Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
|35th President of Brazil|
1 January 2003 – 1 January 2011
|Vice President||José Alencar|
|Preceded by||Fernando Henrique Cardoso|
|Succeeded by||Dilma Rousseff|
|Chief of Staff of the Presidency|
17 March 2016 – 18 March 2016
|Preceded by||Jaques Wagner|
|Succeeded by||Eva Chiavon (Acting)|
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies|
1 February 1987 – 1 February 1991
|President of the Workers' Party|
10 February 1980 – 24 January 1994
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Rui Falcão|
|Born||Luiz Inácio da Silva
27 October 1945
Caetés, Pernambuco, Brazil
|Political party||Workers' Party|
|Spouse(s)||Maria de Lurdes da Silva (m. 1969; d. 1971)
Marisa Letícia Rocco Casa (m. 1974; d. 2017)
|Residence||São Bernardo do Campo|
|Education||National Service for Industrial Training|
|Occupation||Metalworker, trade unionist|
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born 27 October 1945), known simply as Lula, is a Brazilian politician who served as President of Brazil from 1 January 2003 to 1 January 2011. He is a founding member of the Workers' Party (PT – Partido dos Trabalhadores) and ran for president three times unsuccessfully, first in the 1989 election, then again in 1994 and 1998. Lula achieved victory in the 2002 election, and was inaugurated as president on 1 January 2003. In the 2006 election he was elected for a second term as president, which ended on 31 December 2010. Succeeded by his former Chief of Staff, Dilma Rousseff, he left an enduring mark on Brazilian politics in the form of Lulism.
He is often regarded as one of the most popular politicians in the history of Brazil and, at the time of his mandate, one of the most popular in the world. Social programs like Bolsa Família and Fome Zero are hallmarks of his time in office. Lula played a prominent role in recent international relations developments, including the nuclear program of Iran and global warming, and was described as "a man with audacious ambitions to alter the balance of power among nations." He was featured in Time's The 100 Most Influential People in the World for 2010, and Perry Anderson called him "the most successful politician of his time." In October 2011, Lula—who was a smoker for 40 years—was diagnosed with throat cancer and quickly started chemotherapy treatment. Since the cancer was found, he has successfully recovered and has since resumed his roles.
In early 2016, Lula was to become the Chief of Staff under Rousseff's administration; however, Justice Gilmar Mendes of the Supreme Federal Court blocked the appointment, due to ongoing federal investigations.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Education and work
- 3 Union career
- 4 Political career
- 5 Presidency
- 6 Post-presidency
- 7 Awards and recognition
- 8 Lula in popular culture
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Luiz Inácio da Silva was born on 27 October 1945 (but registered with a date of birth of 6 October 1945) in Caetés (then a district of Garanhuns), located 155 miles (250 km) from Recife, capital of Pernambuco, a Brazilian state in the Northeast of Brazil. He was the seventh of eight children of Aristides Inácio da Silva and Eurídice Ferreira de Melo. Two weeks after Lula's birth, his father moved to Santos with Valdomira Ferreira de Góis, a cousin of Eurídice. He was raised Roman Catholic.
In December 1952, when Lula was only 7 years old, his mother decided to move to São Paulo with her children to rejoin her husband. After a journey of thirteen days in a pau-de-arara (open truck bed), they arrived in Guarujá and discovered that Aristides had formed a second family with Valdomira. Aristides' two families lived in the same house for some time, but they didn't get along very well, and four years later, Eurídice moved with her children to a small room in the back area of a bar in the city of São Paulo. After that, Lula rarely saw his father, who became an alcoholic and died in 1978.
Lula was married twice. In 1969, he married Maria de Lourdes, who died of hepatitis in 1971, when she was pregnant with their first son, who also died. Lula and Miriam Cordeiro had a daughter, Lurian, out of wedlock in 1974. In 1974, Lula married Marisa Letícia Rocco Casa, at the time a widow, with whom he had three sons (he has also adopted Marisa's son from her first marriage). They remained married until Marisa's death on 2 February 2017, following a stroke.
Education and work
Lula had little formal education. He did not learn to read until he was ten years old, and quit school after the second grade in order to work to help his family. His working life began at age 12 as a shoeshiner and street vendor. By age 14 he got his first formal job in a plutonium processing factory as a lathe operator.
At age 19, he lost the little finger on his left hand in an accident while working as a press operator in an automobile parts factory. After losing his finger he had to run to several hospitals before he received medical attention. This experience increased his interest in participating within the Workers' Union. Around that time, he became involved in union activities and held several important union posts. Due to perceived incompatibility with the Brazilian military government and trade union activities, Lula's views moved further to the political left.
