List of Confederate monuments and memorials

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Statue in Statesboro, Georgia

This is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials that were established as public displays and symbols of the Confederate States of America (CSA), Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War. Part of the commemoration of the American Civil War, these symbols include monuments and statues, flags, holidays and other observances, and the names of schools, roads, parks, bridges, counties, cities, lakes, dams, military bases, and other public works.[1]

Monuments and memorials are listed below alphabetically by state, and by city within each state. States not listed have no known qualifying items for the list. Cemeteries and museums are not included in this list.[2]

For monuments and memorials which have been removed, consult Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials. Some but by no means all are included below.

This list does not include the removal of figures connected with the origins of the Civil War but not with the Confederacy, including Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney in Annapolis, Baltimore, and Frederick, Maryland, and numerous memorials to Southern politician John C. Calhoun (commemorated on the Confederacy's 1¢ stamp).

There is one phony Civil War memorial, commemorating a made-up military event, at the Trump National Golf Club in Potomac Falls, Virginia.[3]

Contents

History[edit]

Building and dedication[edit]

Chart of public symbols of the Confederacy and its leaders as surveyed by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), by year of establishment. Most of these were put up either during the Jim Crow era or during the Civil Rights Movement, times of increased racial tension.[1][4][5][note 1]

Robert E. Lee said on several occasions that he was opposed to any monuments, as they would, in his opinion, "keep open the sores of war".[7] Nevertheless, monuments and memorials[which?] began to be dedicated during the Civil War, with several more[which?] being planned for shortly after the war. Many more monuments were dedicated in the years after 1890, when Congress established the first National Military Park at Chickamauga and Chattanooga, and by the turn of the twentieth century, five battlefields from the Civil War had been preserved: Chickamauga-Chattanooga, Antietam, Gettysburg, Shiloh, and Vicksburg. At Vicksburg National Military Park, more than 95 percent of the park's monuments were erected in the first eighteen years after the park was established in 1899.[8] Many memorials were dedicated in the early 20th century, decades after the Civil War, and some have been built in the early 21st century, 150 years after the war.[6][4][9] Memorials have been dedicated on public spaces (including on courthouse grounds) either at public expense or funded by private organizations and donors. Numerous private memorials were also dedicated. Art historians Cynthia Mills and Pamela Simpson argued in Monuments to the Lost Cause that the majority of Confederate monuments, of the type they define, were "commissioned by white women, in hope of preserving a positive vision of antebellum life."[10][11]

Confederate monument-building has often been part of widespread campaigns to promote and justify Jim Crow laws in the South, and assert white supremacy.[12][6][5] According to the American Historical Association (AHA), the erection of Confederate monuments during the early twentieth century was "part and parcel of the initiation of legally mandated segregation and widespread disenfranchisement across the South." According to the AHA, memorials to the Confederacy erected during this period "were intended, in part, to obscure the terrorism required to overthrow Reconstruction, and to intimidate African Americans politically and isolate them from the mainstream of public life." A later wave of monument building coincided with the civil rights movement, and according to the AHA "these symbols of white supremacy are still being invoked for similar purposes."[13]

According to historian Jane Dailey from the University of Chicago, in many cases, the purpose of the monuments was not to celebrate the past but rather to promote a "white supremacist future".[4] Another historian, Karen Cox, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has written that the monuments are "a legacy of the brutally racist Jim Crow era".[5] Another historian from UNC, James Leloudis, stated that "The funders and backers of these monuments are very explicit that they are requiring a political education and a legitimacy for the Jim Crow era and the right of white men to rule."[14] They were erected without the consent or even input of Southern African-Americans, who remembered the Civil War far differently, and who had no interest in honoring those who fought to keep them enslaved.[15] According to Civil War historian Judith Giesberg, professor of history at Villanova University, "White supremacy is really what these statues represent."[16] Some monuments were also meant to beautify cities as part of the City Beautiful movement, although this was secondary.[17]

Many Confederate monuments were dedicated in the former Confederate states and border states in the decades following the Civil War, in many instances by Ladies Memorial Associations, United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC), United Confederate Veterans (UCV), Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV), the Heritage Preservation Association, and other memorial organizations.[18][19][20] Other Confederate monuments are located on Civil War battlefields. Many Confederate monuments are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, either separately or as contributing objects within listings of courthouses or historic districts.

In the late nineteenth century, technological innovations in the granite and bronze industries helped reduce costs and made monuments more affordable for small towns. Companies looking to capitalize on this opportunity often sold nearly identical copies of monuments to both the North and South.[21] Another wave of monument construction coincided with the Civil Rights Movement and the American Civil War Centennial.[22] Thirty-two Confederate monuments were dedicated between 2000 and 2017, but not all were new monuments, several were re-dedications to mark the 100-year anniversary of their construction.[9]

Scholarly studies of the monuments began in the 1980s. In 1983 John J. Winberry published a study which was based on data from the work of R.W. Widener.[23][24] He estimated that the main building period for monuments was from 1889 to 1929 and that of the monuments erected in courthouse squares over half were built between 1902 and 1912. He determined four main locations for monuments; battlefields, cemeteries, county courthouse grounds, and state capitol grounds. Over a third of the courthouse monuments were dedicated to the dead. The majority of the cemetery monuments in his study were built in the pre-1900 period, while most of the courthouse monuments were erected after 1900. Of the 666 monuments in his study 55% were of Confederate soldiers, while 28% were obelisks. Soldiers dominated courthouse grounds, while obelisks account for nearly half of cemetery monuments. The idea that the soldier statues always faced north was found to be untrue and that the soldiers usually faced the same direction as the courthouse. He noted that the monuments were "remarkably diverse" with "only a few instances of repetition of inscriptions".[24]

He categorized the monuments into four types. Type 1 was a Confederate soldier on a column with his weapon at parade rest, or weaponless and gazing into the distance. These accounted for approximately half the monuments studied. They are however the most popular among the courthouse monuments. Type 2 was a Confederate soldier on a column with rifle ready, or carrying a flag or bugle. Type 3 was an obelisk, often covered with drapery and bearing cannon balls or an urn. This type was 28% of the monuments studied, but 48% of the monuments in cemeteries and 18% of courthouse monuments. Type 4 was a miscellaneous group, including arches, standing stones, plaques, fountains, etc. These account for 17% of the monuments studied.[24]

Over a third of the courthouse monuments were specifically dedicated to the Confederate dead. The first courthouse monument was erected in Bolivar, Tennessee, in 1867. By 1880 nine courthouse monuments had been erected. Winberry noted two centers of courthouse monuments; the Potomac counties of Virginia, from which the tradition spread to North Carolina, and a larger area covering Georgia, South Carolina and northern Florida. The diffusion of courthouse monuments was aided by organizations such as the United Confederate Veterans and their publications, though other factors may also have been effective.[24]

Winberry listed four reasons for the shift from cemeteries to courthouses. First was the need to preserve the memory of the Confederate dead and also recognize the veterans who returned. Second was to celebrate the rebuilding of the south after the war. Third was the romanticizing of the Lost Cause, and the fourth was to unify the white population in a common heritage against the interests of African American southerners. He concluded "No one of these four possible explanations for the Confederate monument is adequate or complete in itself. The monument is a symbol, but whether it was a memory of the past, a celebration of the present, or a portent of the future remains a difficult question to answer; monuments and symbols can be complicated and sometimes indecipherable."[24]

Removal[edit]

As of April 2017, at least 60 symbols of the Confederacy had been removed or renamed since 2015, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC).[25] At the same time, laws in various states place restrictions on the removal of statutes and memorials and in some cases[which?] prohibit renaming of parks, roads, and schools.[26][27][28][29][30][31]

A 2017 Reuters poll found that 54% of adults stated that the monuments should remain in all public spaces, and 27% said they should be removed, while 19% said they were unsure. The results were split along racial and political lines, with Republicans and whites preferring to keep the monuments in place, while Democrats and minorities preferring their removal.[32][33] A similar 2017 poll by HuffPost/YouGov found that one-third of respondents favored removal, while 49% were opposed.[34][35]

Distribution[edit]

Geographic dispersal[edit]

Confederate monuments are widely distributed across the Southern United States.[24] The distribution pattern follows the general political boundaries of the Confederacy.[24] Of the more than 1503 public monuments and memorials to the Confederacy, more than 718 are monuments and statues. Nearly 300 monuments and statues are in Georgia, Virginia, or North Carolina. According to one researcher, "the absence of monuments in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina indicates those regions' Union sentiment, and the few monuments in Maryland, West Virginia, and Kentucky reflect those states' ambivalent war-time politics." The Northern States that remained part of the Union, as well as the Western States that were largely settled after the Civil War, have few or no memorials to the Confederacy.

National[edit]

United States Capitol[edit]

There are eight Confederate figures in the National Statuary Hall Collection, in the United States Capitol.

Coins and stamps[edit]

  • Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were portrayed by the US Mint on the 1925 Commemorative silver US half dollar, along with the words "Stone Mountain". The coin was a fundraiser for the Stone Mountain monument, which honors the Confederate Generals. The authorized issue was 5 million coins, to be sold at $1 each, but that proved overly optimistic and only 1.3 million coins were released, many of which ended up in circulation after being spent for face value.[49] The caption on the reverse reads "Memorial to the valor of the soldier of the South".
  • Robert E. Lee has been commemorated on at least five US postage stamps. One 1936–37 stamp featured Generals Lee and Stonewall Jackson with Lee's home Stratford Hall.[50][51]

US military[edit]

Bases[edit]

There are 10 major U.S. military bases named in honor of Confederate military leaders, all in former Confederate States.[6] In 2015 the Pentagon declared it would not be renaming these facilities,[52] and declined to make further comment in 2017.[53]

Facilities[edit]

  • Lee Barracks, named for CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee (1962), at U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York.[57]
  • Lee Barracks (de) (Mainz, Germany), closed in 1992
  • U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland:
    • Buchanan House, the Naval Academy superintendent's home, named for CSA naval officer Franklin Buchanan.[58] A road near the house is also memorialized in Buchanan's name.
    • Maury Hall, home to the academy's division of Weapons and Systems Engineering, named for US naval officer in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments at Washington and later CSA naval officer Matthew Fontaine Maury.[58][59]

Current ships[edit]

Former ships[edit]

Multi-state highways[edit]

Alabama[edit]

There are at least 107 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Alabama.[6]

The 2017 Alabama Memorial Preservation Act was passed to require local governments to obtain state permission before removing Confederate monuments and memorials.[61][62][63]

In referenda held in 2004 and 2012, Alabamans voted against removing the (unenforceable) prohibition on school integration in the Alabama Constitution.[64]

Capitol[edit]

  • Confederate Memorial Monument, also known as the "Monument to Confederate Soldiers and Sailors" (1898).[65] On June 24, 2015, in the wake of the Charleston church shooting on June 17, 2015, on the order of Governor Robert J. Bentley, the four Confederate flags, and their poles, were removed.[66]
  • Jefferson Davis Presidential Star, marble portico (1897).[67] "Placed by the Sophie Bibb Chapter Daughters of the Confederacy on the Spot where Jefferson Davis Stood when Inaugurated President of the C.S.A. Feb. 18, 1861"[68]
  • Jefferson Davis statue (1940), by UDC.[69]
  • John Allan Wyeth – M.D., L.L.D., marker. Fought in Confederate Army.

State symbols[edit]

Flag of the Governor since 1939
  • Alabama Coat of Arms (1923) and the State Seal include the Confederate Battle Flag.
  • Alabama State Flag (1895) The Alabama Department of Archives and History found in 1915 that the flag was meant to "preserve in permanent form some of the more distinctive features of the Confederate battle flag, particularly the St. Andrew's cross."[70] According to historian John M. Coski, the adoption of Alabama's flag coincided with the rise of Jim Crow laws and segregation,[71] as other former Confederate slave states, such as Mississippi and Florida, also adopted new state flags based off Confederate designs around the same time when those states instituted Jim Crow segregation laws themselves:[71]
  • The Governor's version of the State Flag includes St Andrew's Cross plus the State Coat of Arms with the Confederate Battle Flag inclusion and the military crest on the bottom.

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

The Pickens County War Memorial in Carrollton, Alabama
Confederate Monument, Clayton (circa 1910)
Detail of Troy Confederate Monument in Troy, Alabama, showing cavalryman, infantryman, and a Confederate flag made of flowers
Raphael Semmes monument in Mobile, Alabama by sculptor Caspar Buberl
Confederate Memorial Monument in Montgomery, Alabama by sculptor Alexander Doyle
Jackson County Court House, Birmingham, 1932[clarification needed][72]

Other public monuments[edit]

Newton, Alabama
Calhoun County Confederate Memorial in Ohatchee, Alabama
"Arsenal Place" memorial in Selma, Alabama
Bust of Nathan Bedford Forrest in Old Live Oak Cemetery.
  • Selma:
    • The Edmund Pettus Bridge (1940), on US Route 80, is named for Edmund Pettus, Confederate General and Alabama Grand Dragon of the KKK.[114] This is the beginning of the Selma to Montgomery National Historic Trail (1996), commemorating the Selma to Montgomery civil rights marches of 1965.
    • Defense of Selma Memorial (1907) by UDC[112][115]
    • Memorial boulder marking The Selma Ordnance and Naval Foundry "destroyed by the Federals 1865," placed "in honor of the memory of hundreds of faithful men who made these great works a base for war material for the entire Confederate Army and Navy." (1917) Alabama Division United Daughters of Confederacy.[116]
    • "Arsenal Place" memorial (1931), marking the site of the Confederate ordnance works "destroyed by the Union Army April 6, 1865"
    • A memorial arch on the grounds of the Federal Building / U.S. Courthouse honors Confederate Generals and Senators John Tyler Morgan and Edmund Pettus
    • Old Live Oak Cemetery, a Selma city-owned property, incorporates various features including:
      • Jefferson Davis Memorial Chair – an inscribed stone chair
      • Confederate Memorial Circle (1878) Confederate Memorial Association[112]
      • The Nathan Bedford Forrest Bust Monument (2000). Built partly with city funds, sponsored by Friends of Forrest and UDC. It was first located at the Vaughan-Smitherman Museum, but during protest over Forrest's KKK links trash was dumped on it[117] and it was damaged during an apparent attempt to remove the bust from its foundation. It was then moved to the Cemetery's Confederate Circle. The bust was then stolen in 2012[118] and has not been recovered, despite a $20,000 reward; the present bust is a replacement.[119] The base is inscribed, under a Confederate flag: "Defender of Selma, Wizard of the Saddle, untutored genius, the first with the most. This monument stands as testament of our perpetual devotion and respect to Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, C.S.A., 1821-1877, one of the South's finest heroes. In honor of Gen. Forrest's unwavering defense of Selma, the great state of Alabama, and the Confederacy, this memorial is dedicated. Deo vindice."[120][121]
      • A Confederate Soldier Monument (pre-1881) with cannons protecting it
      • Graves and memorials to four CSA generals: John Tyler Morgan, Edmund Winston Pettus, Nathaniel H. R. Dawson, William J. Hardee and Confederate Navy Commander Catesby ap Roger Jones
      • A building historically used for concerts and Confederate Memorial Day celebrations
      • Elodie Todd Dawson Monument (sister-in-law to President Lincoln, strong advocate for the Confederacy)[122]
  • Tallassee
    • Confederate Armory. When Richmond was threatened by Union troups, the Confederacy moved its armory to Tallassee. It is the only Confederate armory to survive the war. Only the brick shell of the large building survives. There is a historical marker.[123]
    • Confederate Officers' Quarters, 301, 303 (demolished), 305, and 307 King Street. Made necessary by the relocation of the armory. After the Civil War, Confederate Brigadier-General Birkett Davenport Fry lived at 301 King Street until 1880. The building is currently used as a law firm office, but there is a historical marker.[124]
  • Troy: "Comrades" Confederate Monument (1908) Pike Monumental Association, UCV, and UDC of Pike County, Alabama[125]
  • Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Civil War Memorial, South entrance of Amelia Gayle Gorgas Library (1914) by UDC, Alabama Division[126]

Private monuments[edit]

Mesopotamia Cemetery, Eutaw, Alabama

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks, water features and dams[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

City symbols[edit]

  • Mobile: city flag includes the city seal which incorporates a small Confederate Battle Flag along with other flags.[1]
  • Montgomery:
    • The red and gray city flag includes a strip of stars from the Confederate Battle Flag.
    • The city seal (seen here) includes the words "Cradle of the Confederacy" and "Birthplace of the Civil Rights Movement"

Flag of Mobile, Alabama.png Seal of Mobile, Alabama.png Flag of Montgomery, Alabama.svg

Alaska[edit]

  • Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area: "Confederate Gulch" and "Union Gulch" both drain the side of a mineralized mountain mass northeast of Wiseman. Gold was discovered in both gulches in the early 20th century, though only Union Gulch was mined.[140][141]

Arizona[edit]

There are at least six public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arizona.[142]

Type of monument Date Location Details Image
Public 1961 Phoenix Memorial to Arizona Confederate Troops, in Wesley Bolin Park, next to the Arizona State Capitol; UDC memorial.[143] CSA monument, Phoenix AZ, USA.jpg
Public Picacho Peak State Park A commemorative sign and a plaque commemorates the Battle of Picacho Pass, the westernmost Confederate engagement of the war. The sign is "dedicated to Capt. Sherod Hunter's 'Arizona Rangers, Arizona Volunteers' C.S.A.", while the plaque states three Union soldiers buried on battlefield and includes both US Union and CSA flags.[143][144][145] Picacho-Battle of Picacho Marker.jpg
Public 2010 Sierra Vista Confederate Memorial, Historical Soldiers Memorial Cemetery area of the state-owned Southern Arizona Veterans' Cemetery. The monument was erected in to honor the 21 soldiers interred in that cemetery who served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and later fought in Indian wars in Arizona as members of the U.S. Army.[143][146]
Private 1999 Phoenix Arizona Confederate Veterans Monument, at Greenwood Memory Lawn Cemetery; erected by SCV.[143] CSA cemetery marker, Phoenix AZ, USA.jpg
Road 1943 Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway marker 50 mi (80 km) east of Phoenix; erected by UDC. Tarred and feathered in August 2017.[143][147]
Former Fort Breckinridge Named for John C. Breckinridge, U.S. Vice President, from its opening in 1860 until 1862, when it was renamed Fort Breckenridge to distance it from Breckinridge, who had become a Confederate general. Named Camp Grant (for Union general Ulysses S. Grant) in 1865. Site closed in 1872, when Camp Grant was moved to a new location.

