List of Confederate monuments and memorials

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Statue in Statesboro, Georgia

This is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials that were established as public displays and symbols of the Confederate States of America (CSA), Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War. Part of the commemoration of the American Civil War, these symbols include monuments and statues, flags, holidays and other observances, and the names of schools, roads, parks, bridges, counties, cities, lakes, dams, military bases, and other public works.[1]

Monuments and memorials are listed below alphabetically by state, and by city within each state. States not listed have no known qualifying items for the list. Cemeteries and museums are not included in this list.

Contents

History[edit]

Building and dedication[edit]

Chart of public symbols of the Confederacy and its leaders as surveyed by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), by year of establishment. Most of these were put up either during the Jim Crow era or during the Civil Rights movement, times of increased racial tension.[1][2][3][note 1]

Monuments and memorials began to be dedicated during the Civil War, with several more being planned for shortly after the war. Many more monuments were dedicated in the years after 1890, when Congress established the first National Military Park at Chickamauga and Chattanooga, and by the turn of the twentieth century, five battlefields from the Civil War had been preserved: Chickamauga-Chattanooga, Antietam, Gettysburg, Shiloh, and Vicksburg. At Vicksburg National Military Park, more than 95 percent of the park's monuments were erected in the first eighteen years after the park was established in 1899.[5] Many memorials were dedicated in the early 20th century, decades after the Civil War, and some have been built in the early 21st century, 150 years after the war.[4][2][6] Memorials have been dedicated on public spaces (including on courthouse grounds) either at public expense or funded by private organizations and donors. Numerous private memorials were also dedicated. Art historians Cynthia Mills and Pamela Simpson argued in Monuments to the Lost Cause that the majority of Confederate monuments, of the type they define, were "commissioned by white women, in hope of preserving a positive vision of antebellum life.”[7][8]

Confederate monument-building has often been part of widespread campaigns to promote and justify Jim Crow laws in the South, and assert white supremacy.[9][4][3] According to the American Historical Association (AHA), the erection of Confederate monuments during the early twentieth century was "part and parcel of the initiation of legally mandated segregation and widespread disenfranchisement across the South." According to the AHA, memorials to the Confederacy erected during this period "were intended, in part, to obscure the terrorism required to overthrow Reconstruction, and to intimidate African Americans politically and isolate them from the mainstream of public life." A later wave of monument building coincided with the civil rights movement, and according to the AHA "these symbols of white supremacy are still being invoked for similar purposes."[10]

According to historian Jane Dailey from the University of Chicago, in many cases, the purpose of the monuments was not to celebrate the past but rather to promote a "white supremacist future".[2] Another historian, Karen Cox, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has written that the monuments are "a legacy of the brutally racist Jim Crow era".[3] Another historian from UNC, James Leloudis, stated that "The funders and backers of these monuments are very explicit that they are requiring a political education and a legitimacy for the Jim Crow era and the right of white men to rule."[11] They were erected without the consent or even input of Southern African-Americans, who remembered the Civil War far differently, and who had no interest in honoring those who fought to keep them enslaved.[12] According to Civil War historian Judith Giesberg, professor of history at Villanova University, "White supremacy is really what these statues represent."[13] Some monuments were also meant to beautify cities as part of the City Beautiful movement, although this was secondary.[14]

Many Confederate monuments were dedicated in the former Confederate states and border states in the decades following the Civil War, in many instances by Ladies Memorial Associations, United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC), United Confederate Veterans (UCV), Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV), the Heritage Preservation Association, and other memorial organizations.[15][16][17] Other Confederate monuments are located on Civil War battlefields. Many Confederate monuments are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, either separately or as contributing objects within listings of courthouses or historic districts.

In the late nineteenth century, technology innovations in the granite and bronze industries helped reduce costs and made monuments more affordable for small towns. Companies looking to capitalize on this opportunity often sold nearly identical copies of monuments to both the North and South.[18] Another wave of monument construction coincided with the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–1968) and the American Civil War Centennial.[19] Thirty-two Confederate monuments were dedicated between 2000 and 2017, but not all were new monuments, several were re-dedications to mark the 100-year anniversary of their construction.[6]

Removal[edit]

As of April 2017, at least 60 symbols of the Confederacy had been removed or renamed since 2015, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC).[20] At the same time, laws in various states prohibit or place restrictions on the removal of statutes and memorials and in some cases prohibit renaming of parks, roads, and schools.[21][22][23][24][25][26]

A 2017 Reuters poll found that 54% of adults stated that the monuments should remain in all public spaces, and 27% said they should be removed, while 19% said they were unsure. The results were split along racial and political lines, with Republicans and whites preferring to keep the monuments in place, while Democrats and minorities preferring their removal.[27][28] A similar 2017 poll by HuffPost/YouGov found that one-third of respondents favored removal, while 49% were opposed.[29][30]

Distribution[edit]

Geographic dispersal[edit]

Confederate monuments are widely distributed across the Southern United States. The distribution pattern follows the general political boundaries of the Confederacy. Of the more than 1503 public monuments and memorials to the Confederacy, more than 718 are monuments and statues. Nearly 300 monuments and statues are in Georgia, Virginia, or North Carolina. According to one researcher, "the absence of monuments in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina indicates those regions' Union sentiment, and the few monuments in Maryland, West Virginia, and Kentucky reflect those states' ambivalent war-time politics." The Northern States that remained part of the Union, as well as the Western States that were largely settled after the Civil War, have few or no memorials to the Confederacy.

Scholarly studies of the monuments began in the 1980s. In 1983 John J. Winberry published a study which was based on data from the work of R.W. Widener.[31] He estimated that the main building period for monuments was from 1889 to 1929 and that of the monuments erected in courthouse squares over half were built between 1902 and 1912. He determined four main locations for monuments; battlefields, cemeteries, county courthouse grounds, and state capitol grounds. Over a third of the courthouse monuments were dedicated to the dead. The majority of the cemetery monuments in his study were built in the pre-1900 period, while most of the courthouse monuments were erected after 1900. Of the 666 monuments in his study 55% were of Confederate soldiers, while 28% were obelisks. Soldiers dominated courthouse grounds, while obelisks account for nearly half of cemetery monuments. The idea that the soldier statues always faced north was found to be untrue and that the soldiers usually faced the same direction as the courthouse. He noted that the monuments were "remarkably diverse" with "only a few instances of repetition of inscriptions".

He categorized the monuments into four types. Type 1 was a Confederate soldier on a column with his weapon at parade rest, or weaponless and gazing into the distance. These accounted for approximately half the monuments studied. They are however the most popular among the courthouse monuments. Type 2 was a Confederate soldier on a column with rifle ready, or carrying a flag or bugle. Type 3 was an obelisk, often covered with drapery and bearing cannon balls or an urn. This type was 28% of the monuments studied, but 48% of the monuments in cemeteries and 18% of courthouse monuments. Type 4 was a miscellaneous group, including arches, standing stones, plaques, fountains, etc. These account for 17% of the monuments studied.

Over a third of the courthouse monuments were specifically dedicated to the Confederate dead. The first courthouse monument was erected in Bolivar, Tennessee, in 1867. By 1880 nine courthouse monuments had been erected. Winberry noted two centers of courthouse monuments; the Potomac counties of Virginia, from which the tradition spread to North Carolina, and a larger area covering Georgia, South Carolina and northern Florida. The diffusion of courthouse monuments was aided by organizations such as the United Confederate Veterans and their publications, though other factors may also have been effective.

Winberry listed four reasons for the shift from cemeteries to courthouses. First was the need to preserve the memory of the Confederate dead and also recognize the veterans who returned. Second was to celebrate the rebuilding of the south after the war. Third was the romanticizing of the Lost Cause, and the fourth was to unify the white population in a common heritage against the interests of African American southerners. He concluded "No one of these four possible explanations for the Confederate monument is adequate or complete in itself. The monument is a symbol, but whether it was a memory of the past, a celebration of the present, or a portent of the future remains a difficult question to answer; monuments and symbols can be complicated and sometimes indecipherable."[32]

National[edit]

United States Capitol[edit]

There are eight Confederate figures in the National Statuary Hall Collection, in the United States Capitol.

Coins and stamps[edit]

  • Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were portrayed by the US Mint on the 1925 Commemorative silver US half dollar, along with the words "Stone Mountain". The coin was a fundraiser by for the Stone Mountain monument to honor the Confederate Generals. The authorized issue was 5 million coins, to be sold at $1 each, but that proved overly optimistic and only 1.3 million coins released, many of which ended up in circulation after being spent for face value.[46] The caption on the reverse reads "Memorial to the valor of the soldier of the South".
  • Robert E. Lee has been commemorated on at least five US postage stamps. One 1936–37 stamp featured Generals Lee and Stonewall Jackson with Lee's home Stratford Hall.[47][48]

US military[edit]

Bases[edit]

There are 10 major U.S. military bases named in honor of Confederate military leaders, all in former Confederate States.[4] In 2015 the Pentagon declared it would not be renaming these facilities,[49] and declined to make further comment in 2017.[50]

Facilities[edit]

  • Lee Barracks, named for CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee (1962), at U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York.[54]
  • Lee Barracks (de) (Mainz, Germany)
  • U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland:
    • Buchanan House, the Naval Academy superintendent’s home, named for CSA naval officer Franklin Buchanan.[55] A road near the house is also memorialized in Buchanan's name.
    • Maury Hall, home to the academy’s division of Weapons and Systems Engineering, named for US naval officer in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments at Washington and later CSA naval officer Matthew Fontaine Maury.[55][56]

Current ships[edit]

Former ships[edit]

Multi-state highways[edit]

Alabama[edit]

There are at least 107 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Alabama.[4]

The 2017 Alabama Memorial Preservation Act was passed to prevent local governments from removing Confederate monuments and memorials.[58][59][60]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

The Pickens County War Memorial in Carrollton, Alabama
Detail of Troy Confederate Monument in Troy, Alabama, showing cavalryman, infantryman, and a Confederate flag made of flowers
Raphael Semmes monument in Mobile, Alabama by sculptor Caspar Buberl
Confederate Memorial Monument in Montgomery, Alabama by sculptor Alexander Doyle
Jackson County Court House, Birmingham, 1932[clarification needed][61]

Other public monuments[edit]