Inspired by his brother Frei Chico, Lula joined the labour movement when he worked at Indústrias Villares. He rose steadily in the ranks, and was elected in 1975, and reelected in 1978, president of the Steel Workers' Union of São Bernardo do Campo and Diadema. Both cities are located in the ABCD Region, home to most of Brazil's automobile manufacturing facilities (such as Ford, Volkswagen, Toyota, Mercedes-Benz and others) and are among the most industrialized in the country. In the late 1970s, when Brazil was under military rule, Lula helped organize union activities, including major strikes. Labour courts found the strikes to be illegal, and Lula was jailed for a month. Due to this, and like other people imprisoned for political activities under the military government, Lula was awarded a lifetime pension after the regime fell.
On 10 February 1980, a group of academics, intellectuals, and union leaders, including Lula, founded the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) or Workers' Party, a left-wing party with progressive ideas created in the midst of Brazil's military government.
In 1982 he added the nickname Lula to his legal name. In 1983 he helped found the Central Única dos Trabalhadores (CUT) union association. In 1984 PT and Lula joined the popular Diretas Já! (Direct [Elections] Now!) campaign, demanding a direct popular vote for the next Brazilian presidential election. According to the 1967 constitution, Presidents were at that time elected by both Houses of Congress in joint session, with representatives of all State Legislatures; this was widely recognised as a mere sham as, since the March 1964 coup d'état, each "elected" President had been a retired general chosen in a closed military caucus. Lula and the PT supported the public demand for a change in the electoral system. But the campaign was defeated by a vote in Congress that rejected an amendment calling direct elections for next year, and, in 1985, a civilian president, Tancredo Neves, was elected by the same indirect procedure, with Lula's support. Only four years later, as a direct result of Diretas Já! and after years of popular struggle, the 1989 elections were the first in 29 years to elect a president by direct popular vote.
Lula first ran for office in 1982, for the state government of São Paulo, and lost. In the 1986 elections Lula won a seat in Congress with the most votes nationwide. The Workers' Party helped write the country's post-military government Constitution, ensuring strong constitutional guarantees for workers' rights, but failed to achieve a proposed push for agrarian reform in the Constitutional text. Under Lula's leadership, the PT took a stance against the Constitution in the 1988 Constituent Assembly, reluctantly agreeing to sign the agreed draft at a later stage.
In 1989, still as a Congressman, Lula ran as the PT candidate in the first democratic elections for president since 1960. Lula and Leonel Brizola, two popular left-wing candidates, were expected to vie for first place. Lula was viewed as the more left-leaning of the two, advocating immediate land reform and a default on the external debt. However, a minor candidate, Fernando Collor de Mello, former governor of Alagoas, quickly amassed support among the nation's élite with a more business-friendly agenda. Collor became popular taking emphatic anti-corruption positions; he eventually beat Lula in the second round of the 1989 elections. In 1992, Collor resigned, under threat of impeachment for his alleged embezzlement of public money.
Lula refused to run for re-election as a Congressman in 1990, busying himself with expanding the Workers' Party organizations around the country. As the political scene in the 1990s came under the sway of the Brazilian real monetary stabilization plan, which ended decades of rampant inflation, former Minister of Finance Fernando Henrique Cardoso (Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)) defeated Lula in 1994 and again, by an even wider margin, in 1998.
Before winning the presidency in 2002, Lula had been a strident union organizer known for his bushy beard and Che Guevara T-shirts. In the 2002 campaign, Lula foreswore both his informal clothing style and his platform plank of linking the payment of Brazil's foreign debt to a prior thorough audit. This last point had worried economists, businessmen and banks, who feared that even a partial Brazilian default along with the existing Argentine default would have a massive ripple effect through the world economy. Embracing political consultant Duda Mendonça's advice to pursue a more media-friendly image, Lula became president after winning the second round of the 2002 election, held on 27 October, defeating the PSDB candidate José Serra. On 1 October 2006, Lula narrowly missed winning another term in the first round of elections. He faced a run-off on 29 October and won by a substantial margin. In an interview published 26 August 2007, he said that he had no intention to seek a constitutional change so that he could run for a third consecutive term; he also said that he wanted "to reach the end of [his] term in a strong position in order to influence the succession."
Lula served 2 terms as president and left office on 1 January 2011. During his farewell speech he said he felt an additional burden to prove that he could handle the presidency despite his humble beginnings. "If I failed, it would be the workers' class which would be failing; it would be this country's poor who would be proving they did not have what it takes to rule."
Since the beginning of his political career to the present, Lula has changed some of his original ideas and moderated his positions. Instead of the drastic social changes he proposed in the past, his government chose a reformist line, passing new retirement, tax, labour and judicial legislation, and discussing university reform.
Very few of the proposed reforms were actually implemented during Lula's terms of office. Some wings of the Worker's Party disagreed with the increasing moderation in focus since the late eighties and have since left the party to form dissident wings such as the Workers' Cause Party, the United Socialist Workers' Party and, during Lula's presidency, the Socialism and Liberty Party. Alliances with conservative, right wing politicians, like former presidents José Sarney and Fernando Collor, have been a cause of disappointment for some.
