List of megaprojects
- 1 Definitions
- 2 Aerospace projects
- 3 Airport projects
- 4 Energy projects
- 5 Rail and rapid transit projects
- 6 Bridge and tunnel projects
- 7 Science projects
- 8 Spaceflight projects
- 9 Sports and culture projects
- 10 Military projects
- 11 Planned cities and urban renewal projects
- 12 Other
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Megaprojects may be defined as:
- Projects that cost more than US$1 billion and attract a lot of public attention because of substantial impacts on communities, environment, and budgets
- Projects can also be "initiatives that are physical, very expensive, and public"
Megaprojects require care in the project development process to reduce any possible optimism bias and strategic misrepresentation. Examples of megaprojects include bridges, tunnels, highways, railways, airports, seaports, power plants, dams, wastewater projects, Special Economic Zones (SEZ), oil and natural gas extraction projects, public buildings, information technology systems, aerospace projects, and weapons systems.
This list identifies a wide variety of examples of major historic and contemporary projects that meet one or both megaproject criteria identified above.
- Airbus A380, a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by Airbus.
- Antonov An-225 (1988), the longest and heaviest aircraft in the world in service.
- Rockwell B-1 Lancer, a supersonic bomber with a variable-sweep wing built in the 1980s as a strategic bomber. It has since acquired conventional and multi-role capabilities.
- Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, a US heavy bomber with "low observable" stealth.
- Boeing B-29 Superfortress, the first nuclear bomber, which cost 50% more than the development of the bombs in the Manhattan Project.
- Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, the longest-running bomber program in the world with decades of service, one of the largest military aircraft ever built.
- Boeing 2707 and Lockheed L-2000 supersonic aircraft projects, initiated in 1963 via a US government-funded competition to build the United States' first Supersonic Transport (SST), prototypes never built, ultimately canceled due to political, environmental and economic reasons in 1971.
- Boeing 747, a wide-body commercial airliner first produced in 1970, often referred to by the nickname Jumbo Jet, is among the world's most recognizable aircraft.
- Boeing 787, made in the United States with local and globally sourced parts, is the first major aircraft to be made largely out of composite materials
- Concorde, a supersonic passenger airliner, a product of an Anglo-French government treaty that combined the manufacturing efforts of Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation, first flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued commercial flights for twenty-seven years.
- Eurofighter Typhoon, a twin-engine canard–delta wing multirole aircraft designed and built by a consortium of three separate partner companies -- Alenia Aeronautica, BAE Systems, and Airbus Defence & Space—working through a holding company, Eurofighter GmbH, that was formed in 1986.
- F-22 Raptor, a single seat, twin-engine fifth-generation fighter aircraft manufactured by Lockheed Martin that uses stealth technology.
- Rafale, a French twin-engine delta-wing fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. The Rafale is a multirole combat aircraft capable of simultaneously undertaking air supremacy, interdiction, reconnaissance, and the airborne nuclear deterrent missions.
- Sukhoi PAK FA/HAL FGFA, two variants of fifth-generation single and twin-engine stealth jet fighters jointly being developed by Sukhoi OKB and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for the Russian and the Indian Air Forces, respectively.
- F-35 Lightning II, a fifth-generation, single-seat, single-engine stealth multirole fighter manufactured by Lockheed Martin. Variants of the F-35 are planned to replace five classes of combat aircraft that are presently in use with roles as varied as close air support, tactical bombing, and air defense missions. As of April 2014 it cost $1,016.5 billion.
- F/A-18 Hornet, a twin-engine supersonic, all-weather carrier-capable multirole fighter jet, designed to intercept air threats and attack ground targets.
- KH-11 reconnaissance satellite, manufactured by Lockheed Corporation and launched between 1976 and 1990.
- Saab JAS 39 Gripen, a Swedish 4.5 generation Multirole Jet Fighter developed by SAAB since 1978. Estimated project cost is 19 billion USD.