Arkansas[edit]

Van Buren Confederate Monument at Crawford County Courthouse in Van Buren, Arkansas

There are at least 57 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arkansas.[6]

State capitol[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock National Cemetery
Little Rock Confederate Memorial, Little Rock National Cemetery
Robert E. Lee Monument in Marianna, the county seat of Lee County, Arkansas

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

State symbols[edit]

  • Flag of Arkansas The blue star above "ARKANSAS" represents the Confederate States of America and is placed above the three other stars for the countries (Spain, France and the US) to which the State belonged before statehood. The diamond represents the nations only diamond mine with bordering 25 stars symbolizing 25th state to join.[70] The design of the border around the white diamond evokes the saltire found on the Confederate battle flag.[170]
Flag of Arkansas since 1913
Flag of Arkansas since 1913

Former[edit]

  • Fort Smith: Southside High School: Until 2016, the school nickname was the Rebels. Its mascot was Johnny Reb, a fictional personification of a Confederate soldier. The school also discontinued the use of "Dixie" as its fight song.[171]
  • Little Rock: Confederate Boulevard was renamed to Springer Boulevard in 2015. The new name honors an African-American family prominent in the area since the Civil War.[172]

California[edit]

There are at least eight public spaces with Confederate monuments in California and at least four former spaces.[6]

Monuments[edit]

  • San Diego: Confederate Soldiers Memorial (1948), at city-owned Mount Hope Cemetery[173]
  • Santa Ana: CSA monument with the inscription "to honor the sacred memory of the pioneers who built Orange County after their valiant efforts to defend the Cause of Southern Independence" in Santa Ana Cemetery. Installed in 2004.[174][175]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Confederate Corners: Established 1868. Formerly known as Springtown, it was renamed after a group of Southerners settled there in the late 1860s.[176][6] Name changed back to 'Springtown" in 2018.[177]
  • Fort Bragg: originally a U.S. Army garrison named in June 1857 for then US Army officer Braxton Bragg who later became a Confederate General. The fort was abandoned by October 1864.[178][6][179] This city was founded in 1889 near the site of the former garrison. In 2015, members of the California Legislative Black Caucus petitioned the mayor of Fort Bragg to change the name due to general's links to the Confederacy.[180][181]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Anaheim: Savanna High School (1961) mascot has always been Johnny Rebel and a fiberglass statue of a Confederate soldier stood in the courtyard from 1964 until 2009[183] when it was removed due to deterioration. The school colors are red and grey and the school fields the Savanna Mighty Marching Rebel Band and Color Guard.

Mountains and recreation[edit]

Mine[edit]

Stonewall Jackson Mine, San Diego County, circa 1872
  • San Diego County: Stonewall Jackson Mine (1870-1893), the richest gold mine in southern California history[188]

Former[edit]

  • Long Beach: Robert E. Lee Elementary School. Renamed Olivia Herrera Elementary School in August 2016.[189][6]
  • Los Angeles: Confederate Monument, Hollywood Forever Cemetery, removed in the middle of the night after activists called for its removal and spray-painted the word "No" on its back.[190][191][192]
  • San Diego:
    • A marker of the Jefferson Davis Highway[6][182] located in Horton Plaza since 1926 was moved to the western sidewalk of the plaza following a 2016 renovation. Following the Charlottesville terror attack in Virginia, the San Diego City Council removed the plaque in August 2017.
    • Robert E. Lee Elementary School, established 1959. Renamed Pacific View Leadership Elementary School in May 2016.[193][6]
  • San Lorenzo: San Lorenzo High School. Until 2017, the school nickname was the "Rebels" – a tribute to the Confederate soldier in the Civil War. Its mascot, The Rebel Guy, was retired in 2016. The school's original mascot, Colonel Reb, was a white man with a cane and goatee who was retired in 1997.[194]
  • Quartz Hill: Quartz Hill High School. Until 1995, the school had a mascot called Johnny Reb, who would wave a Confederate Flag at football games. Johnny Reb had replaced another Confederate-themed mascot, Jubilation T. Cornpone, who waved the Stars and Bars flag at football games. "Slave Day" fundraisers were phased out in the 1980s.[195]

Colorado[edit]

Robert E. Lee Mine in Leadville. Photo by William Henry Jackson.

Schools[edit]

  • Keenesburg: Weld Central Senior High School and Weld Central Middle School share the Weld Central Rebel, a Civil-war-era-soldier which used to appear with depictions of Confederate flags. School teams are named Rebels.[196]

Mine[edit]

Former[edit]

Delaware[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Delaware.[6]

District of Columbia[edit]

Florida[edit]

There are at least 61 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Florida.[6]

An August, 2017 meeting of the Florida League of Mayors was devoted to the topic of what to do with Civil War monuments.[205]

State capitol[edit]

  • Confederate monument of Leon County, on the grounds of the former Florida State Capitol, the "Old Capitol," now a museum.[206] (Erected 1882 by "our country women", moved to current location 1923.)[207]
  • Until 2016, the shield of the Confederacy was found in the Rotunda of the Florida Capitol, together with those of France, Spain, England, and the United States – all of them treated equally as "nations" that Florida was part of or governed by. The five flags "that have flown in Florida" were included on the official Senate seal, displayed prominently in the Senate chambers, on its stationery, and throughout the Capitol. On October 19, 2015, the Senate agreed to change the seal so as to remove the Confederate battle flag from it.[208] The new (2016) Senate seal has only the flags of the United States and Florida.[209]

State symbols[edit]

  • The current flag of Florida, adopted by popular referendum in 1900, with minor changes in 1985, contains the St. Andrew's Cross. It is believed that the Cross was added in memory of, and showing support for, the Confederacy.[210][211] The addition of the Cross was proposed by Governor Francis P. Fleming, a former Confederate soldier, who was strongly committed to racial segregation.

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Unveiling of Confederate Monument, Ocala, 1908

Other public monuments[edit]

United Daughters of the Confederacy members seated around a Confederate monument in Lakeland, 1915
Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park
Yellow Bluff Fort Monument

Private monuments[edit]

  • Alachua: Confederate monument, Newnansville Cemetery (2002) by the Alachua Lions Club[248]
  • Bradfordville: Robert E. Lee Monument, dedicated along Highway 319 in 1927 by UDC. Moved in the 1960s and 1990s, it is now located about a mile south of the Georgia border.[249][250]
  • Crestview: Florida's Last Confederate Veteran Memorial, City Park (1958). In 2015, ownership was transferred to trustees of Lundy's family and the memorial was moved to private property.[23][251] Soon after research determined the memorialized man had not been a veteran but had falsified his age to get veteran benefits.[252]
  • Dade City: Confederate memorial, Townsend House Cemetery (2010)[253]
  • Deland: Confederate Veteran Memorial, Oakdale Cemetery (1958)[254]
  • Gainesville: Confederate monument, Courthouse lawn (1904, moved to private cemetery 2017)[255][23]:34
  • Lake City:
    • Last Confederate War Widow, Oaklawn Cemetery, erected after her death in 1985. The memorial and the cemetery are along the Florida Civil War Heritage Trail.[256][257]
    • Our Confederate Dead, Oaklawn Cemetery (1901, rededicated 1996). A tall obelisk in memory of the unnamed soldiers who died at the nearby Battle of Olustee or in the town's Confederate hospital. The cemetery is the focal point of the opening of Lake City's annual Olustee Battle Festival.[258][259]
  • Orlando: Confederate "Johnny Reb" monument, Lake Eola Park (1911, moved to Lake Eola Park 1917, moved to a private cemetery 2017)[260][261]
  • Seffner: Confederate Memorial Park, large flag visible at the intersection of Interstates 4 and 75 near Tampa (2009). At the time it was built the flag was the largest Confederate flag ever made. Its owner, Marion Lambert, descendant of three Confederate soldiers, said the origin of his project was when then-governor Jeb Bush took down the Confederate flag that flew over a door at the Florida State Capitol. He sued his home county, Hillsborough, for taking the flag out of the county seal, and lost.[262][263]

Inhabited places[edit]

Counties[edit]

  • Baker County (1861), named for James McNair Baker, a lawyer and judge who sat as a Confederate States of America Senator from Florida.[264]
  • Bradford County (1861), named for Captain Richard Bradford, who was killed in the Battle of Santa Rosa Island, becoming the first Confederate officer from Florida to die during the Civil War.[264]
  • Hendry County (1923), named for Francis Asbury Hendry, a Confederate Captain and one of the first settlers in the area.[264]
  • Lee County (1887), named for Robert E. Lee.[265]
  • Levy County (1845), named for David Levy Yulee, a Florida businessman, senator, and strong supporter of slavery, who withdrew from the U.S. Senate in 1861 and served nine months in prison after the Civil War for supporting the Confederacy.
  • Pasco County (1887), named for Samuel Pasco, who fought for the CSA but spent much of the war as a prisoner of war. Pasco later became a state representative and US Senator from Florida.

Municipalities[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools and libraries[edit]

  • Gainesville:
    • J.J. Finley Elementary School (1939), named for CSA Brig. Gen. Jesse J. Finley.[280]
    • Kirby-Smith Center (1939), Alachua County Public Schools administrative offices. Constructed in 1900, the building was initially the all white Gainesville Graded & High School.[281] In August 2017, the school board announced plans to rename the center.[282]
  • Hillsborough County: Robert E. Lee Elementary School aka Lee Elementary Magnet School of World Studies and Technology was built 1906 and named for Lee in 1943. A school board member pushing for a rename in 2017 noted that had Lee's army won the war "a majority of our students would be slaves."[283]
  • Jacksonville[284]
  • Orlando: Robert E. Lee Middle School, renamed College Park Middle School in 2017.[285]
  • Pensacola: Escambia High School's Rebel mascot riots, 1972–1977. Before a noncontroversial name was chosen, protests and violence occurred at the school and in the community, crosses were burned on school district members' lawns, lawsuits were filed, and the Ku Klux Klan held a rally and petitioned the school board.
  • Tampa: Lee Elementary School of Technology / World Studies (1906). The school's mascot is Robert E. Lee's horse Traveller. In July 2015, students asked the school board to change the school's name.[286] In June 2017, a board member asked the board to consider the name change.[287]

State symbols[edit]

Flag of Florida since 1900

City symbols[edit]

  • Panama City: city flag is quite similar to the Florida state flag with a white background and the St Andrews cross echoing the Confederate Battle Flag, but with the city seal replacing the state seal.

Former[edit]

Memoria In Aeterna, Brandon, Florida
  • Bradenton: Confederate monument, Manatee County Courthouse, (1927).[289][23]:32 Removed in August 2017[290]
  • Hollywood: Street signs named for Confederate Generals were removed in April 2018.[291]
  • Jacksonville
    • Confederate Point Road
    • Confederate Street
    • General Lee Road
  • Jacksonville: Nathan Bedford Forrest High School (1959), originally an all white school named in protest against school desegregation, renamed to Westside High School in 2014 after decades of controversy.[292]
  • Tallahassee
    • The State Senate Seal included the Confederate Battle Flag from 1972 to 2016. The Senate voted in October 2015 to replace the Confederate symbol with the Florida State Flag in the wake of the racially motivated Charleston shootings of Dylann Roof.[293]
    • The Confederate Stainless Banner flag flew over the west entrance of the Florida State Capitol from 1978 until 2001, when Governor Jeb Bush ordered it removed.[70]
  • Tampa: Memoria In Aeterna (UDC 1911), Hillsborough County Courthouse, features two Confederate soldiers, "one is dressed in a fresh uniform, eager to join the battle. The other is heading back home in tattered clothing."[294][295] After voting in July 2017 to move the statue to a family cemetery in Brandon, Florida, the County Commission announced on August 16 that the statue could only be moved if private citizens raised $140,000 within 30 days. The funds were raised by the next day. The following day Save Southern Heritage, Veterans' Monuments of America, and UDC filed a lawsuit attempting to prevent the statue's relocation.[296] Moved September 5, 2017 to Brandon Family Cemetery; the county payed half the $285,000 cost.[294][297]
  • West Palm Beach: Confederate monument, Woodlawn Cemetery (1941). "The only one south of St. Augustine, likely the only Confederate statue in Palm Beach and Broward counties, said historian Janet DeVries, who leads cemetery tours at Woodlawn." Vandalized several times. Removed August 22, 2017. Placed in storage, since its owner, UDC, had not claimed it despite notification.[298] "Believed by local historians to be the last Confederate monument in Palm Beach County."[299]

Georgia[edit]

There are at least 174 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Georgia.[6]

A law from the early twentieth century, last amended in 2004, says that no publicly-owned military monuments can be relocated, removed, concealed, obscured, or altered unless it is to preserve, protect, or help interpretation.[31]

Stone Mountain (state monument)[edit]

Stone Mountain Confederate Memorial Carving (1923-72)

Paid for and owned by the state of Georgia. When Georgia purchased the site, "it was designated as a memorial to the Confederacy".[300] The Stone Mountain Park officially opened on April 14, 1965 – 100 years to the day after Lincoln's assassination.[301] Site of the rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan (the Second Clan), on the top of the mountain, with cross burning, in 1915.

  • Four flags of the Confederacy are flown.[302]
  • The Stone Mountain Memorial Lawn "contains...thirteen terraces — one for each Confederate state.... Each terrace flies the flag that the state flew as member of the Confederacy."[303]
  • Stone Mountain Confederate Memorial Carving, 1923-72, the largest such carving in the world.

Capitol[edit]

  • CSA Gen. John Brown Gordon Memorial, Georgia State Capitol grounds. (1907, a year after the Atlanta Race Riot. "One of the leading proponents of both the New South creed and the Lost Cause, a philosophy that greatly romanticized the South's role in the war. Moreover, he is generally acknowledged as having been the head of the Ku Klux Klan in Georgia. Gordon defended slavery as 'morally, socially and politically right' and called the Klan 'a brotherhood of peaceable, law-abiding citizens.'"[304]
  • Statue of Benjamin Harvey Hill, Confederate Senator, Georgia State Capitol.[303]
  • Statue of Joe Brown and his wife. "Brown was the Confederate governor of Georgia and after the war served as [U.S.] senator. He also was an ardent secessionist who played on white fears of interracial mingling. After the war, Brown served briefly as chief justice of the Georgia Supreme Court and authored an opinion upholding the state's ban on interracial marriage that described such marriages as 'productive of evil, and evil only, without any corresponding good.'... That opinion was cited in several briefs in the Supreme Court's recent decision on gay marriage as an example of how government has consistently erred in defining marriage."[304]
  • Painting of Hoke Smith, Governor and U.S. Senator. "Smith was a fiery white supremacist who was evangelical in his opinions. In 1911... Smith told The New York Times that blacks were not capable of governing themselves and claimed a half-century of freedom had hurt black farmers. 'Under slavery they were compelled to work and forced to learn within the limits of their capacity,' he said. 'Now there is no compulsion, and many of them neither work nor learn.'" As governor in 1906 "successfully pushed through a literacy test for voters and constitutional amendment known as the 'grandfather clause'".[304]
  • (Painting missing: Every governor since 1850 has a portrait in the capitol, except Rufus Bullock, who worked to uphold blacks' participation in politics. Forced to resign by the Ku Klux Klan; last Republican governor in Florida until 2003.[304])

State symbols[edit]

Flag of Georgia since 2003
Flag of Georgia since 2003
  • The 1956 Georgia State Flag incorporated the Confederate Battle Flag and the bars of the Confederate Star and Bars flag. According to a 2000 Georgia Senate research report the 1956 flag was adopted in an era when the Georgia General Assembly "was entirely devoted to passing legislation that would preserve segregation and white supremacy", and they changed the state flag" during "an atmosphere of preserving segregation and resentment" to the U.S. government's rulings on integration.[305]
  • The short lived 2001–2003 flag included a miniature version of the 1956 flag along with other miniature former flags