Lula put social programs at the top of his agenda during the campaigns and after election. From very early on his leading program was to eradicate hunger, following the lead of projects already put into practice by the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration, but expanded by the new Fome Zero ("Zero Hunger") program. This program brings together a series of programs with the goal to end hunger in Brazil, including the construction of water cisterns in Brazil's semi-arid region of Sertão, plus actions to counter teenage pregnancy, to strengthen family agriculture, to distribute a minimum amount of cash to the poor, and many other measures.
The largest assistance program, however, was Bolsa Família ("Family Allowance"), which was based upon the previous Bolsa Escola ("School Allowance"), which was conditional on school attendance, first introduced in the city of Campinas by then-mayor José Roberto Magalhães Teixeira. Not long thereafter, other municipalities and states adopted similar programs. President Fernando Henrique Cardoso later federalized the program in 2001. In 2003, Lula formed Bolsa Família by combining Bolsa Escola with additional allowances for food and kitchen gas. This was preceded by the creation of a new ministry – the Ministry of Social Development and Eradication of Hunger. This merger reduced administrative costs and bureaucratic complexity for both the families involved and the administration of the program.
Fome Zero has a government budget and accepts donations from the private sector and international organizations. The Bolsa Família program has been praised internationally for its achievements, despite internal criticism accusing it of having turned into an electoral weapon.
Along with projects such as Fome Zero and Bolsa Família, the Lula administration flagship program was the Growth Acceleration Program (PAC). The PAC had a total budget of $646 billion reais (US$353 billion) by 2010, and was the Lula administration's main investment program. It was intended to strengthen Brazil's infrastructure, and consequently to stimulate the private sector and create more jobs. The social and urban infrastructure sector was scheduled to receive $84.2 billion reais (US$46 billion).
As Lula gained strength in the run-up to the 2002 elections, the fear of drastic measures, and comparisons with Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, increased internal market speculation. This led to some market hysteria, contributing to a drop in the value of the real, and a downgrade of Brazil's credit rating.
In the beginning of his first term, Lula's chosen Minister of Finance was Antonio Palocci, a physician and former Trotskyist activist who had recanted his far left views while serving as the mayor of the sugarcane processing industry center of Ribeirão Preto, in the state of São Paulo. Lula also chose Henrique Meirelles of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, a prominent market-oriented economist, as head of the Brazilian Central Bank. As a former CEO of the BankBoston he was well-known to the market. Meirelles was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 2002 as a member of the opposing PSDB, but resigned as deputy to become Governor of the Central Bank.
Silva and his cabinet followed in part the lead of the previous government, by renewing all agreements with the International Monetary Fund, which were signed by the time Argentina defaulted on its own deals in 2001. His government achieved a satisfactory primary budget surplus in the first two years, as required by the IMF agreement, exceeding the target for the third year. In late 2005, the government paid off its debt to the IMF in full, two years ahead of schedule. Three years after the election, Lula had slowly but firmly gained the market's confidence, and sovereign risk indexes fell to around 250 points. The government's choice of inflation targeting kept the economy stable, and was complimented during the 2005 World Economic Forum in Davos.
The Brazilian economy was generally not affected by the mensalão scandal, which related to vote buying in the Brazilian Congress. In early 2006, however, Palocci had to resign as finance minister due to his involvement in an abuse of power scandal. Lula then appointed Guido Mantega, a member of the PT and an economist by profession, as finance minister. Mantega, a former Marxist who had written a PhD thesis (in Sociology) on the history of economic ideas in Brazil from a left-wing viewpoint, was known for his criticism of high interest rates, something he claimed satisfied banking interests. Mantega was also supportive of a higher level of employment by the state.
Not long after the start of his second term, Lula, alongside his cabinet, announced the new Growth Acceleration Program (the Programa de Aceleração de Crescimento, or PAC, in Portuguese), an investment program to solve many of the problems that prevent the Brazilian economy from expanding more rapidly. The measures included investment in the creation and repair of roads and railways, simplification and reduction of taxation, and modernization on the country's energy production to avoid further shortages. The money promised to be spent on this Program was considered to be around R$ 500 billion (more than 250 billion dollars) over four years. Prior to taking office, Lula had been a critic of privatization policies. In his government, however, his administration created public-private partnership concessions for seven federal roadways.
After decades as the largest foreign debtor among emerging economies, Brazil became a net creditor for the first time in January 2008. By mid-2008, both Fitch Ratings and Standard & Poor's had elevated the classification of Brazilian debt from speculative to investment grade. Banks made record profits under Lula's government.
Lula's second term was much more confident; Lula was then not only the undisputed master of popular affection, as the first president to bring a modest well-being to many people, but also in complete control of his own administration. His two leading ministers were gone. Palocci was no longer needed to calm the nerves of overseas investors and Lula had never liked and somewhat feared José Dirceu, a virtuoso of cold political calculation and intrigue. Their joint elimination freed Lula for sole command in Brasilia. When, midway through his second term its test came, he handled it with aplomb. The crash of Wall Street in 2008 might be a tsunami in the US and Europe, he declared, but in Brazil it would be no more than a little 'ripple' ("uma marolinha"). The phrase was seized on by the Brazilian press as proof of reckless economic ignorance and irresponsibility. Lula proved that the media (PiG) was wrong. In 2008, Brazil enjoyed economic good health to fight the global financial crisis with large stimulus packages lasting, at least, until 2014.