Newton, Alabama
Calhoun County Confederate Memorial in Ohatchee, Alabama
"Arsenal Place" memorial in Selma, Alabama
Bust of Nathan Bedford Forrest in Old Live Oak Cemetery.
  • Selma:
    • Edmund Pettus Bridge (1940), on US Route 80, is named for the Confederate General and Alabama Grand Dragon of the KKK. Ironically, this bridge is now famous as the site of "Bloody Sunday" March 7, 1965, when, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., civil rights marchers heading east towards Montgomery were met at the bridge by state and local lawmen, who attacked them with billy clubs and tear gas and drove them back into Selma.[105]
    • Defense of Selma Memorial (1907) by UDC.[103][106]
    • Memorial boulder marking The Selma Ordnance and Naval Foundry "destroyed by the Federals 1865," placed "...in honor of the memory of hundreds of faithful men who made these great works a base for war material for the entire Confederate Army and Navy." (1917) Alabama Division United Daughters of Confederacy.[107]
    • "Arsenal Place" memorial (1931), marking the site of the Confederate ordnance works "destroyed by the Union Army April 6, 1865".
    • A memorial arch on the grounds of the Federal Building / U.S. Courthouse honors Confederate Generals and Senators John Tyler Morgan and Edmund Pettus.
    • Old Live Oak Cemetery, a Selma city-owned property, incorporates various features including:
      • Jefferson Davis Memorial Chair – an inscribed stone chair.
      • Confederate Memorial Circle (1878) Confederate Memorial Association.[103]
      • Nathon Bedford Forrest Bust Monument (2000). Built partly with city funds, sponsored by Friends of Forrest and UDC.[108] The bust of Forrest was allegedly stolen sometime later. The base is inscribed in part "defender of Selma, wizard of the saddle, untutored genius, the first with the most."[109][110]
      • A Confederate Soldier Monument (pre-1881) with cannons protecting it.
      • Graves and memorials to four CSA generals: John Tyler Morgan, Edmund Winston Pettus, Nathaniel H. R. Dawson, William J. Hardee and Confederate Navy Commander Catesby ap Roger Jones.
      • A building historically used for concerts and Confederate Memorial Day celebrations.
      • Elodie Todd Dawson Monument (sister-in-law to President Lincoln, strong advocate for the Confederacy).[111]
  • Troy: "Comrades" Confederate Monument (1908) Pike Monumental Association, UCV, and UDC of Pike County, Alabama[112]
  • Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Civil War Memorial, South entrance of Amelia Gayle Gorgas Library (1914) by UDC, Alabama Division.[113]

Private monuments[edit]

Mesopotamia Cemetery, Eutaw, Alabama

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks, water features and dams[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

State symbols[edit]

  • Alabama Coat of Arms (1923) and the State Seal include the Confederate Battle Flag.
  • Alabama State Flag (1895) The Alabama Department of Archives and History found in 1915 that the flag was meant to “preserve in permanent form some of the more distinctive features of the Confederate battle flag, particularly the St. Andrew’s cross.”[126] According to historian John M. Coski, the adoption of Alabama's flag coincided with the rise of Jim Crow laws and segregation,[127] as other former Confederate slave states, such as Mississippi and Florida, also adopted new state flags based off Confederate designs around the same time when those states instituted Jim Crow segregation laws themselves:[127]
  • The Governor's version of the State Flag includes St Andrew's Cross plus the State Coat of Arms with the Confederate Battle Flag inclusion and the military crest on the bottom.
Flag of the Governor since 1939
Flag of the Governor since 1939

City symbols[edit]

  • Mobile: city flag includes the city seal which incorporates a small Confederate Battle Flag along with other flags.[1]
  • Montgomery:
    • The red and gray city flag includes a strip of stars from the Confederate Battle Flag.
    • The city seal (seen here) includes the words "Cradle of the Confederacy" and "Birthplace of the Civil Rights Movement"

Flag of Mobile, Alabama.png Seal of Mobile, Alabama.png Flag of Montgomery, Alabama.svg

Alaska[edit]

  • Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area: "Confederate Gulch" and "Union Gulch" both drain the side of a mineralized mountain mass northeast of Wiseman. Gold was discovered in both gulches in the early 1900s, though only Union Gulch was mined.[128][129]

Arizona[edit]

There are at least six public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arizona.[130]

Monuments[edit]

Public monuments[edit]

Private monuments[edit]

Roads[edit]

Former[edit]

  • Fort Breckinridge: Named for John C. Breckinridge, U.S. Vice President, from its opening in 1860 until 1862, when it was renamed Fort Breckenridge to distance it from Breckinridge, who had become a Confederate general. Named Camp Grant (for Union general Ulysses S. Grant) in 1865. Site closed in 1872, when Camp Grant was moved to a new location.

Arkansas[edit]

Van Buren Confederate Monument at Crawford County Courthouse in Van Buren, Arkansas

There are at least 57 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arkansas.[4]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock National Cemetery
Little Rock Confederate Memorial, Little Rock National Cemetery
Robert E. Lee Monument in Marianna, the county seat of Lee County, Arkansas

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

State symbols[edit]

  • Flag of Arkansas The blue star above "ARKANSAS" represents the Confederate States of America and is placed above the three other stars for the countries (Spain, France and the US) to which the State belonged before statehood. The diamond represents the nations only diamond mine with bordering 25 stars symbolizing 25th state to join.[126] The design of the border around the white diamond evokes the saltire found on the Confederate battle flag.[157]
Flag of Arkansas since 1913
Flag of Arkansas since 1913

Former[edit]

  • Fort Smith: Southside High School: Until 2016, the school nickname was the Rebels. Its mascot was Johnny Reb, a fictional personification of a Confederate soldier. The school also discontinued the use of "Dixie" as its fight song.[158]
  • Little Rock: Confederate Boulevard was renamed to Springer Boulevard in 2015. The new name honors an African-American family prominent in the area since the Civil War.[159]

California[edit]

There are at least eight public spaces with Confederate monuments in California and at least four former spaces.[4]

Monuments[edit]

  • San Diego: Confederate Soldiers Memorial (1948), at city-owned Mount Hope Cemetery[160]
  • Santa Ana: CSA monument with the inscription "to honor the sacred memory of the pioneers who built Orange County after their valiant efforts to defend the Cause of Southern Independence" in Santa Ana Cemetery. Installed in 2004.[161][162]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Confederate Corners: Established 1868. Formerly known as Springtown, it was renamed after a group of Southerners settled there in the late 1860s.[163][4]
  • Fort Bragg: originally a US Army garrison named in June 1857 for then US Army officer Braxton Bragg who later became a Confederate General and was abandoned by October 1864.[164][4][165] This city was founded in 1889 near the site of the former garrison. In 2015, members of the California Legislative Black Caucus petitioned the mayor of Fort Bragg to change the name due to general's links to the Confederacy.[166][167]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Anaheim: Savanna High School (1961) mascot has always been Johnny Rebel and a fiberglass statue of a Confederate soldier stood in the courtyard from 1964 until 2009[169] when it was removed due to deterioration. The school colors are red and grey and the school fields the Savanna Mighty Marching Rebel Band and Color Guard.

Mountains and recreation[edit]

Mine[edit]

Stonewall Jackson Mine, San Diego County, circa 1872
  • San Diego County: Stonewall Jackson Mine (1870-1893), the richest gold mine in southern California history[174]

Former[edit]

  • Long Beach: Robert E. Lee Elementary School. Renamed Olivia Herrera Elementary School in August 2016.[175][4]
  • Los Angeles: Confederate Monument, Hollywood Forever Cemetery, removed in the middle of the night after activists called for its removal and spray-painted the word “No” on its back.[176][177][178]
  • San Diego:
    • A marker of the Jefferson Davis Highway[4][168] located in Horton Plaza since 1926 was moved to the western sidewalk of the plaza following a 2016 renovation. Following the Charlottesville terror attack in Virginia, the San Diego City Council removed the plaque in August 2017.
    • Robert E. Lee Elementary School, established 1959. Renamed Pacific View Leadership Elementary School in May 2016.[179][4]
  • San Lorenzo: San Lorenzo High School. Until 2017, the school nickname was the "Rebels" – a tribute to the Confederate soldier in the Civil War. It's mascot, The Rebel Guy, was retired in 2016. The school’s original mascot, Colonel Reb, was a white man with a cane and goatee who was retired in 1997.[180]
  • Quartz Hill: Quartz Hill High School. Until 1995, the school had a mascot called Johnny Reb, who would wave a Confederate Flag at football games. Johnny Reb had replaced another Confederate-themed mascot, Jubilation T. Cornpone, who waved the Stars and Bars flag at football games. "Slave Day" fundraisers were phased out in the 1980's.[181]

Colorado[edit]

Robert E. Lee Mine in Leadville. Photo by William Henry Jackson.

Schools[edit]

  • Keenesburg: Weld Central Senior High School and Weld Central Middle School share the Weld Central Rebel, a Civil-war-era-soldier which used to appear with depictions of Confederate flags. School teams are named Rebels.[182]

Mine[edit]

Former[edit]

Delaware[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Delaware.[4]

District of Columbia[edit]

Florida[edit]

There are at least 61 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Florida.[4]

An August, 2017 meeting of the Florida League of Mayors was devoted to the topic of what to do with Civil War monuments.[191]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Unveiling of Confederate Monument, Ocala, 1908

Other public monuments[edit]

United Daughters of the Confederacy members seated around a Confederate monument in Lakeland, 1915
Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park
Yellow Bluff Fort Monument

Private monuments[edit]

  • Alachua: Confederate monument, Newnansville Cemetery (2002) by the Alachua Lions Club[229]
  • Bradfordville: Robert E. Lee Monument, dedicated along Highway 319 in 1927 by UDC. Moved in the 1960s and 1990s, it is now located about a mile south of the Georgia border.[230][231]
  • Crestview: Florida's Last Confederate Veteran Memorial, City Park (1958). In 2015, ownership was transferred to trustees of Lundy's family and the memorial was moved to private property.[31][232] Soon after research determined the memorialized man had not been a veteran but had falsified his age to get veteran benefits.[233]
  • Dade City: Confederate memorial, Townsend House Cemetery (2010)[234]
  • Deland: Confederate Veteran Memorial, Oakdale Cemetery (1958)[235]
  • Gainesville: Confederate monument, Courthouse lawn (1904, moved to private cemetery 2017)[236][31]:34
  • Lake City:
    • Last Confederate War Widow, Oaklawn Cemetery, erected after her death in 1985. The memorial and the cemetery are along the Florida Civil War Heritage Trail.[237][238]
    • Our Confederate Dead, Oaklawn Cemetery (1901, rededicated 1996). A tall obelisk in memory of the unnamed soldiers who died at the nearby Battle of Olustee or in the town's Confederate hospital. The cemetery is the focal point of the opening of Lake City's annual Olustee Battle Festival.[239][240]
  • Orlando: Confederate "Johnny Reb" monument, Lake Eola Park (1911, moved to Lake Eola Park 1917, moved a private cemetery 2017)[241][242]
  • Seffner: Confederate Memorial Park, large flag visible from Interstate 75 near Tampa (2009)[243][244]
  • Tampa: Memoria In Aeterna, Hillsborough County Courthouse annex (1911)[245] After voting in July 2017 to move the statue to a family cemetery in Brandon, the County Commission announced on August 16 that the statue could only be moved if private citizens raised $140,000 within 30 days. The funds were raised by the next day. The following day Save Southern Heritage, Veterans' Monuments of America, and UDC filed a lawsuit attempting to prevent the statue's relocation.[246] Removed September 5, 2017.[247]

Inhabited places[edit]

Counties[edit]

  • Baker County (1861), named for James McNair Baker, a lawyer and judge who sat as a Confederate States of America Senator from Florida.[248]
  • Bradford County (1861), named for Captain Richard Bradford, who was killed in the Battle of Santa Rosa Island, becoming the first Confederate officer from Florida to die during the Civil War.[248]
  • Hendry County (1923), named for Francis Asbury Hendry, a Confederate Captain and one of the first settlers in the area.[248]
  • Lee County (1887), named for Robert E. Lee.[249]
  • Levy County (1845), named for David Levy Yulee, a Florida businessman, senator, and strong supporter of slavery, who withdrew from the U.S. Senate in 1861 and served nine months in prison after the Civil War for supporting the Confederacy.
  • Pasco County (1887), named for Samuel Pasco, who fought for the CSA but spent much of the war as a prisoner of war. Pasco later became a state representative and US Senator from Florida.

