Abul A'la Maududi

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Shaykh al-Islām Allamah Sayyid
Abul Ala Maududi
Abul ala maududi.jpg
Born

Aurangabad, Hyderabad State, British India

(currently in Maharashtra state)
Died 22 September 1979(1979-09-22) (aged 75)
Buffalo, New York, United States
Nationality British Indian (till 1947)
Pakistani
Notable work The Meaning of the Qur'an
The Islamic Law and Constitution
The Qadiani Question
The Finality of Prophethood
Religion Islam
Awards King Faisal International Prize (1979)
Website www.maududi.org
Era 20th century
Region Islamic world
School Sunni Islam[1]
Main interests
Islamic law
Islamic philosophy
Modern philosophy
Notable ideas
Islamic State, jahilliyah (ignorance) Islamic Economy

Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (Urdu: ابو الاعلی مودودی‎ – alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, Mawdudi, also known as Shaykh al-Hadith Maududi), ((1903-09-25)25 September 1903 – 22 September 1979(1979-09-22)), was an Indian-Pakistani scholar, philosopher, jurist, journalist, islamist and imam.[2] His numerous works were written in Urdu, but then translated into English, Arabic, Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Burmese and many other languages.[3] He strove not only to revive Islam as a renewer of the religion,[4] but to propagate "true Islam", a remedy for the weakness from which Islam had suffered over the centuries.[5] He believed that politics was essential for Islam and that it was necessary to institute sharia and preserve Islamic culture from what he saw as the evils of secularism, nationalism, and women's emancipation.[6]

He was the founder of the Jamaat-e-Islami, the largest Islamic organisation in Asia.[7] He and his party are thought to have been the pioneer in politicizing islam and bring adverse effect generating support for an Islamic state in Pakistan.[8] They are thought to have helped inspire General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq to introduce "Sharization" to Pakistan,[9] and to have been greatly strengthened by him after 10,000s of members and sympathizers were given jobs in the judiciary and civil service during his administration.[10] Maududi was the first recipient of the Saudi Arabian King Faisal International Award for his service to Islam in 1979.[11] After his death his Gayby Salat al-Janazah were prayed in all over the world, including in Mecca, making him the second person in the history whose prayer was observed in the holy Kaaba, preceding King Ashama ibn-Abjar.[3][7]

Early life[edit]

Background[edit]

Maududi was born in Aurangabad, India, then part of the princely state enclave of Hyderabad, until it returned to India in 1948. He was the youngest of three brothers.[12] He was born to Maulana Ahmad Hasan, a lawyer by profession. Although his father was only middle-class, he was the descendant of the Chishti line of saints; in fact his last name was derived from the first member of the Chishti Silsilah i.e. Khawajah Syed Qutb ul-Din Maudood Chishti (d. 527 AH).[13] His father's mother was related to Islamic modernist thinker Sayyid Ahmad Khan. [14]

Childhood[edit]

At an early age, Maududi was given home education, he "received religious nurture at the hands of his father and from a variety of teachers employed by him."[13] He soon moved on to formal education, however, and completed his secondary education from Madrasah Furqaniyah. he joined Darul Uloom, in Hyderabad for his undergraduate studies, however these were disrupted by the illness and death of his father, and he did not graduate from the Darul Uloom.[12] His instruction included very little of the subject matter of a modern school, such as English or other European languages.[13] He reportedly translated Qasim Amin's The New Woman into Urdu at the age of 14,[15] and about 3,500 pages from Asfar, a work of mystical Persian thinker Mulla Sadra.[16]

Education[edit]

Maududi was admitted to eighth class directly in Madrassa Furqania, Aurangabad. There he surpassed his class mates, in all respects, despite being younger than them.[citation needed] He was attracted to Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics, and studied in depth the fundamental concepts of Physics and Mathematics. Meanwhile his father shifted to Bhopal where he suffered a severe paralysis attack and died leaving no property or money, forcing Maududi to abort his education.

Journalism[edit]

From 1924 to 1927 Maududi was the editor of al-Jamiah, the newspaper of the Jamiyat-i Ulama (an organization of Islamic clergy), a position of "extreme importance and influence."

Always interested in independence from the British, Maududi lost faith in the Congress Party and its Muslim allies in the 1920s as the party developed an increasingly Hindu identity. He began to turn more towards Islam,[17] and believed that Democracy could be a viable option for Muslims only if the majority of Indians were Muslim.[17]

Maududi spent some time in Delhi as a young man but went back to Hyderabad in 1928.[18]

Political writings[edit]

It was from 1933 to 1941 that Maududi's "most important and influential" works were published, according to scholar Seyyed Vali Nasr. Nasr describes his role at the time as a "ideologue" rather than a journalist he was earlier, or the political activist he became after founding his party.[19]

In 1932 he joined another journal (Tarjuman al-Quran) and from 1932 to 1937 he began to develop his political ideas,[13] and turn towards the cause of Islamic revivalism and Islam as an ideology,[20] as opposed to what he called "traditional and hereditary religion".[21] The government of Hyderabad helped support the journal buying 300 subscriptions which it donated to libraries around India.[22] Maududi was alarmed by the decline of Muslim ruled Hyderabad, the increasing secularism and lack of Purdah among Muslim women in Delhi.[23]

By 1937 he became in conflict with Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and its support for a pluralistic Indian society where the Jamiat hoped Muslims could "thrive ... without sacrificing their identity or interests."[24]

In that year he also married Mahmudah Begum, a woman from an old Muslim family with "considerable financial resources". The family provide financial help and allowed him to devote himself to research and political action, but his wife had "liberated", modern ways, and at first rode a bicycle and did not observe Purdah. She was given greater latitude by Maududi than were other Muslims.[25]

Political activity[edit]

At this time he also began work on establishing an organization for Da'wah (propagation and preaching of Islam) that would be an alternative to both the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League.[26]

At this time he decided to leave Hyderabad for Northwest India, closer to the Muslim political center of gravity in India. In 1938, after meeting the famous Muslim poet Muhammad Iqbal, Maududi moved to a piece of land in the village of Pathankot in the Punjab to oversee a Waqf (Islamic foundation) called Daru'l-Islam.[27]

His hope was to make it a "nerve center" of Islamic revival in India, an ideal religious community, providing leaders and the foundation for a genuine religious movement. He wrote to various Muslim luminaries invited them to join him there.[28] The community, like Jamaat-i-Islami later, was composed of rukn (members), a shura` (a consultative council), and a sadr (head).[29] After a dispute with the person who donated the land for the community over Maududi's anti-nationalist politics, Maududi quit the waqf and in 1939 moved the Daru'l-Islam with its membership from Pathankot to Lahore.[29]

In Lahore he was hired by Islamiyah College but was sacked after less than a year for his openly political lectures.[19]

Founding the Jamaat-i-Islami[edit]

Main entrance of the House of Syed Abul A'la Maududi 4-A, Zaildar Park, Ichhra, Lahore

In 1941, Maududi founded Jamaat-i-Islami (JI) in British India as a religious political movement to promote Islamic values and practices. Maududi proposed forming a Muslim state based on Islamic law and in which Islam would guide all areas of life. This state would not be theocracy, Maududi held, but a "theodemocracy", because its rule would be based on the entire Muslim community, not the ulema (Islamic scholars).[30]

Initially, Maududi opposed the creation of a separate Muslim state in the subcontinent. As JI Ameer (leader) he opposed the leaders of the Muslim League who sought an independent Muslim-majority state—to be named Pakistan—but did not have an Islamic outlook. He believed that

"An Islamic state is a Muslim state, but a Muslim state may not be an Islamic state unless and until the Constitution of the state is based on The Holy Qur'an and Sunnah."

After founding of Pakistan[edit]

With the Partition of India in 1947, the JI was split to follow the political boundaries of new countries carved out of British India. The organisation headed by Maududi became known as Jamaat-i-Islami Pakistan, and the remnant of JI in India as the Jamaat-e-Islami Hind. Later JI parties were the Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami, and autonomous groups in Indian Kashmir.[31]

With the founding of Pakistan, Maududi's career underwent a "fundamental change", being drawn more and more into politics, and spending less time on ideological and scholarly pursuits.[32] Although his Jamaat-i Islami party never developed a mass following, it and Maududi did develop significant political influence. It played a "prominent part" in the agitation which brought down President Ayub Khan in 1969 and in the overthrow of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1977.[33] Maududi and the JI were especially influential in the early years of General Zia ul-Haq's rule.

His political activity, particularly in support of the creation of an Islamic state clashed with the government, (dominated for many years by a secular political class), and resulted in several arrests and periods of incarceration. The first was in 1948 when he and several other JI leaders were jailed after Maududi objected to the government's clandestine sponsorship of jihad in Kashmir while professing to observe a ceasefire with India.[34]

In 1951[35] and again in 1956-7,[36] the compromises involved in electoral politics led to a split in the party over what some members felt were a lowering of JI's moral standards. In 1951, the JI shura passed a resolution in support of the party withdrawing from politics,[35] while Maududi argued for continued involvement. Maududi prevailed at an open party meeting in 1951, and several senior JI leaders resigned in protest, further strengthened Maududi's position and beginning the growth of a "cult of personality" around him."[35] In 1957 Maududi again overruled the vote of the shura to withdraw from electoral politics.[36]

In 1953, he and the JI participated in a campaign against the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan. Anti-Ahmadi groups argued that the Ahmadiyya did not embrace Muhammad as the last and greatest prophet (khatam-e-nubuwwat). Maududi as well as the traditionalist ulama of Pakistan wanted Ahmadi designated as non-Muslims, Ahmadis such as Muhammad Zafarullah Khan sacked from all high level government positions, and intermarriage between Ahmadis and other Muslims prohibited.[37] The campaign generated riots in Lahore, leading to the deaths of at least 200 Ahmadis, and selective declaration of martial law.[31]

Maududi was arrested by the military deployment headed by Lieutenant General Azam Khan and sentenced to death for his part in the agitation.[33] However, the anti-Ahmadi campaign enjoyed much popular support,[38] and strong public pressure ultimately convinced the government to release him after two years of imprisonment.[33][39] Maududi's unapologetic and impassive stance after being sentenced, ignoring advise to ask for clemency, had an "immense" affect on his supporters.[40] It was seen as a "victory of Islam over un-Islam", proof of his leadership and staunch faith.[40]

The campaign shifted the focus of national politics towards Islamicity.[41] The 1956 Constitution was adopted after accommodating many of the demands of the JI. Maududi endorsed the constitution and claimed it a victory for Islam.[41]

However following a coup by General Ayub Khan, the constitution was shelved and Maududi and his party were politically repressed, Maududi being imprisoned in 1964 and again in 1967. The JI joined an opposition alliance with secular parties, compromising with doctrine to support a woman candidate (Fatima Jinnah) for president against Khan in 1965.[41] In the December 1970 general election, Maududi toured the country as a "leader in waiting"[42] and JI spent considerable energy and resources fielding 151 candidates. Despite this, the party won only four seats in the national assembly and four in the provincial assemblies.[42]

The loss led Maududi to withdraw from political activism in 1971 and return to scholarship.[43] In 1972 he resigned as JI's Ameer (leader) for reasons of health.[31] However it was shortly thereafter that Islamism gathered steam in Pakistan in the form of the Nizam-i-Mustafa (Order of the Prophet) movement, an alliance of conservative political groups united against Zulfikar Ali Bhutto which the JI gave shape to and which bolstered its standing.[33][44]