The Lula Administration's economic policies also helped to significantly raise living standards, with the percentage of Brazilians belonging to the consumerist middle class rising from 37% to 50% of the population.
"Under Lula, Brazil became the world's eighth-largest economy, more than 20 million people rose out of acute poverty and Rio de Janeiro was awarded the 2016 Summer Olympics, the first time the Games will be held in South America."
Leading a large and competitive agricultural state, Lula generally opposed and criticized farm subsidies, and this position has been seen as one of the reasons for the walkout of developing nations and subsequent collapse of the Cancún World Trade Organization talks in 2003 over G8 agricultural subsidies. Brazil played an important role in negotiations regarding internal conflicts in Venezuela and Colombia, and concentrated efforts on strengthening Mercosur. During the Lula administration, Brazilian foreign trade increased dramatically, changing from deficits to several surpluses after 2003. In 2004 the surplus was US$29 billion, due to a substantial increase in global demand for commodities. Brazil also provided UN peace-keeping troops and led a peace-keeping mission in Haiti.
According to The Economist of 2 March 2006, Lula had a pragmatic foreign policy, seeing himself as a negotiator, not an ideologue, a leader adept at reconciling opposites. As a result, he befriended both Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez and U.S. President George W. Bush.Lula also gained increasing stature in the Southern hemisphere through economic growth in Brazil. In 2008, he was said to have become a "point man for healing regional crises," as in the escalation of tensions between Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador. Former Finance Minister, and current advisor, Delfim Netto, said: "Lula is the ultimate pragmatist."
He travelled to more than 80 countries during his presidency. A goal of Lula's foreign policy was for the country to gain a seat as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. In this he was unsuccessful. Lula was considered to have pulled off a major coup with Turkey in regards to getting Iran to send its uranium abroad in contravention of western calls.
The condemnation of an Iranian Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani for the crime of adultery, with a sentence of execution by stoning led to calls for Lula da Silva's intervention on her behalf. On the issue, Lula commented that "I need to respect the laws of a [foreign] country. If my friendship with the president of Iran and the respect that I have for him is worth something, if this woman has become a nuisance, we will receive her in Brazil." The Iranian government, however, declined the offer. Lula da Silva's actions and comments sparked controversy. Mina Ahadi, an Iranian Communist politician, welcomed Lula da Silva's offer of asylum for Ashtiani, but also reiterated a call for an end to stoning altogether and requesting a cessation of recognition and support for the Iranian government. Jackson Diehl, Deputy editorial page Editor of The Washington Post, called Lula da Silva the "best friend of tyrants in the democratic world" and criticised his actions. Shirin Ebadi, Iranian human rights activist and Nobel Peace Prize winner viewed Lula da Silva's intervention in a more positive light, calling it a "powerful message to the Islamic Republic."
Corruption scandals and controversy
|Wikinews has related news: Former President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, detained as part of corruption investigations|
Lula's administration was plagued by corruption scandals, most notably the mensalão and sanguessugas scandals, in his first term. Although the independent office of the Brazilian Attorney-General presented charges against 40 politicians and officials involved in the Mensalão affair, several charges were presented against Lula himself. Top officials involved, such as Roberto Jefferson, José Dirceu, Luiz Gushiken and Humberto Costa denied he was aware of any wrongdoing; his only crime would be omission, since it was attested by one of his own party members, Alindo Chinaglia, that Lula had been warned of the existence of corruption. Having lost numerous government aides in the face of political turmoil, Lula survived largely unscathed in the eyes of the public, with overwhelming approval rates.
His administration was heavily criticized for relying on local political barons, like José Sarney, Jader Barbalho, Renan Calheiros and Fernando Collor, to ensure a majority in Congress. He lost some important votes there, though, for example when the Senate barred a tax on financial transactions from being reinstated. Another frequent reproach relates to his ambiguous treatment of the left wing in the Workers' Party. Analysts felt that he would occasionally give in to left-wing wishes for tighter government control of the media and increased state intervention: in 2004, he pushed for the creation of a "Federal Council of Journalists" (CFJ) and a "National Cinema Agency" (Ancinav), with the latter being designed to overhaul funding for electronic communications. Both proposals ultimately failed amid concerns that they would lead to excessive state intervention over free speech. Fernando Cardoso, Lula's predecessor as the president of Brazil, accused Lula of denying any positive achievements allegedly made by the Cardoso administration.
In March 2009, before an appearance at the G-20 summit meeting in London, Lula caused an uproar when he declared that the economic crisis was caused by "the irrational behavior of blonde people with blue eyes, who before seemed to know everything, and now have shown they don't know anything."
