Bayuquan Port, Yingkou
Location of Yingkou City jurisdiction in Liaoning
|Coordinates (city(2220000)): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Districts and Counties|
|• CPC Yingkou||Committee Secretary|
|• Mayor||Gao Jun|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,970 km2 (1,920 sq mi)|
|• Urban||664 km2 (256 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,775 km2 (685 sq mi)|
|Population (census 2010)|
|• Prefecture-level city||2,428,534|
|• Urban density||1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Administrative division code||210800|
Yingkou (simplified Chinese: 营口; traditional Chinese: 營口; pinyin: Yíngkǒu) is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China. It is a port city of the Bohai Sea, and is the location of the mouth of the Liao River.
The city has a total area of 4,970 square kilometres (1,920 sq mi), and a population of 2,428,534 at the 2010 census whom 1,340,993 in the built up area made of 3 urban districts (Zhanqian, Xishi and Laobian) and Dashiqiao City now linked to the urban core.
Yingkou is also known as Newchwang (Chinese: 牛庄; pinyin: Niúzhuāng; Manchu: Ishangga gašan hoton) in Chinese Postal Map Romanisation; it was one of the Treaty Ports opened under the Treaties of Tianjin of 1858. In fact, the actual town of Newchwang (Niuzhuang; Chinese: 牛庄镇) was about thirty miles upstream of Liao He, within today's county-level city of Haicheng. After the treaty had been signed, the British found that the river near Newchwang was too shallow for their ships. Instead, the treaty port was moved to the area nearer to the river mouth where today's Yingkou is located.
To avoid confusion between the two locations, careful English writers of the early 20th century would sometimes use Newchwang for Yingkou (explaining that "Ying-kow, ... outside Manchuria, ... is known only as Newchwang") and Niu-chuang (the proper Wade–Giles transcription of '牛庄') for the actual inland Niuzhang Town. Meanwhile, Newchwangcheng (Newchwang Town; Chinese Postal Map Romanisation transcription of '牛莊城') was adopted by the government as the inland town's name to distinguish it from the coastal city.
Yingkou prefecture is subdivided into 4 districts and 2 cities:
|#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2003 est.)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|1||Zhanqian District||站前区||Zhànqián Qū||260,000||70||3,714|
|2||Xishi District||西市区||Xīshì Qū||160,000||20||8,000|
|3||Bayuquan District||鲅鱼圈区||Bàyúquān Qū||300,000||268||1,119|
|4||Laobian District||老边区||Lǎobiān Qū||130,000||306||426|
|5||Dashiqiao City||大石桥市||Dàshíqiáo Shì||720,000||1,379||522|
|6||Gaizhou City||盖州市||Gàizhōu Shì||730,000||2,928||249|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Yingkou is located in the northwestern part of the Liaodong Peninsula, and on the left bank of the Liaohe River, which enters the sea in the city. To the west is the Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Gulf, and the city thus looks across to Jinzhou and Huludao. Bordering prefecture cities are:
- Anshan (N and NE)
- Dalian (S)
- Panjin (NW)
The city's metro area is located 166 km (103 mi) from the provincial capital of Shenyang, 204 km (127 mi) from Dalian, 84 kilometres (52 mi) from Anshan, and 70 km (43 mi) from Panjin. The city is located at latitude 39° 55'−40° 56' N and longitude 121° 56'−123° 02' E. At its greatest width, the city spans 111.8 km (69.5 mi) from north to south and 50.7 km (31.5 mi) from east to west. The total area of the city is 5,365 km2 (2,071 sq mi), occupying a mere 4.9% of the provincial area. The city has a total coastline of 96 km (60 mi).
Yingkou has a four-season humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa) with strong monsoonal influences. Though the climate is somewhat tempered by the city's location on the Bohai Gulf, winters are long, windy, cold but dry, and summers are hot and humid. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −8.5 °C (16.7 °F) in January to 25.0 °C (77.0 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 9.48 °C (49.1 °F). Precipitation is somewhat enhanced by the coastal location, with a majority of the annual rainfall occurring in July and August alone. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 51% in July to 68% in three months, the city receives 2,774 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Yingkou (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−13.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||6.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.1||3.0||4.2||6.2||8.0||9.6||12.0||9.4||6.8||5.8||4.7||2.8||75.6|
|Average relative humidity (%)||62||59||58||58||61||70||79||79||72||67||66||64||66.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||199.8||204.1||243.1||257.3||279.9||262.1||233.7||239.1||254.0||232.2||185.5||183.5||2,774.3|
|Percent possible sunshine||67||68||66||65||63||58||51||56||68||68||62||64||63|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
- China Minmetals (Yingkou) Industrial Park
- Yingkou Economic & Technological Development Zone. So far, five key industries have been formed, which are steel, chemical industry, mineral processing, logistics, textile and garment industry.
Coastal Base Project
In late 2005, the Party Secretary of the Liaoning Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China, Li Keqiang, initiated the "Five Points, One Line" strategy to develop the entire Liaoning coastline area, and in particular focusing on the "five points" of the Changxing Island Harbor Industrial Zone in Dalian; Yingkou Coastal Industrial Base; Liaoxi Jinzhou Bay Coastal Economic Zone; Dandong, and the Zhuanghe Huayuankou Industrial Zone.
As a result, Yingkou city is currently undergoing substantial expansion. From its current urban area of 54 km2 (21 sq mi), Phase One of the Coastal Base project is under way and is adding a further 44 km2 (17 sq mi) of industrial and urban areas to Yingkou. Phase Two (planned to start in 2010) will add a further massive 157 km2 (61 sq mi).
The land being used is largely marshland and reclaimed from the sea: in particular, it is largely unoccupied. As a result, the social and fiscal costs of development are less than are usual for Chinese urban and industrial development.
The Yingkou port area is also being very substantially increased in size, in the Bayuquan and Xianren harbours.
Partnership town and ports
- Jacksonville, Florida, United States — twinned since 1990.
- Tver, Russia — twinned since 1994.
- Yingkou Port signed a Sister Port agreement with the Hamilton Port Authority of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in November 2005.
- Copyright by Yingkou People
- Hosie, Sir Alexander (1910), Manchuria: its people, resources and recent history, J. B. Millet, p. 191
- RightSite.asia | Yingkou Development Zone
- "Города – побратимы Китая и России" (in Russian). Retrieved 27 July 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yingkou.|