In 1977, Maududi "returned to the center stage". When Bhutto attempted to defuse tensions on April 16, 1977, he came to Maududi's house for consultations.[44] When General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq overthrew Bhutto and came to power in 1977, he "accorded Mawdudi the status of a senior statesman, sought his advice, and allowed his words to adorn the front pages of the newspapers. Maududi proved receptive to Zia's overtures and supported his decision to execute Bhutto."[44] Despite some doctrinal difference (Maududi wanted sharia by education rather than by state fiat[45]), Maududi enthusiastically supported Zia and his program of Islamization or "Sharization".[33]

Beliefs and ideology[edit]

Maududi poured his energy into books, pamphlets and more than 1000 speeches and press statements, laying the ground work for making Pakistan an Islamic state, but also dealing with a variety of issues of interest in Pakistan and the Muslim world.[3] He sought to be a Mujaddid, "renewing" (tajdid) the religion. This role had great responsibility as he believed a Mujaddid "on the whole, has to undertake and perform the same kind of work as is accomplished by a Prophet."[46] While earlier mujaddids had renewed religion he wanted also "to propagate true Islam, the absence of which accounted for the failure of earlier efforts at tajdid."[47] [48][49]

According to at least one biographer (Vali Nasr), Maududi and the JI moved away from some of their more controversial doctrinal ideas (e.g. criticism of Sufism or the Ulama) and closer to orthodox Islam over the course of his career, in order to "expand"the "base of support" of Jama'at-e Islami.[50]

Qur'an[edit]

Maududi believed that the Quran was not just religious literature to be "recited, pondered, or investigated for hidden truths" according to Vali Nasr, but a "socio-religious institution",[51] a work to be accepted "at face value" and obeyed.[52] By implementing its prescriptions the ills of societies would solved.[52] It pitted truth and bravery against ignorance, falsehood and evil.[53]

"The Qur'an is ... a Book which contains a message, an invitation, which generates a movement. The moment it began to be sent down, it impelled a quiet and pious man to ... raise his voice against falsehood, and pitted him in a grim struggle against the lords of disbelief, evil and iniquity. ... it drew every pure and noble soul, and gathered them under the banner of truth. In every part of the country, it made all the mischievous and the corrupt to rise and wage war against the bearers of the truth."[54]

In his tafsir (Quranic interpretation) Tafhimu'l-Qur'an, he introduced the four interrelated concepts he believed essential to understanding the Quran: ilah (divinity), rabb (lord), `ibadah (worship, meaning not the cherishing or praising of God but acting out absolute obedience to Him[55]), and din (religion).[51]

Islam[edit]

Maududi saw Muslims not simply as those who followed the religion of Islam, but as (almost) everything, because obedience to divine law is what defines a Muslim: "Everything in the universe is 'Muslim' for it obeys Allah by submission to His laws."[56] The laws of the physical universe -- that the heaven is above earth, that night follows day, etc. -- were as much a part of sharia as banning consumption of alcohol and interest on debts. Thus it followed that stars, planets, oceans, rocks, atoms, etc. should actually be considered "Muslims" since they obey their creator's laws.[56] Rather than Muslims being a minority among humans, one religious group among many, it is non-Muslims who are a small minority among everything in the universe. Of all creatures only humans (and jinn) are endowed with free will, and only non-Muslim humans (and jinn) choose to use that will to disobey the laws of their creator.[56]

But in rejecting Islam (Maududi believed) the non-Muslim struggled against truth:

“His very tongue which, on account of his ignorance advocates the denial of God or professes multiple deities, is in its very nature 'Muslim' ... The man who denies God is called Kafir (concealer) because he conceals by his disbelief what is inherent in his nature and embalmed in his own soul. His whole body functions in obedience to that instinct… Reality becomes estranged from him and he in the dark".[57]

Since a Muslim is one who obeys divine law, simply having made a shahada (declaration of belief in the oneness of God and the acceptance of Muhammad as God's prophet) or being born into a Muslim family does not make you a Muslim.[58][59] Nor is seeking "knowledge of God" part of the religion of Islam.[60] The Muslim is a "slave of God", and "absolute obedience to God" is a "fundamental right" of God. The Muslim does "not have the right to choose a way of life for himself or assume whatever duties he likes."[61]

Maududi believed that Islam covered all aspects of life.

"Islam is not a ‘religion’ in the sense this term is commonly understood. It is a system encompassing all fields of living. Islam means politics, economics, legislation, science, humanism, health, psychology and sociology. It is a system which makes no discrimination on the basis of race, color, language or other external categories. Its appeal is to all mankind. It wants to reach the heart of every human being."[62]

Of all these aspects of Islam, Maududi was primarily interested in culture[6]—preserving Islamic dress, language and customs,[63] from (what he believed were) the dangers of women's emancipation, secularism, nationalism, etc.[6] It was also important to separate the realm of Islam from non-Islam—to form "boundaries" around Islam.[64][65][66] It would also be proven scientifically (Maududi believed) that Islam would "eventually ... emerge as the World-Religion to cure Man of all his maladies."[67][68]

But what many Muslims, including many Ulama, considered Islam, Maududi did not. Maudid complained that `not more than 0.001%` of Muslim knew what Islam actually was.[55][69] Maududi not only idealized the first years of Muslim society (Muhammad and the "rightly guided" Caliphs[70]) but considered what came after to be un-Islamic or jahiliya—with the exception of brief religious revivals.[71] Muslim philosophy, literature, arts, mysticism were syncretic and impure, diverting attention from the divine.[72][73]

Hadith[edit]

Maududi had a unique perspective on the transmission of hadith—the doings and sayings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, that form part of the basis of Islamic law. Rather than basing judgement of the quality of a hadith on the number and reliability of the chain of transmission (known as isnad, Hadith where passed on orally before being written down) and the judgments of "generations of muhaddithin" (hadith scholars), Maududi believed in his intuition, and that "with extensive study and practice one can develop a power and can intuitively sense the wishes and desires of the Holy Prophet ... Thus ... on seeing a Hadith, I can tell whether the Holy Prophet could or could not have said it."[74][75]

Women[edit]

Maududi preached that the duty of women is to manage the household, bring up children and provide them and her husband with "the greatest possible comfort and contentment".[76] Maududi supported the complete veiling and segregation of women as practiced in most of Muslim India of his time. Women, he believed, should remain in their homes except when absolutely necessary. The only room for argument he saw in the matter of veiling/hijab was "whether the hands and the face" of women "were to be covered or left uncovered."[77][78] On this question Maududi came down on the side of the complete covering of women's faces whenever they left their homes.[77]

Concerning the separation of the genders, he preached that men should avoid looking at women other than their wives, mothers, sisters, etc. (mahram), much less trying to make their acquaintance.[79] He opposed birth control and family planning as a "rebellion against the laws of nature",[80] and unnecessary because population growth led to economic development.[77]

Maududi opposed allowing women to be either a head of state or a legislator, since "according to Islam, active politics and administration are not the field of activity of the womenfolk."[81] They would be allowed to elect their own all-woman legislature which the men's legislature should consult on all matters concerning women's welfare. Their legislature would also have "the full right to criticize matters relating to the general welfare of the country," though not to vote on them.[81]

Economics[edit]

Although Maududi was primarily interested in cultural issues rather than socioeconomic ones,[41] as a complete system, Islam included an economic program, which would strike a balance between the harshness of capitalism, and the restriction on property rights of socialism. It would embodying all of the virtues of the two inferior systems, and none of their shortcomings.[82] At the same time, Islamic economics would not be some kind of mixed economy/social democratic compromise, but a distinct and superior system.[82] He believed that economic exploitation or poverty were not brought about by private wealth and property, but by the lack of "virtue and public welfare" among the wealthy, which in turn was brought about by the lack of adherence to sharia law.[83] In an Islamic society, greed, selfishness and dishonesty would be replaced by virtue, eliminating the need for the state to make any significant intervention in the economy.[84]

Before the economy (like the government, and other parts of society) could be Islamized, an Islamic revolution-through-education would have to take place to develop this virtue and create support for total sharia law.[84] This put Maududi at a political disadvantage with populist and socialist programs because his solution was "neither immediate nor tangible".[85]

Of all the Islamic laws dealing with property and money (payment of zakat and other Islamic taxes, etc.), Maududi emphasised the elimination of interest on loans (riba. (According to one scholar, because in British India Hindus dominated the money lending trade.)[84]

Socialism and populism[edit]

Unlike Islamists like Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Maududi had a visceral antipathy to socialism,[85] which he spent much time denouncing as "godless" as well as being unnecessary and redundant in the face of the Islamic state.[85] A staunch defender of the rights of property he warned workers and peasants that "You must never take the exaggerated view of your rights which the protagonists of class war present before you."[85][86] He also did not believe in intervention in the economy to provide universal employment.

Islam does not make it binding on society to provide employment for each and every one of its citizens, since this responsibility cannot be accepted without thorough nationalisation of the country's resources.[84][87]

Maududi held to this position despite the popularity of populism among many Pakistanis,[85] and despite the poverty and vast gap between rich and poor in Pakistan (which is often described an "feudal" (jagirdari) in its large landholdings and rural poverty). Maududi openly opposed land reform proposals for Punjab by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in the 1950s, going so far as to justify feudalism by pointing to Islam's protection of property rights.[88] He later softened his views, extolling economic justice and equity (but not egalitarianism),[89] but cautioned the government against tampering with "lawful Jagirdari",[88] and continuing to emphasise the sanctity of private property.[89]

Islamic Modernism[edit]

Maududi believed that Islam supported modernization but not Westernization.[90] He agreed with Islamic Modernists that Islam contained nothing contrary to reason, and that it was superior in rational terms to all other religious systems. He disagreed with their practice of examining the Quran and the Sunnah using reason as the standard, instead of starting from the proposition that `true reason is Islamic` and accepting the Book and the Sunnah, rather than reason, as the final authority. [91]

He also took a narrow view of ijtihad, limiting the authority to use it to those with thorough grounding in Islamic sciences, faith in the sharia, and then only to serve the needs of his vision of an Islamic state.[92]

At the same time, at least one scholar (Maryam Jameelah) have noted the extensive use of modern, non-traditionally Islamic ideas and "Western idioms and concepts" in Maududi's thought.

