Location of Zhongshan in Guangdong
|Township-level divisions||5 districts
1 development zone
|• CPC Committee Secretary||Xue Xiaofeng (薛晓峰)|
|• Mayor||Chen Liangxian (陈良贤)|
|• Total||1,783.67 km2 (688.68 sq mi)|
|Elevation||11 m (36 ft)|
|• Density||1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard Time (UTC+8)|
|License plate prefixes||粤T|
|GDP||¥218.85 billion (2011)|
|GDP per capita||¥92,154 (2011)|
"Zhongshan City", as written in Chinese
|Cantonese Jyutping||Zung1 saan1|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Zhōngshān ([ʈʂʊ́ŋʂán])|
|Literal meaning||Central mountain
(Named after Sun Yat-sen)
|Cantonese Jyutping||Hoeng1 saan1|
|Literal meaning||Fragrant Mountain|
Zhongshan ([ʈʂʊ́ŋ ʂán]; Chinese: 中山) is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, China, with a population of over 3 million (2012). The city-core subdistricts used to be called Shekki or Shiqi (石岐).
Zhongshan is one of a very few cities in China named after a person. It is named after Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925), who is known in Mandarin as Sun Zhongshan. Sun, the founding father of the Republic of China who is also regarded positively by the People's Republic, was born in Cuiheng village in Nanlang Township of what was then Xiangshan County. In 1925, the year after his death, Xiangshan was renamed Zhongshan in his honor.
- 1 Names
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Cityscape
- 5 Administration
- 6 Language
- 7 Economy
- 8 Tourism, recreation and leisure
- 9 Education
- 10 Transportation
- 11 Twin towns – sister cities
- 12 Climate
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Until 1925, Zhongshan was generally known as Xiangshan or Heung-san (Chinese: 香山; literally: "Fragrant Mountain"), in reference to the many flowers that grew in the mountains nearby. The city was renamed in honor of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, who had adopted the name Zhongshan. Sun is considered by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China to be the "Father of Modern China", and was from Cuiheng village – now part of Nanlang Town in Zhongshan.
Thousands of years ago, much of the Zhongshan area lay within the Pearl River estuary, with only scattered islands above the surface. Gradually from south to north, the area filled in with alluvial silt and became dry land. The northern parts of today's Zhongshan did not fill in until the time of the Ming Dynasty.
The Zhongshan area was part of an extended Dongguan County during the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 AD), and was a significant sea salt producer. In 1082, during the Northern Song Dynasty, a fortified settlement called Xiangshan was founded in the area, marking the first official use of the name by which it would be known throughout most of its modern history. The prosperous settlement was then upgraded to a county in 1152. After the collapse of the Southern Song Dynasty, many descendants of Song court officials, including members of the imperial family, settled in Xiangshan. Under the Qing Dynasty, embankments were built to prevent flooding in the new alluvial lands, and the area of cultivation was extended.
Much of the First Opium War took place in and around Xiangshan. In 1839, the official Lin Zexu arrived in Xiangshan and ordered the expulsion of Sir Charles Elliot and other British traders from the area. Qing Dynasty soldiers resisted British attacks on the area in 1840, but were ultimately overwhelmed.
After the Opium Wars opened the region to foreign influence, a number of Xiangshan residents, including Sun Zhongshan (Yatsen), left to study overseas and were among the creators of modern China. Xiangshan was one of the first counties in China liberated as part of the Xinhai Revolution. After Sun Zhongshan's death in 1925, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Republic of China decided to memorialize Sun by renaming his county of birth from Xiangshan to Zhongshan.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, in July 1937, the Imperial Japanese Army seized several islands belonging to Zhongshan. During March 1940, the Japanese army occupied most of Zhongshan. The Japanese army implemented Unit 8604 or Nami Unit, a secret military medical unit, related to Unit 731, that researched biological warfare and other topics through human experimentation. It was headquartered at Zhongshan Medical University (Hal Gold, Unit 731 Testimony, 2003, p. 50). Nationalist and Communist units launched guerrilla attacks on Japanese forces beginning in 1942. On August 15, 1945, Japanese forces declared an unconditional surrender, and Zhongshan was liberated.
Zhongshan was the scene of fighting during the Chinese Civil War and was held for much of the war by Nationalists. On October 30, 1949, however, the People's Liberation Army defeated Nationalist forces in Zhongshan, and the county came under the control of the People's Republic of China.
