List of monuments and memorials of the Confederate States of America

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A typical statue (Statesboro, Georgia)

This is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials dedicated to the memory of those who served and died in service to the Confederate States during the American Civil War.

Many Confederate monuments were erected in the former Confederate states and border states in the decades following the Civil War, in many instances by the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Ladies Memorial Associations, and other memorial organizations.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Other Confederate monuments are located on Civil War battlefields.[1]

New Confederate monuments continue to be proposed, and some have been built in recent years. In Arizona, a Sons of Confederate Veterans camp erected a Confederate monument in Phoenix in 1999[7] and Confederate heritage groups dedicated a Confederate memorial in Sierra Vista in 2010.[8] The Delaware Confederate Monument was unveiled in 2007 in Georgetown, Delaware.[9] In South Carolina in 2010, the Sons of Confederate Veterans have sought to erect a monument to mark the 150th anniversary of the passage of the Ordinance of Secession in December 1860, but the cities of Charleston and North Charleston have refused them permission.[10][11]

Many Confederate monuments are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, either separately or as contributing objects within listings of courthouses or historic districts.[12]

Confederate monuments are listed here alphabetically by state, and by city within each state:

Confederate Monuments Today[edit]

Today, Confederate flags[13] and monuments are in question by many Americans as the issue of whether they should remain standing arises.

Are Confederate Monuments Memorials?[edit]

The word "monument" is meant for someone (or something) cherished because of a relevant event in the current period.[14] In the article The Meaning of Confederate Monuments[15], published by the New York Times on May 15, 2017, the discussion of Confederate monuments and their purpose in American society today is discussed. Art philosopher Arthur Danto is also included in this article and breaks down the difference between a monument and a memorial. In one segment of the piece, Danto said, "We erect monuments so that we shall always remember and build memorials so that we shall never forget." He also claims taking down the monuments eliminates the opportunity to learn of our past, "to educate Americans what this nation used to be to prevent reversion of an Antebellum South[16]".

Alabama[edit]

Montgomery

Arizona[edit]

In 2017, the presence of six monuments to the Confederacy were protested. These include a monument dedicated to Confederate Civil War veterans in Phoenix, Arizona and a historic plaque near Tucson, Arizon which commemorates the Battle of Picacho Pass.[20]

Monuments in Arizona include:

  • Arizona Confederate Veterans Monument in Greenwood Memory Lawn Cemetery in Phoenix, erected in 1999 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans[7]
  • Arizona Confederate Veterans Monument in Wesley Bolin Park, next to the Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix, erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy[7]
  • Confederate Memorial in the Historical Soldiers Memorial Cemetery area of the Southern Arizona Veterans' Cemetery in Sierra Vista. The monument was erected in 2010 to honor the twenty-one soldiers interred in that cemetery who served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and later fought in Indian wars in Arizona as members of the U.S. Army.[8]

Arkansas[edit]

Individual monuments and memorials[edit]

Robert E. Lee Monument in Marianna, the county seat of Lee County
  • Bayou Meto Hornets, Jacksonville
  • Captain Richard Tunball Banks Monument, New Edinburg
  • Children of the Confederacy, Little Rock
  • Confederate Bench, Little Rock
  • Confederate Headquarters, Little Rock
  • Confederate Last Stand, Little Rock
  • Confederate Mothers Memorial, Russellville
  • David O. Dodd Execution Site, Little Rock
  • David O. Dodd Memorial, Little Rock
  • David O. Dodd Memorial, Pine Bluff
  • General John Porter McCown Monument, Magnolia
  • General Robert E. Lee Monument, Marianna
  • General Thomas J. Churchill Memorial, Little Rock
  • General William Read Scurry Memorial, Little Rock
  • Jefferson Davis Memorial, Fort Smith
  • John Sappington Marmaduke, Marmaduke
  • Monument to Confederate Women (or "Mother of the South"), Arkansas State Capitol grounds, Little Rock, Arkansas. Unveiled in 1913. Statue depicts a mother and daughter saying good-bye to their 16-year-old son and brother who is leaving to join his father in the fighting.[21]
  • Record Cave, Dover

Other[edit]

  • Confederate Masonic Memorial, Washington
  • Confederate State Capital, Bathhouse Row in Hot Springs
  • CSS Pontchartrain, Little Rock
  • Loss of the Sultana, Marion
  • Sinking of the Sultana, Marion