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Henry Wirz memorial, Andersonville
Crisp County Confederate Monument, Cordele
Unveiling of "Dutchy", Elberton
Monument to the Great Locomotive Chase, Ringgold
The Eternal Flame of the Confederacy Lighted [ sic ] during the "Gone with the Wind" festivities, December 14, 1939 by the Old Guard Batallion of the Gate City Guard.
It was originally located at the corner of Alabama and Whitehall (now Peachtree) streets, and was moved several times before its installation in Underground Atlanta. Redevelopment of that area led the city to want to remove it. Since it was valued at less than $500, the Georgia law controlling historic monuments did not apply. The Atlanta History Center purchased it for $10.[327][303] The Gate City Guard was "a Confederate-era city militia".[303]
  • Augusta
  • Baxley: Confederate memorial
  • Brunswick: Confederate memorial in Hanover Square[333]
  • Calhoun: Confederate Soldier and Memorial Arch, 1927.[334]
  • Canton: Confederate Memorial Arch, Brown Park, 1923.[335]
  • Cochran: Bleckley County Confederate Monument, old Cochran City School, 1910.[336][337]
  • Cockspur Island: Immortal Six Hundred at Fort Pulaski National Monument
  • Columbus:
    • Confederate Monument, city street median, 1879.[338]
    • Tyler Home – Ladies Aid Society Memorial, Veteran's Parkway, 1936.[339][dubious ]
  • Commerce: UDC monument (1941) in Spencer Park to women and veterans of the War Between the States. High school students sang Dixie at the dedication ceremony.[19]
  • Cordele: Crisp County Confederate Monument, community clubhouse, 1911.[340]
  • Crawfordville: Alexander H. Stephens statue (1893), A. H. Stephens Historic Park, Crawfordville[341]
  • Cuthbert: Randolph County Confederate Monument, city park, 1910.[342]
  • Dalton: Two memorials to CSA Gen. Joseph E. Johnston:
    • Johnson statue (1912) in downtown Dalton. The UDC commissioned Belle Kinney to sculpt the bronze statue, in which Johnston is posed with "an expression of deep thought, with his sword resting at his feet". Kinney explained, "General Johnston, in command of an army vastly inferior in numbers to General Sherman's army, had to use his brains more than his sword; hence I made the sword subservient to the brain."[343]
    • Memorial plaque at Johnston Headquarters, Huff House[344]
  • Decatur: Lost Cause Confederate Memorial. Obelisk located behind Old DeKalb County Courthouse on Decatur Square. The monument has been defaced several times.[345] A petition is calling for its removal.[346] According to the DeKalb County Commission, part of the problem is that no one wants it. "The county has spent months trying to find takers for the monument. Officials purchased advertisements and cold called museums and parks."[347]
  • Douglas: Confederate memorial, corner of Peterson Avenue (U.S. Route 441 southbound) and Ward Street (U.S. Route 221 Business westbound).
  • Eatonton: Eatonton Confederate Monument, median in front of the Putnam County Courthouse, 1908.[348]
  • Elberton:
    • "Dutchy" (dedicated 1898; removed 1900; placed on display in Elberton 1982). Wanting to promote its granite industry and honor the Lost Cause, Elberton commissioned an Italian immigrant who "had clearly never seen a Confederate soldier" to sculpt a 3,000 lb (1,400 kg) granite monument. Unveiled in 1898, the sculpture had a cartoonish face, bulbous eyes, and appeared to be wearing a Union Army uniform. Nicknamed "Dutchy" because it looked like a cross between a Pennsylvania Dutchman and a hippopotamus, the monument was pulled down and buried where it fell in the town square in 1900. The sculpture was exhumed in 1982, run through a local car wash, and then placed on display in the Elberton Granite Museum, where it remains.[349][350]
    • Elbert County Confederate Memorial (1898), Elberton Town Plaza[351]
  • Fitzgerald: Jefferson Davis Monument, Jefferson Davis Memorial Historic Site, 1920.
  • Fort Oglethorpe: Chickamauga & Chattanooga National Military Park. Numerous monuments and memorials to Confederate soldiers and units, as well as Union monuments.
  • Franklin: Heard County Confederate Monument, Veterans Park, 1999.[352]
  • Gainesville:
    • Hall County Confederate Monument, town square, 1909.[353]
    • A totem pole honoring local Confederate soldiers was erected in 1936 at Redwine Methodist Church. The monument no longer exists.[19]
    • Statue of CSA General James Longstreet at his home[19]
  • Gray: Memorial to soldiers in the War Between the States and the World War.
  • Griffin: Confederate Monument, Veterans Memorial Plaza, 1909.[354]
  • Hamilton: Memorial honoring Confederate dead.
  • Hawkinsville: Confederate Sons of America memorial (Confederate States of America?)
  • Jeffersonville: Confederate Memorial, across the street from the Twiggs County Courthouse, 1911.[355]
  • Kingston: First Confederate Hospital of the Civil War, Main Street.[356]
  • LaFayette: Walker County Confederate Monument, John B. Gordon Hall, 1909.[357][358]
  • LaGrange: Monument to the Confederate Soldier, median, 1902.[359]
  • Lincolnton: Lincoln County Confederate Monument, center of town.[360]
  • Macon: Bibb County Confederate Monument, triangle park downtown, 1879.[361] Moved to present location in 1956.
  • Madison: Morgan County Confederate Monument, Hill Park, 1909.[362]
  • Marietta: Confederate memorial (1908), Marietta Confederate Cemetery[363]
  • McDonough: Confederate Memorial, courthouse square, 1910[364]
  • Milledgeville: Confederate Memorial Fountain, downtown median, erected by United Daughters of the Confederacy, 1912. 20 feet (6.1 m) fall. Originally across from Post Office and Courthouse; later moved to street in front of Georgia Military College. "On the front is 'CSA' and the furled battle flag with a broken shaft. Under the lion's head is a covered bowl. The soldier is standing with a gun. His heroism in the presence of the conquering foe was equaled only by his generosity to his fallen enemy. Reading around the monument, starting in the back it reads: '1861'; To the memory of the Confederate soldier who's [ sic ] game is as imperishable as the everlasting hills, who's courage is as unrivaled. Sing the dawn of civilization who's name shines in undying glory to the pages of history this monument is lovingly erected by the Robert E. Lee Chapter Daughters of the Confederacy of Milledgeville, Georgia. Unconquerable patriotism and – self-sacrifice rendered, adopted the effort of his enemies. After his flag had folded forever, to destroy his proud inheritance."[365]
  • Montezuma: Macon County Confederate Monument, 1911.[366] "The first Macon County monument is currently located in Fannie Carmichael Park and faces east. It is a soldier with both hands on his grounded rifle. There are lion heads on each side. It was erected by the Phil Cook Chapter of the UDC in January 1911. The monument was moved in 1965 from the middle of Dooly Street in the middle of Montezuma."[311]
  • Monticello: Jasper County Confederate Monument, City Square, 1910.[367] "To the Confederate soldiers of Jasper County, the record of whose sublime self sacrifice and undying devotion to duty, in the service of their country is the proud heritage of a local posterity."[79]
  • Newnan: Stone monument to William Thomas Overby, called "Nathan Hale" of the Confederacy (1956). Erected 1956 by Alfred Colquitt and Newnan Chapters UDC. "[368]
  • Resaca Confederate Cemetery
  • Ringgold:
  • Sandersville: "There is a large wooden large wooden cross on a three stepped stone base dedicated by the Ladies Memorial Association in the cemetery. It was intended to serve as a tribute to Confederate war dead until a marble memorial could be erected. Now, a marble obelisk dates from 1897 (the year the local UDC chapter came about) in the Sandersville cemetery."[311]
Francis S. Bartow in Savannah, Georgia
  • Savannah:
  • Springfield: Confederate Memorial, across from Effington County Courthouse, 1923.[373]
  • Talbotton: Confederate memorial
  • Tennille: "A Confederate monument was dedicated in April 1917 by the J.D. Franklin Chapter of the UDC. It originally stood in a park called the square in the middle of the town and was originally a fountain with bowls on four sides of an eight-foot shaft. The Confederate battle flag is incised on the shaft. It is currently located at the police station."[374]
  • Thomson: Monument to the Women of the Sixties, McDuffie County Chamber of Commerce, 1911.[375]
  • Tifton: Tift County Confederate Memorial, Fulwood Park, 1910, rededicated 1992.[376]
  • Trenton: Confederate Memorial in Veterans Park next to the town square.
  • Union Point:
    • Confederate Reunion Memorial, along city sidewalk, 1874.[377]
    • Confederate Wayside Home Monument, wide median, 1936.[378]
  • Waynesboro: Confederate Memorial Cemetery, burial site of 49 Confederate soldiers[379]
  • Waynesville: Confederate Soldiers Park[380]
  • Waycross: Ware County Confederate, Phoenix Park, 1910.[381]

Private monuments[edit]

  • Albany: Confederate Memorial Park, owned and maintained by SCV and UDC.
  • Augusta: Confederate Monument at St. James United Methodist Church.[382] (No longer there as of 2017, according to street view)
  • Cordele: A retired Titan I intercontinental ballistic missile standing upright next to an interstate highway is entitled "Confederate Air Force Pad #1", commemorating Georgia's role in the Civil War. Erected 1969.[383]
  • Rome: Confederate monuments at Myrtle Hill Cemetery include:
    • Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument (1909), UDC Monument[384]
    • Women of the Confederacy Monument, "erected by the Floyd County Camp of Sons of Confederate Veterans, March 9, 1910." Dedicated by Theodore Roosevelt.[384]
Gallery[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Public works[edit]

Roads[edit]

Jefferson Davis Highway marker in Irwin County

Schools[edit]

City symbols[edit]

Photos[edit]

Hawaii[edit]

Idaho[edit]

There are several places named for the Confederacy in Idaho.[6] The settlement of Idaho coincided with the Civil War and settlers from Southern states memorialized the Confederacy with the names of several towns and natural features.[388][389][390]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Atlanta: unincorporated, and its Atlanta Airport. The area was named by Southerners after reports of a Confederate victory over Gen. Sherman in the Battle of Atlanta, which turned to be wholly false, but the name stuck.
  • Confederate Gulch: unincorporated former mining community[391][390]
  • Grayback Gulch: unincorporated former mining community, settled by Confederate soldiers and named for the color of their uniforms. Now a government campground[392]
  • Leesburg: an unincorporated former goldmining town settled by southerners and named for Robert E. Lee.[393]

Natural features and recreation[edit]

Illinois[edit]

Confederate Monument at Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago

Indiana[edit]

Confederate monument, Crown Hill National Cemetery, Indianapolis

Iowa[edit]

There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Iowa.[6]

  • Bentonsport: Monument to Lawrence Sullivan Ross (2007), Iowa's only Confederate general[405]
  • Bloomfield:[405]
    • Confederate Invasion of Iowa Monument (2005)
    • Confederate Memorial (2005)
      • Adjacent to the two Confederate memorials (plaques) is one "In honor of those citizens of Davis County who Sacrificed and Served to preserve the Union."

Kansas[edit]

There is one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in Kansas.[6]

  • Humboldt: Confederate Soldier Shot Historical Marker. The marker sits at the site of where the Union Flag was flying in Humboldt, Kansas, when a Confederate Soldier attempted to chop down the Union flag pole. The Confederate Soldier was shot as he tried to remove the flag. The marker is less of a monument to the Confederacy, and more of a historical marker describing the events when Humboldt was raided by Confederate Captains John Mathews and his friend Tom Livingston who led other white Confederate proslavers, southern sympathizing Indians, and Missouri Bushwhackers seeking fugitive slaves from Missouri who were hiding in Humboldt.[406]

Former[edit]

  • Between 1855 and 1862, the county now known as Lyon County was known as Breckinridge County, named for John C. Breckinridge, U.S. Vice President and Confederate general.[407]
  • Wichita: Confederate Flag Bicentennial Memorial (1962, removed 2015). The Confederate battle flag had been displayed at the John S. Stevens Pavilion at Veterans Memorial Plaza near downtown since 1976, when it was placed there in a historical flag display as part of the nation's bicentennial. The flag was removed in July 2015.[408]

Kentucky[edit]

There are at least 56 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Kentucky.[6]

Capitol[edit]

  • Jefferson Davis Statue, Kentucky Capitol Rotunda, 1936. In 2015, the state Historic Properties Advisory Commission voted against removing the statue.[409] In 2017 several prominent Republicans called for its removal.[410]

Monuments[edit]

Confederate Monument, Georgetown, Kentucky
Confederate Monument, Spring Hill Cemetery, Harrodsburg

Gallery[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

Highways[edit]

Schools[edit]

Former[edit]

Louisiana[edit]

There are at least 91 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Louisiana.[6]

Buildings[edit]

Confederate Memorial Hall in New Orleans

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

  • Alexandria: Rapides Parish Confederate Monument (1914)
  • Benton: Confederate Soldier Monument (1910)
  • Caddo Parish Confederate Monument, on grounds of the Caddo Parish Court House, Shreveport, dedicated in 1906 by UDC, NRHP-listed[433]
  • East Feliciana Parish – Confederate Soldiers Monument in Front of the East Feliciana Courthouse Clinton Louisiana[434]
  • Franklin: Confederate Monument (1913)
  • Lake Charles: South's Defenders Monument (1915)
  • Opelousas: Confederate Monument (1920)
  • Port Allen: Henry Watkins Allen Statue (1962)
  • Shreveport: Confederate Monument (1906)
  • St. Francisville: Confederate Monument (1903). Has Confederate flag above the inscription: "In memory of West Feliciana's Confederate dead, wherever at rest. Co. C 1st Regt. La. Cavalry".
  • Tallulah: Confederate Monument (1912)
  • Winnfield: Confederate Monument (1926)

Other public monuments[edit]

Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans
Army of Tennessee Tomb, Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Baton Rouge:
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Lee Drive[6]
  • Bell City: Jeff Davis Road
  • Bogalusa: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Bossier City
    • General Bragg Drive
    • General Ewell Drive
    • General Polk Drive
    • General Sterling Price Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Kirby Smith Drive
    • Longstreet Place
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Robert E. Lee Street
  • Chalmette: Beauregard Street
  • Gretna: Beauregard Drive
  • Houma: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Lafayette: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Lake Charles:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Beauregard Street
  • Merryville: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Monroe: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • New Orleans
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Dreux Avenue, named for Confederate General Charles Didier Dreux
    • Gayarre Place, named for Charles Gayarré, white supremacist and financial supporter of the Confederacy. Clio, muse or goddess of history, is on a monument. (Gayarré was a historian.) The monument was paid for by George Hacker Dunbar, an artilleryman during the Civil War, married to a niece of General Beauregard. The original statue was replaced in 1938, after vandals damaged it.[443]
    • Governor Nicholls Street
    • Jefferson Davis Parkway. Originally named Hagan Avenue; name changed in 1911 to coincide with the unveiling of the Jefferson Davis Monument.[441]
    • Lee Circle[6]
    • Polk Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Slidell Street
  • Pineville:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Longstreet Drive
  • Rayne: Jeff Davis Avenue

Schools[edit]

Former[edit]

To enforce a 2015 City Council decision, unsuccessfully challenged in court, in April and May 2017 the city of New Orleans removed the statues of Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Pierre G.T. Beauregard, and the Battle of Liberty Place Monument.[448][449][450] A committee appointed by the mayor recommended that the statue of Davis be moved to his home Beauvoir, now a museum, in Biloxi, Mississippi.[451]

Maine[edit]

Former[edit]

Maryland[edit]

The Confederate Soldier, Loudon Park National Cemetery, Baltimore
Talbot Boys, Easton

State symbols[edit]

  • Flag of Maryland (1904). The state flag of Maryland features the red-and-white Crossland Banner, the unofficial state flag of Maryland used by secessionists and Confederates during the American Civil War.[453][454][455][456] The current state flag started appearing after the Civil War as a form of reconciliation. The flag became official in 1904.
Flag of Maryland since 1904
Flag of Maryland since 1904

Monuments[edit]

Public monuments[edit]

Private monuments[edit]

Monument to the Unknown Confederate Soldiers, Frederick, Maryland

Inhabited places[edit]

Roads[edit]

Ferry[edit]

Gen. Jubal A. Early

Former[edit]

There were at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in Maryland[6] prior to the removal of several monuments in August 2017.

Gallery[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

There are no public spaces dedicated to the Confederacy in Massachusetts.[6]

Private memorials[edit]

  • Cambridge
    • Memorial Hall, Harvard University. Stained-glass windows to commemorate various figures, among them:
      • Honor and Peace Window (1900). There is no inscription, but a Harvard University page ([2]) explaining the windows says: "This window commemorates those who surrendered their lives in the War of the Rebellion." Portrays two warriors, one with sword high in triumph, one kneeling in defeat, who from the ribbons can be seen to be from different but related countries.
      • Student and Soldier Window (1889). Soldier wears gray uniform.