Municipalities[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Stonewall Jackson Memorial Highway, designated by UDC. Chapters placed the following markers in the state:
  • Hilliard: General Lee Road
  • Hollywood: In July 2017, the city began the process to rename streets.[265]
    • Forrest Street, named for CSA Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, will become Savannah St.
    • Hood Street, named for CSA Gen. John Bell Hood, will become Macon St.
    • Lee Street, named for CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee, will become Louisville St. All changes expected to become final at Council meeting August 30, 2017.[266]
  • Jacksonville
    • Confederate Point Road
    • Confederate Street
    • General Lee Road
  • Orlando
  • Perry: North Jeff Davis Avenue
  • St. Cloud: Robert Lee Road
  • Stuart: Southeast General Lee Terrace
  • Tampa: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Zephyrhills: Jeff Davis Drive

Schools and libraries[edit]

  • Gainesville:
    • J.J. Finley Elementary School (1939), named for CSA Brig. Gen. Jesse J. Finley.[267]
    • Kirby-Smith Center (1939), Alachua County Public Schools administrative offices. Constructed in 1900, the building was initially the all white Gainesville Graded & High School.[268] In August 2017, the school board announced plans to rename the center.[269]
  • Hillsborough County: Robert E. Lee Elementary School aka Lee Elementary Magnet School of World Studies and Technology was built 1906 and named for Lee in 1943. A school board member pushing for a rename in 2017 noted that had Lee's army won the war "a majority of our students would be slaves."[270]
  • Jacksonville[271]
    • J.E.B. Stuart Middle School (1966), named for CSA Gen. J. E. B. Stuart.
    • Jefferson Davis Middle School (1961)
    • Kirby-Smith Middle School (1924), named for CSA Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith.
    • Nathan Bedford Forrest High School (1959), originally an all white school named in protest against school desegregation, renamed to Westside High School in 2014 after decades of controversy.[272]
    • Robert E. Lee High School (1928)
    • Stonewall Jackson Elementary School
  • Orlando: Robert E. Lee Middle School, renamed College Park Middle School in 2017.[273]
  • Pensacola: Escambia High School's Rebel mascot riots, 1972–1977. Before a noncontroversial name was chosen, protests and violence occurred at the school and in the community, crosses were burned on school district members' lawns, lawsuits were filed, and the Ku Klux Klan held a rally and petitioned the school board.
  • Tampa: Lee Elementary School of Technology / World Studies (1906). The school's mascot is Robert E. Lee's horse Traveller. In July 2015, students asked the school board to change the school's name.[274] In June 2017, a board member asked the board to consider the name change.[275]
  • West Palm Beech: Jefferson Davis Middle School. Renamed Palm Springs Middle School in 2005.[276]

State symbols[edit]

Flag of Florida since 1900
Flag of Florida since 1900

City symbols[edit]

  • Panama City: city flag is quite similar to the Florida state flag with a white background and the St Andrews cross echoing the Confederate Battle Flag, but with the city seal replacing the state seal.

Former[edit]

  • Bradenton: Confederate monument, Manatee County Courthouse, unveiled 1927.[278][31]:32 Removed in August 2017[279]
  • West Palm Beach: Confederate monument, Woodlawn Cemetery (1941). "The only one south of St. Augustine, likely the only Confederate statue in Palm Beach and Broward counties, said historian Janet DeVries, who leads cemetery tours at Woodlawn." Vandalized several times. Removed August 22, 2017. Placed in storage, since its owner, UDC, had not claimed it despite notification.[280] "Believed by local historians to be the last Confederate monument in Palm Beach County."[266]
  • The State Senate Seal included the Confederate Battle Flag from 1972 to 2016. The Senate voted in October 2015 to replace the confederate symbol with the Florida State Flag in the wake of the racially motivated Charleston shootings.[281]
  • The Confederate Stainless Banner flag flew over the west entrance of the Florida State Capitol from 1978 until 2001, when Gov. Jeb Bush ordered it removed.[126]

Georgia[edit]

There are at least 174 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Georgia.[4]

A law from the early twentieth century, last amended in 2004, says that no publicly owned military monuments can be relocated, removed, concealed, obscured, or altered unless it is to preserve, protect, or help interpretation.[282]

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Henry Wirz memorial, Andersonville
Crisp County Confederate Monument, Cordele
Unveiling of "Dutchy", Elberton
Monument to the Great Locomotive Chase, Ringgold
Francis S. Bartow in Savannah, Georgia

Private monuments[edit]

  • Albany: Confederate Memorial Park, owned and maintained by SCV and UDC.
  • Augusta: Confederate Monument at St. James United Methodist Church.[342] (No longer there as of 2017, according to street view)
  • Cordele: A retired Titan I intercontinental ballistic missile standing upright next to an interstate highway is entitled "Confederate Air Force Pad #1", commemorating Georgia's role in the Civil War. Erected 1969.[343]
  • Rome: Confederate monuments at Myrtle Hill Cemetery include:
Gallery[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Public works[edit]

Roads[edit]

Jefferson Davis Highway marker in Irwin County

Schools[edit]

State symbols[edit]

Flag of Georgia since 2003
Flag of Georgia since 2003
  • The 1956 Georgia State Flag incorporated the Confederate Battle Flag and the bars of the Confederate Star and Bars flag. According to a 2000 Georgia Senate research report the 1956 flag was adopted in an era when the Georgia General Assembly "was entirely devoted to passing legislation that would preserve segregation and white supremacy", and they changed the state flag" during "an atmosphere of preserving segregation and resentment" to the U.S. government's rulings on integration.[345]
  • The short lived 2001–2003 flag included a miniature version of the 1956 flag along with other miniature former flags

City symbols[edit]

Photos[edit]

Idaho[edit]

There are several places named for the Confederacy in Idaho.[4] The settlement of Idaho coincided with the Civil War and settlers from Southern states memorialized the Confederacy with the names of several towns and natural features.[347][348][349]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Atlanta: unincorporated, and its Atlanta Airport. The area was named by Southerners after reports of a Confederate victory over Gen. Sherman in the Battle of Atlanta, which turned to be wholly false, but the name stuck.
  • Confederate Gulch: unincorporated former mining community[350][349]
  • Grayback Gulch: unincorporated former mining community, settled by Confederate soldiers and named for the color of their uniforms. Now a government campground[351]
  • Leesburg: an unincorporated former goldmining town settled by southerners and named for Robert E. Lee.[352]

Natural features and recreation[edit]

Illinois[edit]

Confederate Monument at Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago

Indiana[edit]

There are at least two public spaces with monuments to Confederate prisoners who died as prisoners of war in Indiana.[4]

Iowa[edit]

There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Iowa.[4]

  • Bentonsport: Monument to Lawrence Sullivan Ross (2007), Iowa's only Confederate general[361]
  • Bloomfield:[361]
    • Confederate Invasion of Iowa Monument (2005)
    • Confederate Memorial (2005)
      • Adjacent to the two Confederate memorials (plaques) is one "In honor of those citizens of Davis County who Sacrificed and Served to preserve the Union."

Kansas[edit]

There is one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in Kansas.[4]

  • Humboldt: Confederate Soldier Shot Historical Marker. The marker sits at the site of where the Union Flag was flying in Humboldt, Kansas, when a Confederate Soldier attempted to chop down the Union flag pole. The Confederate Soldier was shot as he tried to remove the flag. The marker is less of a monument to the Confederacy, and more of a historical marker describing the events when Humboldt was raided by Confederate Captains John Mathews and his friend Tom Livingston who led other white Confederate proslavers, southern sympathizing Indians, and Missouri Bushwhackers seeking fugitive slaves from Missouri who were hiding in Humboldt.[362]

Former[edit]

  • Between 1855 and 1862, the county now known as Lyon County was known as Breckinridge County, named for John C. Breckinridge, U.S. Vice President and Confederate general.[363]
  • Wichita: Confederate Flag Bicentennial Memorial (1962, removed 2015). The Confederate battle flag had been displayed at the John S. Stevens Pavilion at Veterans Memorial Plaza near downtown since 1976, when it was placed there in a historical flag display as part of the nation’s bicentennial. The flag was removed in July 2015.[364]

Kentucky[edit]

There are at least 56 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Kentucky.[4]

Monuments[edit]

Confederate Monument, Georgetown, Kentucky
Confederate Monument, Spring Hill Cemetery, Harrodsburg

Gallery[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

Highways[edit]

Schools[edit]

Former[edit]

  • Florence: Boone County High School. The mascot for the school was Mr. Rebel, a Confederate general who stands tall in a light blue uniform, feathered cap, and English mustache. It was removed in 2017.[384]

Louisiana[edit]

There are at least 91 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Louisiana.[4]

Buildings[edit]

Confederate Memorial Hall in New Orleans

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans
Army of Tennessee Tomb, Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Baton Rouge:
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Lee Drive[4]
  • Bell City: Jeff Davis Road
  • Bogalusa: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Bossier City
    • General Bragg Drive
    • General Ewell Drive
    • General Polk Drive
    • General Sterling Price Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Kirby Smith Drive
    • Longstreet Place
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Robert E. Lee Street
  • Chalmette: Beauregard Street
  • Gretna: Beauregard Drive
  • Houma: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Lafayette: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Lake Charles:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Beauregard Street
  • Merryville: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Monroe: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • New Orleans
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Governor Nicholls Street
    • Jefferson Davis Parkaway
    • Lee Circle[4]
    • Polk Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Slidell Street
  • Pineville:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Longstreet Drive
  • Rayne: Jeff Davis Avenue

Schools[edit]

Former[edit]

To enforce a 2015 City Council decision, unsuccessfully challenged in court, in April and May 2017 the city of New Orleans began the removal statues of Jefferson Davis; Gen. Robert E. Lee, Gen. Pierre G.T. Beauregard.[396][397][398]

Maine[edit]

Former[edit]

Maryland[edit]

The Confederate Soldier, Loudon Park National Cemetery, Baltimore
Talbot Boys, Easton

Monuments[edit]

Public monuments[edit]

Private monuments[edit]

Monument to the Unknown Confederate Soldiers, Frederick, Maryland

Inhabited places[edit]

Roads[edit]

State symbols[edit]

  • Flag of Maryland (1904). The state flag of Maryland features the red-and-white Crossland Banner, the unofficial state flag of Maryland used by secessionists and Confederates during the American Civil War.[412][413][414][415] The current state flag started appearing after the Civil War as a form of reconciliation. The flag became official in 1904.
Flag of Maryland since 1904
Flag of Maryland since 1904

Former[edit]

There were at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in Maryland[4] prior to the removal of several monuments in August 2017.