Islam was a "revolutionary ideology" and a "dynamic movement", the Jama'at-e-Islami, was a "party", the Shari'ah a complete "code" in Islam's "total scheme of life." His enthusiasm for [Western idioms and concepts] was infectious among those who admired him, encouraging them to implement in Pakistan all his "manifestos", "programmes" and "schemes'", to usher in a true Islamic "renaissance".[63][93]

Mughal Empire[edit]

Abul A'la Maududi, condemned the religious ideas of Mughal Emperor Akbar (controversially known as the Din-e Ilahi, or "Religion of God") as a form of apostasy. (Contemporary scholars such as S. M. Ikram argue that Akbar's true intentions were to create an iradat or muridi (discipleship) and not a new religion.[94]

Secularism[edit]

Maududi did not see secularism as a way for the state/government to dampen tensions and divisions in multi-religious societies by remaining religiously neutral and avoid choosing sides. Rather, he believed, it removed religion from society (he translated secularism into Urdu as la din, literally "religionless"[95]). Since (he believed) all morality came from religion, this would necessarily mean "the exclusion of all morality, ethics, or human decency from the controlling mechanisms of society."[96] It was to avoid the "restraints of morality and divine guidance", and not out of pragmatism or some higher motive, that some espoused secularism.[97]

Science[edit]

Maududi believed "modern science was a `body` that could accommodate any `spirit`—philosophy or value system—just as radio could broadcast Islami or Western messages with equal facility."[98]

Nationalism[edit]

Maududi strongly opposed the concept of nationalism, believing it to be shirk (polytheism),[99][100] and "a Western concept which divided the Muslim world and thus prolonged the supremacy of Western imperialist powers".[101] After Pakistan was formed, Maududi and the JI forbade Pakistanis to take an oath of allegiance to the state until it became Islamic, arguing that a Muslim could in clear conscience render allegiance only to God.[34][102]

Ulama[edit]

Maududi also criticized traditionalist clergy or ulama for their "moribund" scholastic style, "servile" political attitudes, and "ignorance" of the modern world".[103] He believed traditional scholars were unable to distinguish the fundamentals of Islam from the details of its application, built up in elaborate structures of medieval legal schools of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). To rid Islam of these obscure laws Muslims should return to the Quran and Sunna, ignoring judgments made after the reign of the first four "rightfully guided" caliphs (al-Khulafāʾu ar-Rāshidūn) of Islam.[104]

Maududi also believed there would be little need for the traditional roll of ulama as "leaders, judges, and guardians of the community", in a "reformed and rationalized Islamic order" where those trained in modern as well as traditional subjects would practice ijtihad and where Muslims were educated properly in Arabic, the Quran, Hadith, etc.[103]

However, over time Maududi became more orthodox in his attitudes,[105] including toward the ulama, and at times allied himself and his party with them after the formation of Pakistan.[106]

Sufism and popular Islam[edit]

Like other contemporary revivalists, Maududi was critical of Sufism and its historical influence.[107][108][109] But he also went on record denying any antagonism toward Sufism by himself or the Jama'at.[110][111] (According to at least one biographer, this change in position was a result of the importance of Sufism in Pakistan not only among the Muslim masses but the ulama as well.[112]) At that time, Maududi distinguished between the Sufism of Shaikhs like `Alau'ddin Shah (which he approved of) and the shrines, festivals, and rituals of popular Sufism (which he did not).[110] He also "redefined" Sufism, describing it not in the traditional sense as the form and spirit of an "esoteric dimension" of Islam, but as the way to measure "concentration" and "morals" in religion, saying: "For example, when we say our prayers, Fiqh will judge us only by fulfillment of the outward requirements such as ablution, facing toward the Ka'ba ... while Tasawwuf (Sufism) will judge our prayers by our concentration ... the effect of our prayers on our morals and manners."[110][113] From the mid-1960s onward, "redefinition" of Islam "increasingly gave way to outright recognition of Sufism," and after Maududi's death the JI amir Qazi Hussain Ahmad went so far as to visit the Sufi Data Durbar shrine in Lahore in 1987 as part of a tour to generate mass support for JI.[50]

Sharia[edit]

Maududi believed that sharia was not just a crucial command that helped define what it meant to be a Muslim, but something without which a Muslim society could not be Islamic:

That if an Islamic society consciously resolves not to accept the sharia, and decides to enact its own constitution and laws or borrow them from any other source in disregard of the sharia, such a society breaks its contract with God and forfeits its right to be called 'Islamic.'"[114]

Many unbelievers agreed that God was the creator, what made them unbelievers was their failure to submit to his will, i.e. to God's law. Obedience to God's law or will was "the historical controversy that Islam has awakened" throughout the world. It brought not only heavenly reward, but earthly blessing. Failure to obey, or "rebellion" against it, brought not only eternal punishment, but evil and misery here on earth.[56]

The source of sharia, was to be found not only in the Quran but also in the Sunnah (the doings and sayings of the Islamic prophet Muhammad), since the Quran proclaimed "Whoever obeys the messenger [i.e. Muhammad] obeys Allah."[Quran 4:80][115] Sharia was perhaps most famous for calling for the abolition of interest-bearing banks, hadd penalties such as flogging and amputation for alcohol consumption, theft, fornication, adultery and other crimes.[37] Hadd penalties have been criticized by Westernized Muslims as cruel and in violation of international human rights but Maududi argued that any cruelty was far outweighed by the cruelty in the West that resulted from the absence of these punishments,[116][117][118] and in any case would not be applied until Muslims fully understood the teachings of their faith and lived in an Islamic state.[116]

But in fact sharia was much more than these laws. It recognizes no division between religion and other aspects of life, in Maududi's view,[81][119] and there was no area of human activity or concern which the sharia did not address with specific divine guidance.[120]

Family relationships, social and economic affairs, administration, rights and duties of citizens, judicial system, laws of war and peace and international relations. In short it embraces all the various departments of life ... The sharia is a complete scheme of life and an all-embracing social order where nothing is superfluous and nothing lacking.[121][122]

A "very large part" of sharia required "the coercive power and authority of the state" for its enforcement.[123] Consequently, while a state based on Islam has a legislature which the ruler must consult, its function "is really that of law-finding, not of law-making."[124]

At the same time, Maududi states ("somewhat astonishingly" according to one scholar[125]) "there is yet another vast range of human affairs about which sharia is totally silent" and which an Islamic state may write "independent" legislation.[125]

According to scholar Vali Nasr, Maududi believed that the sharia needed to be "streamlined, reinterpreted, and expanded" to "address questions of governance to the extent required for a state to function." For example, sharia needed to "make clear the relation between the various branches of government".[126]

Islamic Revolution[edit]

Though the phrase "Islamic Revolution" is commonly associated with the 1979 Iranian Revolution,[127] (or General Zia's Islamisation[128]), Maududi coined and popularized it in the 1940s. The process Maududi envisioned—changing the hearts and minds of individuals from the top of society downward through an educational process or da'wah[129]—was very different than what happened in Iran, or under Zia ul-Haq. Maududi talked of Islam being "a revolutionary ideology and a revolutionary practice which aims at destroying the social order of the world totally and rebuilding it from scratch",[130][131][132] but opposed sudden change, violent or unconstitutional action, and was uninterested in grassroots organizing or socio-economic changes.

His "revolution" would be achieved "step-by-step"[133][134] with "patience",[135] since "the more sudden a change, the more short-lived it is."[136] He warned against the emotionalism of "demonstrations or agitations, ... flag waving, slogans ... impassioned speeches ... or the like",[137] He believed that "societies are built, structured, and controlled from the top down by conscious manipulation of those in power,"[138] not by grassroots movements. The revolution would be carried out by training a cadre of pious and dedicated men who would lead and then protect the Islamic revolutionary process.[129] To facilitate this far-reaching program of cultural change, his party "invested heavily" in producing and disseminating publications.[128]

Maududi was committed to non-violent legal politics "even if the current methods of struggle takes a century to bear fruit."[139] In 1957 he outlined a new Jama'at policy declaring that "transformation of the political order through unconstitutional means" was against sharia law.[140] Even when he and his party were repressed by the Ayub Khan or People's Party (in 1972) governments, Maududi kept his party from clandestine activity.[141] It was not until he retired as emir of JI that JI and Jam'iat-e Tulabah "became more routinely involved in violence."[89]

The objective of the revolution was to be justice (`adl) and benevolence (ihsan), but the injustice and wrong to be overcome that he focused on was immorality (fahsha`) and forbidden behavior (munkarat).[139] Maududi was interested in ethical changes, rather than socio-economic changes of the sort that drive most historical revolutions and revolutionary movements. He did not support these (for example, opposing land reform in the 1950s as an encroachment on property rights[88]) and believed the problems they addressed would be solved by the Islamic state established by the revolution.

All this left at least one commentator, (Vali Nasr), to wonder if Maudidi had any actual interest in "revolution" (or "ideology"), or saw them simply as buzzwords necessary to indicate commitment to "progress, justice, and political idealism" in the anti-colonialist political milieu of 20th century South Asia.[142]

Islamic state[edit]

Further information: Islamic state

The modern conceptualization of the "Islamic state" is also attributed to Maududi.[127] This term was coined and popularized in his book, The Islamic Law and Constitution (1941),[143] and in subsequent writings.[127]

Maududi's Islamic state is both ideological and all-embracing,[144] based on "Islamic Democracy,"[145] and will eventually "rule the earth".[146] In 1955 he described it as a "God-worshipping democratic Caliphate, founded on the guidance vouchsafed to us through Muhammad."[147][148] Ultimately though, Islam was more important and the state would be judged by its adherence to din (religion and the Islamic system) and not democracy.[149]

Unlike the Islamic state of Ayatollah Khomeini, it would not establish and enforce Islamisation, but follow the Islamisation of society. As Maududi became involved in politics, this vision was "relegated to a distant utopia".[150][151]

Three principles underlying it: tawhid (oneness of God), risala (prophethood) and khilafa (caliphate).[152][153][154][155] The "sphere of activity" covered by the Islamic state would be "co-extensive with human life ... In such a state no one can regard any field of his affairs as personal and private."[156]

The Islamic state recognizes the sovereignty of God, which meant God was the source of all law.[157] The Islamic state acts as the vicegerent or agent of God on earth[Quran 24:55][115] and enforces Islamic law, which as mentioned above is both all-embracing and "totally silent" on a "vast range of human affairs".[125] While the government follows the sharia law, when it comes to a question about which no explicit injunction is to be found in the sharia, the matter is "settled by consensus among the Muslims."[158][159]

The state can be called a caliphate, but the "caliph" would not be the traditional descendant of the Quraysh tribe[160] but (Maududi believed) the entire Muslim community, a "popular vicegerency".[115] (Although there would also be an individual leader chosen by the Muslim community.) Thus the state would be not a "theocracy", but a "theodemocracy".[159] Maududi believed that the sovereignty of God (hakimiya) and the sovereignty of the people are mutually exclusive.[161] Sovereignty of human beings is simply the domination of man by man, the source of most human misery and calamity.[162] Governance based on sovereignty other than that of God's does not just lead to inferior governance and "injustice and maladministration", but "evil."[163]

Therefore, while Maududi used the term democracy to describe his state,[164][165] (in part to appeal to Westernized Muslim intellectuals),[166] his "Islamic democracy" was to be the antithesis of secular Western democracy which transfers hakimiya (God's sovereignty) to the people,[167] who may pass laws without regard for God's commands.

