] Monday 16 April 2012
- CIA-The world factbook
- 2011 Nepal Census Report
- CIA - The World Factbook
- CIA - The World Factbook
- Department of Census and Statistics,The Census of Population and Housing of Sri Lanka-2011
- "SVRS 2010" (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 2 September 2012.[dead link]
- CIA - The World Factbook
- Singapore Department of Statistics (12 January 2011). "Census of population 2010: Statistical Release 1 on Demographic Characteristics, Education, Language and Religion" (PDF). Retrieved 16 January 2011.[dead link]
- CIA - The World Factbook
- Doniger, Wendy (1999), Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster, ISBN 9780877790440
- Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press
- Flood, Gavin (Ed) (2003), Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-21535-2
- Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2007), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, New York City: Infobase Publishing, ISBN 0-8160-5458-4
- Klostermaier, Klaus (1994), A Survey of Hinduism (3rd (2007) ed.), State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-7082-2
- Lipner, Julius (1998), Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-05181-9, retrieved 12 July 2007
- Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism: Past and Present (5th ed.), Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-08953-1
- Morgan, Kenneth W., ed. (1987), The Religion of the Hindus (New ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, ISBN 81-208-0387-6
- Rinehart, Robin (Ed.) (2004), Contemporary Hinduism: Ritual, Culture, and Practice, ABC-Clio, ISBN 1-57607-905-8
- Werner, Karel (1994), "Hinduism", in Hinnells, John (Ed.), A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, ISBN 0-7007-0279-2
- Richards, Glyn, ed. (1985). A Sourcebook of Modern Hinduism. London: Curzon Press. x, 212 p. ISBN 0-7007-0173-7
- The Encyclopedia of Hinduism(International Edition) ( 11 Volumes) - Publisher : Mandala Publishing, Language : English
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Database entry Q9089 on Wikidata|
- Hinduism, Encyclopædia Britannica
- Hindu Philosophy and Hinduism, IEP, Shyam Ranganathan, York University
- Vedic Hinduism SW Jamison and M Witzel, Harvard University
- The Hindu Religion, Swami Vivekananda (1894), Wikisource
- Hinduism by Swami Nikhilananda, The Ramakrishna Mission (one of the Theistic Hindu Movements)
- All About Hinduism by Swami Sivananda (pdf), The Divine Life Society (one of the Theistic Hindu Movements)
- Advaita Vedanta Hinduism by Sangeetha Menon, IEP (one of the non-Theistic school of Hindu philosophy)
- Heart of Hinduism: An overview of Hindu traditions, ISKCON (Hare Krishna Movement)
- What is Hinduism?, Editors of Hinduism Today Magazine
- Hinduism outside India, A Bibliography, Harvard University (The Pluralism Project)
- What's in a Name? Agama Hindu Bali in the Making - Hinduism in Bali, Indonesia Michel Picard, Le CNRS (Paris, France)
Research on Hinduism
- The Oxford Center for Hindu Studies, University of Oxford
- Latest issue of The Journal of Hindu Studies, Oxford University Press
- Latest issue of the International Journal of Hindu Studies, Springer
- Latest issue of The Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies, Butler University
- Latest issue of The Journal of Indo-Judaic Studies, Florida International University
- Latest issue of the International Journal of Dharma Studies, Springer (Topical publications on Hinduism, other Indic religions)
Audio on Hinduism
- Hinduism as a Religion, by Swami Vivekananda, World Parliament of Religion, Chicago in 1893 (Audio Version, Text)
- Scholarly lectures on Hinduism, OCHS, University of Oxford