- Tupolev Tu-144, the first supersonic transport aircraft, made by the Russian aircraft company Tupolev, first flown on 31 December 1968 and entered service on 26 December 1970.
- Tupolev Tu-160, the world's largest and heaviest combat aircraft, the world's largest supersonic aircraft, and the largest variable-sweep aircraft ever built (The North American XB-70 Valkyrie had a higher empty weight and maximum speed but never entered production)
- Chengdu J-20, a fifth-generation, stealth, twin-engine fighter aircraft prototype developed by Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).
Brisbane West Wellcamp Toowoomba Australia ybww 140 million
- For Oil and gas projects, see Oil megaprojects
- Kemper Project, or Kemper County Energy Facility, is the world's first Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle plant with Carbon Capture & Sequestration. The project is currently under construction, and is expected to open in 2015. It is the first IGCC CCS project to have entered into the construction phase.
- Boundary Dam, the world's first large-scale, coal-fired Carbon Capture & Storage plant.
- Olkiluoto 3, a nuclear power-plant in Eurajoki, Finland.
Rail and rapid transit projects
- California High Speed Rail project, the largest non-Interstate infrastructure project in US history.
- Crossrail, one of Europe's largest railway and infrastructure construction projects serving London and its environs by providing a new east-west route across Greater London.
- Qinghai–Tibet Railway, the world's highest railway that connects Qinghai Province and Tibet Autonomous Region in China.
- Rail Axis Berlin-Palermo, European Union (Germany, Austria, Italy), a high speed corridor consisting of several projects including Brenner Base Tunnel and Strait of Messina Bridge
- Rail Axis Paris-Bratislava, European Union (France, Germany, Austria, Slovakia), a high speed corridor consisting of several projects including Stuttgart 21 and Vienna Main Station
Bridge and tunnel projects
- Central Artery/Tunnel Project, widely known as the Big Dig, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
- Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel, Seattle, Washington, United States
- East Side Access, New York City, New York, United States
- Gotthard Base Tunnel, the world's longest railway tunnel, situated in Switzerland.
- Marmaray tunnel, İstanbul, Turkey
- Ohio River Bridges Project, Louisville, Kentucky, USA
- Sunda Strait Bridge, connect Java and Sumatra. Sunda Strait, Indonesia (planned cost $20 Billion)
- Atacama Large Millimeter Array
- Compact Linear Collider, (plan)
- Envisat, an Earth observation satellite of European Space Agency (2002–2012)
- European Extremely Large Telescope,
- European x-ray free electron laser, in Germany, plan operating in 2015.
- Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, in Germany (2012–)
- Human Genome Project, investigation to determine human genetic sequence (1990-ongoing)
- India-based Neutrino Observatory, (plan)
- International Linear Collider, (plan)
- ITER International nuclear fusion project, in France (2008-ongoing)
- Large Binocular Telescope,
- Large Hadron Collider, a 14 TeV particle accelerator, in Switzerland and France (2000-ongoing)
- Manhattan Project, in the United States (1945)
- National Ignition Facility, United States nuclear fusion project (1997-ongoing)
- Neutrino Factory, (plan)
- Square Kilometre Array in Australia and southern Africa
- Superconducting Super Collider, canceled 40 TeV particle accelerator in Texas (1991–1993)
- Tevatron 2 TeV particle accelerator, in the United States (1983)
- Thirty Meter Telescope,
- Very Large Array, a radio astronomy observatory in the US
- Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, a $2 billion particle physics experiment module that is mounted on the International Space Station (2011– )
- Apollo program (1960–1975)
- Buran program, canceled Soviet space shuttle program (1980–1993)
- Cassini–Huygens, a joint NASA/ESA/ASI spacecraft mission studying the planet Saturn and its many natural satellites since 2004. The total cost of this project is about $3.26 billion.
- Compass navigation system, an independent system of satellite navigation by People's Republic of China (Est. 2015–2017)
- Constellation program, cancelled planned moon landing spacecraft and space shuttle replacement, part lives on as future Crew Escape Vehicle for ISS (2005–2010)
- Gaia (spacecraft), an ESA's mission to create a 3D map of local Milky Way. ($1 billion)
- Galileo (spacecraft), a mission to Jupiter (1989–2003) ($1.5 billion as 2003.)