Gallery[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

There are no public spaces dedicated to the Confederacy in Massachusetts.[4]

Private memorials[edit]

  • Cambridge
    • Memorial Hall, Harvard University. Stained-glass windows to commemorate various figures, among them:
      • Honor and Peace Window (1900). There is no inscription, but a Harvard University page ([2]) explaining the windows says: "This window commemorates those who surrendered their lives in the War of the Rebellion." Portrays two warriors, one with sword high in triumph, one kneeling in defeat, who from the ribbons can be seen to be from different but related countries.
      • Student and Soldier Window (1889). Soldier wears gray uniform.

Former[edit]

Minnesota[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Minnesota.[4]

Mississippi[edit]

There are at least 131 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Mississippi.[4]

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Unveiling of Confederate Monument in Carrollton, Mississippi, 1905

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Old Aberdeen Cemetery
Grenada, Mississippi
DeSoto County Confederate Monument, Hernando, Mississippi
  • President Jefferson Davis and Sons (2008), a life-size bronze statue commissioned by the Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV) to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the birth of Jefferson Davis.[431][432][433] The statue features Davis standing with his arms around both his son Joe, and Jim Limber, a mixed-race stepchild of the Davis family who the SVC called "a person lost in history by revisionist historians, who felt his existence would impair their contrived notions of Davis".[432] The SCV first offered the statue to the American Civil War Center at the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia in order to balance the importance of a statue already located there depicting Lincoln with his son while they visited the burned-out Confederate capital in 1865.[432][433] When the center would not "guarantee where or whether the statue would be displayed or explain how it might be interpreted", the SCV rescinded its offer.[432] The statue was eventually placed at the SVC-managed Jefferson Davis Presidential Library and Museum at Beauvoir in 2010.[431]
  • Brookhaven: Confederate Monument, Rose Hill Cemetery[426]
  • Brooksville: Our Heroes Monument (1911)
  • Canton: Howcott Monument to Loyal Servants of the Harvey Scouts (1894)
  • Clinton: Confederate Monument (1928), Clinton Cemetery[434]
  • Columbus:
    • Confederate Monument (1894), Friendship Cemetery[435]
    • Monument to Confederate Dead (1873), Friendship Cemetery[436]
  • Corinth: Corinth Confederate Memorial (1992)
  • Crystal Springs: Confederate Monument, Crystal Springs Cemetery[426]
  • Duck Hill: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1908)
  • Fayette: Confederate Soldier Sculpture (1904)
  • Forest: Confederate Monument, Western Cemetery[426]
  • Greenville: Confederate Monument, Greenville Cemetery[426]
  • Greenwood: Confederate Memorial Building (1915)[437]
  • Grenada: Confederate Monument (1910) in Public Square[438]
  • Hattiesburg: Forrest County Confederate Memorial (1910)
  • Heidelberg: Confederate Statue (1911)
  • Hernando: DeSoto County Confederate Monument, Hernando Memorial Cemetery[439]
  • Jackson:
    • Andrew Jackson Monument (1972)
    • Confederate Monument, Mississippi Department of Archives and History Building, dedicated June 1891.[440][441]
    • Women of the Confederacy Monument (1917)
  • Liberty: Confederate Monument (1871), the first Confederate monument in Mississippi. Dedicated by the Liberty Lodge of Masons.[442]
  • Louisville: Confederate Monument (1921)
  • Natchez: Confederate Monument (1890)
  • Okolona: Our Confederate Dead (1905)
  • Pontotoc: Confederate Monument in town square, dedicated in 1919,[443] or the 1930s[444]
  • Port Gibson: Claiborne County’s Tribute to Her Sons Who Served in the War of 1861–65. (1906)
  • University: Confederate Monument
  • Vaiden: Vaiden Confederate Monument (1912)

Inhabited places[edit]

Water features and dams[edit]

  • Hattiesburg:
    • Jefferson Davis Lake
    • Jefferson Davis Lake Dam

Roads[edit]

  • Bay St. Louis: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Beaumont:
    • Jeff Davis Parkway
    • Robert E. Lee Street
  • Biloxi: Jefferson Davis Avenue
  • Bogue Chitto:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Lee Drive[4]
  • Corinth: Confederate Street
  • De Kalb: Jeff Davis Road
  • Duck Hill: Jeff Davis Road
  • Florence: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Greenwood: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hattiesburg:
    • Bedford Forrest Road
    • Robert E. Lee Road
  • Hollandale: Jeff Davis Road
  • Indianola:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Leakesville: Jeff Davis Road
  • Lexington: Robert E. Lee Street
  • Long Beach: Jeff Davis Avenue
  • Lucedale: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Meridian: Jeff Davis School Road
  • Moss Point:
    • Anderson Road
    • Barron Road
    • Beauregard Road
    • Bragg Road
    • Breckinridge Road
    • Cleburne Road for Patrick Cleburne
    • Early Road
    • Ewell Road for Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • Forrest Road
    • Hood Road
    • Joseph E. Johnston Road
    • Kirby Smith Road
    • Longstreet
    • Magruder Road
    • Pemberton Road
    • Pickett Road
    • Robert E. Lee Road
    • Van Dorn
  • New Albany: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Oxford:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Lamar Avenue (the main thoroughfare) named for Lucius Q. C. Lamar drafter of Mississippi's articles of succession.[451]
  • Pascagoula:
    • Baker Road
    • Hardee Road
    • Imboden Road
    • Jeb Stuart Road
    • Mosby Road
    • Robertson Road
    • Wheeler Road
  • Picayune:
    • Jefferson Davis Parkway
    • Longstreet Lane
    • Pemberton Place
  • Prairie: Jeff Davis Road
  • Senatobia:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Forrest Avenue
    • Longstreet Lane
  • Tupelo:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Jeb Stuart Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Vicksburg National Military Park
    • Pemberton Circle, at the location of the John C. Pemberton monument.
    • Pemberton Avenue, road passing the site where Pemberton surrendered his forces to Ulysses S. Grant.
  • Waveland: Jeff Davis Avenue
  • Wesson: Beauregard Road

Highways[edit]

  • Jefferson Davis Highway
  • Lee Highway[4]

Schools[edit]

Confederate Cemetery Memorial, University of Mississippi
  • Brooklyn:
  • Caledonia: Caledonia High School: The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Confederates."[452]
  • Hattiesburg:
  • Jackson:
  • Oxford:
    • Jeff Davis Elementary School (1959)
    • University of Mississippi ("Ole Miss").
      • Confederate Cemetery Memorial (1906)[454]
      • The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Rebels."
      • From 1979 to 2003, its mascot was Colonel Reb.
      • The name "Ole Miss" itself was how slaves once addressed the mistress of the plantation.[455][456][457] It can be found on campus, on signs, sweatshirts, and in the football cheer.
      • Various plaques have been installed and modified to try and contextualize the school's history.
      • Lamar Hall (1977) memorializes Lucius Q. C. Lamar, a slaveholder who drafted the Mississippi's order of secession and funded his own CSA regiment. Post-war, he agitated for white supremacy, such as a speech before the 1875 election which he said “involved the supremacy of the unconquered and unconquerable Saxon race,”[451]
  • Rolling Fork: Sharkey Issaquena Academy (private school). The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Confederates."[452]

State symbols[edit]

Flag of Mississippi since 1894
Flag of Mississippi since 1894
  • Various state insignia incorporate the state flag
  • Mississippi National Guard seal features the Flag of Mississippi (incorporating the Confederate Battle Flag) flying over a solder at attention.

Photos[edit]

Former[edit]

  • Jackson
    • Davis Magnet IB School. Renamed "Barack Obama Magnet IB School" in 2017.[458]

Missouri[edit]

There are at least 20 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Missouri.[4]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Columbia: Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1934)

Former[edit]

  • Kansas City: United Daughters of the Confederacy Monument, Ward Parkway (1934). Removed August 2017.[465]

Montana[edit]

Confederate Memorial Fountain in Helena, Montana before removal.

There is at least one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in Montana.[4]

Former[edit]

Nevada[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Nevada.[4]

Natural Features[edit]

Former[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

Confederate Monument (1910), Finn's Point National Cemetery.

There is at least one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in New Jersey.[4]

New Mexico[edit]

New York[edit]

Confederate Monument, Woodlawn National Cemetery, Elmira, New York

There are at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in New York.[4][479]

Monuments[edit]

Private monuments[edit]

Roads[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Zebulon Baird Vance Monument in Asheville, North Carolina

There are at least 140 public spaces with Confederate monuments in North Carolina.[4]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

  • Albemarle: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1925)[485]
  • Asheville:
    • Zebulon Baird Vance Monument, a granite obelisk erected in 1896.[486] Near the obelisk, a small granite marker memorializes the Dixie Highway, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee, and Col. John Connally, a Confederate officer who was wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg. Near the Buncombe County Courthouse entrance, a smaller obelisk memorializes Confederate soldiers from Buncombe County who fought at Chickamauga and in other Civil War battles.[486] The monument was vandalized in August 2017 and 4 individuals out of 30–40 protesters were arrested for trying to remove it with crowbars.[487]
    • Monument to 60th Regiment North Carolina Volunteers (1905)
    • Memorial plaque to Lieutenant William Henry Hardy (1930), "the First Soldier from Buncombe County to Fall in the War Between The States"[488]
  • Bakersville: Mitchell County’s Confederate Dead Monument
  • Burgaw: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1914)
  • Burnsville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (2009)
  • Clinton: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1916). "In honor of the Confederate soldiers of Sampson County who bore the flag of a nation's trust and fell in a cause though lost still just and died for me and you."[68]
  • Columbia: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1902). "In appreciation of our faithful slaves".[489]
Confederate Soldiers Monument at Old Cabarrus County Courthouse, Concord, North Carolina
  • Concord: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1892) at Old Cabarrus County Courthouse[485]
  • Currituck: Confederate Soldiers Monument "To Our Confederate Dead 1861–1865" (1918)[490]
The Confederate Soldiers Monument in Durham (1924) was pulled down during a protest in August 2017 and at least one arrest was made.[491]
Old Chatham County Courthouse, Pittsboro, North Carolina (1908)

Other public monuments[edit]