Delaware[edit]

  • Delaware Confederate Monument, Georgetown, Delaware, unveiled in 2007[9]

Florida[edit]

Olustee

Georgia[edit]

Photos[edit]

Illinois[edit]

Kentucky[edit]

In 2017, removal of two Confederate memorials on the grounds of the Fayette County Courthouse in Lexington is being discussed. In November 2015, a committee, the Urban County Arts Review Board’s, voted to recommend removal of both the John Hunt Morgan Memorial and the John C. Breckinridge Memorial.[45]

Louisiana[edit]

New Orleans, Louisiana Today (2017)[edit]

In New Orleans, Louisiana, city officials declared the monuments to be "a nuisance" months after nine black churchgoers were killed in a "racially-motivated" massacre in Charleston, S.C.[citation needed] On May 4, 2017, the Los Angeles Times published A Monumental Challenge: What to do about the Statues of the Heroes of Dixie - and Defenders of Slavery[49]. The New Orleans City Council ordered the removal of statues of Confederate President Jefferson Davis; General Robert E. Lee, who resigned his U.S Army commission at the time of Virginia's secession and accepted command of the state's military forces; General Pierre G.T. Beauregard, who oversaw the Battle of Fort Sumter; and the Battle of Liberty Place Monument. Court challenges were unsucessful. The workers who removed the monuments were dressed in bullet-proof vests, helmets, and masks to conceal their identities because of concerns about their safety;[50][51] according to Mayor Landrieu, "The original firm we’d hired to remove the monuments backed out after receiving death threats and having one of his cars set ablaze."[52] "The city said it was weighing where to display the monuments so they could be 'placed in their proper historical context from a dark period of American history.'".[49] On May 19, 2017, the Monumental Task Committee[53], an organization that maintains monuments and plaques across the city, commented on the removal of the statues: "Mayor Landrieu and the City Council have stripped New Orleans of nationally recognized historic landmarks. With the removal of four of our century-plus aged landmarks, at 299 years old, New Orleans now heads in to our Tricentennial more divided and less historic."[54] Landrieu replied on the same day: "These statues are not just stone and metal. They are not just innocent remembrances of a benign history. These monuments purposefully celebrate a fictional, sanitized Confederacy; ignoring the death, ignoring the enslavement, and the terror that it actually stood for.”[55]

Maryland[edit]

  • Memorial to Confederate Soldiers - Baltimore, Maryland. Mount Royal Avenue.
  • Memorial to Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson - Baltimore, Maryland. In the western side of The Dell, Charles Village, near the Baltimore Museum of Art.
  • Rockville [Confederate] Civil War Monument - Rockville, Maryland. The monument sits on the side of the courthouse in downtown Rockville. The statue faces south. The pedestal reads "To our heroes of Montgomery Co Maryland. That we through life may not forget to love the thin gray line." Date Installed or Dedicated: January 1, 1913[56]

Mississippi[edit]

Photos[edit]

Missouri[edit]

Montana[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Silent Sam in Chapel Hill
  • Asheville, North Carolina
  • Chapel Hill: Silent Sam, 1913.
  • Concord: Confederate soldiers monument erected in 1892.[64]
  • Durham, North Carolina: Durham County Courthouse, erected in 1924.
  • Forsyth County: Forsyth County Courthouse, in Winston-Salem.
  • Graham, North Carolina: features a monument in honor of Confederate Soldiers on the north side of the Alamance County Courthouse.
  • Louisburg: Tribute to, "Our Confederate Dead". The monument is owned by the town of Louisburg, and in the center of Louisburg College.[65]
  • Monroe, North Carolina: Located on the grounds of the Old Union County Courthouse, the obelisk was erected by the Monroe chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy in 1910.[66]
  • Rocky Mount, North Carolina: Nash County Confederate Monument, erected in 1917 to honor Confederate War dead in Edgecombe and Nash Counties, rededicated to all veterans of all wars in 1976.
  • Oxford: Granville Gray, a Memorial to the Confederate Veterans of Granville County.
  • Raleigh: North Carolina State Confederate Monument, Union Square, also known as the Soldiers and Sailors Monument, on the State Capitol grounds.
  • Historic Oakwood Cemetery in Raleigh has a section devoted to Confederate soldiers' graves, with a modest marker.
  • Salisbury: Confederate Monument erected in 1909.[67]
  • Wilmington: Confederate Memorial
  • Winston-Salem, Forsythe County Courthouse.
  • Yanceyville: Caswell County Confederate Monument.
  • Gaston County, Gaston County Cour House
  • Stanley, North Carolina, Stanley Community Center & Polling Place