- Galileo Navigation Satellite System, a European Union and European Space Agency global satellite navigation system (Est. 2014)
- Global Positioning System, a global satellite navigation system created by the United States Air Force (1994)
- GLONASS, the Russian equivalent of GPS (1995)
- Herschel Space Observatory, ESA space observatory sensitive to the far infrared and submillimetre bands (€1,1 billion)
- Hubble Space Telescope
- International Space Station, multinational space station in low Earth orbit (1998–2020)
- James Webb Space Telescope (under construction, cost $8.8 billion in 2013)
- Juno (spacecraft), a NASA New Frontiers mission to the planet Jupiter (2011– )
- Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer, a planned mission to Jupiter (Est. 2022)
- Kennedy Space Center, The Main Spaceport in the USA.
- Mars Science Laboratory, $2.5 billion
- Mir, Russian space station (1986–2001)
- Orion (spacecraft), a planned spacecraft that is being built by Lockheed Martin for NASA
- Planck (spacecraft), an ESA's mission to observing cosmic microwave background.
- Soviet Moonshot, canceled moon landing program (1962–1969)
- Space Shuttle program (1972–2011)
Sports and culture projects
- 1976 Summer Olympics, Canada, C$1.6 billion total cost
- Every Olympic Game and Soccer World Cup in the 21st century have cost more than $1 billion in arenas, hotels etc., usually several billions.
Renovation of US nuclear arsenal - 1 trillion USD.
Planned cities and urban renewal projects
|Songdo International Business District||Seoul, South Korea||Under development||$40,000,000,000||To be the model of a lifestyle merged with wide area network. It was also constructed for the full establishment of Korea as a center of Eastern Asia.|
|Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor||Area from Delhi to Mumbai, India||Under development||$90,000,000,000||Conceived as a global manufacturing and trading hub, the project is expected to double employment potential, triple industrial output and quadruple exports from the region in five years. The total employment to be generated from the project is 3 million, the bulk of which will be in the manufacturing/processing sectors. The project initially aims to create seven smart cities distributed along the backbone of the dedicated freight corridor between Delhi and Mumbai.|
|İstanbul Finance Center||İstanbul, Turkey||Under development||$5,000,000,000||Apart from the main urban renewal project of İstanbul. It will station in Ataşehir|
|Turkey Urban Renewal Project||Turkey||Under development||$400,000,000,000||Renewals are being conducted all over Turkey but mainly on İstanbul as Law 6306 announced by Ministry of Environment and City Planning (Turkey). Fikirtepe, a neighborhood of Kadıköy has been chosen as pilot area for project.|
|Dubai Meydan City||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Under development||$2,200,000,000|
|Business Bay||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Under development||$30,000,000,000||Comprises 240 high and low rise buildings, mostly residential and mixed use skyscrapers.|
|Masdar City||United Arab Emirates||Under development||$22,000,000,000||The city will rely entirely on solar energy and other renewable energy sources, with a sustainable, zero-carbon, zero-waste ecology and will be a car free city.|
|Kingdom City||Jeddah, Saudi Arabia||Under development||$20,000,000,000||Will host both commercial and residential development including homes, hotels, and offices. The centerpiece of the development project will be Kingdom Tower, a tower planned to become the tallest in the world.|
|Navi Mumbai||India||Completed||World's largest planned city. Contains a population of 2.6 million.|
|Roppongi Hills||Tokyo, Japan||Completed||$4,000,000,000||One of Japan's largest integrated property developments.|
|CityCenter||Las Vegas, United States||Completed||$11,000,000,000||The largest privately financed development in the United States.|
|Potsdamer Platz Redevelopment||Berlin, Germany||Completed||Project divided onto four parts in which four investors bids in turn.|
|La Défense||Paris, France||Completed||The Central Business District of the Paris Metropolitan area, La Défense provides France with a modern set of skyscrapers while Paris itself retains most of its original architecture and character.|
|King Abdullah Economic City||Saudi Arabia||Under development||$86,000,000,000||
No credible signs of development are present
|The World||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||On-hold||$14,000,000,000||Artificial archipelago of various small islands constructed in the rough shape of a world map.|
|Khazar Islands||Azerbaijan||Under development||$100,000,000,000||Artificial archipelago 25 km (16 mi) south of Baku, Azerbaijan consisting of 41 islands spreading 3,000 hectares (about 11.6 sq mi) over the Caspian Sea. Expected to be finished by 2020–2025, and house a population of 1 million.|