Silent Sam in Chapel Hill
Confederate Soldiers Monument (1868) in Fayetteville
Lenoir, North Carolina
Lexington, North Carolina (ca. 1920)
New Bern, North Carolina
Henry Lawson Wyatt in Raleigh, North Carolina
Confederate graves and monument, Historic Oakwood Cemetery, Raleigh
Gloria Victis, Salisbury
  • Asheboro: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1911)
  • Asheville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903), Newton Academy Cemetery[485]
  • Beaufort: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1926), Carteret County Courthouse[485]
  • Unincorporated Cabarrus County, near Concord: Stonewall Jackson Youth Development Center (a correctional facility).
  • Chapel Hill: Silent Sam, 1913. In August 2017, hundreds of protestors gathered at the statue, calling for its removal. UNC Chancellor Carol Folt Issued a statemont that if it could, the University would remove it; state law prohibited it.[497]
  • Charlotte:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1977)
    • Jefferson Davis Plaque (1960)
    • Last Meetings of the Confederate Cabinet Marker (1915)
    • 1929 Confederate Reunion Marker (1929)
    • Judah P. Benjamin Memorial "erected in His Honor by Temple Israel and Temple Beth El, the Jewish Congregations of Charlotte, as a Gift to the North Carolina Division, United Daughters of the Confederacy" (1948)[498]
  • Concord:
  • Edenton: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1909); moved from courthouse in 1961[485]
  • Enfield: Confederate Soldiers Memorial (1928) at Elmwood Cemetery. Originally located in downtown Enfield, the sculpture contains a drinking fountain.[485]
  • Faison: Monument to the "Confederate Grays" 20th Regiment North Carolina State Troops (1932)[485]
  • Fayetteville:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1868) at Cross Creek Cemetery; the first Confederate monument in North Carolina[485]
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1902)[485]
    • Confederate Arsenal (1928)
    • Judah P. Benjamin marker (1944)[500]
  • Fletcher:
    • Jefferson Davis marker (1931), recognizing Davis as "A Statesman with Clean Hands and Pure Heart"[501]
    • Orren Randolph Smith marker (1930)[502]
    • Henry Timrod marker (1930), recognizing Timrod as "Laureate of the Confederacy"[503]
    • Matthew Fontaine Maury marker (1932). A Confederate Navy commander and slave owner, Maury investigated resettling American slaves in Brazil.[504][505]
    • Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway marker (1926), "In Loving Memory of Robert E. Lee...'The Shaft Memorial and Highway Straight Attest His Worth – He Cometh to His Own'"[506]
    • Zebulon Baird Vance marker (1928).[507]
    • Albert Pike marker (1928), "Arkansas Poet of the Confederacy"[508]
    • Calvary Episcopal Church Memorial (1927), "During the Civil War this Church was Used as Barracks by Confederate Troops"[509]
  • Forest City: Forest City Confederate Monument (1932)
  • Franklin: Confederate Soldiers Memorial (1909)
  • Gatesville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1915)[485]
  • Greensboro:
  • Halifax: General Junius Daniel marker (1929)[511]
  • Harnett County: Confederate Monument (1872) at Chicora Civil War Cemetery to soldiers killed at the Battle of Averasborough, "In Memory of our Confederate Dead Who Fell Upon That Day"[512]
  • Hendersonville: Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway Marker (1926; re-dedicated 2008)[513]
  • Holly Springs: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1923)
  • Jacksonville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1957)
  • Justice: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1912) at Stallings Memorial Park[485]
  • Kinston:
  • Kure Beach
    • Confederate Memorial (1921)
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1932)
  • Lenoir: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1910) in town square[485]
  • Lexington: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1905)[485]
  • Louisburg:
    • Confederate Memorial Drinking Fountain (1911)
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument to, "Our Confederate Dead". The monument is owned by the town of Louisburg, and in the center of Louisburg College. (1914)[514]
  • Middletown: Confederate Soldiers Monument (2001)
  • Mocksville: Davie County War Memorial (1987)
  • Monroe: Located on the grounds of the Old Union County Courthouse, the obelisk was erected by the Monroe chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy in 1910.[515]
  • Morgantown: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1918)
  • New Bern: Confederate Monument, Cedar Grove Cemetery (1885)[516]
  • Oxford: Granville Gray, a Memorial to the Confederate Veterans of Granville County (1909).
  • Raleigh:
    • Confederate Monument (1870), Historic Oakwood Cemetery[512]
    • Henry Lawson Wyatt Monument (1912); the first Confederate soldier to die in battle.[517]
    • Confederate Women’s Monument (1914)
    • Samuel A’Court Ashe Monument (1940)
    • North Carolina State Confederate Monument, Union Square, also known as the Soldiers and Sailors Monument, on the State Capitol grounds.
  • Reidsville: From 1910 to 2011, the monument stood in Reidsville's downtown area. In 2011, a motorist hit the monument, shattering the granite soldier which stood atop it. Placing the monument back in the center of town sparked a debate between local officials, neighbors and friends – which resulted in it being placed at its current site – the Greenview Cemetery. The new site contains a brand new statue. The original 101-year-old statue was completely destroyed.[518]
  • Rockingham: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1930)
  • Rocky Mount: Nash County Confederate Monument, erected in 1917 to honor Confederate War dead in Edgecombe and Nash Counties, rededicated to all veterans of all wars in 1976.
  • Salisbury: Gloria Victis ("Glory to the Defeated"), also called Fame Confederate Monument. Cast in Brussels in 1891, Gloria Victis is one of two nearly-identical sculptures by Frederick Ruckstull (the other being the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, removed from public display in Baltimore in 2017). Gloria Victis appeared first at an exhibition in Paris, and then at a studio in a New York City, where it was purchased by the UDC as a Confederate monument for Salisbury. The 23 ft (7.0 m) high bronze statue features an allegorical angel with outstretched wings dressed in robes with a laurel wreath on her head. In one hand she supports a dying soldier holding a battered rifle, while in her other hand—held high—she holds a second laurel wreath with which to place on the soldier when he expires. Anna Morrison Jackson, widow of Confederate General Stonewall Jackson, attended the 1909 dedication in Salisbury.[519][520][521]
  • Selma: The Last Grand Review Monument (1990)[522]
  • Stanley: Stanley Community Center & Polling Place
  • Sylva: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1915)
  • Tarboro:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1904)[485]
    • Henry Lawson Wyatt Memorial Fountain (1910)[485]
  • Thomasville: Thomasville and Davidson County Civil War Memorial (1910)
  • Tuxedo: Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway Marker (1927)[523]
  • Washington, Virginia: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1888), Oakdale Cemetery[485]
  • Weldon: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1908; relocated 1934)[485]
  • Wentworth: Rockingham County Confederate Monument (1998)[524]
  • Wilmington:
  • Windsor: Memorial to the Confederate Dead, erected in 1896 by the Confederate Veterans Associations of Bertie County.[525]
  • Yanceyville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1921), Old Caswell County Courthouse[485]

Inhabited places[edit]

Natural features[edit]

  • North Carolina Confederate Veterans Forest (1956).[526] 125,000 spruce pine trees were planted by the UDC in the 1940s as a living memorial to North Carolina Confederate Veterans. The forest was rededicated in 2001. The area is located beneath Mt. Hardy near the Blue Ridge Parkway.

Roads[edit]

  • Charlotte:
    • Jefferson Davis Street
    • E & W Stonewall Streets[527]
    • E & W Hill Streets[527]
  • Clinton: General Lee Lane
  • Dunn: General Lee Avenue
  • Fayetteville: General Lee Avenue
  • Flat Rock: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hope Mills: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Kinston: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Lexington: Confederate Street
  • Mebane:
    • Beauregard Lane
    • Hill Lane
    • Pickett Lane
    • Stonewall Drive
    • Stuart Lane
  • Monroe: Confederate Street
  • Salisbury:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Stonewall Road
    • Stuart Street
  • Sanford: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Spencer:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Stonewall Road
    • Stuart Street
  • Spring Lake: General Lee Street
  • Stonewall: Stonewall Street
  • Watha: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Wilmington: (all within the Pine Valley neighborhood)
  • Windsor: Confederate Street

Former[edit]

Ohio[edit]

There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Ohio.[4]

Monuments[edit]

Confederate Soldier Memorial, Camp Chase, Columbus

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Cleveland: John Adams High School uses the Rebels team name, but the mascot more closely resembles a cavalier than a Confederate soldier.[537]
  • Willoughby: Willoughby South High School dropped its Confederate uniformed mascot and removed all remaining Confederate imagery from the school while retaining the Rebels team name and school colors grey and blue. In 1993 the school dropped Stars and Bars as the school song and removed Confederate imagery from school uniforms.[537]
  • McConnelsville: Morgan High School is named for Confederate General John Hunt Morgan. Their nickname is the "Raiders".

Former[edit]

Oklahoma[edit]

Confederate Monument at Cherokee National Capitol
Robert E. Lee School in Durant, Oklahoma

There are at least 13 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oklahoma.[4]

Stand Watie Monument, Polson Cemetery, Delaware County

Buildings[edit]

  • Ardmore: Oklahoma Confederate Home, operated as OK Confederate Home from 1911 to 1942. Renamed Oklahoma Veterans Center after last residing confederate veteran passed.[540][541]

Monuments[edit]

Schools[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Jackson County (1907) sources dispute if the name is for the CSA General or President Jackson
  • Town of Stonewall (1874) for Stonewall Jackson

Roads[edit]

  • Jay: Stand Watie Road

Oregon[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Albany: South Albany High School. After splitting from "Albany Union" school in 1971, the new "south" school embraced a Confederate theme. The mascot is the "Rebel", athletic teams are nicknamed "the Rebels", the school colors are red and gray, and a Confederate flag hung in the gymnasium until it was removed during the 1989-90 school year.[549]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Virginia State Monument (1917), Gettysburg Battlefield.
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery.

There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Pennsylvania.[4]

Monuments[edit]

  • Gettysburg: Gettysburg Battlefield. In addition to the monuments listed below, the battlefield features monuments to specific Confederate units.[550]
    • Alabama State Monument (1933)
    • Arkansas State Monument (1966)
    • "Armistead's Last Stand" Marker, for Brig. Gen. Lewis A. Armistead (1887)
    • Army of Northern Virginia Marker (1908)
    • Culp Brothers' Memorial (2013) Near entrance Gettysburg Heritage Center, Honors Confederate Private Wesley Culp and brother Union Army, Lieutenant William Culp (“brother against brother”).[551]
    • Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell's Headquarters Marker (1920)
    • Florida State Monument (1963)
    • Georgia State Monument (1961)
    • Lt. Gen. Ambrose P. Hill's Headquarters Marker (1920)
    • Gen. Robert E. Lee Equestrian Statue (1917)
    • Gen. Robert E. Lee Headquarters Marker (1920)
    • Lt. Gen. James Longstreet Equestrian Statue (1998)
    • Lt. Gen. James Longstreet Headquarters Marker (1907)
    • Louisiana State Monument (1971)
    • Maryland State Monument (1994). Honors Maryland soldiers on both the Union and Confederate sides.
    • Mississippi State Monument (1973)
    • North Carolina State Monument (1929)
    • North Carolina Memorial Tablet
    • Soldiers and Sailors of the Confederacy Monument (1965)
    • South Carolina State Monument (1963)
    • Tennessee State Monument (1982)
    • Texas State Monument (1964)
    • Virginia State Monument (1917). Topped by an equestrian statue of Gen. Robert E. Lee.
  • McConnellsburg
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument, dedicated in 1929.
    • Last Confederate Bivouac Monument, dedicated in 1930.
  • Philadelphia: Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery. Commemorates 184 Confederate prisoners of war who died in Philadelphia area hospitals and camps.