The Islamic state would conduct its affairs by mutual consultation (shura) among all Muslims.[159] The means of consultation should suit the conditions of the particular time and place but must be free and impartial. While the government follows the sharia law, when it comes to a question about which no explicit injunction is to be found in the sharia, the matter is "settled by consensus among the Muslims."[158][159] Maududi favored giving the state exclusive right to the power of declaring jihad and ijtihad (establishing an Islamic law through "independent reasoning"), traditionally the domain of the ulama.[168]

Rights

While no aspect of life was to be considered "personal and private"[156] and the danger of foreign influence and conspiracies was ever present, (nationalism, for example, was "a Western concept which divided the Muslim world and thus prolonged the supremacy of Western imperialist powers"[101]), there would also be personal freedom and no suspicion of government. Maududi's time spent in jail as a political prisoner led him to have a personal interest in individual rights, due process of law, and freedom of political expression.[150] Maududi stated:

This espionage on the life of the individual cannot be justified on moral grounds by the government saying that it is necessary to know the secrets of the dangerous persons. ... This is exactly what Islam has called as the root cause of mischief in politics. The injunction of the Prophet is: "When the ruler begins to search for the causes of dissatisfaction amongst his people, he spoils them" (Abu Dawud).[169]

However, the basic human right in Islamic law was to demand an Islamic order and to live in it. Not included were any rights to differ with its rulers and defy its authority.[170]

Islamic Constitution

According to Maududi, Islam had an "unwritten constitution" that needed "to be transformed into a written one".[36][171] The constitution would not be the sharia (or the Quran, as Saudi Arabia's constitution is alleged to be) but a religious document based on "conventions" of the "rightly guided caliphs", and the "canonized verdicts of recognized jurists" (i.e. the sharia) as well as the Quran and hadith.[126]

Model of government

In expanding on what the government of an Islamic state should look like in his book The Islamic Law and Constitution, Maududi took as his model the government of Muhammad and the first four caliphs (al-Khulafāʾu ar-Rāshidūn). The head of state should be the supreme head of legislature, executive and judiciary alike, but under him these three organs should function "separately and independently of one another." This head of state should be elected and must enjoy the country's confidence, but he is not limited to terms in office.[172] No one is allowed to nominate him for the office, nor to engage in electioneering or run for office, according to another source.[168] Because "more than one correct position" could not exist, "pluralism", i.e. competition between political views/parties, would not be allowed,[168][173] and there would be only one party.[174]

On the other hand, Maududi believed the state had no need to govern in the Western sense of the term, since the government and citizenry would abide by the same "infallible and inviolable divine law", power would not corrupt and no one would feel oppressed. Power and resources would be distributed fairly. There would be no grievances, no mass mobilizations, demands for political participation, or any other of the turmoil of non-Islamic governance.[175] Since the prophet had told early Muslims "My community will never agree on an error", there was no need for establishing concrete procedures and mechanisms for popular consultation.[176][177]

Since the state would be defined by its ideology—not by boundaries or ethnicity—its raison d'etre and protector would be ideology, the purity of which must be protected against any efforts to subvert it.[178] Naturally it must be controlled and run exclusively by Muslims,[179][180] and not just any Muslims but only "those who believe in the ideology on which it is based and in the Divine Law which it is assigned to administer".[181][182]

The state's legislature "should consist of a body of such learned men who have the ability and the capacity to interpret Quranic injunctions and who in giving decisions, would not take liberties with the spirit or the letter of the sharia". Their legislation would be based on the practice of ijtihad[151] (a source of Islamic law, relying on careful analogical reasoning, using both the Qu'ran and Hadith, to find a solution to a legal problem), making it more a legal organ than a political one.[151] They must also be "persons who enjoy the confidence of the masses". They may be chosen by "the modern system of elections", or by some other method which is appropriate to "the circumstances and needs of modern times."[172] Since upright character is essential for office holders and desire for office represents greed and ambition, anyone actively seeking an office of leadership would be automatically disqualified.[183]

Non-Muslims or women may not be a head of state but could vote for separate legislators.[184][185]

Originally Maududi envisioned a legislature only as a consultative body, but later proposed using a referendum to deal with possible conflicts between the head of state and the legislature, with the loser of the referendum resigning.[186] Another later rule was allowing the formation of parties and factions during elections of representatives but not within the legislature.[172]

In the judiciary, Maududi originally proposed the inquisitional system where judges implement law without discussion or interference by lawyers, which he saw as un-Islamic. After his party was "rescued" from government repression by the Pakistani judiciary he changed his mind, supporting autonomy of the judiciary and accepting the adversarial system and right of appeal.[187]

Uselessness of Western democracy[edit]

Secular Western representative democracy—despite its free elections and civil rights—is a failure (Maududi believed) for two reasons. Because secular society has "divorced" politics and religion (Maududi believed), its leaders have "ceased to attach much or any importance to morality and ethics" and so ignore their constituents interests and the common good. Furthermore, without Islam "the common people are incapable of perceiving their own true interests". An example being the Prohibition law in the United States, where despite the fact that "it had been rationally and logically established that drinking is injurious to health, produces deleterious disorder in human society" (Maududi states), the law banning alcohol consumption was repealed by the American Congress. [188]

Non-Muslims[edit]

Maududi believed that copying cultural practices of non-Muslims was forbidden in Islam, having

very disastrous consequences upon a nation; it destroys its inner vitality, blurs its vision, befogs its critical faculties, breeds inferiority complexes, and gradually but assuredly saps all the springs of culture and sounds its death-knell. That is why the Holy Prophet has positively and forcefully forbidden the Muslims to assume the culture and mode of life of the non-Muslims.[189]

He was appalled at (what he saw as) the

satanic flood of female liberty and licence which threatens to destroy human civilisation in the West.[190]

Maududi strongly opposed the small Ahmadiyya sect, a Muslim sect which Maududi and many other Muslims do not consider as Muslim. He preached against Ahmadiyya in his pamphlet The Qadiani Question and the book The Finality of Prophethood.[191]

Under the Islamic state

The rights of non-Muslims are limited under Islamic state as laid out in Maududi's writings. Although non-Muslim "faith, ideology, rituals of worship or social customs" would not be interfered with, non-Muslims would have to accept Muslim rule.

Islamic 'jihad' does not recognize their right to administer state affairs according to a system which, in the view of Islam, is evil. Furthermore, Islamic 'jihad' also refuses to admit their right to continue with such practices under an Islamic government which fatally affect the public interest from the viewpoint of Islam."[192]

Non-Muslim would be eligible for "all kinds of employment", but must be "rigorously excluded from influencing policy decisions"[193][194] and so not hold "key posts" in government and elsewhere.[195] They would not have the right to vote in presidential elections or in elections of Muslim representatives. This is to ensure that "the basic policy of this ideological state remains in conformity with the fundamentals of Islam." An Islamic Republic may however allow non-Muslims to elect their own representatives to parliament, voting as separate electorates (as in the Islamic Republic of Iran).[196] While some might see this as discrimination, Islam has been the most just, the most tolerant and the most generous of all political systems in its treatment of minorities, according to Maududi.[197]

Non-Muslims would also have to pay a traditional special tax known as jizya. Under Maududi's Islamic state, this tax would be applicable to all able-bodied non-Muslim men—elderly, children and women being exempt—in return from their exemption from military service, (which all adult Muslim men would be subject to).[198] Those who serve in the military are exempted. Non-Muslims would also be barred from holding certain high level offices in the Islamic state.[37] Jizya is thus seen as a tax paid in return for protection from foreign invasion,[199] but also as a symbol of Islamic sovereignty.

... Jews and the Christians ...should be forced to pay Jizya in order to put an end to their independence and supremacy so that they should not remain rulers and sovereigns in the land. These powers should be wrested from them by the followers of the true Faith, who should assume the sovereignty and lead others towards the Right Way.[200]

Jihad[edit]

Maududi's first work to come to public attention was Al Jihad fil-lslam ("Jihad in Islam"), which was serialized in a newspaper in 1927, when he was only twenty-four.[201] In it he maintained that because Islam is all-encompassing, the Islamic state was for all the world and should not be limited to just the "homeland of Islam". Jihad should be used to eliminate un-Islamic rule and establish the worldwide Islamic state:

Islam wishes to destroy all states and governments anywhere on the face of the earth which are opposed to the ideology and programme of Islam, regardless of the country or the nation which rules it. The purpose of Islam is to set up a state on the basis of its own ideology and programme, regardless of which nation assumes the role of the standard-bearer of Islam or the rule of which nation is undermined in the process of the establishment of an ideological Islamic State. Islam requires the earth—not just a portion, but the whole planet .... because the entire mankind should benefit from the ideology and welfare programme [of Islam] ... Towards this end, Islam wishes to press into service all forces which can bring about a revolution and a composite term for the use of all these forces is ‘Jihad’. .... the objective of the Islamic ‘ jihād’ is to eliminate the rule of an un-Islamic system and establish in its stead an Islamic system of state rule.[202]

Maududi taught that the destruction of the lives and property of others was lamentable (part of the great sacrifice of jihad), but that Muslims must follow the Islamic principle that it is better to "suffer a lesser loss to save ourselves from a greater loss". Though in jihad "thousands" of lives may be lost, this cannot compare "to the calamity that may befall mankind as a result of the victory of evil over good and of aggressive atheism over the religion of God." [203]

He explained that jihad was not only combat for God but any effort that helped those waging combat (qitaal), including non-violent work:

“In the jihad in the way of Allah, active combat is not always the role on the battlefield, nor can everyone fight in the front line. Just for one single battle preparations have often to be made for decades on end and the plans deeply laid, and while only some thousands fight in the front line there are behind them millions engaged in various tasks which, though small themselves, contribute directly to the supreme effort.”[204]

At the same time he took a more conservative line on jihad than other revivalist thinkers (such as Ayatollah Khomeini and Sayyid Qutb). In general, he argued that jihad should not denote "a crazed faith .. blood-shot eyes, shouting Allahu akbar, decapitating an unbeliever wherever they see one, cutting off heads while invoking La ilaha illa-llah [there is no god but God]". During a cease-fire with India (in 1948), he opposed the waging of jihad in Kashmir, stating that Jihad could be proclaimed only by Muslim governments, not by religious leaders.[88]

Criticism of the Mughal Empire[edit]

Abul A'la Maududi, referred to the Mughal Emperor Akbar's reforms (controversially known as the Din-e Ilahi) as a form of apostasy. Although contemporary scholars such as S. M. Ikram proved that Akbar's true intentions were to create an iradat or muridi (discipleship) and not a new religion.[205]

Criticism and controversy[edit]

Political[edit]

While seen by supporters as an "intellectual pioneer who affirmed true Islamic values and ... sought to actualize the idea of an Islamic state and society", opponents have criticized him as a "self-promoting" preacher of a "restrictive interpretation of Islam," that "threatened the pluralistic fabric of Pakistani civil society."[206] His opposition to Pakistan founder Muhammed Ali Jinnah and "every government of Pakistan -- save" that of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's[206]—made him a "dubious patriot", according to these critics.[101][206][207]

His Jama'ati party was applauded for the time and resources it spent on educational and social welfare projects. However its methods of recruitment involved a membership initiation of pledging allegiance to the organization rather than to Pakistan and its constitution. This gave it a "cult-like reputation" and led to accusations by critics of "brainwashing" its supporters/members.[33]

Maududi’s philosophy has been alleged to have encouraged "self-righteous coercion, political intrigues and violence" (according to Nadeem F. Paracha)[208]

  • in the 1953 and 1974 violence against the small Ahmadiyya minority,
  • in the introduction of the violent ‘Kalashnikov Culture’ to Pakistan's college campuses in the 1980s by his party's student wing, the Islami Jamiat-e-Taleba (IJT).[208]

Because of his party's actions in the Bangladesh War of Independence, in 2010 his books were banned in Bangladesh, including in the 24,000 mosque libraries across the country. According to the Bangladesh Islamic Foundation director-general Shamim Mohammad Afjal, “his writings are against the peaceful ideology of Islam."[209]

Interpretation of Islam and the "Islamic State"[edit]