Former[edit]

Minnesota[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Minnesota.[6]

Mississippi[edit]

There are at least 131 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Mississippi.[6]

State capitol[edit]

    • Confederate Monument, Mississippi Department of Archives and History Building, dedicated June 1891.[479][480] In front of the Old Capitol.
    • Women of the Confederacy Monument (1917), on south side of Capitol grounds. Cost was $20,000, sculpted by Belle Marshall Kinney. "The monument features two female figures and one male figure, a wounded and dying soldier. To the left of the soldier, a sympathetic woman is presenting a palm of glory to the soldier, a symbol of triumph even in death. Above both the soldier and the woman stands 'Fame'. She, in turn, is placing a wreath on the head of the woman in recognition of her contribution to the Confederate cause. Below the bronze figures are four inscriptions facing each direction, and dedicated to 'our' mothers, daughters, sisters and wives. On the southern face, which is the front of the monument, is a quote from Jefferson Davis which, among other virtues, praises the women 'whose pious ministrations to our wounded soldiers soothed the last hours of those who died far from the objects of their tenderest love.'"[481]

State symbols[edit]

Flag of Mississippi since 1894
Flag of Mississippi since 1894
  • Various state insignia incorporate the state flag
  • Mississippi National Guard seal features the Flag of Mississippi (incorporating the Confederate Battle Flag) flying over a soldier at attention.
  • "Several city and county governments and all eight of Mississippi's public universities have stopped flying the state flag in recent years amid critics' concerns that it does not properly represent a state where 38 percent of residents are African-American."[482]

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Unveiling of Confederate Monument in Carrollton, Mississippi, 1905

Courthouse monuments[edit]

  • Brandon: Rankin County Confederate Monument (1907)[26]
  • Carrollton: Confederate Monument and flag, Carroll County Courthouse (1905)[483][484]
  • Charleston: Confederate Monument
  • Cleveland: Confederate Monument (1908) by the Bolivar Troop Chapter of UDC, Bolivar County
  • Columbus: Lowndes County Confederate Monument (1912)
  • Corinth: Col. William P. Rogers statue (1895, moved to grounds of Alcorn County courthouse 1920)[485]
  • De Kalb: Confederate Monument on courthouse grounds[486]
  • Ellisville: Jones County Courthouse and Confederate Monument
  • Greenville: Confederate Monument (1909), erected by United Daughters of the Confederacy. One face: "For those who encountered the perils of war in the defense of the sacred cause of states rights and constitutional government. // Jefferson Davis." Another side: "The sublimest word in the English language is duty. // Robert E. Lee // No brave battle for truth and right was ever fought in vain. // Randolph H. M'Kim." Another side: "It is due the truth of history that the fundamental principles for which our fathers contended should be often reiterated in order that the purpose which inspired them may be correctly estimated and the purity of their motives be abundantly vindicated. // Charles B. Galloway"
  • Greenwood: Confederate Monument (1913)
  • Gulfport: Confederate Monument (1911) by UDC and Board of Supervisors of Harrison County
  • Hattiesburg: Confederate Memorial (1920) by UDC
  • Hazlehurst: Confederate Monument (1917)
  • Kosciusko: Attala County Courthouse and Confederate Monument (1911)
  • Laurel: Confederate Memorial (1912)
  • Lexington: Confederate Monument (1908)
  • Macon: Confederate Memorial Monument (1901)
  • Meridian: Confederate Monument (1912)
  • Oxford: "Oxford is one of the few small Southern towns with two Confederate monuments. It was a compromise between two factions of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, one group wanting the statue placed on Courthouse Square, the other arguing that it should be on the campus of the University of Mississippi."[487] Confederate Monument (1907). Artist: John A. Stinson. Figure of Confederate soldier at parade rest, facing south. Furled Confederate flag.[488]
  • Philadelphia: Confederate Monument (1912)
  • Port Gibson: Confederate Monument (1900)[489]
  • Quitman: Clarke County Courthouse and Confederate Monument (1911)
  • Raymond: Confederate Monument (1908)
  • Ripley: Confederate Monument (1911, destroyed 1970)[note 3]
  • Sumner: Confederate Monument (1913)
  • Tupelo: Confederate Monument (1906, moved to Lee County Courthouse square in the 1930s)[490]

Other public monuments[edit]

Old Aberdeen Cemetery
Grenada, Mississippi
DeSoto County Confederate Monument, Hernando, Mississippi
  • President Jefferson Davis and Sons (2008), a life-size bronze statue commissioned by the Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV) to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the birth of Jefferson Davis.[492][493][494] The statue features Davis standing with his arms around both his son Joe, and Jim Limber, a mixed-race stepchild of the Davis family who the SVC called "a person lost in history by revisionist historians, who felt his existence would impair their contrived notions of Davis".[493] The SCV first offered the statue to the American Civil War Center at the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia in order to balance the importance of a statue already located there depicting Lincoln with his son while they visited the burned-out Confederate capital in 1865.[493][494] When the center would not "guarantee where or whether the statue would be displayed or explain how it might be interpreted", the SCV rescinded its offer.[493] The statue was eventually placed at the SVC-managed Jefferson Davis Presidential Library and Museum at Beauvoir in 2010.[492]
  • Brookhaven: Confederate Monument, Rose Hill Cemetery[486]
  • Brooksville: Our Heroes Monument (1911)
  • Canton: Howcott Monument to Loyal Servants of the Harvey Scouts (1894)
  • Clinton: Confederate Monument (1928), Clinton Cemetery[495]
  • Columbus:
  • Corinth: Corinth Confederate Memorial (1992)
  • Crystal Springs: Confederate Monument, Crystal Springs Cemetery[486]
  • Duck Hill: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1908)
  • Fayette: Confederate Soldier Sculpture (1904)
  • Forest: Confederate Monument, Western Cemetery[486]
  • Greenville: Confederate Monument, Greenville Cemetery[486]
  • Greenwood: Confederate Memorial Building (1915)[498]
  • Grenada: Confederate Monument (1910) in Public Square[499]
  • Hattiesburg: Forrest County Confederate Memorial (1910)
  • Heidelberg: Confederate Statue (1911)
  • Hernando: DeSoto County Confederate Monument, Hernando Memorial Cemetery[500]
  • Liberty: Confederate Monument (1871), the first Confederate monument in Mississippi. Dedicated by the Liberty Lodge of Masons.[501]
  • Louisville: Confederate Monument (1921)
  • Natchez: Confederate Monument (1890)
  • Okolona: Our Confederate Dead (1905)
  • Oxford: To Our Confederate Dead 1861-1865. In University Circle, at the intersection of University Ave. "Oxford is one of the few small Southern towns with two Confederate monuments. It was a compromise between two factions of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, one group wanting the statue placed on Courthouse Square, the other arguing that it should be on the campus of the University of Mississippi."[487] Erected 1906 by Albert Sidney Johnston Chapter 379 U.D.C.
  • Pontotoc: Confederate Monument in town square, dedicated in 1919,[502] or the 1930s[503]
  • Port Gibson: Claiborne County's Tribute to Her Sons Who Served in the War of 1861–65. (1906)
  • University: Confederate Monument
  • Vaiden: Vaiden Confederate Monument (1912)

Inhabited places[edit]

Water features and dams[edit]

  • Hattiesburg:
    • Jefferson Davis Lake
    • Jefferson Davis Lake Dam

Roads[edit]

  • Bay St. Louis: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Beaumont:
    • Jeff Davis Parkway
    • Robert E. Lee Street
  • Biloxi: Jefferson Davis Avenue
  • Bogue Chitto:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Lee Drive[6]
  • Corinth: Confederate Street
  • De Kalb: Jeff Davis Road
  • Duck Hill: Jeff Davis Road
  • Florence: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Greenwood: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hattiesburg:
    • Bedford Forrest Road
    • Robert E. Lee Road
  • Hollandale: Jeff Davis Road
  • Indianola:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Leakesville: Jeff Davis Road
  • Lexington: Robert E. Lee Street
  • Long Beach: Jeff Davis Avenue
  • Lucedale: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Meridian: Jeff Davis School Road
  • Moss Point:
    • Anderson Road
    • Barron Road
    • Beauregard Road
    • Bragg Road
    • Breckinridge Road
    • Cleburne Road for Patrick Cleburne
    • Early Road
    • Ewell Road for Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • Forrest Road
    • Hood Road
    • Joseph E. Johnston Road
    • Kirby Smith Road
    • Longstreet
    • Magruder Road
    • Pemberton Road
    • Pickett Road
    • Robert E. Lee Road
    • Van Dorn
  • New Albany: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Oxford:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Lamar Avenue (the main thoroughfare) named for Lucius Q. C. Lamar drafter of Mississippi's articles of succession.[510]
  • Pascagoula:
    • Baker Road
    • Hardee Road
    • Imboden Road
    • Jeb Stuart Road
    • Mosby Road
    • Robertson Road
    • Wheeler Road
  • Picayune:
    • Jefferson Davis Parkway
    • Longstreet Lane
    • Pemberton Place
  • Prairie: Jeff Davis Road
  • Senatobia:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Forrest Avenue
    • Longstreet Lane
  • Tupelo:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Jeb Stuart Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Vicksburg National Military Park
    • Pemberton Circle, at the location of the John C. Pemberton monument.
    • Pemberton Avenue, road passing the site where Pemberton surrendered his forces to Ulysses S. Grant.
  • Waveland: Jeff Davis Avenue
  • Wesson: Beauregard Road

Highways[edit]

  • Jefferson Davis Highway
  • Lee Highway[6]

Schools[edit]

Confederate Cemetery Memorial, University of Mississippi
  • Brooklyn:
  • Caledonia: Caledonia High School: The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Confederates."[511]
  • Hattiesburg:
  • Jackson: The School Board has announced the following elementary schools will be renamed before the 2018–2019 school year:[512]
  • Oxford:
    • Jeff Davis Elementary School (1959)
    • University of Mississippi ("Ole Miss").
      • Confederate Cemetery Memorial (1906)[514]
      • The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Rebels."
      • From 1979 to 2003, its mascot was Colonel Reb.
      • The name "Ole Miss" itself was how slaves once addressed the mistress of the plantation.[515][516][517] It can be found on campus, on signs, sweatshirts, and in the football cheer.
      • Various plaques have been installed and modified to try and contextualize the school's history.
      • Lamar Hall (1977) memorializes Lucius Q. C. Lamar, a slaveholder who drafted the Mississippi's order of secession and funded his own CSA regiment. Post-war, he agitated for white supremacy, such as a speech before the 1875 election which he said "involved the supremacy of the unconquered and unconquerable Saxon race,"[510]
  • Rolling Fork: Sharkey Issaquena Academy (private school). The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Confederates."[511]

Photos[edit]

Former[edit]

  • Jackson
    • Davis Magnet IB School. Renamed "Barack Obama Magnet IB School" in 2017.[518]

Missouri[edit]

There are at least 20 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Missouri.[6]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

Former[edit]

Montana[edit]

Confederate Memorial Fountain in Helena, Montana before removal.

There is at least one public space[clarification needed] dedicated to the Confederacy in Montana.[6][dead link]

Former[edit]

Nevada[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Nevada.[6]

Natural Features[edit]

Former[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

Confederate Monument (1910), Finn's Point National Cemetery.

There is at least one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in New Jersey.[6]

New Mexico[edit]

New York[edit]

Confederate Monument, Woodlawn National Cemetery, Elmira, New York

There are at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in New York.[6][540]

Monuments[edit]

Private monuments[edit]

Roads[edit]

Governor Andrew Cuomo has twice requested the Army, unsuccessfully, to have these streets renamed.[545]

North Carolina[edit]

Zebulon Baird Vance Monument in Asheville, North Carolina

There are at least 140 public spaces with Confederate monuments in North Carolina.[6]

State capitol[edit]

  • North Carolina State Capitol. The Capitol currently houses the offices of the Governor of North Carolina. The legislature relocated to its current location in the North Carolina State Legislative Building in 1963.
    • North Carolina State Confederate Monument (1895), also known as the Soldiers and Sailors Monument. "This 75-foot-tall monument to fallen Confederate soldiers is located on the State Capitol grounds. At the top of the column is a statue depicting a Confederate artillery soldier holding a gun. Near the bottom of the column are two statues, one representing the Confederate infantry and the other a Confederate cavalryman. Two 32 pounder naval cannons stand on each side of the monument."[547] Contains the Seal of North Carolina. Front: "To Our Confederate Dead." Rear: "First at Bethel, last at Appomattox".
    • Monument to North Carolina Women of the Confederacy, also called Confederate Women's Monument (1914). "The seven foot tall monument, made possible through a private donation, honors the hardships and sacrifices of North Carolina women during the Civil War. A bronze sculpture depicts an older woman, a grandmotherly figure, holding a book as she sits next to a young boy holding a sword. It sits on top of a granite base with bronze bas-relief plaques. The woman, representing the women in the South as the custodians of history, imparts the history of the Civil War to the boy. The two relief plaques portray the Civil War; the eastern side shows soldiers departing for war and leaving their loved ones behind, while the western side depicts a weary or injured Confederate soldier returning home."[548]
    • Henry Lawson Wyatt Monument (1912). He was the first Confederate soldier to die in battle. Inscription on the front: HENRY LAWSON WYATT / PRIVATE CO. A / BETHEL REGIMENT / NORTH CAROLINA VOLUNTEERS / KILLED AT BETHEL CHURCH / JUNE 10, 1861 / FIRST CONFEDERATE SOLDER | TO FALL IN BATTLE IN THE | WAR BETWEEN THE STATES. Rear: WYATT'S COMRADES / IN DASH TO BURN THE HOUSE / GEORGE T. WILLIAMS / JOHN H. THORPE / ROBERT H. RICKS / ROBERT H. BRADLEY / THOMAS FALLON / ERECTED BY THE NORTH CAROLINA | DIVISION, UNITED DAUGHTERS | OF THE CONFEDERACY. / JUNE 10, 1912 Base, east face: GORHAM. Co. FOUNDERS.[549]
    • Samuel A'Court Ashe Monument (1940) (two plaques on a large granite block).[550]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

  • Albemarle: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1925)[551]
  • Asheville:
    • Zebulon Baird Vance Monument, a granite obelisk erected in 1896.[552] Near the obelisk, a small granite marker memorializes the Dixie Highway, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee, and Col. John Connally, a Confederate officer who was wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg. Near the Buncombe County Courthouse entrance, a smaller obelisk memorializes Confederate soldiers from Buncombe County who fought at Chickamauga and in other Civil War battles.[552] The monument was vandalized in August 2017 and 4 individuals out of 30–40 protesters were arrested for trying to remove it with crowbars.[553]
    • Monument to 60th Regiment North Carolina Volunteers (1905)
    • Memorial plaque to Lieutenant William Henry Hardy (1930), "the First Soldier from Buncombe County to Fall in the War Between The States"[554]
  • Bakersville: Mitchell County's Confederate Dead Monument (2011) commemorates 79 men "who died for their freedom and independence. And not for slavery."[414]
  • Burgaw: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1914)
  • Burnsville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (2009)
  • Clinton: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1916). "In honor of the Confederate soldiers of Sampson County who bore the flag of a nation's trust and fell in a cause though lost still just and died for me and you."[79]
  • Columbia: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1902); "In appreciation of our faithful slaves"[555]
Confederate Soldiers Monument at Old Cabarrus County Courthouse, Concord, North Carolina
  • Concord: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1892) at Old Cabarrus County Courthouse[551]
  • Currituck: Confederate Soldiers Monument "To Our Confederate Dead 1861–1865" (1918)[556]
The Confederate Soldiers Monument in Durham (1924) was pulled down during a protest in August 2017 and at least one arrest was made.[557]
Old Chatham County Courthouse, Pittsboro, North Carolina (1908)

Other public monuments[edit]

Joseph E. Johnston, Bentonville
Silent Sam in Chapel Hill
Confederate Soldiers Monument (1868) in Fayetteville
Fort Fisher Confederate Monument, Kure Beach
Lenoir, North Carolina
Lexington, North Carolina (ca. 1920)
New Bern, North Carolina
Henry Lawson Wyatt in Raleigh, North Carolina
Confederate graves and monument, Historic Oakwood Cemetery, Raleigh
Gloria Victis, Salisbury
  • Asheboro: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1911)
  • Asheville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903), Newton Academy Cemetery[551]
  • Beaufort: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1926), Carteret County Courthouse[551]
  • Bentonville: Monuments located at the Battle of Bentonville site include:
  • Unincorporated Cabarrus County, near Concord: Stonewall Jackson Youth Development Center (a correctional facility)
  • Chapel Hill: Silent Sam (1913). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Commissioned by Daughters of the Confederacy. Sculpted by John Wilson; cost was $7,500. The monument depicts a Confederate soldier facing north while grasping his rifle firmly in both hands. He lacks a cartridge box for ammunition; thus he is "silent". On the front of the monument a brass plaque depicts a woman clad in classical dress, representing North Carolina, resting her hand on the shoulder of a seated student, convincing him to take up arms.[565] A plaque reads: "To the sons of the University who entered the war of 1861–65 in answer to the call of their country and whose lives taught the lesson of their great Commander that Duty is the sublimest word in the English language."
In August 2017, hundreds of protesters gathered at the statue, calling for its removal, and thousands signed a change.org petition to remove Silent Sam.[566] University Chancellor Carol Folt stated that if the university could remove the statue it would, but state law prohibited it.[567] North Carolina governor Roy Cooper advised University of North Carolina president Margaret Spellings that the university could remove the statue if there was "a real risk to public safety."[566] W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Chairman of the History Department at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who has studied the dedication speeches of Confederate monuments and memorials, said "You can often find very clear invocations of the obligation of white Southerners to defend and promote Anglo-Saxon civilization, as they put it." As example, he cites the 1913 dedication of Silent Sam: "The speaker, a Confederate Army veteran named Julian Carr, boasted of how, just after his return from Appomattox, he 'horsewhipped a Negro wench' who had 'maligned a Southern lady.'"[568]
  • Charlotte:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1977)
    • Jefferson Davis Plaque (1960)
    • Last Meetings of the Confederate Cabinet Marker (1915)
    • 1929 Confederate Reunion Marker (1929). "Erected by citizens of City of Charlotte and County of Mecklenburg commemorating the 39th Confederate Reunion June 4–7, 1929." Currently (2018) protected by a glass enclosure.[569]
    • Judah P. Benjamin Memorial "erected in His Honor by Temple Israel and Temple Beth El, the Jewish Congregations of Charlotte, as a Gift to the North Carolina Division, United Daughters of the Confederacy" (1948)[570]
  • Concord:
  • Cornelius: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1910), Mt. Zion United Methodist Church. 19600 Zion Avenue.[572]
  • Edenton: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1909); moved from courthouse in 1961[551]
  • Enfield: Confederate Soldiers Memorial (1928) at Elmwood Cemetery. Originally located in downtown Enfield, the sculpture contains a drinking fountain.[551]
  • Faison: Monument to the "Confederate Grays" 20th Regiment North Carolina State Troops (1932)[551]
  • Fayetteville:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1868) at Cross Creek Cemetery; the first Confederate monument in North Carolina[551]
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1902)[551]
    • Confederate Arsenal (1928)
    • Judah P. Benjamin marker (1944)[573]
  • Fletcher:
    • Jefferson Davis marker (1931), recognizing Davis as "A Statesman with Clean Hands and Pure Heart"[574]
    • Orren Randolph Smith marker (1930)[575]
    • Henry Timrod marker (1930), recognizing Timrod as "Laureate of the Confederacy"[576]
    • Matthew Fontaine Maury marker (1932). A Confederate Navy commander and slave owner, Maury investigated resettling American slaves in Brazil.[577][578]
    • Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway marker (1926), "In Loving Memory of Robert E. Lee...'The Shaft Memorial and Highway Straight Attest His Worth – He Cometh to His Own'"[579]
    • Zebulon Baird Vance marker (1928)[580]
    • Albert Pike marker (1928), "Arkansas Poet of the Confederacy"[581]
    • Calvary Episcopal Church Memorial (1927), "During the Civil War this Church was Used as Barracks by Confederate Troops"[582]
  • Forest City: Forest City Confederate Monument (1932)
  • Franklin: Confederate Soldiers Memorial (1909)
  • Gatesville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1915)[551]
  • Greensboro:
  • Halifax: General Junius Daniel marker (1929)[584]
  • Harnett County: Confederate Monument (1872) at Chicora Civil War Cemetery to soldiers killed at the Battle of Averasborough, "In Memory of our Confederate Dead Who Fell Upon That Day"[585]
  • Hendersonville: Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway Marker (1926; re-dedicated 2008)[586]
  • High Point: Confederate Monument (1899), Oakwood Cemetery[587]
  • Holly Springs: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1923)
  • Jacksonville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1957)
  • Justice: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1912) at Stallings Memorial Park[551]
  • Kinston:
  • Kure Beach:
    • Confederate Memorial (1921)[citation needed]
    • Fort Fisher Confederate Monument (1932); UDC monument erected at former site of Fort Fisher headquarters building[588]
  • Lenoir: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1910) in town square[551]
  • Lexington: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1905)[551]
  • Louisburg:
    • Confederate Memorial Drinking Fountain (1911)
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1914) to "Our Confederate Dead". The monument is owned by the town of Louisburg, and is located at Louisburg College.[589]
  • Middletown: Confederate Soldiers Monument (2001)
  • Mocksville: Davie County War Memorial (1987)
  • Monroe: Located at the Old Union County Courthouse; the obelisk (1910) was erected by the UDC Monroe chapter[590]
  • Morgantown: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1918)
  • New Bern: Confederate Monument (1885), Cedar Grove Cemetery[591]
  • Oxford: Granville Gray (1909), a memorial to the Confederate Veterans of Granville County
  • Raleigh:
  • Reidsville: From 1910 to 2011, the monument stood in Reidsville's downtown area. In 2011, a motorist hit the monument, shattering the granite soldier which stood atop it. Placing the monument back in the center of town sparked a debate between local officials, neighbors and friends – which resulted in it being placed at its current site – the Greenview Cemetery. The new site contains a brand new statue. The original 101-year-old statue was completely destroyed.[592]
  • Rockingham: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1930)
  • Rocky Mount: Nash County Confederate Monument (1917), honoring Confederate war dead in Edgecombe County and Nash Counties; rededicated to all veterans of all wars in 1976
  • Salisbury: Gloria Victis ("Glory to the Defeated"), also called Fame Confederate Monument. Cast in Brussels in 1891, Gloria Victis is one of two nearly-identical sculptures by Frederick Ruckstull (the other being the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, removed from public display in Baltimore in 2017). Gloria Victis appeared first at an exhibition in Paris, and then at a studio in a New York City, where it was purchased by the UDC as a Confederate monument for Salisbury. The 23 ft (7.0 m) high bronze statue features an allegorical angel with outstretched wings dressed in robes with a laurel wreath on her head. In one hand she supports a dying soldier holding a battered rifle, while in her other hand—held high—she holds a second laurel wreath with which to place on the soldier when he expires. Anna Morrison Jackson, widow of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, attended the 1909 dedication in Salisbury.[593][594][595]
  • Selma: The Last Grand Review Monument (1990)[596]
  • Stanley: Monument at Stanley Community Center and Polling Place[citation needed]
  • Sylva: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1915)
  • Tarboro:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1904)[551]
    • Henry Lawson Wyatt Memorial Fountain (1910)[551]
  • Thomasville: Thomasville and Davidson County Civil War Memorial (1910)
  • Tuxedo: Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway Marker (1927)[597]
  • Washington, Virginia: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1888), Oakdale Cemetery[551]
  • Weldon: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1908; relocated 1934)[551]
  • Wentworth: Rockingham County Confederate Monument (1998)[598]
  • Wilmington:
  • Windsor: Memorial to the Confederate Dead, erected in 1896 by the Confederate Veterans Associations of Bertie County[599]
  • Yanceyville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1921), Old Caswell County Courthouse[551]

