List of megaprojects

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This is a list of megaprojects, i.e., extremely large-scale investment projects. The number of such projects is so large that the list may never be fully completed.


Megaprojects may be defined as:

  • Projects that cost more than US$1 billion and attract a lot of public attention because of substantial impacts on communities, environment, and budgets
  • Projects can also be "initiatives that are physical, very expensive, and public"[1]

Megaprojects require care in the project development process to reduce any possible optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation. Examples of megaprojects include bridges, tunnels, highways, railways, airports, seaports, power plants, dams, wastewater projects, Special Economic Zones (SEZ), oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and weapons systems.

This list identifies a wide variety of examples of major historic and contemporary projects that meet one or both megaproject criteria identified above.

Aerospace projects[edit]

Airport projects[edit]

Airport Location IATA Code Passengers (total) Cost (in US Dollars)
Istanbul New Airport Istanbul, Turkey N/A 200,000,000[8] 29 billion[9]
King Abdulaziz International Airport Jeddah, Saudi Arabia JED 18,000,000 7.2 billion[10]
Abu Dhabi International Airport Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates AUH 9,700,000 6.8 billion
Al Maktoum International Airport Jebel Ali, UAE DWC 32 billion
New Islamabad International Airport Islamabad, Pakistan IBD 1 billion
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Amsterdam, Netherlands AMS 43,570,370
Athens International Airport Athens, Greece ATH 16,225,885 3 billion
Bandung Majalengka International Airport Majalengka Regency, West Java, Indonesia N/A 15 billion
Barcelona International Airport Barcelona, Spain BCN 29,209,595 4 billion
Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport Berlin, Germany BER 4 billion
Clark International Airport Angeles City, Philippines RPLC 10 billion
Ciudad Real Central Airport Ciudad Real, Spain CQM none, closed
after a few years
1.47 billion
Denver International Airport Denver, Colorado, United States DEN 50,167,485 4.8 billion
Changi Airport Terminal 3 Singapore SIN 22,000,000 1.4 billion[11]
Changi Airport Terminal 4 Singapore SIN 1 billion[12]
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport Guangzhou, China CAN 37,048,712 3 billion
Hong Kong International Airport Chek Lap Kok, Hong Kong HKG 45,558,807 20 billion[13]
Incheon International Airport Incheon, South Korea ICN 28,677,161 Phase 1 – 5 billion

Phase 2 – 2.6 billion

Kansai International Airport Japan KIX 13,516,000 20 billion
King Shaka International Airport Durban, South Africa DUR 7,500,000 1 billion
Kuala Lumpur International Airport Malaysia KUL 39,887,866 3.5 billion
Kuala Namu International Airport Medan, Indonesia KNO 4.4 billion[14]
Long Thanh International Airport Vietnam N/A 10 billion
Manila-Sangley International Airport Cavite City, Philippines RPLL (Future) 25 billion
Navi Mumbai International Airport India N/A 2 billion
New Chennai International Airport India N/A 1 billion
Newark Liberty International Airport Newark, New Jersey, United States EWR 33,399,207
New Lisbon Airport Lisbon, Portugal N/A 4.5 billion
Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok, Thailand BKK 40,500,224 3.8 billion
Hartsfield-Jackson Airport, the busiest in the world. 

Disaster cleanup[edit]

While most megaprojects are planned and undertaken with careful forethought, some are undertaken out of necessity after a natural disaster occurs. There have also been a few man-made disasters.

Energy projects[edit]

For Oil and gas projects, see Oil megaprojects

Science projects[edit]

CMS detector for LHC

Spaceflight projects[edit]

Apollo Program Saturn V awaiting launch

Sports and culture projects[edit]

Transport (without airports and aircraft)[edit]

Planned cities and urban renewal projects[edit]