Wanted Italian terrorist Cesare Battisti was arrested in Rio de Janeiro on 18 March 2007 by Brazilian and French police officers. Later, Brazilian Minister of Justice Tarso Genro granted him the status of political refugee, in a controversial decision which was much criticized in Italy and divided Brazilian and international press opinion. On 5 February 2009, the European Parliament adopted a resolution in support of Italy and held a minute's silence in memory to Battisti's victims. On 18 November 2009, the Brazilian Supreme Court considered the refugee status illegal and allowed extradition, but also stated that the Brazilian constitution gave the president personal powers to deny the extradition if he chose to, effectively putting the final decision in the hands of Brazilian president. Despite that decision, Lula decided to deny extradition of the Italian far-left terrorist Cesare Battisti. On 31 December 2010, Lula's last effective day as president, the decision not to allow extradition was officially announced. Battisti was released on 9 June 2011 from prison after the Brazilian Constitutional Court denied Italy's request to extradite him. Italy planned to appeal to the International Court of Justice in The Hague.As of May 2017, Battisti still lived in Brazil.
Lula da Silva would claim on public Brazilian TV that he did not know anything about the scandals. He also said on Brazilian TV that people who did not agree in paying a tax for each check issued and/or financial transaction were people who illegally failed to pay their income tax.
On 29 October 2011, Lula was announced by the Syrian-Lebanese Hospital of São Paulo to have contracted throat cancer by way of a malignant tumor in his larynx. He elected to undergo chemotherapy to counteract the tumor, and on 16 November, pictures were released by his press office of his wife shaving his beard and hair, leaving him bald but retaining his moustache. It was the first time that Lula had been seen without his beard since leaving office. He was treated with radiation therapy sessions, until the cancer was in complete remission. Lula announced his recovery on March 2012, together with his return to politics. His fellow politician Dilma Rousseff, then president of Brazil, praised the news. Contrary to rumors, Lula declared in early 2013 that he would no longer be a presidential candidate, supporting his successor again, Dilma Rousseff.
Lula da Silva was expected to accept a ministerial position with the President Rousseff's Government according to official media sources. The appointment raised certain questions linking to his arrest and investigation.
Corruption investigation and prosecution
In April 2015 the Public Ministry of Brazil opened an investigation against the ex-president Lula for influence peddling. The allegations were that between 2011 and 2014 he lobbied for the Odebrecht company to gain public contracts in foreign countries while also getting BNDES to finance those projects. Countries where this allegedly took place included Ghana, Angola, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic. In June 2015 Odebrecht's president was arrested under the accusation that his company paid 230 million dollars in bribes to politicians.
On March 4, 2016, as part of "Operation Carwash", Brazilian authorities raided the home of Lula da Silva in connection with the ongoing "graft scheme" corruption investigation. After the raid, the police detained Lula da Silva for questioning. In a police statement it was claimed that the police had evidence of Lula collaborating in illegal bribes from Petrobras, which benefited his political party and campaign. Regarding the investigation prosecutor Carlos Fernando stated "The favors to Lula from big construction companies involved in the fraud at Petrobras were many and hard to quantify". Lula criticized the operation, claiming that he and his party had been politically persecuted.
On March 16, 2016, Rousseff's government appointed Lula as (Chief of Staff of the Presidency), a position comparable to that of a Prime Minister. This would have helped to prevent Lula from being arrested due to the legal shield and immunity that went with the position. Cabinet ministers In Brazil are among close to seven hundred senior government officials who enjoy a special judicial standing. This protects them from a number of prosecutors since they can only be tried by Brazil’s Supreme Federal Court. Supreme Court Judge Gilmar Mendes suspended Lula da Silva's appointment on the grounds that President Rousseff's administration was trying to help Lula get around his legal problems.
On September 14, 2016, the Federal prosecutors in Brazil filed corruption charges against Lula, portraying him as the mastermind of the scheme or as the 'maximum commander of the scheme'. On September 19, 2016, as part of the Operation Lava Jato corruption scandal investigation, an indictment for the crime of money laundering against Lula and his wife Marisa Leticia Lula da Silva was accepted by 13th Circuit (Paraná) federal judge Sérgio Moro, who has been a leader in the fight against corruption.
On May 11 2017 Lula was summoned to a courtroom in Curitiba to face questioning by Sérgio Moro. The hearing lasted five hours, in a closed court. Thousands of Lula supporters went to Curitiba, together with Dilma Rousseff. After the hearing, Lula and Rousseff gave speeches to his supporters. Lula attacked what he said was bias in the Brazilian media and thanked those supporters who had travelled from outside Curitiba.
Awards and recognition
Since Lula began his term as president, he has attained numerous medals, such as the Brazilian Order of Merit, the Brazilian Orders of Military, Naval and Aeronautical Merit, the Brazilian Order of Scientific Merit, the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle and the Norwegian Order of Royal Merit, as well as the First Class of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise (Ukraine, 2003), the Order of Liberty (Ukraine, 2009) and the Danish Order of the Elephant (2007).