Inhabited places[edit]

Natural features[edit]

  • North Carolina Confederate Veterans Forest (1956)[600] 125,000 spruce pine trees were planted by the UDC in the 1940s as a living memorial to North Carolina Confederate Veterans. The forest was rededicated in 2001. The area is located beneath Mt. Hardy near the Blue Ridge Parkway.

Roads[edit]

  • Charlotte:
    • Jefferson Davis Street
    • E & W Stonewall Streets[601]
    • E & W Hill Streets[601]
  • Clinton: General Lee Lane
  • Creedmoor:
  • Dunn: General Lee Avenue
  • Fayetteville: General Lee Avenue
  • Flat Rock: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hope Mills: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Kinston: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Lexington: Confederate Street
  • Mebane:
    • Beauregard Lane
    • Hill Lane
    • Pickett Lane
    • Stonewall Drive
    • Stuart Lane
  • Monroe: Confederate Street
  • Salisbury:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Stonewall Road
    • Stuart Street
  • Sanford: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Spencer:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Stonewall Road
    • Stuart Street
  • Spring Lake: General Lee Street
  • Stonewall: Stonewall Street
  • Watha: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Wilmington: (all within the Pine Valley neighborhood)
  • Windsor: Confederate Street

Former[edit]

Ohio[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Confederate Soldier Memorial, Camp Chase, Columbus
The Lookout (1910), Johnson's Island, Ottawa County[606]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Cleveland: John Adams High School uses the Rebels team name, but the mascot more closely resembles a cavalier than a Confederate soldier.[610]
  • Willoughby: Willoughby South High School dropped its Confederate uniformed mascot and removed all remaining Confederate imagery from the school while retaining the Rebels team name and school colors grey and blue. In 1993 the school dropped Stars and Bars as the school song and removed Confederate imagery from school uniforms.[610]
  • McConnelsville: Morgan High School is named for Confederate General John Hunt Morgan. Their nickname is the "Raiders".

Former[edit]

Oklahoma[edit]

Confederate Monument at Cherokee National Capitol
Robert E. Lee School in Durant, Oklahoma

There are at least 13 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oklahoma.[6]

Stand Watie Monument, Polson Cemetery, Delaware County

Buildings[edit]

  • Ardmore: Oklahoma Confederate Home, operated as OK Confederate Home from 1911 to 1942. Renamed Oklahoma Veterans Center after last residing confederate veteran passed.[613][614]

Monuments[edit]

Schools[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Jackson County (1907) sources dispute if the name is for the CSA General or President Jackson
  • Town of Stonewall (1874) for Stonewall Jackson

Roads[edit]

  • Jay: Stand Watie Road

Oregon[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Albany: South Albany High School. After splitting from "Albany Union" school in 1971, the new "south" school embraced a Confederate theme. The mascot is the "Rebel", athletic teams are nicknamed "the Rebels", the school colors are red and gray, and a Confederate flag hung in the gymnasium until it was removed during the 1989-90 school year.[622]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Virginia State Monument (1917), Gettysburg Battlefield.
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery.

There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Pennsylvania.[6]

Monuments[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Gettysburg: Confederate Avenue
  • McConnellsburg: Confederate Lane

South Carolina[edit]

There are at least 112 public spaces with Confederate monuments in South Carolina.[6]

The state restricted the removal of memorials and statues with the South Carolina Heritage Act (2000), which states that "no historical monument can altered or moved without a two-thirds vote in both chambers of the state's General Assembly".[626]

South Carolina State House[edit]

In August, 2017, "a coalition of Columbia-area groups is calling for the S.C. Legislature to remove several monuments on the State House grounds."[627]
  • South Carolina's Confederate Dead (1879), also known as the South Carolina Soldiers Monument.[628] It was unveiled before a crowd of 15,000.[629] The monument was largely destroyed by lightning in 1882, but was replaced by the state two years later.[629] It is positioned on the northern end of the State House grounds. After a decision by the Legislature to remove the Confederate flag from the dome of the State House, where it had flown since 1962, the monument flew a traditional version of the Confederate Battle Flag from 2000 to 2015; the flag was the subject of protests and national level political debate.[630][631] In 2015 it was removed by a 2/3 vote of both houses of the Legislature.[632] It is displayed in the South Carolina Confederate Relic Room & Military Museum.
  • Monument to the South Carolina Women of the Confederacy (1912),[6] a bronze monument by Frederic W. Ruckstull.[628]
  • Wade Hampton III Confederate Monument (1906),[6] 16-foot bronze equestrian statue, also by Frederick Ruckstull.
  • Benjamin Tillman monument (1940). Tillman was Governor and U.S. Senator. "Tillman was not in the Civil War but was the architect of the state's 1895 Constitution that stripped blacks of most of their postwar civil rights."[569]

State holiday[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Greenwood County Courthouse, Greenwood, South Carolina
  • Anderson: Anderson County Confederate Memorial, "Our Confederate Dead," dedicated in 1902.[634] The inscription reads: "The world shall yet decide, in truth's clear, far-off light, that the soldiers who wore the gray, and died with Lee, were in the right."[414]
  • Bamberg: Bamberg County Confederate Monument[6]
  • Bishopville: Lee County Monument to the Confederate Dead at Lee County Courthouse (1913)[635]
  • Darlington: Monument to the Confederate Dead (1880)
  • Edgefield Confederate Monument (1900)
  • Greenwood: Confederate Monument (1903)[636]
  • Lancaster: Our Confederate Soldiers Monument (1909)
  • Lexington: Lexington Confederate Monument (1886)
  • Manning: Confederate Monument (1914)
  • St. Matthews: "Lest We Forget" Monument (1914)
  • Union: Union County Confederate Memorial (1917)
  • Walterboro: Confederate Monument (1911)
  • York County: County removed a Confederate flag and portraits of CSA leaders from inside the court room. Being challenged in court.[637][dead link]

Other public monuments[edit]

Orangeburg
  • Charleston: Monument "To the Confederate Defenders of Charleston — Fort Sumter 1861–1865" and around the bottom of the base, "Count Them Happy Who For Their Faith And Their Courage Endured A Great Fight", and "H. A. MacNeil Alexis Rudier, Fondeur Paris" (1932).[639] Contains two bronze allegorical statues. The male figure, nude, is the defending warrior, with a sword in his right hand and a shield bearing the South Carolina State Seal in his left hand. The female figure, in a long dress, "represents the City of Charleston. She holds in her right hand a garland of laurel, symbolizing immortality, and with her left hand points towards the sea to the enemy. On the base are scenes in relief of figures repairing the shattered walls of Fort Sumter with sand bags. Eleven stars on the lower base represent the eleven Confederate states."[640]
  • Chester Confederate Monument[6]
  • Clemson: Old Stone Church Confederate Memorial
  • Clinton Confederate Monument[6]
  • Columbia:
  • Conway: Our Confederate Dead Monument
  • Cross Hill: Confederate Monument (1908)
  • Fort Mill:
    • Catawba Indian Monument (1900)
    • Defenders of State Sovereignty Monument (1891)
    • Faithful Slaves Monument (1895). Local cotton mill owner Samuel E. White and the Jefferson Davis Memorial Association dedicated the memorial to honor the "faithful slaves who loyal to a sacred trust toiled for the support of the army with matchless devotion and sterling fidelity guarded our defenceless homes, women and children during the struggle for the principles of our Confederate States of America."[641] This monument is seen as an example of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy movement.
  • Gaffney: Cherokee County Confederate Monument (1922)[642]
Monument at Battery White
  • Georgetown: Confederate Monument (1929) at Battery White[643]
  • Jonesville Confederate Monument (1907)
  • Kingstree: Confederate Soldier, Williamsburg County Monument (1910)
  • Laurens Confederate Monument (1910)
  • Marion: Marion Monument "To the Dead and Living Confederate Veterans" (1903)
  • Moncks Corner: Berkely County Confederate Monument (2011)
  • Newberry Confederate Monument (1880)
  • Orangeburg:
    • Confederate Monument (1893)
    • Confederate Flag and Monument (2001)
  • Prosperity: Confederate Veterans Monument (1928)
  • Rock Hill: Ebenezer Confederate Monument (1908)
  • Salem Confederate Monument (2004)
  • Spartanburg: Confederate Soldier Monument (1910)
  • Walhalla: "Our Confederate Dead" Monument (1910)
  • Westminster Confederate Monument (1980)
  • Williamston: Confederate Monument (1942)
  • Winnsboro: Confederate Memorial (1901)
  • York: York County Confederate Monument (1906)

Inhabited places[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Aiken: Beauregard Lane
  • Anderson:
    • Beauregard Lane
    • Bonham Court
  • Beaufort: Beauregard Court
  • Bluffton: Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Charleston:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
  • Clinton:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Columbia:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Bonham Road
    • Bonham Street
    • Confederate Avenue
    • South Bonham Road
  • Cowpens: Stonewall Drive
  • Daufuskie Island: Beauregard Boulevard
  • Early Branch: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Easley: Stonewall Drive
  • Fort Mill: Confederate Street
  • Greenville: Stonewall Lane
  • Greenwood: Bonham Court
  • Greer: Beauregard Court
  • Hartsville: Stonewall Street
  • Honea Path: Beauregard Drive
  • Lake City: Beauregard Street
  • Lancaster: Confederate Avenue
  • Modoc: Beauregard Drive
  • Mountville: Jefferson Davis Road
  • Orangeburg:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Street
    • Stonewall Jackson Boulevard
    • Stonewall Jackson Street Southwest
  • Rock Hill
    • North Stonewall Street
    • South Stonewall Street
  • Saluda
    • Bonham Avenue
    • Bonham Road
  • St. Matthews: Stonewall Lane
  • Summerville:
    • Beauregard Court
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Timmonsville:
    • Robert E. Lee Avenue
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Trenton: Thomas S. Jackson Road
  • Union:
    • Bonham Station Road
    • General Lee Drive
  • Wagener: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Walterboro: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Westminster: Stonewall Drive
  • Walterboro: Robert E. Lee Drive

Schools[edit]

  • Bishopville:
    • Lee Central High School[6]
    • Lee Central Middle School[6]
    • Lee County Career & Technology Center[6]
    • Lee High School[6]
  • Greenville: Wade Hampton High School
  • Ehrhardt: Jackson Academy (private school): The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Confederates"[511]
  • Clemson University: Named after the Confederate soldier and son of John C. Calhoun that bequeathed the land to the state for the creation of an agricultural college.[644]

Tennessee[edit]

There are at least 80 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Tennessee.[6] The Tennessee Heritage Protection Act (2016) and a 2013 law restrict the removal of statues and memorials.[26]

The Tennessee legislature designated Confederate Decoration Day, the origin of Memorial Day, as June 3, and in 1969[645] designated January 19 and July 13, their birthdays, as Robert E. Lee Day and Nathan Bedford Forrest day respectively.

Buildings[edit]

  • Murfreesboro: Forrest Hall at Middle Tennessee State University. The Tennessee Board of Regents has unanimously recommended the name change, on the recommendation of a campus task force, and the university president, but it has yet to pass the Tennessee Historical Commission, which plans "public hearings."[646][647]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Confederate Women monument, Nashville
  • Blountville: Confederate Memorial (1928)
  • Benton: Confederate memorial (2009)[648]
  • Blountville: Confederate Memorial (1928)[648]
  • Bolivar: Monument to the Memory of Fallen Confederate Sons (1873)
  • Brownsville: Confederate Memorial (1909)
  • Carthage:
    • Smith County Confederate Monument[648]
    • Smith County War Memorial (1976)[648]
  • Charlotte:
    • Confederate Monument (2001): "Confederate Veterans Memorial honoring those from Dickson County who served the CSA."
    • Confederate Veterans Memorial (2012) "honoring gallant soldiers, veterans and their families."[648]
  • Cleveland: Confederate Monument (1911)[23]:191
  • Cookeville: Eternal Flame, honors all Putnam County veterans[648]
  • Covington: Confederate Monument (1895)[648]
  • Decaturville: Confederate Monument[648]
  • Dover: Fort Donelson. The Confederate fort was named for CSA General Daniel Smith Donelson but captured by Union General Grant in 1862, who retained the Fort's name saying "Fort Donelson will hereafter be marked in Capitals on the maps of our United Country..." Also contains Confederate Monument donated by United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1933.[649]
  • Dresden: Weakley County Confederate Monument (1915)
  • Dyersburg:
    • Confederate Monument (1905)
    • United Confederate Veterans Civil War Plaques (1926)[648]
  • Erwin: War Memorial[648]
  • Fayetteville:
    • Civil War Memorial in memory of the three thousand Confederate soldiers of Lincoln County (1906)
    • Women's Monument to those who kept up the responsibilities of farms and businesses during the Civil War (1904)[648]
Confederate Monument "Chip", Franklin, Tennessee

Other public monuments[edit]

Pyramid of cannonballs commemorate Patrick Cleburne in Franklin, Tennessee
Jefferson Davis statue in the former Confederate Park, Memphis

Private monuments[edit]