La Défense, the central business district of the Paris urban area
Las Vegas CityCenter, the largest set of resorts in the largest gambling center in the world.
Brickell Key in Miami.
Navi Mumbai, the world's largest planned city.
Project City/Country Status Cost Special Notes
Songdo International Business District Seoul, South Korea Under development $40,000,000,000 To be the model of a lifestyle merged with wide area network. It was also constructed for the full establishment of Korea as a center of Eastern Asia.
Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor Area from Delhi to Mumbai, India Under development $90,000,000,000 Conceived as a global manufacturing and trading hub, the project is expected to double employment potential, triple industrial output and quadruple exports from the region in five years. The total employment to be generated from the project is 3 million, the bulk of which will be in the manufacturing/processing sectors. The project initially aims to create seven smart cities distributed along the backbone of the dedicated freight corridor between Delhi and Mumbai.
Modderfontein - New Gauteng City Johannesburg Gauteng, South Africa Under development $70,000,000,000 Modderfontein infrastructure development of residential, industrial and commercial space by Chinese developer Shanghai Zendai. Start dated 2015 completion dated 15 to 20 years later. Also called the New York of Africa.
İstanbul Finance Center İstanbul, Turkey Under development $5,000,000,000 Apart from the main urban renewal project of İstanbul. It will station in Ataşehir
Turkey Urban Renewal Project Turkey Under development $400,000,000,000[33][34] Renewals are being conducted all over Turkey but mainly on İstanbul[35] as Law 6306 announced by Ministry of Environment and City Planning (Turkey).[36] Fikirtepe, a neighborhood of Kadıköy has been chosen as pilot area for project.[37]
Dubai Meydan City Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development $2,200,000,000
Masjid Al-Haram Mecca, Saudi arabia Under development $21,000,000,000
Business Bay Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development $30,000,000,000 Comprises 240 high and low rise buildings, mostly residential and mixed use skyscrapers.
Masdar City United Arab Emirates Under development $22,000,000,000 The city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources, with a sustainable, zero-carbon, zero-waste ecology and will be a car free city.
Kingdom City Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Under development $20,000,000,000 Will host both commercial and residential development including homes, hotels, and offices. The centerpiece of the development project will be Kingdom Tower, a tower planned to become the tallest in the world.
Navi Mumbai India Completed World's largest planned city. Contains a population of 2.6 million.[38]
Roppongi Hills Tokyo, Japan Completed $4,000,000,000 One of Japan's largest integrated property developments.
CityCenter Las Vegas, United States Completed $11,000,000,000 The largest privately financed development in the United States.
Potsdamer Platz Redevelopment Berlin, Germany Completed Project divided onto four parts in which four investors bids in turn.
La Défense Paris, France Completed The Central Business District of the Paris Metropolitan area, La Défense provides France with a modern set of skyscrapers while Paris itself retains most of its original architecture and character.
Putrajaya Malaysia Completed $8,100,000,000
Brasilia Brazil Completed
King Abdullah Economic City Saudi Arabia Under development $86,000,000,000