At least one critic (Charles Adams) argues that Maududi was "feared" and "disliked" by many Pakistanis because of the "rigidity" and "authoritarianism" his of view of Islam as a "vast monolithic ... integrated system" that Muslims must accept "in its entirety or not at all".[210]

A general complaint of one critic (Youssef M. Choueiri) is that Maududi's theo-democracy is an

ideological state in which legislators do not legislate, citizens only vote to reaffirm the permanent applicability of God's laws, women rarely venture outside their homes lest social discipline be disrupted, and non-Muslims are tolerated as foreign elements required to express their loyalty by means of paying a financial levy.[211][212]

Charles Adams criticized Maududi as overly concerned with theoretical principles,[213] having a "utopian" belief in the power of virtue to tame the corruption and temptations of power,[214] and to solve whatever problems beset a society.[215] Adams complained that Maududi never "enters into a detailed discussion of the precise limits of freedom in the Islamic state or explain how a state may both control everything and yet be limited in its power in certain respects." [179] While God's sovereignty is in the hands of the Muslim people in his theory, his plan for an Islamic state puts the power in the hands of the ruler. Maududi never provided an explanation as to how this would prevent the development of tyranny he sees in secular government.[213] When his ideas were criticized for failure to solve the real day-to-day problems of building a functional government, he would reply by defending "the truth of Islam", implying his (Muslim) critics were criticizing Islam.[216]

Adams also finds the "closeness and lack of friction" between ruler and legislature that Maududi envisioned in his state unrealistic. Ruler and legislature would be in agreement, and there would be no opposition to the ruler so long as he "did what was right", while "the entire parliament" would become the opposition party if the ruler deviated from the straight path.[214] Maududi himself admitted the visionary and ideal nature of much of his Islamic state. More than once he spoke of characteristics that were "realizable only in the context of an ideal Islamic society which does not now exist."[216]

Adams criticized the power Maududi puts in the virtue and vice, rather than political interests, expertise or other attributes. Whenever injustice and suffering exist in a society it is because the leadership prefers this state of affairs or doesn't care. They will be ended by a good, pious, moral Muslim man implementing sharia law, whatever the physical, social economic or other difficulties of a society.[215]

Scholar Vali Nasr questions Maududi's idea that Muslims have not been following Islam for almost the entirety of Muslim history, but that "the history of Islam would resume, after a fourteen-century interlude", if Muslim follow Maududi's teachings and establish his Islamic state. [217] Nasr also questioned how popular interests or the popular will would be translated into government policy without competition among political representatives for popular support or electioneering/campaigning for votes to connect leaders with concerns of the people.[218]

On a more conceptual level, journalist and author Abdelwahab Meddeb questions the basis of Maududi's reasoning that the sovereignty of the truly Islamic state must be divine and not popular, saying "Maududi constructed a coherent political system, which follows wholly from a manipulation." The manipulation is of the Arabic word hukm, usually defined as to "exercise power as governing, to pronounce a sentence, to judge between two parties, to be knowledgeable (in medicine, in philosophy), to be wise, prudent, of a considered judgment." The Quran contains the phrase `Hukm is God's alone,` thus, according to Maududi, God – in the form of sharia law – must govern. But Meddeb argues that a full reading of the ayah where the phrase appears reveals that it refers to God's superiority over pagan idols, not His role in government.

Those whom you follow outside of Him are nothing but names that you and your fathers have given them. God has granted them no authority. Hukm is God's alone. He has commanded that you follow none but Him. Such is the right religion, but most people do not know. [Quran 12:40]

Quranic "commentators never forget to remind us that this verse is devoted to the powerlessness of the companion deities (pardras) that idolaters raise up next to God…"[219] (Abdel Meddab's view is contradicted by Wahhabi Islamic scholars such as Saleh Al-Fawzan, who writes that: "He who accepts a law other than Allah's ascribes a partner to Allah. Whatever act of worship that is not legislated (hukam) by Allah and His Messenger is Bid‘ah, and every Bid'ah is a means of deviation."[220])

Relations with Ulama[edit]

Maududi and members of his party were sometimes in confrontation with the traditional scholars and sometimes allies. Maududi, worried that Muslim society had fallen into jahiliyya (pre-Islamic ignorance) and saw himself as a mujaddid (renewer of the faith[103][221]). Although trained as an Islamic scholar he did not consider himself a member of the ulama. He believed in simplifying the language and style of religious discourse, so that all educated people had direct access to the Quran and Sunnah "to seek commandments and exemplification," and warned of students of "religious traders" (the ulama) being led "astray".[222][223] In particular Maududi criticized his former colleagues at Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind.[224]

On the other hand, some people of Pakistan considered his focus on politics sectarian,[225] his doctrine lacking orthodoxy, and Maududi himself having "mahdiist pretensions".[226]

Over the years his and Jama'at positions became more traditionalist. At first this was in part to differentiate his ideas and movement from competing Muslim reformist and revivalist movements in British India, where he found himself on the same side as the Ulama in defending the validity of hadith against its critics and those who made unorthodox interpretations of them.[105][227] When JI was founded in 1941, Maududi invited 75 clerics to join. Most ignored or disapproved of his start-up, and only a handful of younger clerics joined. When joining JI, members said the Shahada, the traditional statement of conversion to Islam, implying to some that JI members felt they had been less-than-true Muslims before joining. Maududi's use of the title emir was also controversial.[225]

In the first years after the creation of Pakistan, Maududi and the Ulama found common cause fighting the secular and Islamic Modernist policies of the ruling elites.[106] But it was also subject to critical fatwas for its lack of orthodoxy and by 1952 Maududi and JI were "under attack from all the schools and ulama in India and Pakistan." The campaign "greatly damaged" the JI in Deobandi parts of Pakistan and Jama'at worked hard to refute the charges against it, denying it had departed from orthodoxy, and blaming the Pakistani government.[228] Anti-Maududi fatwa campaigns also erupted in 1963 and 1966.[229] JI started an association of seminary or madrassa students (Jam'iat-i Tulabah-i Arabiyah), its own association of ulama (Jam'iat-i Ittihad-i Ulama) in 1963 and a Ulama Academy in 1976.[230] However, such attacks against Maududi's work haven't affected their widespread influence in the Islamic community, nor did they conflict with the majority of Maududi's views.[citation needed]

Maududi's party had very limited success in uniting religious parties—the other religious parties being affiliated with ulama. In the elections of 1970, the Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan party contested 42 tickets where there was a Jama'at candidate, harming Jama'at's election results, and when the Jama'at's created the Pakistan Islamic Front in 1993, no other religious parties joined.[231]

Mystique, personality, personal life[edit]

As Jama'at amir, he remained in close contact with JI members, conducting informal discussions everyday in his house between Maghrib and Isha'a prayers,[232] although according to some, in later years discussion was replaced by answers to members questions with any rebuttals ignored.[233]

For his votaries in Jama'at Maududi was not only a "revered scholar, politician, and thinker, but a hallowed mujaddid."[4] Adding to his mystic was his survival of assassination attempts, while the Jama'at's enemies (Liaquat Ali Khan, Ghulam Muhammad, Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Ayub Khan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, "fell from grace" or were killed.[5]

He had a powerful command of Urdu language which he insisted on using, in order to "free Muslims minds from the influence of English."[234]

In private he has been described as "strict but not rigid", taciturn, poised, composed, but uncompromising and unyielding.[43] His biographers have talked of his karanat (special gifts) and haybah (great presence)."[5]

His public speaking style has been described as having "great authority". Maududi would make his argument step-by-step with Islamic edicts, rather than attempting to excite his audience with oratory.[233]

Although he did not publicize the fact, Maududi was a practitioner of traditional medicine or unani tibb.[43]

Family and health[edit]

Maududi has been described as close to his wife, but not able to spend much time with his six sons and three daughters due to his commitments to religious dawah and political action. Only one of his offspring, ever joined the JI. And only his second daughter Asma, showed "any scholarly promise".[235]

Maududi suffered from a kidney ailment most of his life. He was often bedridden in 1945 and 1946, and in 1969 was forced to travel to England for treatment.[235]

Late life[edit]

In April 1979, Maududi's long-time kidney ailment worsened and by then he also had heart problems. He went to the United States for treatment and was hospitalized in Buffalo, New York, where his second son worked as a physician. Following a few surgical operations, he died on September 22, 1979, at the age of 76. His funeral was held in Buffalo, but he was buried in an unmarked grave at his residence in Ichhra, Lahore after a very large funeral procession through the city.[39]

Legacy[edit]

Grave of Abul Ala Maududi

Maududi's influence was widespread. In Pakistan, (where the JI claims to be the oldest religious party[31]) it is "hard to exaggerate the importance" of that country's "current drift" toward Maududi's "version of Islam", according to scholar Eran Lerman.[236] His background as a journalist, thinker, scholar and political leader has been has been compared to Indian independence leader Abul Kalam Azad by admiring biographers.[237]

He and his party are thought to have been the most important factors in Pakistan working to generate support for an Islamic state.[8] They are thought to have helped inspire General Zia-ul-Haq to introduce "Sharization" to Pakistan,[9] (Sharia laws decreed by Zia included bans on interest on loans (riba), deduction by the government of 2.5% annual Zakat tax from bank accounts, introduction of Islamic punishments such as stoning and amputation with the 1979 Hudood Ordinances. One policy of Zia's that was originally proposed by Maududi, and not found in classic Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh), was the introduction of separate electorates for non-Muslims (Hindus and Christians) in 1985.[238])

In return Maududi's party was greatly strengthened by Zia with 10,000s of members and sympathizers given jobs in the judiciary and civil service early in Zia's rule.[10]

Outside of South Asia, Muslim Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna and jihadist Sayyid Qutb read him, according to historian Philip Jenkins. Qutb "borrowed and expanded" Maududi's concept of Islam being modern, Muslims having fallen into pre-Islamic ignorance (Jahiliyya), and of the need for an Islamist revolutionary vanguard movement. His ideas influenced Abdullah Azzam, the Palestinian Islamist jurist and renewer of jihad in Afghanistan and elsewhere. The South Asian diaspora, including "significant numbers" in Britain, were "hugely influenced" by Maududi's work. Maududi even had a major impact on Shia Iran, where Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini is reputed to have met Maududi as early as 1963 and later translated his works into Persian. "To the present day, Iran's revolutionary rhetoric often draws on his themes."[239] According to Youssef M. Choueiri, "all the major contemporary radicalist" Islamist movements (the Tunisian Islamic Tendency, the Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization, and the Muslim Brotherhood of Syria), "derive their ideological and political programmes" from the writings of Maududi and Sayyid Qutb.[240]

Imam-i-Kaaba Shaikh Khalid bin Ali Ghamdi eulogised Jamaat-i-Islami founder Maulana Maududi during his visit of Pakistan. He said he had done a great service to Islam by launching the movement to revive Islam. Ghamidi said thousands of students had derived great benefit from his writings. He said he was one of them. Ghamidi said a highway had been named after the founder of the JI.

Selected bibliography[edit]

Maududi had produced 73 books at the time of his death,[43] written more than 120 books and pamphlets, and made more than 1000 speeches and press statements.[39] His magnum opus was the 30 years in progress translation (tafsir) in Urdu of the Qur’an, Tafhim ul-Qur’an (The Meaning of the Qur'an), intended to give the Qur’an a self-claim interpretation. It became widely read throughout the South Asia and has been translated into several languages.[39]

Some of his books translated into English.

