List of megaprojects

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This is a list of megaprojects, i.e., extremely large-scale investment projects. The number of such projects is so large that the list may never be fully completed.


Megaprojects may be defined as:

  • Projects that cost more than US$1 billion and attract a lot of public attention because of substantial impacts on communities, environment, and budgets
  • Projects can also be "initiatives that are physical, very expensive, and public"[1]

Megaprojects require care in the project development process to reduce any possible optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation. Examples of megaprojects include bridges, tunnels, highways, railways, airports, seaports, power plants, dams, wastewater projects, Special Economic Zones (SEZ), oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and weapons systems.

This list identifies a wide variety of examples of major historic and contemporary projects that meet one or both megaproject criteria identified above.

Aerospace projects[edit]

Airport projects[edit]

Airport Location IATA Code Passengers (total) Cost (in US Dollars)
Istanbul New Airport Istanbul, Turkey N/A 200,000,000[8] 29 billion[9]
King Abdulaziz International Airport Jeddah, Saudi Arabia JED 18,000,000 7.2 billion[10]
Abu Dhabi International Airport Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates AUH 9,700,000 6.8 billion
Al Maktoum International Airport Jebel Ali, UAE DWC 32 billion
New Islamabad International Airport Islamabad, Pakistan IBD 1 billion
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Amsterdam, Netherlands AMS 43,570,370
Athens International Airport Athens, Greece ATH 16,225,885 3 billion
Bandung Majalengka International Airport Majalengka Regency, West Java, Indonesia N/A 15 billion
Barcelona International Airport Barcelona, Spain BCN 29,209,595 4 billion
Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport Berlin, Germany BER 4 billion
Clark International Airport Angeles City, Philippines RPLC 10 billion
Ciudad Real Central Airport Ciudad Real, Spain CQM none, closed
after a few years
1.47 billion
Denver International Airport Denver, Colorado, United States DEN 50,167,485 4.8 billion
Changi Airport Terminal 3 Singapore SIN 22,000,000 1.4 billion[11]
Changi Airport Terminal 4 Singapore SIN 1 billion[12]
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport Guangzhou, China CAN 37,048,712 3 billion
Hong Kong International Airport Chek Lap Kok, Hong Kong HKG 45,558,807 20 billion[13]
Incheon International Airport Incheon, South Korea ICN 28,677,161 Phase 1 – 5 billion

Phase 2 – 2.6 billion

Kansai International Airport Japan KIX 13,516,000 20 billion
King Shaka International Airport Durban, South Africa DUR 7,500,000 1 billion
Kuala Lumpur International Airport Malaysia KUL 39,887,866 3.5 billion
Kuala Namu International Airport Medan, Indonesia KNO 4.4 billion[14]
Long Thanh International Airport Vietnam N/A 10 billion
Manila-Sangley International Airport Cavite City, Philippines RPLL (Future) 25 billion
Navi Mumbai International Airport India N/A 2 billion
New Chennai International Airport India N/A 1 billion
Newark Liberty International Airport Newark, New Jersey, United States EWR 33,399,207
New Lisbon Airport Lisbon, Portugal N/A 4.5 billion
Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok, Thailand BKK 40,500,224 3.8 billion
Hartsfield-Jackson Airport, the busiest in the world. 

Energy projects[edit]

For Oil and gas projects, see Oil megaprojects

Science projects[edit]

CMS detector for LHC

Financial security[edit]

$1.1 trillion was the cost of the deal signed during 2009 G-20 London summit.[21]

Spaceflight projects[edit]

Apollo Program Saturn V awaiting launch

Sports and culture projects[edit]

Military projects[edit]

  • US spendings on WW2: $4.1 trillion in 2010 dollars[32]
  • US nuclear weapon program (1940-1996) costed 5.5 trillion USD in 1996 dollars and 8 trillion USD in 2015 dollars[33]
  • On War on Terror US had spent as of 2014 $3.4 trillion (and additional more than $8.9 trillion by 2053), excluding indirect costs[34]
  • Future renovation of US nuclear arsenal - 1 trillion USD.[35]

Transport (without airports and aircraft)[edit]

Object Description Location Total cost (in USD) Year of completion Image
Interstate Highway System network of limited-access roadways United States 502bn in 2014 dollars[36] 1992[37][38] (minor additions continue) Map of current Interstates.svg
National Trunk Highway System network of limited-access roadways China 240 billion (2 trillion yuan) 2020: Projected Map of NTHS Expressways of China.png
California High-Speed Rail: Phase I High-speed rail linking Northern California and Southern California via a route through the central valley of California California, United States 98.5 billion[39][40] 2033: Projected Cahsr map.svg
Chennai Metro (Under Construction) Rapid Transit Chennai, India 88.5 billion (INR 200 billion)[41] 2015 (expected)
Chūō Shinkansen Maglev between Tokyo and Osaka Japan 88.5 billion (¥9 trillion)[42] 2045 (expected) Chūō Shinkansen map.png
High Speed 2 High-speed rail linking London and the English Midlands, North West England, Yorkshire, and potentially North East England and the Central Belt of Scotland. United Kingdom 72 billion[43] 2032: Projected H2 phase 2.png
Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Project 17 bridges connecting the islands of Honshū and Shikoku Japan 48 billion (4.0 trillion Yen (1999))[44] 1999 Map of Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Project.svg
Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway High-speed rail Eastern China, PRC (Beijing to Shanghai, via Tianjin and Nanjing) ~33.1 billion (RMB 220.9bn)[45] 2011 Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway and Beijing–Shanghai Railway.jpg
Barcelona Metro line 9

