From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Protein kinase C, delta
Protein PRKCD PDB 1bdy.png
PDB rendering based on 1bdy.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols PRKCD ; MAY1; PKCD; nPKC-delta
External IDs OMIM176977 MGI97598 HomoloGene55963 ChEMBL: 2996 GeneCards: PRKCD Gene
EC number,
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE PRKCD 202545 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5580 18753
Ensembl ENSG00000163932 ENSMUSG00000021948
UniProt Q05655 P28867
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_006254 NM_011103
RefSeq (protein) NP_006245 NP_035233
Location (UCSC) Chr 3:
53.19 – 53.23 Mb
Chr 14:
30.6 – 30.63 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Protein kinase C delta type is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKCD gene.[1]


Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play distinct roles in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. Studies both in human and mice demonstrate that this kinase is involved in B cell signaling and in the regulation of growth, apoptosis, and differentiation of a variety of cell types.[2] PKCD is also regulated by phosphorylation on various tyrosine residues including Y311 (by SRC).[3]


PRKCD has been shown to interact with Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1,[4] STAT1,[5] PTPN6,[6] MUC1,[7] Mammalian target of rapamycin,[8] RASGRP3,[9] Insulin receptor,[10][11] C1QBP,[12] PLD2,[13] SHC1[14] and PTPmu (PTPRM).[15]


  1. ^ Huppi K, Siwarski D, Goodnight J, Mischak H (June 1994). "Assignment of the protein kinase C delta polypeptide gene (PRKCD) to human chromosome 3 and mouse chromosome 14". Genomics 19 (1): 161–2. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1028. PMID 8188219. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: PRKCD protein kinase C, delta". 
  3. ^ Blake RA, Garcia-Paramio P, Parker PJ, Courtneidge SA (April 1999). "Src promotes PKCdelta degradation". Cell Growth Differ. 10 (4): 231–41. PMID 10319993. 
  4. ^ Hodgkinson, Conrad P; Sale Graham J (January 2002). "Regulation of both PDK1 and the phosphorylation of PKC-zeta and -delta by a C-terminal PRK2 fragment". Biochemistry (United States) 41 (2): 561–9. doi:10.1021/bi010719z. ISSN 0006-2960. PMID 11781095. 
  5. ^ Kristof, Arnold S; Marks-Konczalik Joanna, Billings Eric, Moss Joel (September 2003). "Stimulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1)-dependent gene transcription by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma is regulated by mammalian target of rapamycin". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 278 (36): 33637–44. doi:10.1074/jbc.M301053200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 12807916. 
  6. ^ Yoshida, K; Kufe D (December 2001). "Negative regulation of the SHPTP1 protein tyrosine phosphatase by protein kinase C delta in response to DNA damage". Mol. Pharmacol. (United States) 60 (6): 1431–8. ISSN 0026-895X. PMID 11723252. 
  7. ^ Ren, Jian; Li Yongqing, Kufe Donald (May 2002). "Protein kinase C delta regulates function of the DF3/MUC1 carcinoma antigen in beta-catenin signaling". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (20): 17616–22. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200436200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11877440. 
  8. ^ Kumar, V; Pandey P, Sabatini D, Kumar M, Majumder P K, Bharti A, Carmichael G, Kufe D, Kharbanda S (March 2000). "Functional interaction between RAFT1/FRAP/mTOR and protein kinase Cδ in the regulation of cap-dependent initiation of translation". EMBO J. (ENGLAND) 19 (5): 1087–97. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.5.1087. ISSN 0261-4189. PMC 305647. PMID 10698949. 
  9. ^ Brodie, Chaya; Steinhart Rivka, Kazimirsky Gila, Rubinfeld Hadara, Hyman Tehila, Ayres Jolene N, Hur Gang Min, Toth Attila, Yang Dazhi, Garfield Susan H, Stone James C, Blumberg Peter M (July 2004). "PKCdelta associates with and is involved in the phosphorylation of RasGRP3 in response to phorbol esters". Mol. Pharmacol. (United States) 66 (1): 76–84. doi:10.1124/mol.66.1.76. ISSN 0026-895X. PMID 15213298. 
  10. ^ Braiman, L; Alt A, Kuroki T, Ohba M, Bak A, Tennenbaum T, Sampson S R (April 2001). "Insulin induces specific interaction between insulin receptor and protein kinase C delta in primary cultured skeletal muscle". Mol. Endocrinol. (United States) 15 (4): 565–74. doi:10.1210/me.15.4.565. ISSN 0888-8809. PMID 11266508. 
  11. ^ Rosenzweig, Tovit; Braiman Liora, Bak Asia, Alt Addy, Kuroki Toshio, Sampson Sanford R (June 2002). "Differential effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on protein kinase C isoforms alpha and delta mediate inhibition of insulin receptor signaling". Diabetes (United States) 51 (6): 1921–30. doi:10.2337/diabetes.51.6.1921. ISSN 0012-1797. PMID 12031982. 
  12. ^ Storz, P; Hausser A, Link G, Dedio J, Ghebrehiwet B, Pfizenmaier K, Johannes F J (August 2000). "Protein kinase C [micro] is regulated by the multifunctional chaperon protein p32". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 275 (32): 24601–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002964200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 10831594. 
  13. ^ Han, Jung Min; Kim Jae Ho, Lee Byoung Dae, Lee Sang Do, Kim Yong, Jung Yon Woo, Lee Sukmook, Cho Wonhwa, Ohba Motoi, Kuroki Toshio, Suh Pann-Ghill, Ryu Sung Ho (March 2002). "Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of phospholipase D2 by protein kinase C delta in rat Pheochromocytoma PC12 cells". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (10): 8290–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108343200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11744693. 
  14. ^ Leitges, Michael; Gimborn Kerstin, Elis Winfried, Kalesnikoff Janet, Hughes Michael R, Krystal Gerald, Huber Michael (June 2002). "Protein Kinase C-δ Is a Negative Regulator of Antigen-Induced Mast Cell Degranulation". Mol. Cell. Biol. (United States) 22 (12): 3970–80. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.12.3970-3980.2002. ISSN 0270-7306. PMC 133855. PMID 12024011. 
  15. ^ Phillips-Mason PJ, Kaur H, Burden-Gulley SM, Craig SE, Brady-Kalnay SM (2011). "Identification of Phospholipase C gamma1 as a Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase mu Substrate that Regulates Cell Migration". J Cell Biochem 112 (1): 39–48. doi:10.1002/jcb.22710. PMC 3031780. PMID 20506511. 

Further reading[edit]