Roads[edit]

  • McConnellsburg: Confederate Lane

South Carolina[edit]

There are at least 112 public spaces with Confederate monuments in South Carolina.[4]

The state restricted the removal of memorials and statues with the South Carolina Heritage Act (2000) which states that "no historical monument can altered or moved without a two-thirds vote in both chambers of the state's General Assembly".[552]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Greenwood County Courthouse, Greenwood, South Carolina

Other public monuments[edit]

Orangeburg
  • Charleston: Monument to the Confederate Defenders of Charleston (1932)[558]
  • Chester Confederate Monument[4]
  • Clemson: Old Stone Church Confederate Memorial
  • Clinton Confederate Monument[4]
  • Columbia:
    • The monument to South Carolina's Confederate Dead (1879) is positioned on the northern end of the South Carolina State House grounds. The monument, after a decision by the Legislature to remove the Confederate flag from the dome of the State House, where it had flown since 1962, flew a traditional version of the Confederate Battle Flag from 2000 to 2015; the flag was the subject of protests and national level political debate.[559][560] In 2015 it was removed by a 2/3 vote of both houses of the Legislature.[561]
    • Longstreet Theater and Annex at the University of South Carolina.[4]
    • Monument to the South Carolina Women of the Confederacy (1912)[4]
    • Wade Hampton Confederate Monument (1906)[4]
    • Benjamin Tillman monument, in the statehouse.
  • Conway: Our Confederate Dead Monument
  • Cross Hill: Confederate Monument (1908)
  • Fort Mill:
    • Catawba Indian Monument (1900)
    • Defenders of State Sovereignty Momnument (1891)
    • Faithful Slaves Monument (1895). Local cotton mill owner Samuel E. White and the Jefferson Davis Memorial Association dedicated the memorial to honor the "faithful slaves who loyal to a sacred trust toiled for the support of the army with matchless devotion and sterling fidelity guarded our defenceless homes, women and children during the struggle for the principles of our Confederate States of America."[562] This monument is seen as an example of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy movement.
  • Gaffney: The Cherokee County Confederate Monument was built in 1922.[563]
Monument at Battery White

Inhabited places[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Aiken: Beauregard Lane
  • Anderson:
    • Beauregard Lane
    • Bonham Court
  • Beaufort: Beauregard Court
  • Bluffton: Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Charleston:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
  • Clinton:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Columbia:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Bonham Road
    • Bonham Street
    • Confederate Avenue
    • South Bonham Road
  • Cowpens: Stonewall Drive
  • Daufuskie Island: Beauregard Boulevard
  • Early Branch: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Easley: Stonewall Drive
  • Fort Mill: Confederate Street
  • Greenville: Stonewall Lane
  • Greenwood: Bonham Court
  • Greer: Beauregard Court
  • Hartsville: Stonewall Street
  • Honea Path: Beauregard Drive
  • Lake City: Beauregard Street
  • Lancaster: Confederate Avenue
  • Modoc: Beauregard Drive
  • Mountville: Jefferson Davis Road
  • Orangeburg:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Street
    • Stonewall Jackson Boulevard
    • Stonewall Jackson Street Southwest
  • Rock Hill
    • North Stonewall Street
    • South Stonewall Street
  • Saluda
    • Bonham Avenue
    • Bonham Road
  • St. Matthews: Stonewall Lane
  • Summerville:
    • Beauregard Court
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Timmonsville:
    • Robert E. Lee Avenue
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Trenton: Thomas S. Jackson Road
  • Union:
    • Bonham Station Road
    • General Lee Drive
  • Wagener: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Walterboro: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Westminster: Stonewall Drive
  • Walterboro: Robert E. Lee Drive

Schools[edit]

  • Bishopville:
    • Lee Central High School[4]
    • Lee Central Middle School[4]
    • Lee County Career & Technology Center[4]
    • Lee High School[4]
  • Greenville: Wade Hampton High School
  • Ehrhardt: Jackson Academy (private school): The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Confederates"[452]
  • Clemson University: Named after the Confederate soldier and son of John C. Calhoun that bequeathed the land to the state for the creation of an agricultural college.[565]

Tennessee[edit]

There are at least 80 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Tennessee.[4] The Tennessee Heritage Protection Act (2016) and a 2013 law restrict the removal of statues and memorials.[21]

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Confederate Women monument, Nashville

Other public monuments[edit]

Pyramid of cannonballs commemorate Patrick Cleburne in Franklin, Tennessee
Jefferson Davis statue in the former Confederate Park, Memphis
Sign of the Confederate Circle in the Mount Olivet Cemetery, Nashville

Parks[edit]

  • Eva: Nathan Bedford Forrest State Park (1963)
  • Franklin: Confederate Memorial Park at Winstead Hill Park&nbsp
  • Memphis: Three Confederate-themed city parks were "hurriedly renamed" prior to enactment of the Tennessee Heritage Protection Act of 2013. Confederate Park (1908) was renamed Memphis Park; Jefferson Davis Park was renamed Mississippi River Park; and Nathan Bedford Forrest Park was renamed Health Sciences Park.[588][589]

Roads[edit]

  • Brentwood
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Culleoka: General Lee Road
  • Dandridge
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Elizabethton: Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Eva: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Forest Hills: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Franklin:
    • General J.B. Hood Drive
    • General Nathan Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Gallatin: Robert Lee Drive
  • Nashville: Beauregard Drive
  • Newport
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Driv
  • Oak Hill: Stonewall Jackson Court
  • Pulaski
    • Sam Davis Avenue
    • Sam Davis Trail
  • Sardis: Jeff Davis Lane
  • Smyrna
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Lee Lane[4]
    • Longstreet Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
    • Sam Davis Road
    • Stonewall Drive

Inhabited places[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Chapel Hill: Forrest High School
  • Paris: Robert E. Lee School
  • Sewanee: The University of the South is more closely linked with the Confederacy than is any other university. Confederate flags are in stained glass windows of the chapel. Students as late as 1871 were required to wear uniforms of "cadet gray cloth".[590] Confederate flags hung in the chapel from its dedication in 1909 until the mid-1990s when they were removed "reportedly to improve acoustics".[591] There is an official portrait hanging at the University of Bishop Leonidas Polk, who was in charge of the celebration of the cornerstone laying in 1857, and said the new university will "materially aid the South to resist and repel a fanatical domination which seeks to rule over us."[592] He resigned his ecclesiastical position to become a major general in the Confederate army (called “Sewanee‘s Fighting Bishop”), and died in battle in 1864. His official portrait at the University depicts him dressed as a bishop with his army uniform hanging nearby. The Confederate flag was also emblazoned on the university mace that led processions marking the beginning and ending of the term from 1965 until 1997. At a special chapel service to celebrate Jefferson Davis' birthday, the Ceremonial Mace was consecrated to the memory of Nathan Bedford Forrest, the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, by Bishop Charles C. J. Carpenter of Alabama – one of the clergy who opposed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s activities in Birmingham in 1963, prompting King to write his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in response.[591]
The Vice Chancellor is the chief academic officer at the university; the chancellor is a bishop of the Episcopal church. Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee both turned down offers of the position.[593] (Sewanee has a portrait of Davis.[594]) The first vice chancellor was Rt. Rev. Charles Todd Quintard, called "chaplain of the Confederacy". He compiled the Confederate Soldiers' Pocket Manual of Devotions (Charleston, 1863).[595]
The university's chief donor was John Armfield, at the time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, the largest slave-trading firm in the U.S. He purchased the site and gave the university an endowment of $25,000 a year. In addition to Polk, Bishop Stephen Elliott, the first and only Presiding Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America, and Bishop James Hervey Otey, later prominent in the Confederacy, were significant founders of the university. Generals Edmund Kirby Smith, Josiah Gorgas, and Francis A. Shoup were prominent in the university's postbellum revival and continuance.

Theme park[edit]

  • Pigeon Forge: "Rebel Railroad" was a small theme park built in 1961, its main attraction being a simulated Confederate steam train which afforded "'good Confederate citizens' the opportunity to ride a five mile train route through 'hostile' territory and to help repel a Yankee assault on the train". Rebel Railroad was purchased in 1970 by Art Modell, owner of the Cleveland Browns.[600][601][602]

Former[edit]

Confederate Memorial Hall, now known as Memorial Hall, Vanderbilt University.

The 2016 Tennessee Heritage Protection Act puts "the brakes on cities' and counties' ability to remove monuments or change names of streets and parks."[568]

  • Nashville: Confederate Memorial Hall on the campus of Vanderbilt University was built in 1935. The school renamed the building "Memorial Hall" in August 2016, and returned to the United Daughters of the Confederacy the 2016 value ($1,200,000) of their donation at the time of its construction.[603]

Texas[edit]

There are at least 178 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Texas.[604][4]

Buildings[edit]

  • Houston:
    • Jefferson Davis Hospital was built on a confederate graveyard and operated from 1924–1938. The building saw many government uses after that, but was eventually converted to artist lofts in 2004 after being listed on the National Register of Historic Places and designated a heritage landmark to be preserved in perpetuity. The hospital was named for Jefferson Davis, former president of the Confederacy, in honor of the Confederate soldiers who had been buried in the cemetery and as a means to console the families of the deceased.[605]
    • A second Jefferson Davis Hospital operated several miles away on Allen Parkway from 1938 to 1999, when it was demolished.[606]

Monuments[edit]

Many monuments were donated by pro-Confederacy groups like Daughters of the Confederacy. County governments at the time voted to accept the gifts and take ownership of the statues.[607][608]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Dignified Resignation in Galveston, Texas
  • Galveston: Dignified Resignation (1909) by Louis Amateis at the Galveston County Courthouse. With his back turned to the US flag while carrying a Confederate flag, it is the only memorial in Texas to feature a Confederate sailor.[622][623] It was “erected to the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate States of America.” An inscription on the plaque reads, “there has never been an armed force which in purity of motives intensity of courage and heroism has equaled the army and navy of the Confederate States of America.”[624]
  • Gainesville: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Cooke County Courthouse (1911)[625][626]
Georgetown, Texas

Other public monuments[edit]

Confederate Memorial Plaza in Anderson, Texas
  • Alpine: CSA Gen. Lawrence "Sul" Ross Monument (1963)
  • Amarillo: Confederate Soldier Statue (1931)[622]
  • Anderson: Confederate Memorial Plaza (2010).[655] The plaza beside the Grimes County courthouse flies a Confederate flag behind a gate with metal lettering reading “Confederate Memorial Plaza.” A metal statue depicts one of several Grimes County residents who fought with the 4th Texas volunteer infantry brigade in Virginia.[624]
  • Athens: Henderson County Confederate Monument (1964)
  • Austin:
    • Littlefield Fountain, University of Texas, commemorates George W. Littlefield, a university regent and CSA officer. An inscription reads, "To the men and women of the Confederacy who fought with valor and suffered with fortitude that states [sic] rights be maintained."
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903), Texas State Capital, features four bronze figures representing the Confederate artillery, cavalry, infantry and navy. A bronze statue of Jefferson Davis stands above them.[656] The inscription reads: "Died for state rights guaranteed under the constitution. The people of the South, animated by the spirit of 1776, to preserve their rights, withdrew from the federal compact in 1861. The North resorted to coercion. The South, against overwhelming numbers and resources, fought until exhausted."[624]
    • Plaque in the Texas State Capitol (1959), which reads:

Because we desire to perpetuate, in love and honor, the heroic deeds of those who enlisted in the Confederate Services, and upheld its flag during four years of war, we, the children of the South, have united in an organization called the ‘Children of the Confederacy,’ in which our strength, enthusiasm and love of justice can exert its influence. We therefore pledge ourselves to preserve pure ideas: to honor the memory of our beloved Veterans; to study and teach the truths of history (one of the most important of which is, that the War Between the States was not a rebellion, nor was its underlying cause to sustain slavery). And always to act in a manner that will reflect honor upon our noble patriotic ancestors.[657]

  • Beaumont: "Our Confederate Soldiers" Monument (1912)
  • Clarksville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1912)
  • Cleburne: Cleburne Monument (2010)
  • Coleman: Hometown of Texas CSA Col. James E. McCord Monument (1963)
  • Dallas: Confederate War Memorial. Originally erected in City Park in 1897, but relocated to Pioneer Park Cemetery in 1961 due to highway construction.[658]
  • College Station: A statue of Lawrence Sullivan Ross, confederate general and former president of A&M University is located on the campus of Texas A&M University. In August 2017 the Chancelor of the university, John Sharp, confirmed that the university will not be removing the statue from the campus.[659]
  • Corpus Christi: Queen of the Sea (1914; restored 1990), bas-relief by Pompeo Coppini; UDC-sponsored Confederate memorial featuring an allegorical female figure – representing Corpus Christie – holding keys of success while receiving blessings from Mother Earth and Father Neptune, who are standing next to her.[622] "Coppini was abhorrent of war", and in Queen of the Sea "he crafted a sculpture that symbolized peace and captured the spirit of Corpus Christi".[660]
  • El Paso:
    • Hometown of Texas CSA Capt. James W. Magoffin Monument (1964)
    • CSA Maj. Simeon Hart Monument (1964)
  • Farmersville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1917), Farmersville City Park[661]
  • Fort Davis: Post founded 1854 and named for then US Secretary of War Jefferson Davis. Contains the "Old Fort Davis Monument" (1963).[662] Fort Davis National Historic Site
  • Fort Worth: Confederate Soldier Memorial (1939), Oakwood Cemetery[622]
  • Gainesville Confederate Heroes Statue (1908) in Leonard Park[663][664]
  • Gonzales: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Confederate Square. Dedicated on June 3, 1909. To "our Confederate dead."[665][666]
  • Greenville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1926)
  • Holliday: Stonewall Jackson Camp 249 Monument (1999)
  • Houston:
  • Kermit: Col. C.M. Winkler Monument (1963)
  • Marshall:
    • Confederate Capitol of Missouri Monument (1963)
    • Confederate Monument (1906)
    • Home of Last Texas Confederate Gov. Pendleton Murrah Monument (1963)
  • Miami: Col. O.M. Roberts Monument (1963)
John H. Reagan Memorial in Palestine, Texas. The allegorical figure seated beneath Reagan represents the Lost Cause of the Confederacy.[622]

Private monuments[edit]

Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza, Palestine, Texas
  • Hempstead: The Liendo Plantation was a center for Confederate recruiting efforts and held Union prisoners during the war. Now it holds battle reenactments and demonstrations of Civil War era Confederate life at its annual Civil War Weekend.
  • Orange: Confederate Memorial of the Wind: under construction since 2013.[669]
  • Palestine: Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza (2013), funded by the Sons of the Confederate Veterans[670]

Inhabited places[edit]

Counties[edit]

Municipalities[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Austin:
    • Jeff Davis Avenue
    • Robert E. Lee Road. Austin City Council has begun the process of renaming this road.[672]
  • Conroe:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jubal Early Lane
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Dallas
    • Lee, Gano, Stonewall, Beauregard, and Cabell streets are currently named for Confederate Generals. They will be renamed at a future date.[673]
  • El Paso: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Hamilton: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Hemphill:
    • Confederate Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Holliday: Stonewall Road
  • Houston:
    • Robert E. Lee Road
    • Robert Lee Road
    • Tuam Street, another major artery is named for Tuam, CSA Gen. Dowling's birthplace in Irelamd
  • Hunt: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Jacksonville: Jeff Davis Street
  • Kermit East Winkler Street
  • Lakeside Confederate Park Road
  • League City: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Levelland: Robert Lee Street
  • Liberty: Confederate Street
  • Livingston: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Marshall:
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Missouri City
    • Beauregard Court
    • Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Breckinridge Court
    • Confederate Drive
    • Pickett Place
  • Richmond:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Ridgley: Bedford Forrest Lane
  • Roma: Robert Lee Avenue
  • San Antonio:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Sterling City: Robert Lee Highway
  • Sweetwater: Robert Lee Street
  • Tyler:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
  • Victoria: Robert E. Lee Road

Note: "There are similarly named streets in towns and cities across east Texas, notably Port Arthur and Beaumont, as well as memorials to Dowling and the Davis Guards, not least at Sabine Pass, where the battleground is now preserved as a state park"

Schools[edit]

  • Abilene:
    • Jackson Elementary School
    • Johnston Elementary School
    • Lee Elementary School (1961)[4]
  • Amarillo:
    • Lee Elementary School[4]
    • Tascosa High School. Confederacy iconography was dropped in 1974. The school dropped its mascot, Johnny Reb, and stopped playing "Dixie” as their fight song. The Dixieland Singers became the Freedom Singers. Miss Southern Belle became Tascosa Belle. The "Rebel" nickname remained, but other ties to the Civil War disappeared.[674]
  • Austin:
    • John H. Reagan High School (1965)
    • Lee Elementary School (1939) – Lee Elementary school was renamed in May 2016 for Russell Lee, a prominent photographer with the Farm Security Administration and the first Professor of Photography at the University of Texas.
    • William B. Travis High School, home of the "Rebels".[675] Dropped "Dixie" as its song in 2012.[676]
    • Sidney Lanier High School: Sidney Lanier was in the Confederate army.[677]
    • Johnston High School: Named for Albert Sidney Johnston, Confederate general killed in the Battle of Shiloh. The school closed in 2008; Eastside Memorial High School is now (2017) at that location.[678]
  • Buda: Jack C. Hays High School. The school uses the "Rebel" nickname for its athletic teams.[679] Mascot "Colonel Jack" no longer has a Confederate flag belt buckle but still dresses in grey. The school dropped the Confederate flag as an official symbol in 2010 and the school district banned it from all district property in 2012.[680] In 2015 it replaced the school song "Dixie".
  • Baytown:
  • Dallas:
    • Albert Sidney Johnston Elementary School
    • John H. Reagan Elementary School
    • Robert E. Lee Elementary School
    • Stonewall Jackson Elementary School (1939)
  • Denton: Lee Elementary School (1988)[4]
  • Eagle Pass: Robert E. Lee Elementary School
  • Edinburg: Lee Elementary School[4]
  • El Paso: Lee Elementary School[4]
  • Evadale: Evadale High School. The school uses a Confederate flag-inspired crest. Its athletic teams are nicknamed the "Rebels".[681]
  • Fort Davis:
  • Gainesville: Robert E. Lee Intermediate School
  • Grand Prairie: Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1948)
  • Houston:
  • Marshall: Robert E. Lee Elementary School
  • Midland:
  • North Richland Hills, home of the Richland High School "Rebels" and "Dixie Belles". The school mascot is "Johnny Rebel".[683]
  • Port Arthur: Lee Elementary School (1959)[4]
  • Robert Lee:
    • Robert Lee Elementary School
    • Robert Lee High School
  • San Angelo: Lee Middle School (1949)[4]
  • San Antonio: Robert E. Lee High School (1958). After voting against a name change in 2015, the school board voted in August 2017 to change the name of the school.[684] In October, district trustees voted 5-2 to name the school Legacy of Educational Excellence, or LEE High School.[685] Its mascot is currently the Volunteer and the school colors are red and grey. Its pep squad, currently called the Southern Belles, were once called the Confederates. Its varsity dance team and junior varsity drill team are respectively named the Rebel Rousers and Dixie Drillers.[624]
  • Stonewall: Stonewall Elementary School
  • Tyler:
    • Hubbard Middle School (1964), named for Confederate Col. Richard B. Hubbard
    • Robert E. Lee High School (1958). Called "the city's most radioactive Confederate symbol," the possible renaming of the school was the subject of active discussion at meetings in August and September, 2017. In 1970, as a result of a statewide federal desegregation order, the school had to get rid of "its Confederate-themed mascot (the Rebels), fight song (“Dixie”), and prized Confederate flag (so large that it required twenty boys to carry). Its beloved Rebel Guard, a squadron of boys handpicked by an American-history teacher to dress in replica Confederate uniforms at football games and fire a cannon named Ole Spirit after touchdowns, had to find a new name. Same for the Rebelettes drill team."[686]

State symbols[edit]

The reverse side of the Seal of Texas (1992) includes "the unfurled flags of the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, the United Mexican States, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America". The Confederate flag is rendered as the Stars and Bars.

Former[edit]

  • Arlington: Six Flags Over Texas theme park: In August 2017 removed the Stars and Bars Confederate Flag after flying it for 56 years along with the flags of the other countries that Texas has been part of. In the 1990s the park renamed the Confederacy section the Old South section and removed all Confederate Battle Flags.[687]
  • Dallas:
    • Robert E. Lee Statue (1936) located in Lee Park along Turtle Creek Boulevard. Dedicated in 1936 to celebrate the Texas Centennial Exposition. Removed in September 2017 after the city council voted 13–1 to remove it.[688][689][690] One person was killed during the removal operation.[691]
    • Robert E. Lee Park: The park has been temporarily renamed "Oak Lawn Park" until a permanent name can be approved.[692][693]
  • Garland: South Garland High School removed various Confederate symbols in 2015. A floor tile mosaic donated by the Class of 1968 and a granite sign in front of the school were replaced. Both had incorporated the Confederate flag, which was part of the school’s original coat of arms. In addition, the district has dropped “Dixie” as the tune for the school fight song.[694] The school changed its Colonel mascot's uniform from Confederate gray to red and blue in 1991.[695]
  • Houston:
    • Downing Street. Renamed Emancipation Avenue in 2017.[696]
    • Lee High School (1962). Originally known as Robert E. Lee High School, district leaders dropped the “Robert E.” from the school’s title to distance the school from the Confederate general.[697] School officials changed the name to Margaret Long Wisdom High School in 2016.
    • Westbury High School changed the nickname of its athletic teams from the "Rebels" to the "Huskies."[698]
  • University of Texas (Austin):
    • The 2015 decision to move a statue of Jefferson Davis from its mall to a museum was fought by SCV[clarification needed] in court. The Confederates likened the move to the destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL while University President Gregory L. Fenves said “it is not in the university’s best interest to continue commemorating him (Davis) on our Main Mall."[699]
    • After the removal of the Jefferson Davis statue in 2015 there were three remaining Confederate statues left on the South Mall at the University of Texas. The statues were of Generals Robert E. Lee and Albert Sidney Johnston and Confederate Postmaster John H. Reagan. They were dedicated in 1933. In August 2017 the university removed the statues and relocated them to a museum.[700][701][702]
  • San Antonio: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1899), located in Travis Park next to The Alamo.[703] Removed September 2017.[704][705][706]