(under construction)

Rapid transit line Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain ~26.3 billion (€19bn) [46][47] 2016 (expected) L10 051.JPG

(under construction)

Commuter railway South East England, United Kingdom ~25.8 billion (GBP15.9bn)[48] 2018 (expected) Ada-panorama-2.jpg
"Big Dig" Central Artery/Tunnel Project Road tunnel Boston, Massachusetts, United States 22 billion[49] 2007 Tunnel-large.jpg
Sunda Strait Bridge Road and rail bridge connecting Java and Sumatra Indonesia 20 billion (preliminary estimate) 2025 (expected)
Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway High-speed rail China ~18.46 billion (RMB 116.6bn)[50] 2009 GuangZhouNanStation.jpg
Toei Ōedo Line Rapid Transit Tokyo, Japan ~18.4 Billion (¥1,400 billion)[51] 2000 Toei-tsukishima-platform.jpg
Second Avenue Subway

(under construction)

Rapid transit line New York City, New York, United States 17 billion[52] 2016 (expected) Second Ave Subway CGI station.jpg
Channel Tunnel Subsea railway tunnel Strait of Dover, English Channel ~15.4 billion (GBP9.5bn)[53] 1994 Course Channeltunnel en.svg
Oman Railway (planned) Railway Oman ~$13–15.6 billion (OMR 5-6 billion)[54] 2018 (partially operational)
Kochi Metro (Under Construction) Rapid Transit Kochi, India ~$1 billion (INR 52 billion)[55] June 2016 (Expected)
Klang Valley MRT Line 1 (Under Construction) Rapid Transit Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 11.7 billion [56] (MYR36B) 2014 (expected)
Brenner Base Tunnel

(under construction)

Railway tunnel Brenner massif, Austrian & Italian Alps ~10.9 billion (EUR 8.062 billion) 2026 (expected) BBT 18 4 2011.JPG

Planned cities and urban renewal projects[edit]

La Défense, the central business district of the Paris urban area
Las Vegas CityCenter, the largest set of resorts in the largest gambling center in the world.
Brickell Key in Miami.
Navi Mumbai, the world's largest planned city.
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Songdo International Business District Seoul, South Korea Under development $40,000,000,000 To be the model of a lifestyle merged with wide area network. It was also constructed for the full establishment of Korea as a center of Eastern Asia.
Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Area from Delhi to Mumbai, India Under development $90,000,000,000 Conceived as a global manufacturing and trading hub, the project is expected to double employment potential, triple industrial output and quadruple exports from the region in five years. The total employment to be generated from the project is 3 million, the bulk of which will be in the manufacturing/processing sectors. The project initially aims to create seven smart cities distributed along the backbone of the dedicated freight corridor between Delhi and Mumbai.
Modderfontein - New Gauteng City Johannesburg Gauteng, South Africa Under development $70,000,000,000 Modderfontein infrastructure development of residential, industrial and commercial space by Chinese developer Shanghai Zendai. Start dated 2015 completion dated 15 to 20 years later. Also called the New York of Africa.
İstanbul Finance Center İstanbul, Turkey Under development $5,000,000,000 Apart from the main urban renewal project of İstanbul. It will station in Ataşehir
Turkey Urban Renewal Project Turkey Under development $400,000,000,000[57][58] Renewals are being conducted all over Turkey but mainly on İstanbul[59] as Law 6306 announced by Ministry of Environment and City Planning (Turkey).[60] Fikirtepe, a neighborhood of Kadıköy has been chosen as pilot area for project.[61]
Dubai Meydan City Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development $2,200,000,000
Masjid Al-Haram Mecca, Saudi arabia Under development $21,000,000,000
Business Bay Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development $30,000,000,000 Comprises 240 high and low rise buildings, mostly residential and mixed use skyscrapers.
Masdar City United Arab Emirates Under development $22,000,000,000 The city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources, with a sustainable, zero-carbon, zero-waste ecology and will be a car free city.
Kingdom City Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Under development $20,000,000,000 Will host both commercial and residential development including homes, hotels, and offices. The centerpiece of the development project will be Kingdom Tower, a tower planned to become the tallest in the world.
Navi Mumbai India Completed World's largest planned city. Contains a population of 2.6 million.[62]
Roppongi Hills Tokyo, Japan Completed $4,000,000,000 One of Japan's largest integrated property developments.
CityCenter Las Vegas, United States Completed $11,000,000,000 The largest privately financed development in the United States.
Potsdamer Platz Redevelopment Berlin, Germany Completed Project divided onto four parts in which four investors bids in turn.
La Défense Paris, France Completed The Central Business District of the Paris Metropolitan area, La Défense provides France with a modern set of skyscrapers while Paris itself retains most of its original architecture and character.
Putrajaya Malaysia Completed $8,100,000,000
Brasilia Brazil Completed
King Abdullah Economic City Saudi Arabia Under development $86,000,000,000