  • Nashville
    • Nathan Bedford Forrest Statue, made of fiberglass over foam, 25 feet high, on private land[659] near Interstate 65, installed in 1998, built with private money. It is surrounded by Confederate battle flags, constituting what the owner calls "Confederate Flag Park." (No government recognizes it as a park, and the entrance is chained shut with a "No Trespassing" sign.) The giant statue is visible from the highway to anyone entering the city from the south.[660] It has been called "hideous"[660] and "ridiculous."[661] There have been numerous calls for its removal. Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam said: "It's not a statue that I like and [ sic ] that most Tennesseans are proud of in any way."[662] Former Nashville Mayor Megan Barry called the statue "an offensive display of hatred."[662] In 2015, Nashville's Metro Council voted to petition the Tennessee Department of Transportation to plant obscuring vegetation;[663] the Department declined, because it is private land.[660] ("Never mind that the T.D.O.T. itself removed the obscuring vegetation back in 1998, when the statue was first erected."[660][662]) There has been occasional vandalism; in December 2017 it was covered in "pussy-hat pink" paint,[660] which Bill Dorris, current owner of the land, says he intends to leave.[664] He also said that if trees are planted to block the view from I-65, he "would make the statue taller."[659] It was sculpted, at no charge, by notorious racist Jack Kershaw, an attorney for Martin Luther King's murderer, famous for having said "Somebody needs to say a good word for slavery."[665][666]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Brentwood
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Culleoka: General Lee Road
  • Dandridge
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Elizabethton: Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Eva: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Forest Hills: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Franklin:
    • General J.B. Hood Drive
    • General Nathan Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Gallatin: Robert Lee Drive
  • Nashville:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Confederate Drive
    • General Forrest Court
    • Robert E. Lee Court
    • Robert E. Lee Drives (two different streets with the same name)
  • Newport
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Driv
  • Oak Hill: Stonewall Jackson Court
  • Pulaski
    • Sam Davis Avenue
    • Sam Davis Trail
  • Sardis: Jeff Davis Lane
  • Smyrna
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Lee Lane[6]
    • Longstreet Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
    • Sam Davis Road
    • Stonewall Drive

Inhabited places[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Chapel Hill: Forrest High School
  • Nashville: Father Ryan High School, named for Abram Ryan, called "Poet of the Confederacy".
  • Paris: Robert E. Lee School
  • Sewanee: Sewanee: The University of the South. "Nowhere is the issue of Confederate remembrance more nettlesome than at Sewanee, whose origin[s] are entwined with the antebellum South and the Confederacy."[667] Confederate flags are in stained glass windows of the chapel, as is the Seal of the Confederacy.[667] It benefited greatly at its founding by a large gift from John Armfield, at one time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, the largest and most prosperous slave trading enterprise in the country. Students as late as 1871 were required to wear uniforms of "cadet gray cloth".[668] Confederate flags hung in the chapel from its dedication in 1909 until the mid-1990s when they were removed "reportedly to improve acoustics".[669] There is an official portrait hanging at the University of Bishop Leonidas Polk, "an ardent defender of slavery,"[667] who was in charge of the celebration of the cornerstone laying in 1857, and said the new university will "materially aid the South to resist and repel a fanatical domination which seeks to rule over us."[670] He resigned his ecclesiastical position to become a major general in the Confederate army (called "Sewanee's Fighting Bishop"), and died in battle in 1864. His official portrait at the University depicts him dressed as a bishop with his army uniform hanging nearby. However, his portrait was moved from Convocation Hall to Archives and Special Collections in 2015.[671] The Confederate flag was also emblazoned on the university mace that led processions marking the beginning and ending of the term from 1965 until 1997. At a special chapel service to celebrate Jefferson Davis' birthday, the Ceremonial Mace was consecrated to the memory of Nathan Bedford Forrest, the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, by Bishop Charles C. J. Carpenter of Alabama – one of the clergy who opposed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s activities in Birmingham in 1963 (see A Call for Unity), prompting King to write his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in response.[669]
The Vice Chancellor is the chief academic officer at the university; the chancellor is a bishop of the Episcopal church. Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee both turned down offers of the position.[672] (Sewanee has a portrait of Davis.[673]) The first vice chancellor was Rt. Rev. Charles Todd Quintard, called "chaplain of the Confederacy". He compiled the Confederate Soldiers' Pocket Manual of Devotions (Charleston, 1863).[674]
The university's chief donor was John Armfield, at the time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, the largest slave-trading firm in the U.S. He purchased the site and gave the university an endowment of $25,000 a year. In addition to Polk, Bishop Stephen Elliott, the first and only Presiding Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America, and Bishop James Hervey Otey, later prominent in the Confederacy, were significant founders of the university. Generals Edmund Kirby Smith, Josiah Gorgas, and Francis A. Shoup were prominent in the university's postbellum revival and continuance.
    • Monument to Edmund Kirby Smith, Texas Avenue. Smith was, after the war, a Sewanee professor of botany and mathematics.[667]
  • Tullahoma: Robert E. Lee Elementary (1964)
Calhoun Hall, named for slave owner and Confederate supporter W. H. Calhoun.

Theme park[edit]

  • Pigeon Forge: "Rebel Railroad" was a small theme park built in 1961, its main attraction being a simulated Confederate steam train which afforded "'good Confederate citizens' the opportunity to ride a five mile train route through 'hostile' territory and to help repel a Yankee assault on the train". Rebel Railroad was purchased in 1970 by Art Modell, owner of the Cleveland Browns.[683][684][685] In 2018 it is operating under the name Dollywood.

Former[edit]

Confederate Memorial Hall, now known as Memorial Hall, Vanderbilt University.

The 2016 Tennessee Heritage Protection Act puts "the brakes on cities' and counties' ability to remove monuments or change names of streets and parks."[652]

  • Franklin: The Forrest Crossing Golf Course, owned by the American Golf Corporation, changed its name to the Crossing Golf Course on September 22, 2017.[686] It had been named after Confederate General and Klansman Nathan Bedford Forrest.[686]
  • Memphis:
    • Three Confederate-themed city parks were "hurriedly renamed" prior to the passage of the Tennessee Heritage Protection Act of 2013. Confederate Park (1908) was renamed Memphis Park; Jefferson Davis Park was renamed Mississippi River Park; and Nathan Bedford Forrest Park was renamed Health Sciences Park.[687][688]
    • Jefferson Davis Monument (1964), in the former Jefferson Davis Park. The city is suing the state to get it removed.[689][690][691] It was removed under police guard December 20, 2017.[692]
    • Nathan Bedford Forrest Monument (1904): It was installed thanks in part to Judge Thomas J. Latham's wife.[693] It was located in the former Nathan Bedford Forrest Park, in 2015 renamed Health Sciences Park. The City of Memphis is suing the state to get it removed.[694][690][691] It was removed, under police guard, December 20, 2017.[692]
  • Nashville: Confederate Memorial Hall on the campus of Vanderbilt University was built in 1935. The school renamed the building "Memorial Hall" in August 2016, and returned to the United Daughters of the Confederacy the 2016 value ($1,200,000) of their donation at the time of its construction.[695]

Texas[edit]

There are at least 178 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Texas.[696][6]

State Capitol[edit]

  • "The Texas Capitol itself is a Confederate monument," according to then-Land Commissioner Jerry E. Patterson.[697]
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903) features four bronze figures representing the Confederate artillery, cavalry, infantry, and navy. A bronze statue of Jefferson Davis stands above them.[698] The inscription reads: "Died for state rights guaranteed under the constitution. The people of the South, animated by the spirit of 1776, to preserve their rights, withdrew from the federal compact in 1861. The North resorted to coercion. The South, against overwhelming numbers and resources, fought until exhausted."[699]
    • Hood's Texas Brigade, a monument "to memorialize those [who] fought for the Confederacy".[700] "The monument includes a depiction of a Confederate soldier, quotes by Confederate leaders, a flag of the Confederacy and the Confederate battle flag."[701] These are the only Confederate flags currently (2017) visible in the Capitol.[702] Representative Eric Johnson has called for its removal.[701]
    • Terry's Texas Rangers, a monument "to memorialize those [who] fought for the Confederacy"[700] (1907).
    • Children of the Confederacy plaque (1959)[703]. Texas House Speaker Joe Straus in 2017 called for its removal, citing the statement "was not a rebellion, nor was its underlying cause to sustain slavery" as "not accurate, and Texans are not well-served by incorrect information about our history," in a letter to the State Preservation Board that oversees the Capitol grounds. Representative Eric Johnson has joined in the call for its removal.[704]

State symbols[edit]

  • The reverse side of the Seal of Texas (1992) includes "the unfurled flags of the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, the United Mexican States, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America". The Confederate flag is rendered as the Stars and Bars.

State holiday[edit]

Buildings[edit]

  • Austin
  • Houston
    • Jefferson Davis Hospital was built on a Confederate graveyard and operated from 1924–1938. The building saw many government uses after that, but was eventually converted to artist lofts in 2004 after being listed on the National Register of Historic Places and designated a heritage landmark to be preserved in perpetuity. The hospital was named for Jefferson Davis, former president of the Confederacy, in honor of the Confederate soldiers who had been buried in the cemetery and as a means to console the families of the deceased.[705]
    • A second Jefferson Davis Hospital operated several miles away on Allen Parkway from 1938 to 1999, when it was demolished.[706]

Monuments[edit]

Many monuments were donated by pro-Confederacy groups like Daughters of the Confederacy. County governments at the time voted to accept the gifts and take ownership of the statues.[707][708]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

  • Alpine: Confederate Colonel Henry Percy Brewster (1963)[709]
  • Aspermont: Historical marker, "County Named for Confederate Hero Stonewall Jackson", Stonewall County Courthouse (1963)
  • Bastrop: Monuments at Bastrop County Courthouse include:
    • Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1910)[710]
    • Historical marker, "Home Town of Texas Confederate Major Joseph D. Sayers" (1963)[711]
  • Bay City: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1913), Matagorda County Courthouse[712][713]
  • Belton: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Bell County Courthouse[714]
  • Bonham: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1905), Fannin County Courthouse[715]
  • Comanche: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (2002), Comanche County Courthouse[716]
  • Corsicana: Call to Arms (Confederate Soldiers' Monument), by Louis Amateis (1907), Navarro County Courthouse.[717][718] A Civil War bugler stands in uniform holding a bugle to his mouth with his proper right hand. He holds a sword in his proper left hand at his side. He wears a hat with a feather in it and knee-high boots. A bedroll is slung over his proper left shoulder and strapped across his chest and proper right hip. The sculpture is mounted on a rectangular base.[719] "Isaac O'Haver was a member of Co K of the 17th VA Cavalry. He was a 17 year-old bugler for his unit. He was born Sep. 20, 1844 and died at the age of 27 on March 30, 1872. He is buried at the Ladoga Cemetery."[720] The plaques on the monument read:
    • South side: The Call to Arms Erected 1907 by Navarro chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy To commemorate the valor and heroism of our Confederate Soldiers It is not in the power of mortals to command success The Confederate Soldier did more - he deserved it. "But their fame on brightest pages penned by poets and by pages Shall go sounding down the ages"
    • West side: "Nor shall your glory be fought while fame her record keeps or honor points the hollowed spot where valor proudly sleeps" "Tell it as you may It never can be told Sing it as you Will It never can be sung The Story of the Glory of the men who wore the gray"
    • East side: "It is a duty we owe the dead who died for us: - But where memories can never die - It is a duty we owe to posterity to see that our children shall know the virtues And rise worthy of their sires".
    • North side: The soldiers of the Southern Confederacy fought valiantly for The liberty of state bequeathed them By their forefathers of 1776 "Who Glorified Their righteous cause and they who made The sacrifice supreme in That they died To keep their country free"[719]
  • Clarksville: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Red River County County Courthouse[721]
  • Denton: Denton Confederate Soldier Monument, Denton County Courthouse (1918)[722] A 15-person Confederate Memorial Committee met for three months in 2017–18 and recommended "adding context" to the monument rather than removing it, a suggestion accepted unanimously by the county commmissioners. Once the nature of the historical context has been determined, it will be submitted to the Texas Historical Commission for approval.[723]
  • Fort Worth: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1953), Tarrant County Courthouse[724]
Dignified Resignation in Galveston, Texas
  • Galveston: Dignified Resignation (1909) by Louis Amateis at the Galveston County Courthouse. With his back turned to the US flag while carrying a Confederate flag, it is the only memorial in Texas to feature a Confederate sailor.[725][726] It was "erected to the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate States of America." An inscription on the plaque reads, "there has never been an armed force which in purity of motives intensity of courage and heroism has equaled the army and navy of the Confederate States of America."[699]
  • Gainesville: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Cooke County Courthouse (1911)[727][728]
Georgetown, Texas

Other public monuments[edit]

Confederate Memorial Plaza in Anderson, Texas
Confederate Monument, Beaumont
  • Alpine: CSA Gen. Lawrence "Sul" Ross Monument (1963)
  • Amarillo: Confederate Soldier Statue (1931)[725]
  • Anderson: Confederate Memorial Plaza (2010).[759] The plaza beside the Grimes County courthouse flies a Confederate flag behind a gate with metal lettering reading "Confederate Memorial Plaza." A metal statue depicts one of several Grimes County residents who fought with the 4th Texas volunteer infantry brigade in Virginia.[699]
  • Athens: Henderson County Confederate Monument (1964)
  • Austin:
    • Littlefield Fountain, University of Texas, commemorates George W. Littlefield, a university regent and CSA officer. An inscription reads, "To the men and women of the Confederacy who fought with valor and suffered with fortitude that states [sic] rights be maintained."
    • Texas Confederate Women's and Men's Historical Markers, at 3710 Cedar St. and 1600 W. Sixth, commemorate campgrounds built to house and care for widows, wives, and veterans of the Confederacy.[700]
  • Beaumont: "Our Confederate Soldiers" Monument (1912)
  • Clarksville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1912)
  • Cleburne: Cleburne Monument (2010)
  • Coleman: Hometown of Texas CSA Col. James E. McCord Monument (1963)
  • College Station: A statue of Lawrence Sullivan Ross, Confederate general and former president of A&M University is located on the campus of Texas A&M University. In August 2017 the Chancelor of the university, John Sharp, confirmed that the university will not be removing the statue from the campus.[760]
  • Corpus Christi: Queen of the Sea (1914; restored 1990), bas-relief by Pompeo Coppini; UDC-sponsored Confederate memorial featuring an allegorical female figure – representing Corpus Christie – holding keys of success while receiving blessings from Mother Earth and Father Neptune, who are standing next to her.[725] "Coppini was abhorrent of war", and in Queen of the Sea "he crafted a sculpture that symbolized peace and captured the spirit of Corpus Christi".[761]
  • Dallas: Confederate War Memorial. Originally erected in City Park in 1897, but relocated to Pioneer Park Cemetery in 1961 due to highway construction.[762] Dallas Mayor Mike Rawlings called in 2017 for a task force to decide what to do it, as well as the statue of Lee in Lee Park.[545]
  • El Paso:
    • Hometown of Texas CSA Capt. James W. Magoffin Monument (1964)
    • CSA Maj. Simeon Hart Monument (1964)
  • Farmersville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1917), Farmersville City Park[763]
  • Fort Davis: Post founded 1854 and named for then US Secretary of War Jefferson Davis. Contains the "Old Fort Davis Monument" (1963).[764] Fort Davis National Historic Site
  • Fort Worth: Confederate Soldier Memorial (1939), Oakwood Cemetery[725]
  • Gainesville Confederate Heroes Statue (1908) in Leonard Park[765][766]
  • Gonzales: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Confederate Square. Dedicated on June 3, 1909. To "our Confederate dead."[767][768]
  • Greenville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1926)
  • Holliday: Stonewall Jackson Camp 249 Monument (1999)
  • Houston:
  • Kermit: Col. C.M. Winkler Monument (1963)
  • Marshall:
    • Confederate Capitol of Missouri Monument (1963)
    • Confederate Monument (1906)
    • Home of Last Texas Confederate Gov. Pendleton Murrah Monument (1963)
  • Miami: Col. O.M. Roberts Monument (1963)
John H. Reagan Memorial in Palestine, Texas. The allegorical figure seated beneath Reagan represents the Lost Cause of the Confederacy.[725]

Private monuments[edit]

Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza, Palestine, Texas

Inhabited places[edit]

Counties[edit]

Municipalities[edit]

Parks[edit]

  • Davis Mountains State Park (1938) named for the mountain range
  • Davis Mountains (geographic feature in West Texas around and named for Fort Davis)
  • Holliday: Stonewall Jackson Campground
  • Lakeside, Tarrant County: Confederate Park. The two Confederate flags displayed on each side of the park's marker were removed by the Texas Department of Public Transportation in 2017. Marker text:

    Site of Confederate Park // Local businessman Khleber M. Van Zandt organized the Robert E. Lee Camp of the United Confederate Veterans in 1889. By 1900 it boasted more than 700 members. The Club received a 25-year charter to create the Confederate Park Association in 1901, then purchased 373 acres (151 ha) near this site for the “recreation, refuge and relief of Confederate soldiers" and their families. Opening events included a picnic for veterans and families on June 20, 1902, and a statewide reunion September 8–12, 1902, with 3,500 attendees. The park thrived as a center for the civil and social activities on Texas Confederate organizations. By 1924 the numbers [ sic ] of surviving veterans had greatly diminished, and the Confederate Park Association dissolved when its charter expired in 1926.[774]

Roads[edit]

  • Austin:
    • Jeff Davis Avenue. The Austin City Council has begun the process of renaming this road.[775]
    • Robert E. Lee Road. Austin City Council has begun the process of renaming this road.[776]
  • Conroe:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jubal Early Lane
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • El Paso: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Hamilton: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Hemphill:
    • Confederate Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Holliday: Stonewall Road
  • Houston:
    • Robert E. Lee Road
    • Robert Lee Road
    • Tuam Street, another major artery is named for Tuam, CSA Gen. Dowling's birthplace in Irelamd
  • Hunt: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Jacksonville: Jeff Davis Street
  • Kermit East Winkler Street
  • Lakeside Confederate Park Road
  • League City: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Levelland: Robert Lee Street
  • Liberty: Confederate Street
  • Livingston: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Marshall:
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Missouri City
    • Beauregard Court
    • Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Breckinridge Court
    • Confederate Drive
    • Pickett Place
  • Richmond:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Ridgley: Bedford Forrest Lane
  • Roma: Robert Lee Avenue
  • San Antonio:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Sterling City: Robert Lee Highway
  • Sweetwater: Robert Lee Street
  • Tyler:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
  • Victoria: Robert E. Lee Road

Note: "There are similarly named streets in towns and cities across east Texas, notably Port Arthur and Beaumont, as well as memorials to Dowling and the Davis Guards, not least at Sabine Pass, where the battleground is now preserved as a state park"