Zhongshan is located along the west side of the mouth of the Pearl River, directly opposite Shenzhen and Hong Kong. It lies south of Guangzhou and Foshan and north of Zhuhai and Macau. The northern part of Zhongshan, including most of the urbanized area, lies on the alluvial plains of the Pearl River Delta, while the southern part of the city's territory reaches into a range of coastal hills.
The most notable of these are the Wugui Hills (Chinese: 五桂山; pinyin: Wǔguī Shān; Jyutping: Ng5gwai3 Saan1). The city's current geography is typical of southern China: numerous steep mountains and hills with alluvial plains in between down to the coastline. The main summit of the Wugui Hills is the highest point in the city, at 531 metres (1,742 ft) above sea level.
Like nearly all of southern China, Zhongshan's climate is warm and humid most of the year, with an average temperature of 22 °C (72 °F) and 175 centimetres (69 in) of rainfall each year. Southern China experiences fairly frequent typhoons and thunderstorms, and most rain falls between April and September.
- Sunwen Road West (or Sunwen Xilu) in Zhongshan Old Town, a pedestrian mall lined with dozens of restored buildings from the colonial period in treaty port style. Several of these buildings were built in the 1920s.
- The seven-story Fufeng Pagoda, built in 1608 and visible from all over the city, is on a hill in Zhongshan Park, which abuts the western end of Sunwen Road West immediately to its north. A Sun Yat-sen memorial pavilion stands near the pagoda.
- Sunwen Memorial Park, at the southern end of Xingzhong Road, is the site of the largest bronze sculpture of Sun Yat-sen in the world.
Zhongshan is a prefecture-level city of the Guangdong province. An uncommon administrative feature is that it has no county-level division. The city government directly administers 6 Subdistricts and 18 towns:
|Name||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population
|Division code||Residential communities||Administrative villages|
|Shiqi Subdistrict||石岐街道||Shíqí Jiēdào||206,362||26.0||7,937.00||442000001||19|
|Dongqu Subdistrict||东区街道||Dōngqū Jiēdào||153,477||72.0||2,131.62||442000002||10|
|Zhongshangang Subdistrict||中山港街道||Zhōngshāngǎng Jiēdào||229,997||90.0||2,555.52||442000003||7|
|Xiqu Subdistrict||西区街道||Xiqū Jiēdào||97,864||26.7||3,665.31||442000004||9|
|Nanqu Subdistrict||南区街道||Nánqū Jiēdào||64,548||48.0||1,344.75||442000005||10|
|Wuguishan Subdistrict||五桂山街道||Wǔguìshān Jiēdào||48,019||113.0||424.94||442000006||1||4|
|Xiaolan Town||小榄镇||Xiǎolǎn Zhèn||315,626||75.4||4,186.02||442000100||15|
|Huangpu Town||黄圃镇||Huángpǔ Zhèn||145,017||83.6||1,734.65||442000101||4||12|
|Minzhong Town||民众镇||Mínzhòng Zhèn||108,417||125.4||864.56||442000102||3||16|
|Dongfeng Town||东凤镇||Dōngfèng Zhèn||123,562||54.8||2,254.78||442000103||4||10|
|Dongsheng Town||东升镇||Dōngshēng zhèn||118,052||76.7||1,539.13||442000104||8||6|
|Guzhen Town||古镇镇||Gǔzhèn Zhèn||147,440||47.8||3,084.51||442000105||1||12|
|Shaxi Town||沙溪镇||Shāxī Zhèn||119,372||55.0||2,170.40||442000106||1||15|
|Tanzhou Town||坦洲镇||Tǎnzhōu Zhèn||219,943||136.0||1,617.22||442000107||7||7|
|Gangkou Town||港口镇||Gǎngkǒu Zhèn||113,748||70.5||1,613.44||442000108||7||2|
|Sanjiao Town||三角镇||Sānjiǎo Zhèn||121,770||72.3||1,684.23||442000109||1||7|
|Henglan Town||横栏镇||Hénglán Zhèn||103,135||76.0||1,357.03||442000110||1||10|
|Nantou Town||南头镇||Nántóu Zhèn||130,712||30.0||4,357.06||442000111||6|
|Fusha Town||阜沙镇||Fùshā Zhèn||57,570||37.0||1,555.94||442000112||1||8|
|Nanlang Town||南朗镇||Nánlǎng Zhèn||107,977||206.0||524.16||442000113||2||13|
|Sanxiang Town||三乡镇||Sānxiāng Zhèn||200,197||93.6||2,138.85||442000114||3||12|
|Banfu Town||板芙镇||Bǎnfú Zhèn||82,412||82.0||1,005.02||442000115||1||10|
|Dachong Town||大涌镇||Dàyǒng Zhèn||74,276||45.5||1,632.43||442000116||6||2|
|Shenwan Town||神湾镇||Shénwān Zhèn||31,392||59.0||532.06||442000117||1||5|
|Administrative divisions of Zhongshan|
|Division code||English name||Chinese||Pinyin||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Postal code||Divisions|
