|ᨅᨔ ᨆᨀᨔᨑ Basa Mangkasaraʼ|
|Region||South Sulawesi (Sulawesi)|
|2.1 million (2000 census)|
Old Makassarese (historical)
Makassarese (basa Mangkasaraʼ or basa Mangkasarak), sometimes called Makasar, Makassar, or Macassar, is a language of the Makassarese people, spoken in South Sulawesi province of Indonesia. It is a member of the South Sulawesi group of the Austronesian language family, and thus closely related to, among others, Buginese.
The following description of Makassarese phonology is based on Jukes (2005).
Makassarese has five vowels: /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/. The mid vowels are lowered to [ɛ] and [ɔ] in absolute final position and in the vowel sequences /ea/ and /oa/.
- /ɲ/ is written ⟨ny⟩ before a vowel, ⟨n⟩ before ⟨c⟩ and ⟨j⟩
- /ŋ/ is written ⟨ng⟩
- /ɟ/ is written ⟨j⟩
- /j/ is written ⟨y⟩
- /h/ only occurs in loanwords
- The glottal stop /ʔ/ only occurs in syllable-final position. It is written as ⟨k⟩ in the orthography promoted as the standard by the government and based on the practice in Indonesian language, as an apostrophe ⟨ʼ⟩ is other orthographic standards, or not written at all in informal writing.
|nasal/lateral||voiceless obstruents||voiced stops + r|
The geminate cluster /rr/ is only found in root-internal position and cannot be accounted for by the above rules.
Sequences of like vowels are contracted to a single vowel, e.g. sassa 'to wash' + -ang 'nominalizing suffix' > sassáng 'laundry', caʼdi 'small' + -i 'third person' > caʼdi 'it is small'.
Current writing systems
Although Makassarese is now often written in Latin script, it is still widely written using Lontara script, which once was used also to write important documents in Bugis and Mandar, two related languages from Sulawesi.
Some common words/phrases in the Makasar language, transcribed in the Latin script, are as follows (ʼ = glottal stop):
|ᨔᨙᨑᨙ᨞ ᨑᨘᨓ᨞ ᨈᨒᨘ᨞ ᨕᨄ᨞ ᨒᨗᨆ᨞||seʼre, rua, tallu, appaʼ, lima||satu dua tiga empat lima||one, two, three, four, five|
|ᨅᨕᨗᨊᨙ||baine||perempuan, istri||female, woman, wife|
|ᨅᨘᨑᨊᨙ||buraʼne||laki-laki, suami||male, man, husband|
|ᨈᨅᨙ||tabeʼ||permisi, maaf||excuse me, sorry|
|ᨈᨕᨙᨊ, ᨈᨙᨊ, ᨈᨑᨙ||taena, tena, tanreʼ||tidak ada||none, nothing|
|ᨔᨒᨆᨀᨗ ᨅᨈᨘ ᨆᨕᨙ||salamakkiʼ battu mae||selamat datang||welcome|
|ᨕᨄ ᨕᨈᨘ ᨆᨕᨙ ᨀᨅᨑ?||apa antu mae kabaraʼ?||apa kabar?||how are you?|
|ᨅᨍᨗᨅᨍᨗᨍᨗ||bajiʼ-bajiʼji||baik-baik saja||I am fine|
|ᨊᨕᨗ ᨕᨑᨙᨊᨘ?||nai arenta?||siapa namamu?||what's your name?|
|kamu mau ke mana?||where are you going?|
|ᨀᨙᨑᨙ ᨆᨕᨙᨀᨗ ᨕᨆᨈ||kere maekiʼ ammantang?||kamu tinggal di mana?||where do you live?|
|ᨔᨗᨐᨄᨆᨗ ᨕᨘᨆᨘᨑᨘᨈ?||siapami umuruʼta?||berapa usiamu?||how old are you?|
|ᨔᨒᨆᨀᨗ ᨑᨗ ᨆᨂᨙᨕᨈᨙ||salamakkiʼ ri mangeanta||selamat sampai tujuan||have a safe trip|
|ᨔᨒᨆᨀᨗ ᨑᨗ ᨒᨄᨈ||salamakkiʼ ri lampanta||selamat tinggal||goodbye|
|ᨅᨈᨘ ᨑᨗ ᨀᨈᨙ||battu ri katte||bergantung padamu||it depends on you|
Historical writing system
Makassarese was historically written using Makasar script (also known as "Old Makassarese" or "Makassarese bird script" in English-language scholarly works). In Makassarese the script is known as ukiriʼ jangang-jangang or huruf jangang-jangang ('bird letters'). It was used for official purposes in the kingdoms of Makasar in the 17th century but ceased to be used by the 19th century, being replaced by Lontara script.
In spite of their quite distinctive appearance, both the Makasar and Lontara scripts are derived from the ancient Brahmi script of India. Like other descendants of that script, each consonant has an inherent vowel "a", which is not marked. Other vowels can be indicated by adding diacritics above, below, or on either side of each consonant.
- Makasar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
- Jukes, Anthony, "Makassar" in K. Alexander Adelaar & Nikolaus Himmelmann, 2005, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar, pp. 649-682, London, Routledge ISBN 0-7007-1286-0
- Pandey, Anshuman (2015-11-02). "L2/15-233: Proposal to encode the Makasar script in Unicode" (PDF).
- Jukes, Anthony (2020). A Grammar of Makasar: A Language of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Leiden & Boston: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-41266-8.