Schools[edit]

  • Abilene:
    • Jackson Elementary School
    • Johnston Elementary School
    • Lee Elementary School (1961)[6]
  • Amarillo:
    • Lee Elementary School[6]
    • Tascosa High School. Confederacy iconography was dropped in 1974. The school dropped its mascot, Johnny Reb, and stopped playing "Dixie" as their fight song. The Dixieland Singers became the Freedom Singers. Miss Southern Belle became Tascosa Belle. The "Rebel" nickname remained, but other ties to the Civil War disappeared.[777]
  • Austin:
  • Buda: Jack C. Hays High School. The school uses the "Rebel" nickname for its athletic teams.[781] Mascot "Colonel Jack" no longer has a Confederate flag belt buckle but still dresses in grey. The school dropped the Confederate flag as an official symbol in 2010 and the school district banned it from all district property in 2012.[782] In 2015 it replaced the school song "Dixie".
  • Baytown:
Stonewall Jackson Elementary School, Dallas
  • Dallas:
    • Albert Sidney Johnston Elementary School
    • John H. Reagan Elementary School
    • Robert E. Lee Elementary School
    • Stonewall Jackson Elementary School (1939)
  • Denton: Lee Elementary School (1988)[6]
  • Eagle Pass: Robert E. Lee Elementary School
  • Edinburg: Lee Elementary School[6]
  • El Paso: Lee Elementary School[6]
  • Evadale: Evadale High School. The school uses a Confederate flag-inspired crest. Its athletic teams are nicknamed the "Rebels".[783]
  • Fort Davis:
  • Gainesville: Robert E. Lee Intermediate School
  • Grand Prairie: Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1948)
  • Houston:
  • Marshall: Robert E. Lee Elementary School
  • Midland:
  • North Richland Hills, home of the Richland High School "Rebels" and "Dixie Belles". The school mascot is "Johnny Rebel".[785]
  • Port Arthur: Lee Elementary School (1959)[6]
  • Robert Lee:
    • Robert Lee Elementary School
    • Robert Lee High School
  • Rosenberg: B. F. Terry High School. Named for Confederate hero Benjamin Franklin Terry.
  • San Angelo: Lee Middle School (1949)[6]
  • San Antonio: Robert E. Lee High School (1958). After voting against a name change in 2015, the school board voted in August 2017 to change the name of the school.[786] In October, district trustees voted 5-2 to name the school Legacy of Educational Excellence, or LEE High School.[787] Its mascot is currently the Volunteer and the school colors are red and grey. Its pep squad, currently called the Southern Belles, were once called the Confederates. Its varsity dance team and junior varsity drill team are respectively named the Rebel Rousers and Dixie Drillers.[699]
  • Stonewall: Stonewall Elementary School
  • Tyler:
    • Hubbard Middle School (1964), named for Confederate Col. Richard B. Hubbard
    • Robert E. Lee High School (1958). Called "the city's most radioactive Confederate symbol," the possible renaming of the school was the subject of active discussion at meetings in August and September, 2017. In 1970, as a result of a statewide federal desegregation order, the school had to get rid of "its Confederate-themed mascot (the Rebels), fight song ("Dixie"), and prized Confederate flag (so large that it required twenty boys to carry). Its beloved Rebel Guard, a squadron of boys handpicked by an American-history teacher to dress in replica Confederate uniforms at football games and fire a cannon named Ole Spirit after touchdowns, had to find a new name. Same for the Rebelettes drill team."[788]

Former[edit]

  • Arlington: Six Flags Over Texas theme park: In August 2017 removed the Stars and Bars Confederate Flag after flying it for 56 years along with the flags of the other countries that Texas has been part of. In the 1990s the park renamed the Confederacy section the Old South section and removed all Confederate Battle Flags.[789]
  • Austin:
    • Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1939) was renamed for local photographer Russell Lee in 2016.[700] He was a prominent photographer with the Farm Security Administration and the first Professor of Photography at the University of Texas.
    • University of Texas:
      • The 2015 decision to move a statue of Jefferson Davis from its mall to a museum was fought by SCV[clarification needed] in court. The Confederates likened the move to the destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL while University President Gregory L. Fenves said "it is not in the university's best interest to continue commemorating him (Davis) on our Main Mall."[790]
      • After the removal of the Jefferson Davis statue in 2015 there were three remaining Confederate statues left on the South Mall at the University of Texas. The statues were of Generals Robert E. Lee and Albert Sidney Johnston and Confederate Postmaster John H. Reagan. They were dedicated in 1933. In August 2017 the university removed the statues and relocated them to a museum.[791][792][793]
  • Dallas:
    • Robert E. Lee Statue (1936) located in Lee Park along Turtle Creek Boulevard. Dedicated in 1936 to celebrate the Texas Centennial Exposition. Removed in September 2017 after the city council voted 13–1 to remove it.[794][795][796] One person was killed during the removal operation.[797]
    • Robert E. Lee Park: The park has been temporarily renamed "Oak Lawn Park" until a permanent name can be approved.[798][799]
    • Lee, Gano (Richard Montgomery Gano), Stonewall, Beauregard, and Cabell (William Lewis Cabell, mayor of Dallas) streets are currently named for Confederate Generals. They will be renamed at a future date.[800]
    • William L. Cabell Elementary (1958). Renamed Chapel Hill Preparatory (2017).[801][802]
  • Fort Worth:
  • Garland: South Garland High School removed various Confederate symbols in 2015. A floor tile mosaic donated by the Class of 1968 and a granite sign in front of the school were replaced. Both had incorporated the Confederate flag, which was part of the school's original coat of arms. In addition, the district has dropped "Dixie" as the tune for the school fight song.[805] The school changed its Colonel mascot's uniform from Confederate gray to red and blue in 1991.[806]
  • Houston:
    • Downing Street. Renamed Emancipation Avenue in 2017.[807]
    • Lee High School (1962). Originally known as Robert E. Lee High School, district leaders dropped the "Robert E." from the school's title to distance the school from the Confederate general.[808] School officials changed the name to Margaret Long Wisdom High School in 2016.
    • Westbury High School changed the nickname of its athletic teams from the "Rebels" to the "Huskies."[809]
  • San Antonio: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1899), located in Travis Park next to The Alamo.[810] Removed September 2017.[811][812][813]

Utah[edit]

Vermont[edit]

Type of monument Date Location Details Image
Former school until 2004 Brattleboro The Brattleboro Union High School mascot was "Colonel Reb", a Confederate plantation owner, until 2004.[815]
Former school 1961-2017 South Burlington The South Burlington High School Confederate-themed Captain Rebel mascot used the Confederate Battle Flag and accompanied the playing of Dixie. It was controversial during the Civil Rights era and during each decade since. The school board voted to retain the name in 2015 but to change it in 2017. "The Rebel Alliance", a community group opposed to changing the mascot, has led two successful efforts to defeat the school budget in public votes as a protest.[816][817] The students chose the name "Wolves" and rebranding is proceeding.[818]

Virginia[edit]

There are at least 223 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Virginia,[6] more than in any other state.[819][820]

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Arlington National Cemetery
Leesburg

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Charlottesville

Other public monuments[edit]

Robert E. Lee hitched his horse in Berryville, Virginia while on his march to Gettysburg
Lee-Jackson Bivouac Shaft, Chancellorsville
Thomas Jonathan Jackson, Charlottesville
Robert Edward Lee, Charlottesville
Big Bethel UDC Monument, Langley Air Force Base, Hampton
Turner Ashby Monument, Harrisonburg
Lebanon, Virginia
Mount Jackson
Lee to the Rear!, Wilderness Battlefield, Orange County, Virginia
Howitzer Monument, Richmond
Memorial Granite Pile, Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia. Photo by William Henry Jackson.
Cedar Hill Cemetery, Suffolk, Virginia
Monument near where Stonewall Jackson's arm was buried, Wilderness, Virginia
  • Harrisonburg: Turner Ashby Monument (1898), located on Turner Ashby Lane[844]
  • Hopewell: Confederate Memorial (1949)
  • Lebanon: Confederate Monument (1914)
  • Lexington
    • Francis H. Smith Confederate Monument (1931)
    • Stonewall Jackson Monument and Arch
    • Washington and Lee University
      • Previously Washington University, was renamed weeks after Robert E. Lee died as the President of the university.[845]
      • A large Confederate battle flag and a number of related flags were removed from the Chapel in 2014.[846][847]
      • Inside Lee Chapel, in place of an altar, is a large marble statue of Lee, recumbent, wearing Confederate battle gear and resting on a camp bed. (Lee is buried with his family in a mausoleum beneath the chapel.)[848]
      • Robert E. Lee Residence.[845]
      • Grave of Traveller, Robert E. Lee's horse (1871). Apples are regularly placed on the grave by visitors.[845]
    • At Virginia Military Institute is a 1912 bronze replica of a 1910 marble statue of Stonewall Jackson on display at the West Virginia State Capitol. First-year cadets exiting the barracks through the archway are required to honor Jackson's memory by saluting the statue.[849]
  • Luray:
    • Confederate Monument (1898)
    • Page County Confederate Monument (1918)
  • Lynchburg:
    • Confederate Statue opposite Courthouse.
    • Jubal Early Monument (1919)
    • Confederate Monument (1900)
  • Mechanicsville: Wilcox's Alabama Brigade (1999)
  • Mecklenburg County: Confederate statue in front of the Courthouse.
  • Middletown: Monument (1919) to Stephen Dodson Ramseur at entrance to Belle Grove Plantation, where he died following the Battle of Belle Grove.[850]
  • Mount Jackson: "Our Soldiers Cemetery" statue (1903)
  • New Kent: Confederate Monument (1934)
  • New Market: This Rustic Pile Monument (1909)
  • Newport News: Confederate Soldier Monument (1909)
  • Nickelsville: Nickelsville Spartan Band Monument (2000)
  • Norfolk: Confederate Monument (1907). According to a statement by Mayor Kevin Cooper Alexander dated August 16, 2017, the Norfolk City Council, in 2015, voted unanimously to leave it in place. In response to the "tragic events in Charlottesville," the question is being reexamined.[851]
  • Orange County: Confederate monuments at Wilderness Battlefield include:
    • Wilderness Battlefield Tablet (1927), UDC monument[835]
    • Colonel James D. Nance Tablet (1912), marks where Nance was killed[835]
    • Texas Brigade Shaft (1964), "'Who are you my boys?' Lee cried as he saw them gathering. 'Texas boys,' they yelled, their number multiplying each second."[835]
    • "Lee to the Rear!" Tablet (1903), "Lee to the Rear! Cried the Texans. May 6, 1864"[835]
  • Parksley: Confederate Monument (1899)
  • Petersburg:
    • Petersburg National Battlefield
    • Hagood's Brigade, a monument in the Petersburg National Battlefield. Text on front: "Here a brigade composed of the 7th battalion, the 11th, 21st, 25th and 27th regiments South Carolina Volunteers, commanded by Brig. Gen. Johnson Hagood, charged Warren’s Federal Army Corps, on the 21st day of August 1864, taking into the fight 740 men, retiring with 273. // No prouder fate than theirs who gave their lives to liberty." Text on rear: "Placed here by Wm. V. Izlar, a survivor of the charge, aided by other South Carolinians."
    • Old Men and Boys Monument (1909), in Petersburg National Battlefield. Text: "This stone marks the spot where the old men and boys of Petersburg under Gen. R.E. Colston and Col. F.H. Archer 125 strong on June 9th, 1864 distinguished themselves in a fight with 1,300 Federal Cavalry under Gen. Kautz, gaining time for the defeat of the expedition. // Placed by the Petersburg Chapter U.D.C. May 1909"
    • Mahone Monument, Battle of the Crate, Petersburg National Battlefield (1927)
    • Monument where A. P. Hill was killed during the Third Battle of Petersburg[852]
    • Monument where John Pegram was killed during the Battle of Hatcher's Run[853]
  • Portsmouth: Confederate Monument, listed on the NRHP. Local politicians "have been contemplating the fate of the Confederate statue since 2015, and the town's mayor recently called for it to be moved to a local cemetery instead." In August 2017 the mayor announced that it would be relocated to a cemetery.[854]
  • Pulaski: In Memory of the Confederate Soldiers of Pulaski County, 1861–1865 Monument (1906)
  • Reams: North Carolina Monument
  • Richmond:
    • Howitzer Monument, Caspar Buberl, sculptor, (1892)
    • A.P. Hill Monument, Caspar Buberl, (1892)[855]
    • Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1894)
    • The Memorial Granite Pile, Confederate Section, Hollywood Cemetery
    • Monument Avenue features monuments of Confederate leaders.[856] Richmond citizens immediately after the war intended to erect three statues of Virginians defending the city (two were killed in the defense), and it was twenty years later before an actual plan was proposed.[857] In 2017, city officials started to hold public meetings for community input on the future of the city's many Civil War monuments and statues.[545]
    • Williams Carter Wickham Monument (1891). Paid for by the general's comrades and employees of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway; placed in Monroe Park. Two young descendants of the late general, who do not necessarily speak for the entire family, are now calling for the removal of this statue.[860]
  • Stephenson: Memorial to Lieutenant Colonel Richard Snowden Andrews and Men of 1st Maryland Battery, CSA (1920)
  • Strasburg: Confederate Monument (1896), Strasburg Presbyterian Church Cemetery[835]
  • Suffolk: Confederate Monument (1889), Cedar Hill Cemetery[861]
  • Virginia Beach: Princess Anne County Confederate Heroes Monument (1905)
  • Wilderness: Monument (1903) near where Stonewall Jackson's amputated arm was buried[835]
  • Winchester: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1916)

Private monuments[edit]

  • Potomac Falls
    • At the Trump National Golf Club there is a monument to the "River of Blood", saying that “Many great American soldiers, both of the North and South, died at this spot, 'The Rapids', on the Potomac River. The casualties were so great that the water would turn red and thus became known as The River of Blood. 'It is my geat honor to have preserved this important section of the Potomac River.' – Donald John Trump". Numerous historians have said that no important Civil War action occurred anywhere near that point of the Potomac River. No historian supports Trump.[862]

Parks[edit]

Jefferson Davis Memorial Park at Fort Monroe, Virginia

Roads[edit]

  • Alexandria:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Bragg Street
    • Braxton Place
    • Breckinridge Place
    • Chambliss Street
    • Dearing Street
    • Donelson Street
    • Early Street
    • Floyd Street
    • French Street
    • Frost Street
    • Gordon Street
    • Hardee Place
    • Hume Avenue
    • Imboden Street
    • Iverson Street
    • Jackson Place
    • Janney's Lane
    • Jordan Street
    • Jubal Avenue
    • Lee Street[6]
    • Longstreet Lane
    • Maury Lane
    • Pegram Street
    • Quantrell Avenue
    • Reynolds Street
    • Rosser Street
    • Van Dorn Street
    • Wheeler Avenue
  • Annandale:
    • John Marr Drive
    • Lanier Street
    • Rebel Drive
  • Blackstone: Jeb Stuart Road
  • Bland: Jeb Stuart Street
  • Boones Mill: Jubal Early Highway
  • Bristow: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Centreville:
    • Confederate Ridge Lane
    • General Lee Drive
  • Chantilly:
  • Culpeper:
    • General A.P. Hill
    • General Jackson Avenue
    • General Jeb Stuart Lane
    • General Lee Avenue
    • General Longstreet Avenue
    • General Winder Road
  • Damascus: Jeb Stuart Highway
  • Fairfax:
    • Confederate Lane
    • Mosby Woods Drive
    • Old Lee Highway[865]
    • Pickett Road
    • Rebel Run
  • Foster: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hopewell: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Ivor: General Mahone Boulevard
  • Lynchburg: Early Street
  • Manassas:
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Lee Avenue[6]
  • Martinsville:
    • Jeb Stuart Road
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Middleburg: John Mosby Highway
  • Natural Bridge Station:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • New Market:
    • Confederate Street
    • Lee Street[6]
    • Stonewall Street
    • Stuart Street
  • Petersburg: Confederate Avenue
  • Powhatan: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Purcellville: Jeb Stuart Road
  • Rhoadesville: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Richmond:
  • Sandston:
    • Carter Avenue
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Early Avenue
    • Garland Avenue
    • J.B. Finley Avenue
    • Jackson Avenue
    • Kemper Court
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Wilson Way
  • Staunton:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • J.E.B. Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Boulevard
  • Verona: Confederate Street
  • Virginia Beach:
    • General Beauregard Drive
    • General Hill Drive
    • General Jackson Drive
    • General Lee Drive
    • General Longstreet Drive
    • Hood Drive
  • Waynesboro:
    • Davis Road
    • Pickett Road
    • Robert E. Lee Avenue
  • Winchester: Jubal Early Drive
  • Woodford:
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Road

Highways[edit]

  • General Mahone Highway, a large portion of U.S. Route 460, between Petersburg and Suffolk.
  • Jefferson Davis Highway, also called Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway. In 2011, the County Board of Arlington County, Virginia, voted to change the name of Old Jefferson Davis Highway, the original route of Jefferson Davis Highway in the county, to Long Bridge Drive, after the board's chairman made disparaging remarks about Davis. However, the name of Jefferson Davis Highway itself, a portion of U.S. 1 that only the Virginia General Assembly could rename, remained unchanged.[866] In February 2016, the Virginia Attorney General's office issued an advisory opinion that the City of Alexandria, unlike the neighboring Arlington County, had the legal authority to change the name of the portion of Jefferson Davis Highway that was within the city's jurisdiction.[867] In September 2016, the Alexandria City Council voted unanimously to change the name of the city's portion of the highway.[868]

Schools[edit]

Former[edit]