|Subdistricts||Towns||Residential communities||Administrative villages|
|442000||Zhongshan City||中山市||Zhōngshān Shì||1,783.67||3,121,275||City-administered District||528400||6||18||128||151|
|442000||City-administered District||市辖区||Shìxiáqū||1,783.67||3,121,275||Dongqu Subdistrict||528400||6||18||128||151|
- Cuiheng New Area (翠亨新区)
The main ethnic group in Zhongshan is Han Chinese, but there is no dominant language spoken, Zhongshan is known as one of the most diverse cities in China. Dialects spoken varies from the Yue to the Hakka and to the Min, dialects include the Shiqi dialect, Shatian dialect, Longdu dialect, Nanlang dialect, Sanxiang dialect, Guzhen dialect, Sanjiao dialect, Zhangjiabian dialect and the only Hakka Dialect in the City, Wuguishan dialect. But most shares the common language, Cantonese.
- Shiqi dialect - Shiqiqu Subdistrict, Dongqu Subdistrict, Nanqu Subdistrict
- Shatian dialect - Xiqu Subdistrict, Tanzhou Town, Shenwan Town, Banfu Town, Henglan Town, Xiaolan Town, Dongfeng Town, Nantou Town, Huangpu Town, Minzhong Town, Gangkou Town, Fusha Town, Dongsheng Town
- Guzhen dialect - Guzhen Town
- Sanjiao dialect - Sanjiao Town
- Nanlang dialect - Nanlang Town
- Sanxiang dialect - Sanxiang Town
- Longdu dialect - Dachong Town, Shaxi Town
- Zhangjiabian dialect - THIDZ Subdistrict
Zhongshan, Dongguan, Nanhai, and Shunde are dubbed the 'Four Little Tigers' in Guangdong. The proximity of Zhongshan to Hong Kong and Macau is an advantage to its economic development, especially in manufacturing.
In the 1980s, Zhongshan had a relatively developed state-owned enterprise (SOE) sector that was used to stimulate Township and Village Enterprises (TVE) development in the countryside. Currently, the SOE sector is much weaker, and the economy is dominated by foreign investment and TVEs, and by specialized 'manufacturing towns'. Each of these towns specializes in making a particular product. Most of the towns are so successful that they earn a reputation as leading manufacturers in their pillar industries. Indeed, "One Industry in One Town" has become a unique economic feature in Zhongshan.
Pillar industries in specialized manufacturing towns in Zhongshan include:
- Dachong Town for mahogany furniture
- Dongfeng Town for electric household appliances
- Guzhen Town for lighting fixtures
- Huangpu Town for food processing
- Shaxi Town for casual wear manufacturing
- Xiaolan Town for locks and hardware, as well as for electronic acoustics products
The government of Zhongshan encourages "Research and Design" in the region by setting up national level research centres and specialized industrial regions. For example, the Zhongshan National Torch High-Tech Industrial Development Zone (中山国家级火炬高技术产业开发区) was established in 1990 in the east of the city by the Ministry of Science and Technology and the governments of Guangdong province and Zhongshan. Zhongshan Port, which ranks among the top 10 ports nationwide in container-handling capacity, is in the zone. Since 2001, it has included the Zhongshan Electronic Base of China (中国电子中山基地) for its reputation in the electronic acoustics industry. Following possible development in Nansha, the city considers its eastern part, of which 400 square kilometres (154 square miles) of land is available, a focus of future development.
Currently, the city is trying to re-organize its fragmented industrialization. Meanwhile, the light and labour-intensive industry characteristic of the local economy faces the problem of a shortage of land in Zhongshan.
Tourism, recreation and leisure
- Two natural hot spring resorts are located in Sanxiang Town, such as the national own firm Zhongshan Hot Springs Resort, which is ranked top 10 hot spring resorts in China because there is a rare hot spring reservoir in the Pearl River Delta.
- Former Residence of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Museum: The former residence of Sun Zhongshan is at the center of the Memorial Museum, located in the village of Cuiheng.