  • Jihad in Islam
  • Towards Understanding Islam
  • Purdah & the Status of Women in Islam
  • The Islamic Law and Constitution
  • Let Us Be Muslims
  • The Islamic Way Of Life
  • The Meaning Of The Qur'an
  • A Short History Of The Revivalist Movement In Islam
  • Human Rights in Islam
  • Four basic Qur'anic terms
  • The process of Islamic revolution
  • Unity of the Muslim world
  • The moral foundations of the Islamic movement
  • Economic system of Islam
  • The road to peace and salvation
  • The Qadiani Problem
  • The Question of Dress
  • The Rights of Non-Muslims in Islamic State

Timeline[edit]

  • 1903 – Born in Aurangabad, Hyderabad Deccan, India
  • 1918 – Started career as journalist in Bijnore newspaper
  • 1920 – Appointed as editor of the daily Taj, Jabalpur
  • 1921 – Learned Arabic from Maulana Abdul Salam Niazi in Delhi
  • 1921 – Appointed as editor daily Muslim
  • 1926 – Took the Sanad of Uloom e Aqaliya wa Naqalia from Darul Uloom Fatehpuri, Delhi
  • 1928 – Took the Sanad in Jamay Al-Tirmidhi and Muatta Imam Malik Form same Teacher
  • 1925 – Appointed as editor Al-jameeah, New Delhi
  • 1927 – Wrote Al- Jihad fil Islam
  • 1930 – Wrote and published the famous booklet Al- Jihad fil Islam
  • 1933 – Started Tarjuman-ul-Qur'an from Hyderabad (India)
  • 1937 – Aged 34, introduced to South Asia's premier Muslim poet-philosopher, Allama Muhammad Iqbal, by Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan at Lahore[241]
  • 1938 – Aged 35, moved to Pathankot from Hyderabad Deccan and joined the Dar ul Islam Trust Institute, which was established in 1936 by Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan on the advice of Allama Muhammad Iqbal for which Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan donated 66 acres (270,000 m2) of land from his vast 1,000-acre (4.0 km2) estate in Jamalpur, 5 km west of Pathankot[241]
  • 1941 – Founded Jamaat-e-Islami Hind at Lahore, appointed as Amir
  • 1942 – Jamaat's headquarters moved to Pathankot
  • 1942 – Started writing a commentary of the Qur'an called Tafhim-ul-Quran
  • 1947 – Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan headquarters moved to Lahore (Ichhra)
  • 1948 – Campaign for Islamic constitution and government
  • 1948 – Thrown in jail by the government for fatwa on jihad in Kashmir
  • 1949 – Government accepted Jamaat's resolution for Islamic constitution
  • 1950 – Released from jail
  • 1953 – Sentenced to death for his historical part in the agitation against Ahmadiyah to write a booklet Qadiani Problem. He was sentenced to death by a military court, but it was never carried out;[242]
  • 1953 – Death sentence commuted to life imprisonment and later canceled.[242]
  • 1958 – Jamaat-e-Islami banned by Martial Law Administrator Field Martial Ayub Khan
  • 1964 – Sentenced to jail
  • 1964 – Released from jail
  • 1971 – In the question of united Pakistan or separation of the East Pakistan (Later Bangladesh) he relinquished his authority to East Pakistan Shura (Consultative body of Jamaat)[243]
  • 1972 – Completed Tafhim-ul-Quran
  • 1972 – Resigned as Ameer-e-Jamaat
  • 1978 – Published his last book "Seerat-e-Sarwar-e-Aalam" in two volumes.
  • 1979 – Departed to United States for medical treatment
  • 1979 – Died in United States[244]
  • 1979 – Buried in Ichhra, Lahore