|Madinat al-Hareer||Kuwait||Under development||$94,000,000,000||Proposed 250 km2 (62,000-acre) planned urban area in Subiya, Kuwait, an area just opposite Kuwait City.|
|Barangaroo||Sydney, Australia||Under development||$6,000,000,000||Entire project to be completed by 2023|
|Central Station to Eveleigh Airspace Development||Sydney, Australia||Proposed||$10,000,000,000||Extension of Sydney's CBD. The renewal corridor approximately 3 km in length.|
|Rebuilding of Christchurch||New Zealand||Under development||$17,000,000,000||Recovery from earthquakes in 2010–2011. Rebuild of central business district, demolition and remediation of several residential neighbourhoods now deemed unsuitable for building. Infrastructure upgrades and addition of commuter rail. Entire project to be completed by 2020.|
|Gujarat International Finance Tec-City||India||Under development||$20,000,000,000||The smart city is being built as a global financial hub to provide world class infrastructure for the Indian financial industry to grow. When completed, it will outclass France's La Défense, Tokyo's Shinjuku and London's London Docklands in every aspect. It is expected to be finished by 2017–2018.|
|Madinaty||Egypt||Under development||$10,000,000,000||Expected to open by 2014, houses 600,000 population|
|HafenCity||Hamburg, Germany||Under development||Completion expected in 2020–2030|
|Stratford City||London, United Kingdom||Under development||£3,500,000,000||Entire project to be completed by 2020.|
|Movement of Kiruna Centrum||Kiruna, Sweden||Under development||$2,100,000,000||Entire project to be completed by 2013.|
|Palm Jumeirah||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Completed||$12,300,000,000||It is the world's largest man-made island.|
|Palm Jebel Ali||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||On-hold||Will accommodate over 250,000 people by 2020.|
|Palm Deira||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||On-hold||Will be the largest palm island, in Dubai.|
|Porto Maravilha||Rio de Janeiro, Brazil||Under development||$35,700,000,000||Entire project to be completed by 2015.|
|Brickell Key||Miami, United States||Completed|
|Eastwood City||Quezon City, Philippines||Completed||Ongoing project of MegaWorld Corporation, one of the biggest real-estate companies in the Philippines.|
|Dubai Marina||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Completed||World's largest man-made marina, with 200 residential and hotel high rises.|
|Pagcor City||Manila Bay, Philippines||Under development||$15,000,000,000||A casino and entertainment hub project, dubbed as the "Philippines' Las Vegas".|
|Yas Island||Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates||Under development||$36,000,000,000||It occupies a total land area of 2,500 ha (25 km2), of which 1,700 ha will be claimed for development. The island holds the Yas Marina Circuit, which hosts the Formula One United Arab Emirates Grand Prix since 2009.|
|Riverside South||New York City, United States||Under development||$3,000,000,000|
|Bonifacio Global City||Philippines||Completed||A new CBD area for Metro Manila, previously occupied by the Philippine Army headquarters|
|Dubai International City||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||On-hold||$95,000,000,000||A country-themed architecture of residences, business, and tourist attractions.|
|Jumeirah Garden City||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||On-hold||$95,000,000,000||Will be built across an area north of Sheikh Zayed Road between Diyafa Street and Safa Park.|
|Moscow International Business Center||Moscow, Russia||Under development||$12,000,000,000|
|Dubailand||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Under development||$64,300,000,000||Will be world's largest Retail and Entertainment World, twice the size of Walt Disney World Resort, it include 45 mega projects and 200 sub projects. Currently, there are 22 projects under development.|
|Atlantic Yards||New York City, United States||Under development||The project's centerpiece, Barclays Center broke ground on March 11, 2010.|
|Battery Park City||New York City, United States||Completed|
|Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project||New York City, United States||Under development||$20,000,000,000|
|Esplanada City Center||Bucharest, Romania||Cancelled||$4,200,000,000|
|Big City Plan||Birmingham, United Kingdom||Proposed||$17,000,000,000|
|Okhta Center||Saint Petersburg, Russia||Under development||$2,500,000,000||Relocated to a new site, construction underway.|
|Dubai Waterfront||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Under development||Expected to become the largest waterfront and largest man-made development in the world.|
- List of world's most expensive transport infrastructure
- List of most expensive U.S. public works projects
- Altshuler, Alan; Luberoff, David (30 April 2003). Mega-Projects: The Changing Politics of Urban Public Investment. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-8157-0129-3.