He received the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation in 2003 and was the chief guest at India's Republic Day celebration in 2004. He was also given the Jawaharlal Nehru Award in 2006 and the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development in 2010. He was rated the most popular Brazilian president of all time with an 80.5% approval rate in his last months as the president. US president Barack Obama greeted Lula at the G20 summit in London (April 2009) saying: "That's my man right there...love this guy...The most popular politician on earth."
Lula was chosen as the 2009 Man of the Year by prominent European newspapers El País and Le Monde. The Financial Times ranked Lula among the 50 faces that shaped the 2000s.On 20 December 2008, he was named the 18th most important person in the world by Newsweek magazine, and was the only Latin American person featured in a list of 50 most influential World leaders.
On 7 July 2009, he received UNESCO's Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize at UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France. On 5 November 2009, President Lula was awarded the Chatham House Prize, given to the statesperson who is deemed by Chatham House members to have made the most significant contribution to the improvement of international relations in the previous year.On 3 August 2009 he received the O.P. Dwivedi Public Service Award from the International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration (IASIA), an award established to honor a distinguished international scholar or practitioner for significant contributions to public administration and public policy in the world.
On 29 January 2010, President Lula was given the Global Statesman award by the World Economic Forum, held in Davos, Switzerland, but could not attend the ceremony due to problems of high blood pressure.In 2010, Time magazine named Lula one of the most influential leaders of the world. On 27 September 2011, he received a doctorate honoris causa from the Paris Institute of Political Studies, commonly known as Sciences Po.
On 14 October 2011, President Lula received the 2011 World Food Prize, along with John Kufuor, former president of Ghana, for his personal commitment and visionary leadership while serving as the president of Brazil, and for creating and implementing government policies to alleviate hunger and poverty in his country.In 2012 he received the Freedom medal.
Lula in popular culture
- In the 2011 Latin American postmodern fantasy novel United States of Banana by Giannina Braschi, President Lula joins Hugo Chávez, Evo Morales, Fidel Castro, Rafael Correa and Cristina Kirchner on a quest to liberate the people of Puerto Rico from the United States.
- Academy Award-nominated film director Fábio Barreto directed the 2009 Brazilian film Lula, Son of Brazil that depicts the life of Lula up to 35 years of age.
- Portuguese pronunciation: [luˈiz iˈnasju ˈlulɐ dɐ ˈsiwvɐ] ( listen)
- Barrionuevo, Alexei (26 August 2012). "Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". The New York Times.
- "Galery of presidents" (in Portuguese). Palácio do Planalto. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Throssell, Elizabeth 'Liz' (30 September 2010). "Lula's legacy for Brazil's next president". BBC News. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "Lula leaves office as Brazil's 'most popular' president". BBC. 31 December 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "'The Most Popular Politician on Earth'". Newsweek. 31 December 2010. Archived from the original on 29 December 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "Lula's last lap". The Economist. 8 January 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- "Hemispheres" (PDF). Tufts. 2004. Retrieved 17 August 2010..
- "The 100 Most Influential People in the World for 2010". Time. 10 May 2010: 20. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- Perry Anderson (31 March 2011). "Lula's Brazil". London Review of Books. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- Carroll, Rory (10 March 2010). "Lula stubs out smoking habit". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "Brazil ex-President Lula diagnosed with throat cancer". BBC News. 29 October 2011.
- "Brazil judge blocks Lula appointment to government". BBC News. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "Justice Gilmar Mendes suspends Lula's nomination as Chief of Staff" (in Portuguese). Correio Braziliense. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- "Folha Online – Mundo – "Lula é um católico a seu modo", diz d. Cláudio Hummes". .folha.uol.com.br. 6 April 2005. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Hoje em dia" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2009-12-14.
- "Lurian, filha de Lula, foi atendida no hospital Sírio-Libanês – politica". Estadao.com.br. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Marisa Letícia tem morte cerebral, e família autoriza doação de órgãos - Notícias - Política".
- "Lula: Fourth time lucky?". BBC News. BBC. 28 October 2002. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
- "Biography". Presidency of the Federative Republic of Brazil. 2005. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
- "Eleições 2006 – Com votação recorde, Lula chega ao segundo mandato". G1.globo.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Brazilian president's handpicked successor leads, faces runoff by Juan Forero, The Washington Post, 4 October 2010
- "Brazil re-elects President Lula". BBC News. BBC. 30 October 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
- Newsroom (27 August 2007). "Brazilian President Vows Not to Seek a Third Term". Mercopress via Brazzil Magazine. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 2013-06-22.
- "Lula bids a tearful goodbye". Al Jazeera English. 30 December 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- The Economist (5 February 2009). "Where dinausaurs still roam". Retrieved 2009-05-12.
