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National Bolshevism as a political movement combines elements of radical nationalism (especially Russian nationalism) and Bolshevism. It is often anti-capitalist in tone, and sympathetic towards certain forms of socialism (such as Stalinism and Maoism).
As of 2015[update], Russia is considered[by whom?] the center of National Bolshevism and almost all of the National Bolshevik parties and organizations in the world are connected to it. Leading practitioners and theorists of National Bolshevism include Aleksandr Dugin and Eduard Limonov, who leads the unregistered and banned National Bolshevik Party (NBP) in Russia. Influenced heavily by geopolitics, current Russian National Bolshevik movements propose a merger between Russia, Europe and parts of Asia, in a union to be known as Eurasia.
The Franco-Belgian Parti Communautaire National-Européen shares National Bolshevism's desire for the creation of a united Europe, as well as many of the NBP's economic ideas. French political figure Christian Bouchet has also been influenced by the idea.
German National Bolshevism
"National Bolshevism" as a term was first used to describe a current in the German Communist Party and then the German Communist Workers Party (KAPD) which wanted to ally the insurgent communist movement with dissident nationalist groups in the German army who rejected the Treaty of Versailles. They were led by Heinrich Laufenberg and Fritz Wolffheim, based in Hamburg. Their expuslion from the KAPD was one of the conditions that Karl Radek explained was necessary if the KAPD was to be welcomed to the Third Congress of the Third International. However the demand that they withdraw from the KAPD would probably have happened anyway.
Karl Radek subsequently courted some of the radical nationalists he had met in prison to unite with the Bolsheviks in the name of National Bolshevism. He saw in a revival of National Bolshevism a way to "remove the capitalist isolation" of the Soviet Union.
During the 1920s, a number of German intellectuals began a dialogue which created a synthesis between radical nationalism (typically referencing Prussianism) and Bolshevism as it existed in the Soviet Union. The main figure in this was Ernst Niekisch of the Old Social Democratic Party of Germany, who edited the Wilderstand journal. A key point of this dialogue was the Association for the Study of Russian Planned Economy which brought together figures such as Niekisch, Ernst Jünger, Georg Lukács, Karl Wittfogel and Friedrich Hielscher. Of these, Jünger's 1932 work Der Arbeiter (The Worker) is considered a seminal National Bolshevik text. Jünger and Hielscher, representatives of the soldierly and pagan right respectively, are considered to have been important figures in the amorphous Conservative Revolutionary movement.
Although members of the National Socialist German Workers' Party under Adolf Hitler did not take part in Niekisch's National Bolshevik project and usually presented Bolshevism in exclusively negative terms as a "Jewish conspiracy", in the early 1930s there was a parallel tendency within the NSDAP which advocated similar views. This was represented by what has come to be known as Strasserism. A group led by Hermann Ehrhardt, Otto Strasser and Walther Stennes broke away in 1930 to found the Combat League of Revolutionary National Socialists (commonly known as the Black Front). They came to criticise Hitler as a reactionary who they felt had betrayed the original principles of National Socialism and wanted closer relations with the Soviet Union. Many of the Strasserites, along with prominent members of the Sturmabteilung (SA), were killed during the Night of the Long Knives.
Russian National Bolshevism
Russian Civil War
In Russia, as the civil war dragged on, a number of prominent "Whites" switched to the Bolshevik side because they saw it as the only hope for restoring greatness to Russia. Amongst these was Professor Nikolai Ustrialov, initially an anti-communist, who came to believe that Bolshevism could be modified to serve nationalistic purposes. His followers, the Smenovekhovtsi (named after a series of articles he published in 1921) Smena vekh (Russian: volte-face), came to regard themselves as National Bolsheviks, borrowing the term from Niekisch.
Similar ideas were expressed by the Evraziitsi party and the pro-Monarchist Mladorossi. Joseph Stalin's idea of "socialism in one country" was interpreted as a victory by the National Bolsheviks. Vladimir Lenin, who did not use the term 'National Bolshevism', identified the Smenovekhovtsi as a tendency of the old Constitutional Democratic Party who saw Russian communism as just an evolution in the process of Russian aggrandisement. He further added that they were a 'class enemy' and warned against communists believing them to be allies.The movement attracted many party members[clarification needed] but was itself an intellectual current and not a political party. Lunacharsky supported it[specify] while Zinoviev and Bukharin condemned it. Stalin condemned it in 1923.
Co-option of National Bolshevism
Ustrialov and others sympathetic to the Smenovekhovtsi cause, such as Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy and Ilya Ehrenburg, were eventually able to return to the Soviet Union and, following the co-option of aspects of nationalism by Stalin and his ideologue Andrei Zhdanov, enjoyed membership of the intellectual elite under the designation "non-party" Bolsheviks. Similarly B.D. Grekov's National Bolshevik school of historiography, a frequent target under Lenin, was officially recognised and even promoted under Stalin, albeit after accepting the main tenets of Stalinism. Indeed, it has been argued that National Bolshevism was the main impetus for the revival of patriotism as an official part of state ideology in the 1930s. The historian D. S. Mirsky, who fought on the White side in Russian Civil War, emigrated to Britain and returned to the Soviet Union in 1932, is sometimes credited with creating the term "National Bolshevism".
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn vs Eduard Limonov
The term National Bolshevism has sometimes been applied to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, and his brand of anti-communism. However, Solzhenitsyn cannot be labeled a National Bolshevik since he was thoroughly anti-Marxist and anti-Stalinist, and he wished a revival of Russian culture that would see a greater role for the Russian Orthodox Church, a withdrawal of Russia from its role overseas, and a state of international isolationism.[original research?] Solzhenitsyn and his followers, known as vozrozhdentsy (revivalists) differed from the National Bolsheviks, who were not religious in tone (although not completely hostile to religion), and who felt that involvement overseas was important for the prestige and power of Russia.
There was open hostility between Solzhenitsyn and Eduard Limonov, the head of Russia's unregistered National Bolshevik Party. Solzhenitsyn had described Limonov as "a little insect who writes pornography", and Limonov described Solzhenitsyn as a traitor to his homeland who contributed to the downfall of the USSR. In The Oak and the Calf, Solzhenitsyn openly attacked the notions that the Russians were 'the noblest in the world' and that 'tsarism and Bolshevism ... [were] equally irreproachable', defining this as the core of the National Bolshevism to which he was opposed.
National Bolshevik Party
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The current National Bolshevik Party was founded in 1992 as the National Bolshevik Front, an amalgamation of six minor groups. The party has always been led by Eduard Limonov. The group's early policies and actions show some alignment and sympathy with radical nationalist groups, but a split occurred in the 2000s which changed this to an extent. Opposed to the Vladimir Putin regime in Russia, Limonov has somewhat liberalized the NBP, and joined forces with leftist and liberal groups in Garry Kasparov's United Civil Front to fight Putin. Some National Bolsheviks are opposed to Limonov's attempts to find allies even if they are pro-Western politicians; some have left the NBP and formed the National Bolshevik Front.
- Black Front
- Cold War II
- Greater Russia
- Right-wing socialism
- Russian nationalism
- Soviet socialist patriotism
|Look up National Bolshevism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
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- Court Upholds Registration Ban Against National Bolshevik Party
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