Ohio[edit]

Camp Chase, Columbus
  • Columbus, Camp Chase Cemetery Confederate Soldier Memorial

Pennsylvania[edit]

See the List of Confederate monuments at Gettysburg[68]

  • Gettysburg Battlefield is the site of several Confederate monuments erected between 1884 and 1982 to honor the dead of specific units or states[69]

South Carolina[edit]

Orangeburg

Tennessee[edit]

Texas[edit]

Virginia[edit]

  • Nearly all county courthouses in the Commonwealth have memorials to Virginian and Confederate dead, many of them very similar in appearance. One exception is Accomack County, on the Eastern Shore, where the Confederate monument stands in Parksley, as opposed to the county seat of Accomac. The Confederate monument in Northampton County, the other of the two counties on Virginia's Eastern Shore, stands in front of the county courthouse at Eastville. Courthouses in Essex, Middlesex, Sussex, Caroline, Orange, Albermarle, Rockbridge, Rockingham, Lancaster, King George, Stafford, Prince George, King William, Prince William, Prince Edward, Cumberland, Charlotte, Louisa, Isle of Wight, York, New Kent, James City, Charles City, Northumberland, Westmoreland, Lee, Wise, Buckingham, Nottoway, Bedford, and many other Virginia counties feature Confederate monuments. In addition, many of Virginia's independent cities are home to Confederate monuments, including those in Richmond, Lynchburg, Roanoke, Portsmouth, Charlottesville, Culpeper, Alexandria, Norfolk, Suffolk, Lexington, Waynesboro, Staunton, and Winchester.
  • Confederate Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Virginia; authorized in 1906 by United States Secretary of War William Howard Taft and unveiled in 1914[77]
  • Appomattox statue to the Confederate dead is at the intersection of Washington and Prince streets in Old Town Alexandria
  • Lynchburg has a Confederate Statue opposite Courthouse.
  • Mecklenburg County has a Confederate statue in front of the Courthouse.
  • Confederate Monument, Portsmouth, Virginia, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Portsmouth, Virginia
  • The Memorial Granite Pile, Confederate Section, Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia
  • Monument Avenue in Richmond features monuments of five Confederate leaders, in addition to African-American tennis player Arthur Ashe. His addition to the Confederate leaders was controversial.
  • Oakwood Cemetery in Richmond is the burial ground for enlisted men who died during Confederate service in the Richmond hospitals.
Richmond, Virginia Today (2017)[edit]

Mayor Levar Stonry [78] of Charlottesville commented on the matter while talking about the Robert E. Lee statue saying, "At the end of the day, the way those statues stand at the moment is a default endorsement of a shameful past that divided the nation. And to me, it defies my mission of one Richmond. You, I want to be a city that is tolerant, inclusive, and embraces its diversity, and those statues without contest do not do that".[79] There have also been cases of white supremacists and nationalists groups as well vouching for the permanency of the statues. On May 15, 2017, Richard Spencer[80] led a white nationalist group around the Robert E. Lee stature. They rallies in support of the statues for, "Confederacy is what represents us"[81]. Leiutenant Governor Ralph Northam[82] commented on the appearance of nationalists and supremacists groups, saying via email, "These actions are totally unacceptable. These people are racists. They don't represent Virginian values. I condemn their action and beliefs. I call on all Virginians who are involved in efforts to advocate for or against Virginia's history to act responsibly and honorably."