No credible signs of development are present

The World Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold $14,000,000,000 Artificial archipelago of various small islands constructed in the rough shape of a world map.
Khazar Islands Azerbaijan Under development $100,000,000,000 Artificial archipelago 25 km (16 mi) south of Baku, Azerbaijan consisting of 41 islands spreading 3,000 hectares (about 11.6 sq mi) over the Caspian Sea. Expected to be finished by 2020–2025, and house a population of 1 million.
Madinat al-Hareer Kuwait Under development $94,000,000,000 Proposed 250 km2 (62,000-acre) planned urban area in Subiya, Kuwait, an area just opposite Kuwait City.
Barangaroo Sydney, Australia Under development $6,000,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2023
Central Station to Eveleigh Airspace Development Sydney, Australia Proposed $10,000,000,000 Extension of Sydney's CBD. The renewal corridor approximately 3 km in length.[63]
Rebuilding of Christchurch New Zealand Under development $17,000,000,000 Recovery from earthquakes in 2010–2011. Rebuild of central business district, demolition and remediation of several residential neighbourhoods now deemed unsuitable for building. Infrastructure upgrades and addition of commuter rail. Entire project to be completed by 2020.
Gujarat International Finance Tec-City India Under development $20,000,000,000 The smart city is being built as a global financial hub to provide world class infrastructure for the Indian financial industry to grow.[64] When completed, it will outclass France's La Défense, Tokyo's Shinjuku and London's London Docklands in every aspect.[65] It is expected to be finished by 2017–2018.
Madinaty Egypt Under development $10,000,000,000 Expected to open by 2014, houses 600,000 population
HafenCity Hamburg, Germany Under development Completion expected in 2020–2030
Stratford City London, United Kingdom Under development £3,500,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2020.
Movement of Kiruna Centrum Kiruna, Sweden Under development $2,100,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2013.
Palm Jumeirah Dubai, United Arab Emirates Completed $12,300,000,000 It is the world's largest man-made island.
Palm Jebel Ali Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold Will accommodate over 250,000 people by 2020.
Palm Deira Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold Will be the largest palm island, in Dubai.
Porto Maravilha Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Under development $35,700,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2015.
SmartCity, Kochi Kochi, India Under development $1,000,000,000 (for the 1st phase) First phase of project to be completed by 2020.[66]
Brickell Key Miami, United States Completed
Eastwood City Quezon City, Philippines Completed Ongoing project of MegaWorld Corporation, one of the biggest real-estate companies in the Philippines.
Dubai Marina Dubai, United Arab Emirates Completed World's largest man-made marina, with 200 residential and hotel high rises.
Pagcor City Manila Bay, Philippines Under development $15,000,000,000 A casino and entertainment hub project, dubbed as the "Philippines' Las Vegas".
Yas Island Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Under development $36,000,000,000 It occupies a total land area of 2,500 ha (25 km2), of which 1,700 ha will be claimed for development. The island holds the Yas Marina Circuit, which hosts the Formula One United Arab Emirates Grand Prix since 2009.
Riverside South New York City, United States Under development $3,000,000,000
Bonifacio Global City Philippines Completed A new CBD area for Metro Manila, previously occupied by the Philippine Army headquarters
Dubai International City Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold $95,000,000,000 A country-themed architecture of residences, business, and tourist attractions.
Jumeirah Garden City Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold $95,000,000,000 Will be built across an area north of Sheikh Zayed Road between Diyafa Street and Safa Park.
Moscow International Business Center Moscow, Russia Under development $12,000,000,000
Dubailand Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development $64,300,000,000 Will be world's largest Retail and Entertainment World, twice the size of Walt Disney World Resort, it include 45 mega projects and 200 sub projects. Currently, there are 22 projects under development.
Atlantic Yards New York City, United States Under development The project's centerpiece, Barclays Center broke ground on March 11, 2010.
Battery Park City New York City, United States Completed
Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project New York City, United States Under development $20,000,000,000
Esplanada City Center Bucharest, Romania Cancelled $4,200,000,000
Big City Plan Birmingham, United Kingdom Proposed $17,000,000,000
Okhta Center Saint Petersburg, Russia Under development $2,500,000,000 Relocated to a new site, construction underway.
Dubai Waterfront Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development Expected to become the largest waterfront and largest man-made development in the world.
Eko Atlantic City Lagos State, Nigeria Under development $6,000,000,000 [67] A planned district of Lagos, Nigeria, being constructed on land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean. Upon completion the project anticipates 400,000 residents and a daily flow of 250,000 commuters.
Centenary City Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria Under development $18,000,000,000 Project by the Nigerian Government, Eagle Hills of Abu Dhabi and Julius Berger Nigeria to build a smart city to mark the country's centennial anniversary. Project broke ground on June 19, 2014 and has an anticipated timeline of 10 to 15 years to completion.


See also[edit]


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External links[edit]