- Xiaolan: Many houses in the town of Xiaolan have garden pavilions dedicated to the cultivation of chrysanthemums. Roofs and balconies, streets and lanes feature countless varieties of chrysanthemum plantings.
Zhongshan is home to a number of forest parks which are designed to protect the natural features of the land and offer visitors a chance to get closer to nature. Zhongshan Tianxin Forest Park (Chinese: 中山田心森林公园) was opened in 2015 as part of the city's "green lung" initiative.
Colleges and universities
- Guangdong Pharmaceutical University (Zhongshan Campus)
- University of Electronic Science and Technology
- Guangdong Polytechnic Institute (Zhongshan Campus)
- Zhongshan Polytechnic
- Zhongshan Torch Polytechnic
High schools and institutions
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2016)
- Zhongshan Overseas Chinese Middle School ((Chinese: 中山市华侨中学) opened in 1954, is one of the first top-grade schools of Guangdong Province ((Chinese: 省一级学校) and the first national demonstrative ordinary high schools ((Chinese: 国家级示范性普通高中).
- Sun Yat-sen Memorial Secondary School (Chinese: 中山纪念中学; pinyin: Zhōngshān Jìniàn Zhōngxúe) was established in memory of Sun Yat-sen in 1934, and was built under the supervision of Soong Ching-ling, the widow of Sun Yat-sen.
- Zhongshan No. 1 Middle School (Chinese: 中山市第一中学; pinyin: Zhōngshānshì Dìyī Zhōngxúe) opened in 1908.
- Guangdong Zhongshan Experimental Middle School
- Zhongshan Guishan Middle School
- Guangdong Bowen International School
- Sanxin Bilingual School
- China-Hong Kong English School
Zhongshan Public Transport Group Co., Ltd. operates many bus routes throughout the city. Stop announcements are voiced in Mandarin and Cantonese on all buses. On BRT system buses, announcements are also voiced in English. By purchasing a Zhongshan Tong card from authorized retailers, riders can receive a discount of 50% on all bus rides. Elderly citizens are allowed to ride for free.
Chu Kong Passenger Transport (CKS) connects Zhongshan with Hong Kong with multiple daily scheduled high-speed ferry services to both Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal on Hong Kong Island and Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal in Kowloon. The trip by ferry takes about 1.5 hours.
Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Railway Multiple stations serve the city of Zhongshan.
Major Projects Under Construction
- The Shenzhen-Zhongshan Bridge will connect Zhongshan with the city of Shenzhen on the Eastern side of the Pearl River Delta. It will consist of a series of bridges and tunnels, starting from Bao'an International Airport on the Shenzhen side. Construction of the proposed 51 km (32 mi) eight-lane link is scheduled to start in 2015, with completion scheduled for 2021.
- Line 1 of the Zhongshan Urban Rail Transit network is currently under construction. The transit system will consist of monorail trains that run throughout the city. The first phase of Line 1 will include 11 stations, running north to south from Gangkou Town to Bo'ai Road.
Twin towns – sister cities
|Climate data for Zhongshan (1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.0
|Average high °C (°F)||18.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||13.7
|Average low °C (°F)||10.5
|Record low °C (°F)||1.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||34.4
|Average relative humidity (%)||79||84||85||85||85||85||83||84||83||79||77||77||82.2|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center|
- Tai Ping Huan Yu Ji 《太平寰宇记》, juan 157, 3019.
- "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部.
- "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部.
- 中国2010年人口普查分乡, 镇, 街道资料 [China 2010 census, township, street information] (in Chinese). China. 国务院. 人口普查办公室, China. 国家统计局. 人口与就业统计司 (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing Shi: 中国统计出版社. 2012. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.
- 中华人民共和国民政部 (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》 (in Chinese). 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
- "Zhongshan Torch Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone". rightsite.asia. 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "中山首个市级森林公园"十一"正式开放_中山日报报业集团·《中山商报》数字报". www.zsnews.cn. Retrieved 2017-01-26.
- "Zhongshan Overseas Chinese Middle School". Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- "广东省中山纪念中学简介". Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zhongshan.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Zhongshan.|
- Zhongshan government website
- Zhongshan News website (in Simplified Chinese)
- Zhongshan News website (translated to English by Google)
- Zhongshan Overseas Friendship Association website (in Simplified Chinese)
- ZSRenn (English information for expats and tourists in Zhongshan)
- Map of Zhongshan[permanent dead link]