Charlottesville, Virginia today (2017)[edit]

According to the New York Times, as of May 2017 "the city of Charlottesville is preparing to remove and sell its statue of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee."[83]

Photos[edit]

West Virginia[edit]

Brazil[edit]

  • In 1865, at the end of the American Civil War, a substantial number of Southerners left the South; many moved to other parts of the United States, such as the American West, but a few left the country entirely. The most popular country of Southerners emigration was Brazil.[85] These emigrants were known as Confederados. A Confederate monument was placed in Americana, São Paulo, Brazil.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ David N. Wiggins (2006), Georgia's Confederate Monuments and Cemeteries, Arcadia Press.
  3. ^ a b Confederate Monument in Forsyth Park, City of Savannah website, accessed April 24, 2010
  4. ^ United Daughters of the Confederacy Alabama Division (ALUDC), Encyclopedia of Alabama
  5. ^ Caroline E. Janney. "Ladies' Memorial Associations". Encyclopediavirginia.org. Retrieved May 23, 2017. 
  6. ^ Caroline E. Janney. "Lost Cause, The". Encyclopediavirginia.org. Retrieved May 23, 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c Gravemarking and Monuments, Colonel Sherod Hunter Camp 1525, Sons of Confederate Veterans, accessed April 26, 2010
  8. ^ a b Confederate Memorial dedicated, Sierra Vista Herald, April 17, 2010
  9. ^ a b "Hurrah! The Delaware Confederate Monument Has a Home at Last!". Sons of Confederate Veterans Camp #2608 website. Retrieved April 24, 2010. 
  10. ^ [1][dead link]
  11. ^ "SCV: Placing secession monument at N. Chas. park mayor's idea". South Carolina Radio Network. April 22, 2010. 
  12. ^ National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  13. ^ "Flags of the Confederate States of America". Wikipedia. 2017-05-23. 
  14. ^ "monument - definition of monument in English | Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2017-05-28. 
  15. ^ http://search.proquest.com/docview/1898609316
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  17. ^ Alabama Confederate Monument, Conservation Solutions Inc., accessed April 24, 2010
  18. ^ Ladies Memorial Association, Encyclopedia of Alabama
  19. ^ Doyle, Alexander; Doud, Gorda C. (January 1, 1885). "The Confederate Monument" – via siris-artinventories.si.edu Library Catalog. 
  20. ^ Sameer Rao (June 5, 2017). "Black Leaders Fight to Remove Arizona's Confederate Monuments". ColorLines.com. 
  21. ^ a b c d National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Registration Form: Civil War Commemorative Sculpture in Arkansas, 1886-1934, 1996.
  22. ^ Widner, Ralph W., Confederate Monuments: Enduring Symbols of the South and the War Between the States, Andromeda Associates, Washington D.C., 1982 p. 32
  23. ^ a b c d e Widner, p.32
  24. ^ Widner, p.33
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  33. ^ a b Widner, p.37
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  66. ^ "Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina". docsouth.unc.edu. May 25, 2017. 
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  68. ^ List of monuments of the Gettysburg Battlefield#Confederate monuments
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  70. ^ Seigler, Robert S., A Guide to Confederate Monuments in South carolina: Passing the Silent Cup, South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 1997 p. 25
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  76. ^ Savage, John (August 10, 2016). "Where the Confederacy Is Rising Again". Politico.com. Retrieved May 23, 2017. 
  77. ^ Visitor Information: Monuments and Memorials: Confederate Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery website, accessed April 24, 2010
  78. ^ "Mayor of Richmond, Virginia". Wikipedia. 2017-04-08. 
  79. ^ Times-Dispatch, ROBERT ZULLO Richmond. "As Confederate monuments come down elsewhere, can Richmond 'offer something else?'". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 2017-05-28. 
  80. ^ "Richard B. Spencer". Wikipedia. 2017-05-28. 
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  82. ^ "Ralph Northam". Wikipedia. 2017-05-28. 
  83. ^ Gary Shapiro, "The Meaning of Our Confederate ‘Monuments", New York Times, May 15, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/15/opinion/the-meaning-of-our-confederate-monuments.html?_r=0.
  84. ^ Biennial Report of the Department of Archives and History of the State of West Virginia,Charleston, 1911, pgs. 275-279.
  85. ^ Herbert, Paul N (December 17, 2009). "Confederados forge new cultural identity". The Washington Times. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Widener, Ralph W., Confederate Monuments: Enduring Symbols of the South and the War Between the States, 1982, Andromeda Associates, Washington, DC.
  • Moltke-Hansen, David, "Honoring the Confederate Defeat the Georgia Way", Georgia Historical Quarterly, Vol. CI, #1, 2017, pp. 1-23.