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Abul A’la Maududi
  2. ^ Zebiri, Kate. Review of Maududi and the making of Islamic fundamentalism. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 61, No. 1.(1998), pp. 167–168.
  3. ^ a b c Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.99
  4. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.140
  5. ^ a b c Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.138
  6. ^ a b c Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.49
  7. ^ a b Martín, Richard C. (2004). Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World. Granite Hill. p. 371. ISBN 9780028656038. 
  8. ^ a b Adams, Charles J. (1983). "Mawdudi and the Islamic State". In Esposito, John L. Voices of Resurgent Islam. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 99. Mawdudi was, until his death in 1979, but especially to the time of his resignation as amir of the Jamaat-i-Islami in 1972, the best known, most controversial, and most highly visible of all the religious leaders of the country. 
  9. ^ a b Devichand, Mukul (10 November 2005). "How Islam got political: Founding fathers". http://news.bbc.co.uk/ (BBC News). Retrieved 8 November 2014. Maududi made plenty of enemies in his lifetime - but his most significant domestic impact came after his death. Pakistan's military ruler General Zia Ul-Haq put some of Maududi's ideas into practice in 1979, turning Islamic sharia-based criminal punishments into law. 
  10. ^ a b Jones, Own Bennet (2002). Pakistan : eye of the storm. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 16–7. ISBN 0300101473. ... Zia rewarded the only political party to offer him consistent support, Jamaat-e-Islami. Tens of thousands of Jamaat activists and sympathisers were given jobs in the judiciary, the civil service and other state institutions. These appointments meant Zia's Islamic agenda lived on long after he died. 
  11. ^ "Service to Islam". King Faisal's Prize. Retrieved 7 January 2015. 
  12. ^ a b Sayyid Abul A'la Maududi. Official website of the Jamaat-e-Islami.
  13. ^ a b c d Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.100-1
  14. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.10
  15. ^ Oliver Leaman (2005), The Qur'an: an encyclopedia, Routledge, p. 396
  16. ^ Muhammad Suheyl Umar, "…hikmat i mara ba madrasah keh burd? The Influence of Shiraz School on the Indian Scholars", October 2004 – Volume: 45 – Number: 4, note 26
  17. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.20
  18. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 23. 
  19. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.40-1
  20. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.27
  21. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.29
  22. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.30
  23. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.31
  24. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.32
  25. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.34
  26. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.35
  27. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.36
  28. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.37
  29. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.38-9
  30. ^ Ullah, Haroon K. (2013-12-17). Vying for Allah's Vote: Understanding Islamic Parties, Political Violence .. Georgetown University Press. p. 79. ISBN 9781626160156. Retrieved 1 November 2014. 
  31. ^ a b c d Jamaat-e-Islami, GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  32. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.41
  33. ^ a b c d e f Ruthven, Malise (2000). Islam in the World (2nd ed.). Penguin. pp. 332–3. 
  34. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.42
  35. ^ a b c Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.43
  36. ^ a b c Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.96
  37. ^ a b c Ruthven, Malise (2000). Islam in the World (2nd ed.). Penguin. pp. 330–1. 
  38. ^ a b c d Abul Ala Maududi| famousmuslims.com
  39. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.139
  40. ^ a b c d Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.44
  41. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.45
  42. ^ a b c d Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.128
  43. ^ a b c Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.46
  44. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 98, 104. ISBN 9780195357110. When General Zia ul-Haq enacted his Hudud Ordinances of 1979, this caused difficulties in the Jama'at's alliance with the general's government and led to costly doctrinal compromises by the party. [p.98] ... Maududi again underlined the importance of education in Islam as a prerequisite for the Islamization of society ... This idea was in direct opposition to the `Islamzation first` approach of General Zia ul-Haq. [p.104] 
  45. ^ Maududi, S.A.A. (1963). A Short History of the Revivalist Movement in Islam. Lahore. p. 36. 
  46. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 138. ISBN 9780195357110. He argued that his intent was not only to revive Islam but to propagate true Islam, the absence of which accounted for the failure of earlier efforts at tajdid. 
  47. ^ Maududi, S.A.A. (1963). A Short History of the Revivalist Movement in Islam. Lahore. p. 109. 
  48. ^ Jama'at-i Islami ke untis sal (Lahore: Shu'bah'bah-i Nashr'u Isha'at-i Jama'at-i Islami, 1970), p.38-39
  49. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.124
  50. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.61
  51. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.62
  52. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 51. The erection of communal boundaries and the search for identity in Mawdudi's works increasingly cast the world in terms of good and evil, converting history into an arena for an apocalyptic battle between the two. 
  53. ^ 1979, Tafhimul Qur'an, Vol. I, Lahore, pp. 334
  54. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.64
  55. ^ a b c d Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.112
  56. ^ "A. Maududi's 'Towards Understanding Islam'". Archived from the original on 2009-10-24. 
  57. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 64–5. a Islam, we wrote, was not a birthright, nor a simple proclamation of the shahadah, but the testimony to an individual's absolute obedience to God -- Islam found meaning only in the context of works. 
  58. ^ Maududi, Seyed Abu'l A'la (1978). Fundamentals of Islam (reprint ed.). p. 21. A Muslim is not a Muslim by appellation or birth, but by virtue of abiding by holy law. 
  59. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.66
  60. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 58. He wrote: `You must remember that you are a born slave of God. He has created you for His servitude only` .... He viewed absolute obedience to God as a fundamental right of God ... `Man ... does not have the right to choose a way of life for himself or assume whatever duties he likes.` 
  61. ^ Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdudi, Towards Understanding the Quran, Chapter 7, Lahore, Pakistan.
  62. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.50
  63. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 63. ISBN 9780195357110. This redefinition of Islam began with erecting impregnable boundaries around the religion, a necessary first step in constructing an Islamic ideology. ... The lines of demarcation that defined Islam were perforce steadfast: there was either Islam, as it was understood and defined by Mawdudi, or there was un-Islam. 
  64. ^ Maududi, Towards Understanding Islam pp.4, 11-12, 18-19,
  65. ^ Maududi, Let Us Be Muslims, pp.53-55
  66. ^ Sayyid Abu'l-A'la Maududi, A Short History of the Revivalist Movement in Islam, reprint (Lahore: Islamic Publications, 1963), p.iii
  67. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 56. [he would] scientifically prove that Islam is eventually to emerge as the World-Religion to cure Man of all his maladies. 
  68. ^ Sayyid Abu'l-A'la Mawdudi, Tahrik-i axadi Hind awr Musalman (Lahore, 1973), 2:140
  69. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.60
  70. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 136. ISBN 9780195357110. He regarded Islamic history from the end of the rightly guided caliphs onward as essentially a period of decline and of jahiliyah. Except for periodic surges of orthodoxy in the guise of revivalist movements, Muslim life had been defiled by syncretic concessions to heathen tendencies ... 
  71. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.59
  72. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 59. Although traditional divines idealized the early history of Islam, they did not view what followed that era to be `un-Islamic,` ...Maududi did not view Islamic history as the history of Islam but as the history of un-Islam or jahiliyah. Islamic history as the product of human choice, was corruptible and corrupted. 
  73. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.137
  74. ^ Maududi, S.A.A., Tafhimat (Lahore, 1965) 1:202, quoted in Nasr, Vali, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, p.137
  75. ^ Maududi, Abul A'la. Towards_Understanding_Islam (PDF). Retrieved 7 December 2014. To the woman it assigns the duty of managing the household, training and bringing up children in the best possible way, and providing her husband and children with the greatest possible comfort and contentment. The duty of the children is to respect and obey their parents, and, when they are grown up, to serve them and provide for their needs. 
  76. ^ a b c Ruthven, Malise (2000). Islam in the World (2nd ed.). Penguin. p. 329. 
  77. ^ Maududi, Purdah and the Status of Woman in Islam, (Lahore, 1979), p.20
  78. ^ Mawdudi, Abul A'la (November 1979). Towards Understanding Islam. Khurshid Ahmad, translator. Islamic Publications. p. 112. Outside the pale of the nearest relations between whom marriage is forbidden men and women have been asked not to mix freely with each other and if they do have to have contact with each other they should do so with purdah. When women have to go out of their homes, they should ... be properly veiled. They should also cover their faces and hands as a normal course. Only in genuine necessity can they unveil, and they must recover as soon as possible. ... men have been asked to keep down their eyes and not to look at women. ... To try to see them is wrong and to try to seek their acquaintance is worse. 
  79. ^ Maududi, Birth Control, (Lahore, 1978), p.73
  80. ^ a b c Maududi, Islamic Law and Constitution, 1977: p.308
  81. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.103
  82. ^ Ruthven, Malise (2000). Islam in the World (2nd ed.). Penguin. pp. 329–30. 
  83. ^ a b c d Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.104
  84. ^ a b c d e Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.105-6
  85. ^ From the text of lecture at a Labour Committee convention in 1957; reprinted in Mawdudi, Economic System of Islam, (1984) p.284
  86. ^ Maududi, Sayyid Abul-A'la, Capitalism, Socialism and Islam, (Lahore, 1977), p.65
  87. ^ a b c d Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford University Press. p. 74. ISBN 9780195357110. Retrieved 4 December 2014. 
  88. ^ a b c Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.132
  89. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 53. [Islam] says `yes` to modernization but `no` to blind Westernisation. 
  90. ^ Mortimer, Edward (1982). Faith and Power : the Politics of Islam. Vintage Books. p. 204. He agreed with them in holding that Islam required the exercise of reason by the community to understand God's decrees, in believing, therefore, that Islam contains nothing contrary to reason, and in being convinced that Islam as revealed in the Book and the Sunna is superior in purely rational terms to all other systems. But he thought they had gone wrong in allowing themselves to judge the Book and the Sunna by the standard of reason. They had busied themselves trying to demonstrate that `Islam is truly reasonable` instead of starting, as he did, from the proposition that `true reason is Islamic`. Therefore they were not sincerely accepting the Book and the Sunna as the final authority, because implicitly they were setting up human reason as a higher authority (the old error of the Mu'tazilites). In Maududi's view, once one has become a Muslim, reason no longer has any function of judgement. From then on its legitimate task is simply to spell out the implications of Islam's clear commands, the rationality of which requires no demonstration. 
  91. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.107
  92. ^ Jameelah, Maryam (1987). "an Appraisal of Some Aspects of Maulana Sayyid Ala Maudoodi's Life and Thought". Islamic Quarterly 31 (2): 127. 
  93. ^ Ikram, S. M. (1964). "XII. Religion at Akbar's Court". In Ainslie T. Embree. Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press. (Page of Prof. Emerita Frances W. Pritchett, Columbia University) 
  94. ^ Adams, Charles J., "Mawdudi and the Islamic State," in John L. Esposito, ed., Voices of Resurgent Islam, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), p.103
  95. ^ Adams, Charles J., "Mawdudi and the Islamic State," in John L. Esposito, ed., Voices of Resurgent Islam, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983), p.113
  96. ^ Adams, Charles J. (1983). "Maududi and the Islamic State". In Esposito, John L. Voices of Resurgent Islam. Oxford University Press. pp. 113–4. [Maududi believed that] when religion is relegated to the personal realm, men inevitably give way to their bestial impulses and perpetrate evil upon one another. In fact it is precisely because they wish to escape the restraints of morality and the divine guidance that men espouse secularism. 
  97. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 53. modern science was a `body` that could accommodate any `spirit` -- philosophy or value system -- just as radio could broadcast Islami or Western messages with equal facility. 
  98. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.54
  99. ^ Maududi, Nationalism in India, 1947, pp 48-9
  100. ^ a b c Political Islam in the Indian Subcontinent by Frederic Grare] |BOOK REVIEW |Anatomy of Islamism |South Asia |Asia Times
  101. ^ Nasr, Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution, 1994, pp.119-120
  102. ^ a b c Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.115
  103. ^ Mortimer, Edward (1982). Faith and Power : the Politics of Islam. Vintage Books. p. 203. 
  104. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.109
  105. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.116-7
  106. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 122. ISBN 9780195357110. ... he held Sufism accountable for causing the decline of Islam throughout history, referring to it as chuniya begum (lady opium). He believed that Sufism had misled Mughal rulers like Emperor Akbar and his son Dara Shukuh into gravitating toward syncretic experiments. 
  107. ^ Abdul Hamid, Ahmad Fauzi (2013). "4. The Aurad Muhammadiah Congregation". In Hui, Yew-Foong. Encountering Islam: The Politics of Religious Identities in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 67. ISBN 9789814379922. shun the language and terminology of the Sufis; their mystical allusions and metaphoric references, their dress and etiquette, their master-disciple institutions and all other things associated with it. 
  108. ^ Maududi, S.A.A. (1981). A Short History of the Revivalist Movement in Islam (5th ed.). Islamic Publications. 
  109. ^ a b c Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.123
  110. ^ This happened in 1951, (source: Tarjumanu'l-Qur'an, September 1951, pp.55-6, and November 1951, pp.34-36)
  111. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 122. ISBN 9780195357110. ... Sufism was of great importance to the major ulama groups in Pakistan, the Deobandis and the Barelvis, and they found Mawdudi's attacks on Sufism just as contentious as his exegeses on juridical and theological matters.. In Punjab and Sind, Sufism played an important role in the popular culture of the masses and eventually in their politics. 
  112. ^ Maududi, S.A.A., Towards Understanding Islam, (Indianapolis, 1977), p.111
  113. ^ Maududi, S. Abul A'la, Islamic Law and Its Introduction, Islamic Publications, LTD, 1955, pp. 13-4.
  114. ^ a b c Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.116
  115. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.98
  116. ^ Maududi, S. Abul A'la, Human Rights in Islam, Islamic Foundation, 1976, pp.31-32
  117. ^ Maududi, S. Abul A'la, Islamic Law and Its Introduction, Islamic Publications, LTD, 1955, p.67
  118. ^ Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.165
  119. ^ Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.113
  120. ^ Mawdudi, Islamic Law, p.57 quoted in Adams p.113
  121. ^ Maududi, Sayyid Abdul al'al (1960). Political Theory of Islam (1993 ed.). Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications. p. 4. ...And Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) ... revealed the final code of human guidance, in all its completeness. 
  122. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.57
  123. ^ Mawdudi, Islamic Law, p.77 quoted in Adams p.125
  124. ^ a b c Adams, Charles J. (1983). "Maududi and the Islamic State". In Esposito, John L. Voices of Resurgent Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 126. ... The fourth and final mode of `legislation`Maududi characterizes somewhat astonishingly as the `province of independent legislation.` The `independence` of the legislature in this sphere derives from the fact that ` ... there is yet another vast range of human affairs about which Shariah is totally silent.` 
  125. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.97
  126. ^ a b c Nasr, S.V.R. 1996. Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, Ch. 4. New York: Oxford University Press
  127. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.78
  128. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.77
  129. ^ Maududi, The Process of Islamic Revolution
  130. ^ Said Amir Arjomand (2000). "Iran's Islamic Revolution in Comparative Perspective". In Haghighat, Sadegh. Six Theories about the Islamic Revolution's Victory. Alhoda UK. p. 122. ISBN 9789644722295. Retrieved 22 December 2014. 
  131. ^ Lerman, Eran (October 1981). "Mawdudi's Concept of Islam". Middle Eastern Studies 17 (4): 500. 
  132. ^ Short Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference, Jamaat-e-Islami, East Pakistan, (Dacca, 1958), p.8; enclosed with U.S. Consulate, Dacca, Dispatch no.247, April 3, 1958, 790D.00/4-358, United States National Archives.
  133. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.70
  134. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.71
  135. ^ Mawdudi, Sayyid Abu'l-A'la, Islamic Law and Constitution, (Karachi, 1955), p.48
  136. ^ Rudad-i Jama'at-i Islami, 1:49-50 [proceedings of various Jama'at congresses between 1941 and 1955]
  137. ^ Smith, Donald E., ed. (1966). "The Ideology of Mawlana Mawdud". South Asian Politics and Relgion. Princeton, NJ. pp. 388–9. 
  138. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.76
  139. ^ Sayyid Abu'l-A'la Mawdudi, Tahrik-i Islami ka a`indah la`ihah-i `amal, Lahore, 1986, p.205
  140. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.73
  141. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford University Press. p. 71. ISBN 9780195357110. Retrieved 14 December 2014. In Mawdudi's conception, revolution and its corollary, ideology, had no class reference. They simply permitted Mawdudi to equip the Jama'at with a repertoire of terms that allowed the party to stand its ground in debates over what constituted progress, justice, and political idealism. 
  142. ^ Maududi, Islamic Law and Constitution, 1977: p.v
  143. ^ Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.119
  144. ^ Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, "Political Theory of Islam," in Khurshid Ahmad, ed., Islam: Its Meaning and Message (London: Islamic Council of Europe, 1976), pp. 159–61.
  145. ^ Maududi, Sayyid Abdul al'al (1960). Political Theory of Islam (1993 ed.). Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications. p. 35. the power to rule over the earth has been promised to the whole community of believers. [italics original] 
  146. ^ Sayyid Abu'l-A'la Mawdudi, The Message of Jam'at-i-Islami, (Lahore, 1955), p.46
  147. ^ (Nasr speaking) Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.88
  148. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.93
  149. ^ a b (Nasr speaking) Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.87
  150. ^ a b c (Nasr speaking) Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.95
  151. ^ Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Islamic Way of Life (Delhi: Markazi Maktaba Islami, 1967), p. 40
  152. ^ Esposito and Piscatory, "Democratization and Islam," pp. 436–7, 440.
  153. ^ Esposito, The Islamic Threat, pp. 125–6
  154. ^ Voll and Esposito, Islam and Democracy, pp. 23–6.
  155. ^ a b Mawdudi, Islamic Law, p.154
  156. ^ Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.115
  157. ^ a b Maududi, Islamic Law and Constitution, 1977: p.148
  158. ^ a b c d Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.117
  159. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.94
  160. ^ Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, "Political Theory of Islam," in John J. Donahue and John L. Esposito, eds., Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspective, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), p. 253.
  161. ^ Adams, Charles J. (1983). "Maududi and the Islamic State". In Esposito, John L. Voices of Resurgent Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 115. Maududi traces the root cause of most human misery and calamity to the tendency of men to dominate over other men, either by claiming themselves to be rabbs or ilahs or by investing idols, objects, political parties, ideologies, etc., with the qualities of rabb or ilah, and then manipulating the credulity of other men for their own purposes. 
  162. ^ Maududi, Maulana (1960). First Principles of the Islamic State. Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications. p. 21. no creature has the right to impose his will or words on other creatures and ... this is a right exclusively reserved for God himself ... if we invest some human agency with superhuman mantle of sovereignty ... injustice and maladministration of the most contagious type [invariably results] .... Evil is inherent in the nature of such a system. 
  163. ^ Maududi, Maulana (1960). First Principles of the Islamic State. Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications. p. 26. ... what we Muslims call democracy is a system wherein the people enjoy only the right of Khilafat or vicegerency of God. 
  164. ^ Maududi, Abul Ala. "Essential Features of the Islamic Political System". Islam 101. Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  165. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 9780195357110. Because Maududi was compelled to directly address the question of the nature of authority in the Islamic state if he was to win Westernized intellectuals over, he used democracy to deal with their concerns. 
  166. ^ Abu al-A'la al-Mawdudi, Political Theory of Islam (Lahore: Islamic Publications, 1976), pp. 13, 15–7, 38, 75–82.
  167. ^ a b c Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.90
  168. ^ Maududi,Human Rights in Islam, p.11
  169. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.92
  170. ^ Maududi, First Principles, p.1
  171. ^ a b c Maududi, Islamic Law and Constitution, 1977: p.211
  172. ^ cited in Jasarat, October 28, 1978, pp. 1, 9, Muhammad Mujeed characterized Mawdudi's program as naive: see Mujeeb, Muhammad, The Indian Muslims, (London, 1967), p.403
  173. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.99
  174. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.85-6
  175. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.91
  176. ^ M. Bernard, "Idjma" in Encyclopedia of Islam
  177. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.100
  178. ^ a b Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.120
  179. ^ Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.121
  180. ^ Mawdudi, Islamic Law, p.155
  181. ^ Maududi, Sayyid Abdul al'al (1960). Political Theory of Islam (1993 ed.). Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications. p. 31. It is clear from a careful consideration of the Qura'an and the Sunnah that the state in Islam is based on an ideology ... the community that runs the Islam State .. those who do not accept it are not entitled to have any hand in shaping the fundamental policy of the state. 
  182. ^ Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.123
  183. ^ Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.237
  184. ^ Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.308
  185. ^ Maududi, Islamic Law and Constitution, 1977: p.211-32
  186. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 97. ISBN 9780195357110. In the beginning, Mawdudi had rejected both the adversarial system and the tole of lawyers as immoral and un-Islamic, arguing that Islam accepted only an inquisitional system in which the judge was the final authority ... without discussion or the interference of lawyers ... Then in 1948, 1953, and again in 1963, when the Pakistan government tried to crush the Jama'at, it had been the judiciary that rescued the party. Mawdudui and the Jama'at consequently favored the autonomy of the Pakistani judiciary and accepted the adversarial system and the right to appeal as beneficial .... 
  187. ^ Mawdudi, Abul A'la (1960). Political Theory of Islam. Khurshid Ahmad, translator (8th, 1993 ed.). Islamic Publications. pp. 23–5. The people delegate their sovereignty to their elected representative [who] make and enforce laws. [Because of the] divorce ... between politics and religion ... society ... have ceased to attach much or any importance to morality and ethics ... these representatives ... soon set themselves up as an independent authority and assume the position of overlords ... They often make laws not in the best interest of the people ... but to further their own sectional and class interests ... This is the situation which besets people in England, America and in all those countries which claim to be the haven of secular democracy.
    [Second reason is] it has been established by experience that the great mass of the common people are incapable of perceiving their own true interests [and] quite often ... reject the pleas of reason simply because it conflicts with [their] passion and desire. [An example being the] Prohibition Law of America. It had been rationally and logically established that drinking is injurious to health, produces deleterious disorder in human society. [But after] the law was passed by the majority vote [the people] revolted against it ... because the people had been completely enslaved by their habit and could not forgo the pleasure of self-indulgence. They delegated their own desires and passions as their ilahs (gods) at whose call they all went in for the repeal of [prohibition].
     