  • Bailey's Crossroads: J. E. B. Stuart High School (1958). Following protests by students and alumni that began in June 2015, the school board voted in July 2017 to rename the school by the beginning of the 2019 school year.
  • Charlottesville:
    • In May 2017 the City Council of Charlottesville voted to remove and sell its statue of Gen. Robert E. Lee, and renamed Lee Park, where the statue stands, as Emancipation Park.[881] The removal has been halted for six months by a court injunction, in response to a suit by SCV.[882][883]
    • In August 2017 the City Council unanimously voted to shroud the statues of Lee and Stonewall Jackson in black.[884]
    • The University of Virginia Board of Visitors (trustees) voted unanimously in September 2017 to remove two plaques from the university's Rotunda that honored students and alumni who fought and died for the Confederacy in the Civil War.[885]
  • Lexington:
    • In 2014, a large Confederate battle flag and a number of related state flags were removed from Lee Chapel at Washington and Lee University.[846][847]
    • R.E. Lee Memorial Church, an Episcopal church where Lee worshipped, in August 2017 restored its original name of Grace Episcopal Church.[886][887]
  • Lynchburg: Statue of Confederate veteran George Morgan Jones on the campus of Randolph College. Installed in 1912 and removed in August 2017.[888]
  • Petersburg, Virginia|Petersburg]]: Three schools are being renamed July 1, 2018.[889]
    • A.P. Hill Elementary will be known as Cool Spring Elementary
    • Robert E. Lee Elementary will become Lakemont Elementary
    • J.E.B. Stuart Elementary will become Pleasants Lane Elementary.
  • Richmond: J.E.B. Stuart Elementary School (1922)[890] was renamed Barack Obama Elementary School in 2018.[891]

Washington State[edit]

There is at least one building named for an officer who served the Confederacy in Washington.[6]

3rd Flag of the Confederacy and the Bonny Blue Flag at the Jefferson Davis Park, 2018

At least two private properties contain a Confederate memorial or fly a CSA flag:

  • Clark County: Near Ridgefield is Jefferson Davis Park (2007), established by the SCV to hold the Jeff Davis Highway markers from Blaine and Vancouver. Flags of the Confederacy are also displayed there.[892][893]
  • Seattle: Monument to Confederate soldiers, Lake View Cemetery. Erected in 1926 by United Daughters of the Confederacy.[894] In 2017 Seattle Mayor Ed Murray called for it to be taken down, saying it represents "historic injustices" and is a symbol of hate, racism, and violence. After the Mayor's statement, the Cemetery closed for several days because of threats related to the monument.[895]

Former[edit]

Jefferson Davis Highway marker from Blaine
  • Blaine and Vancouver: Stone markers at both ends of the state, designating Old Highway 99 the "Jeff Davis Highway", were erected in the 1930s. They were removed[896] and placed at the private Jefferson Davis Park adjacent to the town of Ridgefield, beside I-5.[897]
  • Bellingham: Pickett Bridge, plaque commemorating the earlier wooden bridge erected by order of Pickett over Whatcom Creek. Plaque erected in 1920, was removed August 18, 2017, along with signs leading to Pickett House.[898]
  • Seattle: Robert E. Lee Tree, was one of many trees in Seattle's Ravenna Park, dedicated to persons of note. The tree along with the plaque were removed in 1926.[899][900]
  • East Wenatchee: Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1955) School district rejected a name change in 2015,[901] and again in 2017.[902] The school district voted to changed the name from Robert E. Lee Elementary School to Lee Elementary School in 2018.[903]

West Virginia[edit]

There are at least 17 public spaces with Confederate monuments in West Virginia.[6]

State Capitol[edit]

Monuments[edit]

First Confederate Memorial (1867), Romney, West Virginia
  • Clarksburg: Bronze equestrian statue of Stonewall Jackson created by Charles Keck (1953) by the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC). Jackson was born in Clarksburg.
  • Charles Town: A bronze plaque was erected in 1986 by the UDC, "in honor and memory of the Confederate soldiers of Jefferson County, who served in the War Between the States," next to the entrance to the Jefferson County Courthouse. The local newspaper, Spirit of Jefferson, and a group of local African Americans have called for its removal.[907] On September 7, 2017, the Jefferson County Commission voted 5-0 to let the plaque be.[908] It was in Charles Town, in the Jefferson County Courthouse, that abolitionist John Brown was tried; he was hung nearby.[909]
  • Charleston - See West Virginia State Capitol, above.
  • Harpers Ferry: Hayward Shepherd Monument (1931). Although Shepherd was a black freeman working for the railway when killed in John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, the monument was erected by UDC and Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV). They called the project the "Faithful Slave Memorial" for many years and saw it as a way to emphasize their idea that blacks enjoyed being slaves and that men like Shepherd were victims of those seeking to free slaves.[911]
  • Hinton: Confederate Soldier Monument, Summers County Courthouse (dedicated May 1914)[912] The base of the monument carries the inscription: "(North base:) This monument erected in honor of American valor as displayed by the Confederate soldiers from 1861 to 1865, and to perpetuate to remotest ages the patriotism and fidelity to principles of the heroes who fought and died for a lost cause. (East base:) sacred to the memory of the noble women of the Confederacy, who suffered more and lost as much, with less glory, than the Confederate soldier. (South base:) erected in the year 1914 by Camp Allen Woodrm Confederate veterans and Camp Bob Christian sons of Confederacy veterans and their friends. (West base:) This monument is dedicated to the Confederate soldiers of Greenbrier and New River valleys who followed Lee and Jackson.[913]
  • Lewisburg: Confederate Monument (1906) The Confederate "monument was erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy at a cost of $2,800. The monument was originally located on the campus of the Greenbrier College, but moved to its present location when U.S. Route 60 was relocated."[914] It is now located on the lawn of the old public library in Lewisburg. Some residents have suggested interpretive signage for the statue.[915] The inscription on the base reads, "In memory of our Confederate dead."[916]
  • Mingo: Confederate Soldier Monument (1913/2013) The inscription reads in part, "TO THE MEMORY OF THE CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS OF RANDOLPH COUNTY AND VICINITY THIS INCLUDES ALL SOLDIERS WHO DIED IN VALLEY MOUNTAIN"[917]
  • Parkersburg: Confederate Soldier Monument, (1908) The monument was created by Leon Hermant and the inscription reads in part, " IN MEMORY OF OUR CONFEDERATE DEAD ERECTED BY PARKERSBURG CHAPTER UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY"[918]
  • Romney: First Confederate Memorial (1867) Carved on the main facade are the words, "The daughters of Old Hampshire erect this tribute of affection to her heroic sons who fell in defense of Southern Rights."[919]
  • Union: Monroe County Confederate Soldier Monument (1901); marble statue inscribed "There is a true glory and a true honor. The glory of duty done, the honor of integrity of principle. R. E. Lee"[920]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Bartow, initially an 1861 Confederate encampment, Camp Bartow, named for the late Confederate Colonel Francis Bartow.[921]:97
  • Harding, named for CSA Maj. French Harding.[921]:297
  • Linden, named for CSA Capt. Charles Linden Broadus.[921]:374
  • Welch, named for CSA Capt. Isaiah A. Welch.[922]

Parks and water features[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Charleston: Stonewall Jackson Middle School. Occupies the building that housed the former Stonewall Jackson High School.

Wisconsin[edit]

  • Prairie du Chien: United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) monument to Jefferson Davis at Fort Crawford Cemetery Soldiers' Lot. Davis served briefly at Fort Crawford.[923] The text on the plaque reads, "JEFFERSON DAVIS, 1808 - 1889, Lieutenant United States Army, Assigned Fort Crawford 1831, Served here with distinction during Black Hawk War, Hero in Mexican War 1846-1848, United States Congressman, Senator, Secretary of War, President Confederate States of America, 1861-1865, Erected by The United Daughters of the Confederacy"[924]
  • Wisconsin Dells: The Confederate spy Belle Boyd (1844-1900) is buried in Spring Grove Cemetery in Wisconsin Dells. She would go on tour in the United States and speak about being a spy for the Confederacy. Boyd also wrote a book about her career. Belle Boyd was to speak at a Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) post in Kilbourn City, Wisconsin (now Wisconsin Dells) when she died from a heart attack. Members of the local GAR post served as pallbearers at her funeral and was buried at the cemetery. Her grave is marked with a Confederate flag.[925]

Former[edit]

  • Madison: A plaque and a larger monument were ordered removed from the 'Confederate Rest' section of the city's Forest Hill Cemetery in August 2017. The memorials had honored 140 Confederate soldiers who died in 1862 while in captivity at nearby Camp Randall.[926][927][545]

Wyoming[edit]

Natural Features[edit]

Yellowstone National Park: The Lamar River (named 1884–85) is named for L.Q.C. Lamar, a secessionist who drafted the instrument of Mississippi's secession and raised a regiment for the Confederates with his own money. He served as a Confederate ambassador to Russia. The river was named while he served as the United States Secretary of the Interior after the war. The Lamar Valley and other park features or administrative names which contain Lamar are derived from this original naming.[928]

International[edit]

Brazil[edit]

  • In 1865, at the end of the American Civil War, a substantial number of Southerners left the South; many moved to other parts of the United States, such as the American West, but a few left the country entirely. The most popular country of Southerners emigration was Brazil, which still allowed slavery and wanted to encourge cotton production.[929] These emigrants were known as Confederados. A Confederate monument was erected in the city of Americana, São Paulo state, Brazil.[930]

Canada[edit]

  • Kitchener, Ontario: Eastwood Collegiate Institute (1956), a public high school, replaced its Johnny Rebel mascot and Confederate imagery, perceived as associated with white bigotry, with Rebel Lion in 1999. The school retains the Rebel name for its teams.
  • Montreal, Quebec: A plaque on a Hudson's Bay Company store commemorating Jefferson Davis' brief stay in the city was installed by UDC in 1957; it was removed in 2017 following the attack against counter protesters committed by a white supremacist in Charlottesville.[931][932]

Ireland[edit]

  • Tuam: Ireland commemorated CSA Major Richard W. Dowling, who was born in the Tuam, with a bronze memorial plaque on the Town Hall bearing his image and life story. Text of plaque: "Major Richard W. (Dick) Dowling C.S.A., 1837–1867 Born Knock, Tuam; Settled Houston Texas, 1857; Outstanding business and civic leader; Joined Irish Davis Guards in American Civil War; With 47 men foiled Invasion of Texas by 5000 federal troops at Sabine Pass, 8 Sept 1863, a feat of superb gunnery; formed first oil company in Texas; Died aged 30 of yellow fever. This plaque was unveiled by Col. J.B. Collerain 31 May 1998"

Scotland[edit]

  • Edinburgh: Dean Cemetery, obelisk for Scottish-born CSA Colonel Robert A. Smith, with a Confederate marker and Confederate flags.[933]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This chart is based on data from an SPLC survey which identified "1,503 publicly sponsored symbols honoring Confederate leaders, soldiers or the Confederate States of America in general." The survey excluded "nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that SPLC deemed largely historical in nature"[6]
  2. ^ Fitzgerald was formed in 1895 for veterans of the war, from the North and the South. Streets running North/South on the east side of the city were named after Confederate ships and generals, whereas the ones on the west side were named after Union ships and generals. See Fitzgerald, Georgia#History.
  3. ^ In May 1970 the memorial was hit by a truck and destroyed. The money from the insurance company was not sufficient to restore it. Widener, p. viii

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gunter, Booth; Kizzire, Jamie (April 21, 2016). Gunter, Booth, ed. "Whose heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved October 6, 2017. In an effort to assist the efforts of local communities to re-examine these symbols, the SPLC launched a study to catalog them. For the final tally [of 1,503], the researchers excluded nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that are largely historical in nature. 
  2. ^ "The state leading the way in removing Confederate monuments? Texas". 
  3. ^ Fandos, Nicolas (November 25, 2015). "In Renovation of Golf Club, Donald Trump Also Dressed Up History". New York Times. 
  4. ^ a b c "Confederate Statues Were Built To Further A 'White Supremacist Future'". npr.org. Retrieved 21 September 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c Cox, Karen L. (16 August 2017). "Analysis – The whole point of Confederate monuments is to celebrate white supremacy". Retrieved 21 September 2017 – via www.washingtonpost.com. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf Gunter, Booth; Kizzire, Jamie (April 21, 2016). Gunter, Booth, ed. "Whose heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy" (PDF). Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved August 15, 2017. 
  7. ^ CNN (August 16, 2017). "Actually, Robert E. Lee was against erecting Confederate memorials". WPTV. Retrieved February 10, 2018. 
  8. ^ "Monuments and Memorials". Vicksburg National Military Park. National Park Service. Retrieved 26 September 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Holpuch, Amanda; Chalabi, Mona (2017-08-16). "'Changing history'? No – 32 Confederate monuments dedicated in past 17 years". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-08-26. 
  10. ^ Mills, Cynthia; Simpson, Pamela H. (2003). Monuments to the Los Cause: Women, Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory. University of Tennessee Press. p. [page needed]. ISBN 978-1572332720. 
  11. ^ Gulley, H.E. (1993). "Women and the Lost Cause: preserving a Confederate identity in the American Deep South". Journal of Historical Geography. 19 (2): 125–41. doi:10.1006/jhge.1993.1009. 
  12. ^ Leib, Jonathan I.; Webster, Gerald R.; Webster, Roberta H. (2000-12-01). "Rebel with a cause? Iconography and public memory in the Southern United States". GeoJournal. 52 (2): 303–310. doi:10.1023/A:1014358204037. ISSN 0343-2521. 
  13. ^ American Historical Association, AHA Statement on Confederate Monuments (August 2017)
  14. ^ "Durham Confederate statue: tribute to dying veterans or political tool of Jim Crow South?". heraldsun.com. Retrieved 21 September 2017. 
  15. ^ Confederate Monuments and Civic Values in the Wake of Charlottesville. Dell Upton, Society of American Historians, 13 September 2017
  16. ^ Confederate monuments: What to do with them?. Grier, Peter. Christian Science Monitor, 22 August 2017
  17. ^ Dotinga, Randy (2017-06-14). "Inside the hidden history of confederate memorials". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 2017-09-05. 
  18. ^ Winsboro, Irvin D.S. (2016). "The Confederate Monument Movement as a Policy Dilemma for Resource Managers of Parks, Cultural Sites, and Protected Places: Florida as a Case Study" (PDF). The George Wright Forum. 33: 217–29. 
  19. ^ a b c d e Wiggins, David N. (2005). Remembering Georgia's Confederates. Arcadia. pp. 106, 108, 109, 117. ISBN 9780738518237. 
  20. ^ a b Confederate Monument in Forsyth Park Archived May 31, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., City of Savannah website, accessed April 24, 2010
  21. ^ Fisher, Marc (2017-08-18). "Why those Confederate soldier statues look a lot like their Union counterparts". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-09-16. Because of technological innovations in the granite and bronze industries, the price of these statues came way down 
  22. ^ "Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy". Southern Poverty Law Center. April 21, 2016. Retrieved September 15, 2017. The second spike began in the early 1950s and lasted through the 1960s, as the civil rights movement led to a backlash among segregationists. These two periods also coincided with the 50th and 100th anniversaries of the Civil War 
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Widener, Ralph W. (1982). Confederate monuments: Enduring symbols of the South and the War Between the States. Andromeda Associates. OCLC 8697924. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g John J. Winberry (2015). "'Lest We Forget': The Confederate Monument and the Southern Townscape". Southeastern Geographer. 55 (1): 19–31 – via Project MUSE. (Subscription required (help)). 
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  26. ^ a b c "BTW, These Four States Legally Protect Confederate Monuments". Impact. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  27. ^ Bureau, Bobby Harrison Daily Journal Jackson. "Mississippi law prohibits removal of historical markers". djournal.com. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  28. ^ Cote, Rachel Vorona. "Heritage Act Keeps Confederate Flags Flying in South Carolina". Jezebel. Retrieved 2017-09-05. 
  29. ^ "Georgia state law makes it difficult to completely remove or hide Confederate monuments". 13wmaz.com. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  30. ^ Olivo, Antonio (2017-08-25). "After Charlottesville, Va. Democrats see opening to change 114-year-old monuments law". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-08-27. 
  31. ^ a b Reynolds, Jacob (August 17, 2017). "Georgia State Law Makes It Difficult to Completely Remove or Hide Confederate Monuments". WMAZ. Retrieved November 10, 2017. 
  32. ^ "A majority of Americans want to preserve Confederate monuments: Reuters/Ipsos poll". 21 August 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2017 – via Reuters. 
  33. ^ "Reuters/Ipsos Data: Confederate Monuments". ipsos.com. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  34. ^ Edwards-Levy, Ariel (23 August 2017). "Polls Find Little Support For Confederate Statue Removal -- But How You Ask Matters". Retrieved 20 October 2017 – via Huff Post. 
  35. ^ "HuffPost: Confederate Flag, August 15–16, 2017 – 1000 US Adults" (PDF). huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 20 October 2017. 
  36. ^ Ford, Matt (August 17, 2017). "Will Congress Remove Confederate Statues From the Capitol?". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 19, 2017. 
  37. ^ DeBonis, Mike (June 23, 2015). "A field guide to the racists commemorated inside the U.S. Capitol". Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2017. 
  38. ^ a b Brockell, Gillian; Brockell, Gillian (August 16, 2017). "How statues of Robert E. Lee and other Confederates got into the U.S. Capitol". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved August 20, 2017. 
  39. ^ "Robert E. Lee". Architect of the Capitol. 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  40. ^ "Zebulon Vance". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  41. ^ "Uriah Milton Rose". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2018-04-07. 
  42. ^ Florida Senate (March 19, 2018). "SB 472: National Statuary Hall". Retrieved March 21, 2018. 
  43. ^ "Joseph Wheeler". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  44. ^ "Alexander Hamilton Stephens". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  45. ^ "Wade Hampton". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  46. ^ "Jefferson Davis". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  47. ^ "James Zachariah George". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  48. ^ "Helen Keller". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 2017-08-19. 
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