- "Woman to build house out of 747". BBC News. 20 April 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- Sutter, Joe; Spenser, Jay (1 May 2007). 747: Creating the World's First Jumbo Jet and Other Adventures from a Life in Aviation. Collins. ISBN 0-06-088242-5.
- Norris, G.; Thomas, G.; Wagner, M. and Forbes Smith, C. (2005). Boeing 787 Dreamliner – Flying Redefined. Aerospace Technical Publications International. ISBN 0-9752341-2-9.
- "A History of the Programme". EuroFighter.com. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- 30 år med Jas – vad har det kostat | ETC - Nyhetstidningen från vänster
- "Changi's Airport Development". Changi Airport Group. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Changi Airport allots nearly S$1.3bn for terminal 4 construction". Singapore Business Review. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "North Sumatra to get new airport soon". April 4, 2006.
- "Kemper County: constructing the world's firstIGCC with CCS". kbr.com. KBR.
- "World’s First Carbon Capture Power Plant Switches On". Climate Central. 5 October 2014.
- Dan McNichol and Andy Ryan, The Big Dig, Silver Lining Press, 1991
- FAIR: New German particle accelerator clears first hurdle
- - Physicists call for €5bn Neutrino Factory
- George Musser (May 2011). "Cosmic-Ray Detector on Space Shuttle Set to Scan Cosmos for Dark Matter". Scientific American. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- "Cassini Solstice Mission-FAQs". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- "Gaia spacecraft set for launch on mission to map a billion stars". Theguardian. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Kathy Sawyer (17 December 1991). “Galileo Antenna Apparently Still Stuck”. Washington Post: A14; Kathy Sawyer (18 December 1991). “$1.4 Billion Galileo Mission Appears Crippled.” Washington Post: A3 in Mission to Jupiter. p.180.
- Galileo: Facts & Figures. NASA.gov. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
- "Herschel: Fact Sheet". ESA.int. ESA Media Relations Office. 28 April 2010. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012.
- "Technical Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)". NASA-JWST. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- D. Leone. "MSL Readings Could Improve Safety for Human Mars Missions". Space News. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- Kentsel Dönüşümün Maliyeti Ne Kadar? - Milliyet
- Kentsel Dönüşümün Maliyeti Ne Kadar? « EYP YAPI
- Kentsel dönüşüm için 400 proje - En Son Emlak Haberleri - HTEkonomi
- T.C. ÇEVRE ve ŞEHİRCİLİK BAKANLIĞI - Altyapı ve Kentsel Dönüşüm Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü
- Fikirtepe’de 40 milyar liralık kentsel dönüşüm başlıyor - ZAMAN
- Appraisal of City Development Plan - Navi Mumbai. National Institute of Urban Affairs, 2008.
- "Sydney Central Station Airspace Redevelopment, NSW". Webb Australia.