  188. ^ Maududi, Towards Understanding Islam, p.131
  189. ^ Maududi, Sayyid Abdul al'al (1960). Political Theory of Islam (1993 ed.). Lahore, Pakistan: Islamic Publications. p. 27. [Under Islamic law] There would remain neither that tyranny of cruelty and oppression, nor that satanic flood of female liberty and licence which threatens to destroy human civilisation in the West. 
  190. ^ Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jama'at By Simon Ross Valentine
  191. ^ Sayeed Abdul A'la Maududi, Jihad in Islam, Islamic Publications (Pvt.) Ltd, p.28.
  192. ^ Adams, Charles J., "Mawdudi and the Islamic State," in John L. Esposito, ed., Voices of Resurgent Islam, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983)
  193. ^ Iqbal, Anwar (Sep 13, 2014). "Fighting the IS: Holes in the game plan". Dawn.com. Retrieved 8 November 2014. 
  194. ^ Maududi, Islamic Law and Constitution, 1977: p.237
  195. ^ Maududi, Islamic Law and Constitution, 1977: pp.236, 282, 288-97
  196. ^ Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.122
  197. ^ Maududi, Sayyid Abul A'La (1983). The Islamic Law & Constitution. Islamic Books. p. 292. Retrieved 11 January 2015. 
  198. ^ Abul A'la Mawdudi, The Meaning of the Qur'an, (Islamic Publications Ltd., Lahore (1993 edition), vol 2, pp. 183 & 186 (last paragraph)).
  199. ^ Abul A'la Mawdudi, The Meaning of the Qur'an, vol 2, p. 183.
  200. ^ Maududi, Abul A'la. Towards Understanding Islam (PDF). Retrieved 7 December 2014. 
  201. ^ Sayeed Abdul A'la Maududi, Jihad in Islam, p.6,7,22
  202. ^ Mawdudi, Abul A'la (November 1979). Towards Understanding Islam. Khurshid Ahmad, translator. Islamic Publications. p. 105. The greatest sacrifice for God is made in Jihad, for in it a man sacrifices not only his own life and property in His cause but destroys those of others also. But, as already stated, one of the Islamic principles is that we should suffer a lesser loss to save ourselves from a greater loss. How can the loss of some lives - even if the number runs into thousands - be compared to the calamity that may befall mankind as a result of the victory of evil over good and of aggressive atheism over the religion of God. That would be a far greater loss and calamity, for as a result of it not only would the religion of God be under dire threat, the world would also become the abode of evil and perversion, and life would be disrupted both from within and without. 
  203. ^ Vol 2. No1. of The Faithful Struggle in the section entitled "Permanent Jihad."
  204. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/part2_12.html
  205. ^ a b c Laird, Kathleen Fenner (2008). Whose Islam? Pakistani Women's Political Action Groups Speak Out. ProQuest. pp. 131–2. ISBN 9780549465560. Retrieved 6 November 2014. 
  206. ^ The General’s Isolation Asharq Alawsat Newspaper (English) aawsat.com
  207. ^ a b PARACHA, NADEEM F. (11 June 2009). "Maududi’s Children". Blog.Dawn.com. Retrieved 8 November 2014. Maududi’s philosophy has off and on found itself being used to encourage self-righteous coercion, political intrigues and violence – as seen in Jamat Islami’s role in the 1953 and 1974 anti-Ahmadiyya violence (for which Maududi was imprisoned); the role of the party in supporting (and taking part) in the Pakistani Army’s controversial actions in the former East Pakistan; and the role of the party’s student wing, the Islami Jamiat-e-Taleba (IJT), which was accused (in the 1980s) of introducing the violent ‘Kalashnikov Culture’ on the country’s campuses. Worst of all, Maududi-ism (as it is sometimes called), was also exploited by dictators (General Zia-ul-Haq), ulema and, of course, the Jamat Islami, as a way to deflect, deflate and denounce any other form of Islamic reformism. It actually eschewed tolerance. 
  208. ^ Maududi`s books banned in Bangladesh |dawn.com |Jul 17, 2010 |Retrieved 27 August 10:00 GMT.
  209. ^ Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.129-30
  210. ^ Choueiri, p.111, quoted in Ruthven, Malise (2000). Islam in the World (2nd ed.). Penguin. p. 70. 
  211. ^ Choueiri, Youssef M. (2010). Islamic Fundamentalism : The Story of Islamist Movements (3rd ed.). Bloomsbury, A&C Black. p. 144. ISBN 9780826498014. Retrieved 11 January 2015. 
  212. ^ a b Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.118
  213. ^ a b Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.127
  214. ^ a b Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.130
  215. ^ a b Adams, Maududi and the Islamic State, 1983: p.129
  216. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 60. In effect, the history of Islam would resume, after a fourteen-century interlude, with the Islamic state. 
  217. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza (1996). Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 91. ISBN 9780195357110. Absent from Maududi's list of democratic features were ..... a mechanism for translating popular interest into policy. By discouraging electioneering, Mawdudi divorced the election of leaders from popular concerns 
  218. ^ Meddeb, Abdelwahab (2003). The malady of Islam. New York: Basic Books. p. 102. ISBN 0-465-04435-2. OCLC 51944373. 
  219. ^ Shaikh Salih al-Fawzan, Aqidah at-Tawhid Section 2 Chapter 7
  220. ^ Hasan, Masudul (1984). Sayyid Abul Aʻala Maududi and His Thought,. Islamic Publications,. pp. 199, 239. Retrieved 31 December 2014. 
  221. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.135
  222. ^ Maududi, S.A.A., Musalman awr mawjudah siyasi kashmakash, (Lahore, 1940), 3:100, 123
  223. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.116
  224. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.110-1
  225. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.118
  226. ^ such as Ghulam Ahmed Pervez, Muhammad Asad, Khalifah Abdul-Hakim <http://khalifaabdulhakim.com/> on the one hand, and Tahrik-i Khaksar <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e2308>, Anjuman-i Ahrar-i Islam (see: Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.109)
  227. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.117-8
  228. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.17"
  229. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.121
  230. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.120
  231. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.129
  232. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.130
  233. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.131
  234. ^ a b Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.127
  235. ^ Lerman, Eran (October 1981). "Maududi's Concept of Islam". Middle Eastern Studies (JSTOR) 17 (4): 492–509. JSTOR 4282856. it is hard to exaggerate the importance of its [Pakistan's] current drift toward's Maududi's version of Islam 
  236. ^ Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996: p.134
  237. ^ Jones, Owen Bennett (2002). Pakistan: Eye of the Storm. Yale University Press. p. 31. ISBN 0300101473. Retrieved 9 December 2014. 
  238. ^ tnr.com The New Republic "The roots of jihad in India" by Philip Jenkins, December 24, 2008
  239. ^ Choueiri, Youssef M. (2010). Islamic Fundamentalism 3rd Edition: The Story of Islamist Movements (3rd ed.). Bloomsbury. p. 100. Retrieved 11 January 2015. ... all the major contemporary radicalist movements, particularly the Tunisian Islamic Tendency, led by Rashid Ghannushi, the Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization and the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood, derive their ideological and political programmes from the writings of al Mawdudi and Sayyid Qutb. 
  240. ^ a b Azam, K.M., Hayat-e-Sadeed: Bani-e-Dar ul Islam Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan (A Righteous Life: Founder of Dar ul Islam Chaudhry Niaz Ali Khan), Lahore: Nashriyat, 2010 (583 pp., Urdu) [ISBN 978-969-8983-58-1]
  241. ^ a b Encyclopedia of World Biography© on Abul A'la Mawdudi
  242. ^ http://www.shahfoundationbd.org/halim/the_politics_of_alliance_bangladesh_experience.html
  243. ^ Syed Moudoodi biography at a glance

Further reading[edit]

  • Masood Ashraf Raja. "Abul A'ala Maududi: British India and the Politics of Popular Islamic Texts." Literature of British India. S. S Towheed. Ed. Stuttgart/Germany: Ibidem, 2007: 173-191.

External links[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
Party created
Ameer of Jamaat-e-Islami
1941–1972
Succeeded by
Mian Tufail Mohammad