- Kirksey, Emily (21 June 2006). "Lula – Brazil's Lost Leader". Council on Hemispheric Affairs. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
- "Brazil hit by debt downgrade". BBC News. BBC. 21 June 2002. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
- "Henrique de Campos Meirelles". Banco Central do Brazil. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
- Balbi, Sandra (18 December 2005). "Economistas Alertam para Desindustrialização". Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2008-04-05.
- "Brazil to pay off IMF debts early". BBC News. BBC. 14 December 2005. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
- Newsroom. "O Chefe (The Boss) by Ivo Patarra".
- Clemente, Isabel; Leal, Andréa; Neves, Maria Laura. "Enfim, Lula privatizou...". Época (in Portuguese). Rede Globo. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
- Parra-Bernal, Guillermo; Pimentel, Lester. "Brazil Became Net Creditor for First Time in January". Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
- "Lula e o lucro recorde dos bancos" (in Portuguese). La Agencia Latinoamericana de Información – ALAI. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
- Lula’s Brazil by Perry Anderson – Vol. 33 No. 7 · 31 March 2011 pages 3–12
- Latin America’s boom years, anticipating the deluge by John Paul Rathbone on 31 March 2014
- Padgett, Tim (26 April 2004). "Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". Time. Retrieved 2008-03-26.
- Lapper, Richard; Wheatley, Jonathan; Silva, Luiz Inácio Lula da (11 July 2006). "Interview transcript: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". Financial Times. Brasília, Brazil. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
- Cirilo Junior (16 January 2010). "Tropas brasileiras ainda lideram missão no Haiti, diz Jobim". Folha. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "Brazil: Lula's leap" in "The Economist Newspaper" on 3 February 2006
- Kraul, Chris; McDonnell, Patrick J. (5 October 2008). "Brazil's Lula takes center stage in Latin America – Los Angeles Times". Latimes.com. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
- "The axis of Brazil – Focus". Al Jazeera English. 22 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Hanan Awarekeh. "Al-ManarTV:: Iran 'Checkmated' US as It Awaits Quick Response to 3-Way Nuclear Deal 18/05/2010". Almanar.com.lb. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Lula: Stonewalled by Iran". The Washington Post.
- "Iran stoning woman offered asylum by Brazil's president Lula". The Guardian. London. 1 August 2010.
- "Press Release 29: On Brazilian offer of asylum to Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani | International Committee Against Stoning". Stopstonningnow.com. 31 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "Open letter to the Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva A regime of stoning should not be recognised | International Committee Against Stoning". Stopstonningnow.com. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Mirian (21 August 2010). "Porta voz do Comitê Internacional contra Apedrejamento envia carta aberta a Lula". Veja.abril.com.br. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Amauri Arrais Do G1, em São Paulo (30 July 2010). "G1 – Lula pode ajudar a libertar condenada a apedrejamento, diz ativista iraniana – notícias em Mundo". G1.globo.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- Shirin Ebadi: When Adultery Means Death. Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-29.
- "Lula sabia, sim, do mensalão, confirma Chinaglia". Veja.abril.com.br. 30 October 2009. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- Caram, Fabio. Conselho, imprensa e controle, Observatório da Imprensa, 2004-08-17.
- Op. Ed. O Estado de S. Paulo, 2009-09-06.
- "Lula's Tactic to Win: Denying His Predecessor Has Ever Done Anything Good". Brazzil.com. 7 February 2010. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- Barrionuevo, Alexei (26 July 2010). "Times Topics: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2010.
- International Extradition Treaty-Protocol are made between presidents (see Brazil International Extradition Treaty-Protocol with the United States June 18, 1962, Date-Signed
- Bonin, Robson (31 December 2010). "Lula nega extradição de Cesare Battisti para a Itália" (in Portuguese). G1.
- "Italy to appeal against Brazil's refusal to extradite convicted killer". The Guardian. 9 June 2011.
- "Veja tudo o que Lula 'não sabia'" (in Portuguese). Estadão. 2 August 2007.
- "Brazil's Lula da Silva shaves beard in cancer battle". BBC News. 16 November 2011.
- "Brazil ex-President Lula diagnosed with throat cancer". BBC News. 29 October 2011.
- "Lula da Silva announces his back in politics after defeating cancer". MercoPress. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Postado por Editor. "Delito de Opinião: Cercada de mensaleiros condenados à prisão, Dilma rejeita a estabilização econômica de FHC". Datadez.blogspot.com.br. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- "Lula Da Silva to become Minister". The Premium Herald. 2016-03-15. Retrieved 2016-03-15.