No credible signs of development are present

The World Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold $14,000,000,000 Artificial archipelago of various small islands constructed in the rough shape of a world map.
Khazar Islands Azerbaijan Under development $100,000,000,000 Artificial archipelago 25 km (16 mi) south of Baku, Azerbaijan consisting of 41 islands spreading 3,000 hectares (about 11.6 sq mi) over the Caspian Sea. Expected to be finished by 2020–2025, and house a population of 1 million.
Madinat al-Hareer Kuwait Under development $94,000,000,000 Proposed 250 km2 (62,000-acre) planned urban area in Subiya, Kuwait, an area just opposite Kuwait City.
Barangaroo Sydney, Australia Under development $6,000,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2023
Central Station to Eveleigh Airspace Development Sydney, Australia Proposed $10,000,000,000 Extension of Sydney's CBD. The renewal corridor approximately 3 km in length.[39]
Rebuilding of Christchurch New Zealand Under development $17,000,000,000 Recovery from earthquakes in 2010–2011. Rebuild of central business district, demolition and remediation of several residential neighbourhoods now deemed unsuitable for building. Infrastructure upgrades and addition of commuter rail. Entire project to be completed by 2020.
Gujarat International Finance Tec-City India Under development $20,000,000,000 The smart city is being built as a global financial hub to provide world class infrastructure for the Indian financial industry to grow.[40] When completed, it will outclass France's La Défense, Tokyo's Shinjuku and London's London Docklands in every aspect.[41] It is expected to be finished by 2017–2018.
Madinaty Egypt Under development $10,000,000,000 Expected to open by 2014, houses 600,000 population
HafenCity Hamburg, Germany Under development Completion expected in 2020–2030
Stratford City London, United Kingdom Under development £3,500,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2020.
Movement of Kiruna Centrum Kiruna, Sweden Under development $2,100,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2013.
Palm Jumeirah Dubai, United Arab Emirates Completed $12,300,000,000 It is the world's largest man-made island.
Palm Jebel Ali Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold Will accommodate over 250,000 people by 2020.
Palm Deira Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold Will be the largest palm island, in Dubai.
Porto Maravilha Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Under development $35,700,000,000 Entire project to be completed by 2015.
SmartCity, Kochi Kochi, India Under development $1,000,000,000 (for the 1st phase) First phase of project to be completed by 2020.[42]
Brickell Key Miami, United States Completed
Eastwood City Quezon City, Philippines Completed Ongoing project of MegaWorld Corporation, one of the biggest real-estate companies in the Philippines.
Dubai Marina Dubai, United Arab Emirates Completed World's largest man-made marina, with 200 residential and hotel high rises.
Pagcor City Manila Bay, Philippines Under development $15,000,000,000 A casino and entertainment hub project, dubbed as the "Philippines' Las Vegas".
Yas Island Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Under development $36,000,000,000 It occupies a total land area of 2,500 ha (25 km2), of which 1,700 ha will be claimed for development. The island holds the Yas Marina Circuit, which hosts the Formula One United Arab Emirates Grand Prix since 2009.
Riverside South New York City, United States Under development $3,000,000,000
Bonifacio Global City Philippines Completed A new CBD area for Metro Manila, previously occupied by the Philippine Army headquarters
Dubai International City Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold $95,000,000,000 A country-themed architecture of residences, business, and tourist attractions.
Jumeirah Garden City Dubai, United Arab Emirates On-hold $95,000,000,000 Will be built across an area north of Sheikh Zayed Road between Diyafa Street and Safa Park.
Moscow International Business Center Moscow, Russia Under development $12,000,000,000
Dubailand Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development $64,300,000,000 Will be world's largest Retail and Entertainment World, twice the size of Walt Disney World Resort, it include 45 mega projects and 200 sub projects. Currently, there are 22 projects under development.
Atlantic Yards New York City, United States Under development The project's centerpiece, Barclays Center broke ground on March 11, 2010.
Battery Park City New York City, United States Completed
Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project New York City, United States Under development $20,000,000,000
Esplanada City Center Bucharest, Romania Cancelled $4,200,000,000
Big City Plan Birmingham, United Kingdom Proposed $17,000,000,000
Okhta Center Saint Petersburg, Russia Under development $2,500,000,000 Relocated to a new site, construction underway.
Dubai Waterfront Dubai, United Arab Emirates Under development Expected to become the largest waterfront and largest man-made development in the world.
Eko Atlantic City Lagos State, Nigeria Under development $6,000,000,000 [43] A planned district of Lagos, Nigeria, being constructed on land reclaimed from the Atlantic Ocean. The project broke ground in 2007 and is being spearheaded by South Energyx Nigeria Ltd. Upon completion the project anticipates 400,000 residents and a daily flow of 250,000 commuters.
Centenary City Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria Under development $18,000,000,000 Project by the Nigerian Government, Eagle Hills of Abu Dhabi and Julius Berger Nigeria to build a smart city to mark the country's centennial anniversary. Project broke ground on June 19, 2014 and has an anticipated timeline of 10 to 15 years to completion.

Water-related projects[edit]

See also[edit]


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  4. ^ Sutter, Joe; Spenser, Jay (1 May 2007). 747: Creating the World's First Jumbo Jet and Other Adventures from a Life in Aviation. Collins. ISBN 0-06-088242-5. 
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  7. ^ 30 år med Jas – vad har det kostat | ETC - Nyhetstidningen från vänster
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  22. ^ George Musser (May 2011). "Cosmic-Ray Detector on Space Shuttle Set to Scan Cosmos for Dark Matter". Scientific American. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  23. ^ "Moon Worth Apollo’s $170 Billion?". Guardian Liberty Voice. 
  24. ^ "Cassini Solstice Mission-FAQs". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
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  33. ^ "kentsel_donusumun_maliyeti_ne_kadar_ konut insaat 1543567 html Haberleri ve kentsel_donusumun_maliyeti_ne_kadar_ konut insaat 1543567 html Geli艧meleri - Milliyet". 
  34. ^ "Kentsel Dönüşümün Maliyeti Ne Kadar?". 
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  36. ^ "T.C. ÇEVRE ve ŞEHİRCİLİK BAKANLIĞI - Altyapı ve Kentsel Dönüşüm Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü". 
  37. ^ ABDULKADİR CEMBEKLİ (7 September 2013). "Fikirtepe’de 40 milyar liralık kentsel dönüşüm başlıyor". ZAMAN. 
  38. ^ Appraisal of City Development Plan - Navi Mumbai. National Institute of Urban Affairs, 2008.
  39. ^ "Sydney Central Station Airspace Redevelopment, NSW". Webb Australia. 
  40. ^ "10 infrastructure projects India can be proud of". 
  41. ^ "Concept - GIFT Gujarat,Gujarat International Tec City,Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT)". 
  42. ^ Staff Reporter. "SmartCity to be completed in six years, says project official". The Hindu. 
  43. ^ "Centenary City Abuja – What to Expect". Estate Intel. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  44. ^ "China’s Water Crisis Made Worse by Policy Failures". World Affairs Journal. 

External links[edit]