- As suspeitas de tráfico de influência internacional sobre o ex-presidente Lula: O Ministério Público Federal abre uma investigação contra o petista – ele é suspeito de ajudar a Odebrecht em contratos bilionários, 30/04/2015 - Updated 08/05/2015
- Brazil Arrests Head of Odebrecht in Petrobras Scandal, JUNE 19, 2015
- Romero, Simon. "Police Raid Home of Ex-President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil". The New York Times. Rio de Janeiro. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Police Question Brazil's Ex-President in Corruption Probe". The Premium Herald. 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
- "Former Brazil president Lula da Silva detained amid corruption investigation". euronews. 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Machado, Adriano (4 March 2016). "Brazil police detain former president Lula in anti-graft probe: source". Sao Paulo: Reuters. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "Brazil's Lula received 'many' favors from corrupt companies". The Citizen. AFP. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Kenneth Rapoza (29 July 2016). "Brazil's Ex-President Lula Wants UN To Save Him From Petrobras Noose". Forbes. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
- "No depoimento à PF, Lula critica Lava Jato e admite amizade com Bumlai" (in Portuguese). Folha de São Paulo. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
- "Assessoria de Lula critica Lava Jato e compara operação com vídeo do Porta dos Fundos" (in Portuguese). InfoMoney. 11 October 2016.
- Romero, Simon (16 March 2016). "Ex-President 'Lula' Joins Brazil's Cabinet, Gaining Legal Shield". www.nytimes.com. New York Times.
- "Supreme Court Justice in Brazil Blocks appointment for Ex-President". The Premium Herald. 2016-03-19. Retrieved 2016-03-19.
- "Brazilian judge blocks Lula da Silva appointment". CNN. Retrieved 2016-03-19.
- "'Lula,' Brazil's Ex-President, Is Charged With Corruption". 2016-09-14. Retrieved 2016-09-15.
- Phillips, Dom. "Brazil's ex-president Lula decries persecution as he faces corruption charges in court". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
- Walle, Suzanne Stephens (6 August 2007). "President Calderón at Dinner Hosted in Honor of Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and his wife, Marisa Leticia Lula da Silva". Sistema Internet de la Presidencia. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
- "The Prince of Asturias Foundation". Fundacionprincipedeasturias.org. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
- "India shows off on republic day". BBC News. BBC. 26 January 2004. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
- JAWAHARLAL NEHRU AWARD, ICCR – Indian Council for Cultural Relations, Universe of Culture, Promoting Indian Culture, Showcasing World Cultures. Iccrindia.net. Retrieved on 2010-11-29.
- "Indira Gandhi peace prize for Lula". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 19 November 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- Robson Bonin. "Popularidade de Lula é de 80,5%, aponta pesquisa CNT/Sensus – notícias em Política". G1.globo.com. Retrieved 2013-02-22.
- "Obama: "I love this guy"". BBC News. 2 April 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "Fifty faces that shaped the decade". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "The NEWSWEEK 50: Brazil's Chief, Lula da Silva | Newsweek The Global Elite". Newsweek.com. 5 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
- "Events – Special Events – Chatham House Prize – 2009". Chatham House. Retrieved 2010-10-03.
- "IASIA Annual Conference 2009". 2 April 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- "Annual Meeting 2010". 19 February 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- "The 2010 Time 100". Time.
- "Em Paris, Lula recebe honoris causa do Instituto Sciences Po". Tempo.
- "John Agyekum Kufuor & Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva". The World Food Prize. 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- Four Freedoms Award#Freedom Medal
- "Declaration of War," Giannina Braschi in "United States of Banana", pages 240–275; publisher: AmazonCrossing, Seattle, 2011.ISBN 9781611090673
- Silva, Luis Inácio da; Castro, Cassiana Rosa de; Machado, Sueli de Fátima; Santos, Alveci Oliveira de Orato; Ferreira, Luiz Tarcísio Teixeira; Teixeira, Paulo; Suplicy, Marta; Dutra, Olívio (2003). "The programme for land tenure legalization on public land in São Paulo, Brazil." Environment and Urbanization 15 (2): 191–200.
- Bourne, R (2008). Lula of Brazil : The story so far. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24663-8
- Goertzel, Ted (2011). Brazil's Lula: The Most Popular Politician on Earth. Boca Raton, Florida: Brown Walker Press. ISBN 978-1-61233-505-6.
- Cardim de Carvalho, Fernando J. (2007). "Lula's Government in Brazil: A New Left or the Old Populism?". In Arestis, Philip; Saad-Filho, Alfredo. Political Economy of Brazil. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 24–41. ISBN 978-0-230-54277-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva|
|Wikinews has news related to:|
- Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's official page on Facebook
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva on Charlie Rose
- Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the Internet Movie Database
- Works by or about Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Profile: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, BBC News, 28 January 2010
- The 2010 TIME 100: Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Michael Moore, Time, 20 April 2010
- Transcript of statements by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, President of Brazil, to the high-level meeting for foreign investors, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 29 January 2004, (meeting press release)
- General Debate of the 64th Session, United Nations, 2009
|Party political offices|
|New political party||President of the Workers' Party
|New political party||Workers' Party nominee for President of Brazil
1989, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006
|Chief of Staff of the Presidency
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
|President of Brazil
1 January 2003–31 December 2010