Utah[edit]

Vermont[edit]

  • Brattleboro: Brattleboro Union High School. Until 2004, the school mascot was Colonel Reb, a Confederate plantation owner.[708]
  • South Burlington: South Burlington High School Confederate-themed Captain Rebel mascot (1961), use of the Confederate Battle Flag, and playing of "Dixie" almost immediately sparked controversy during the Civil Rights era and every decade since. The school board voted to retain the name in 2015 but to change it in 2017. "The Rebel Alliance", a community group opposed to changing the mascot, has led two successful efforts to defeat the school budget in public votes as a protest.[709][710] The students chose the name "Wolves" and rebranding is proceeding.[711]

Virginia[edit]

There are at least 223 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Virginia,[4] more than in any other state.[712][713]

Buildings[edit]

  • Alexandria: Robert E. Lee RECenter
  • Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial: overlooking Arlington National Cemetery. National Park Service memorial. The antebellum home of Robert E. Lee. During the Civil War, the estate became the site of Arlington National Cemetery, in part to ensure that Lee could never return to his home.[714] The NPS describes the property as "the nation’s memorial to Robert E. Lee. It honors him for specific reasons, including his role in promoting peace and reunion after the Civil War. In a larger sense it exists as a place of study and contemplation of the meaning of some of the most difficult aspects of American History: military service; sacrifice; citizenship; duty; loyalty; slavery and freedom."[715]
  • Lexington: Carillon Stonewall Jackson Hospital
  • Manassas: Stonewall Jackson Volunteer Fire & Rescue Department

Monuments[edit]

Arlington National Cemetery
Leesburg

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Charlottesville

Other public monuments[edit]

Robert E. Lee hitched his horse in Berryville, Virginia while on his march to Gettysburg
Lee-Jackson Bivouac Shaft, Chancellorsville
Thomas Jonathan Jackson, Charlottesville
Robert Edward Lee, Charlottesville
Big Bethel UDC Monument, Langley Air Force Base, Hampton
Lebanon, Virginia
Mount Jackson
Lee to the Rear!, Wilderness Battlefield, Orange County, Virginia
Howitzer Monument, Richmond
Memorial Granite Pile, Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, Virginia. Photo by William Henry Jackson.
Cedar Hill Cemetery, Suffolk, Virginia
Monument near where Stonewall Jackson's arm was buried, Wilderness, Virginia

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Alexandria:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Bragg Street
    • Braxton Place
    • Breckinridge Place
    • Chambliss Street
    • Dearing Street
    • Donelson Street
    • Early Street
    • Floyd Street
    • French Street
    • Frost Street
    • Gordon Street
    • Hardee Place
    • Hume Avenue
    • Imboden Street
    • Iverson Street
    • Jackson Place
    • Janney's Lane
    • Jordan Street
    • Jubal Avenue
    • Lee Street[4]
    • Longstreet Lane
    • Maury Lane
    • Pegram Street
    • Quantrell Avenue
    • Reynolds Street
    • Rosser Street
    • Van Dorn Street
    • Wheeler Avenue
  • Annandale:
    • John Marr Drive
    • Lanier Street
    • Rebel Drive
  • Blackstone: Jeb Stuart Road
  • Bland: Jeb Stuart Street
  • Boones Mill: Jubal Early Highway
  • Bristow: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Centreville:
    • Confederate Ridge Lane
    • General Lee Drive
  • Chantilly:
  • Culpeper:
    • General A.P. Hill
    • General Jackson Avenue
    • General Jeb Stuart Lane
    • General Lee Avenue
    • General Longstreet Avenue
    • General Winder Road
  • Damascus: Jeb Stuart Highway
  • Fairfax:
    • Confederate Lane
    • Mosby Woods Drive
    • Old Lee Highway[752]
    • Pickett Road
    • Rebel Run
  • Foster: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hopewell: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Ivor: General Mahone Boulevard
  • Lynchburg: Early Street
  • Manassas:
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Lee Avenue[4]
  • Martinsville:
    • Jeb Stuart Road
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Middleburg: John Mosby Highway
  • Natural Bridge Station:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • New Market:
    • Confederate Street
    • Lee Street[4]
    • Stonewall Street
    • Stuart Street
  • Petersburg: Confederate Avenue
  • Powhatan: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Purcellville: Jeb Stuart Road
  • Rhoadesville: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Richmond:
  • Sandston:
    • Carter Avenue
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Early Avenue
    • Garland Avenue
    • J.B. Finley Avenue
    • Jackson Avenue
    • Kemper Court
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Wilson Way
  • Staunton:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • J.E.B. Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Boulevard
  • Verona: Confederate Street
  • Virginia Beach:
    • General Beauregard Drive
    • General Hill Drive
    • General Jackson Drive
    • General Lee Drive
    • General Longstreet Drive
    • Hood Drive
  • Waynesboro:
    • Davis Road
    • Pickett Road
    • Robert E. Lee Avenue
  • Winchester: Jubal Early Drive
  • Woodford:
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Road

Highways[edit]

  • General Mahone Highway, a large portion of U.S. Route 460, between Petersburg and Suffolk.
  • Jefferson Davis Highway, also called Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway, renaming in progress in Alexandria.[753]
  • Jubal Early Highway
  • Lee Highway[4]
  • Lee Jackson Memorial Highway
  • Stonewall Jackson Highway

Schools[edit]

Former[edit]

  • Bailey's Crossroads: J. E. B. Stuart High School (1958). Following protests by students and alumni that began in June 2015, the school board voted in July 2017 to rename the school by the beginning of the 2019 school year.
  • Charlottesville:
    • In May 2017 the City Council of Charlottesville voted to remove and sell its statue of Gen. Robert E. Lee, and renamed Lee Park, where the statue stands, as Emancipation Park.[763] The removal has been halted for six months by a court injunction, in response to a suit by SCV.[764][765]
    • In August 2017 the City Council unanimously voted to shroud the statues of Lee and Stonewall Jackson in black.[766]
    • The University of Virginia Board of Visitors (trustees) voted unanimously in September 2017 to remove two plaques from the university’s Rotunda that honored students and alumni who fought and died for the Confederacy in the Civil War.[767]
Jefferson Davis Memorial Park at Fort Monroe, Virginia

Washington State[edit]

There is at least one building named for an officer who served the Confederacy in Washington.[4]

At least two private properties contain a Confederate memorial or fly a CSA flag:

  • Clark County: Near Ridgefield is Jefferson Davis Park (2007), established by the SCV to hold the Jeff Davis Highway markers from Blaine and Vancouver.[771][772]
  • Seattle: Monument to Confederate soldiers, Lake View Cemetery. Erected in 1926 by United Daughters of the Confederacy.[773] Seattle Mayor Ed Murray called for it to be taken down, saying it represents “historic injustices” and is a symbol of hate, racism, and violence. After the Mayor’s statement, the Cemetary closed for several days because of threats related to the monument.[774]

Former[edit]

  • Blaine and Vancouver: Stone markers at both ends of the state, designating Highway 99 the "Jeff Davis Highway" were erected in the 1930s. They were removed[775] and placed at private Jefferson Davis Park adjacent to the town of Ridgefield right beside I-5.[776]
  • Bellingham: Pickett Bridge, plaque commemorating the earlier wooden bridge erected by order of Pickett over Whatcom Creek. Plaque erected in 1920, was removed August 18, 2017, along with signs leading to Pickett House.[777]
  • Seattle: Robert E. Lee Tree, was one of many trees in Seattle's Ravenna Park, dedicated to persons of note. The tree along with the plaque were removed in 1926.[778][779]

West Virginia[edit]

There are at least 17 public spaces with Confederate monuments in West Virginia.[4]

Monuments[edit]

First Confederate Memorial (1867), Romney, West Virginia
  • Clarksburg: Bronze equestrian statue of Stonewall Jackson created by Charles Keck (1953) by the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC). Jackson was born in Clarksburg.
  • Charles Town: A bronze plaque was erected in 1986 by the UDC, “in honor and memory of the Confederate soldiers of Jefferson County, who served in the War Between the States,” next to the entrance to the Jefferson County Courthouse. The local newspaper, ‘’Spirit of Jefferson’’, and a group of local African Americans have called for its removal.[780] On September 7, 2017, the Jefferson County Commission voted 5-0 to let the plaque be.[781] It was in Charles Town, in the Jefferson County Courthouse, that abolitionist John Brown was tried; he was hung nearby.[782]
  • Charleston:
  • Harpers Ferry: Hayward Shepherd Monument (1931). Although Shepherd was a black freeman working for the railway when killed in John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, the monument was erected by UDC and Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV). They called the project the "Faithful Slave Memorial" for many years and saw it as a way to emphasize their idea that blacks enjoyed being slaves and that men like Shepherd were victims of those seeking to free slaves.[786]
  • Hinton: Confederate Soldier Monument, Summers County Courthouse (dedicated May 1914)[787] The base of the monument carries the inscription: "(North base:) This monument erected in honor of American valor as displayed by the Confederate soldiers from 1861 to 1865, and to perpetuate to remotest ages the patriotism and fidelity to principles of the heroes who fought and died for a lost cause. (East base:) sacred to the memory of the noble women of the Confederacy, who suffered more and lost as much, with less glory, than the Confederate soldier. (South base:) erected in the year 1914 by Camp Allen Woodrm Confederate veterans and Camp Bob Christian sons of Confederacy veterans and their friends. (West base:) This monument is dedicated to the Confederate soldiers of Greenbrier and New River valleys who followed Lee and Jackson.[788]
  • Lewisburg: Confederate Monument (1906) The Confederate "monument was erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy at a cost of $2,800. The monument was originally located on the campus of the Greenbrier College, but moved to its present location(Confederate Cemetery at Lewisburg), when U.S. Route 60 was relocated."[789] The inscription on the base reads, "In memory of our Confederate dead."[790]
  • Mingo: Confederate Soldier Monument (1913/2013) The inscription reads in part, "TO THE MEMORY OF THE CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS OF RANDOLPH COUNTY AND VICINITY THIS INCLUDES ALL SOLDIERS WHO DIED IN VALLEY MOUNTAIN"[791]
  • Parkersburg: Confederate Soldier Monument, (1908) The monument was created by Leon Hermant and the inscription reads in part, " IN MEMORY OF OUR CONFEDERATE DEAD ERECTED BY PARKERSBURG CHAPTER UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY"[792]
  • Romney: First Confederate Memorial (1867) Carved on the main facade are the words, "The daughters of Old Hampshire erect this tribute of affection to her heroic sons who fell in defense of Southern Rights."[793]
  • Union: Monroe County Confederate Soldier Monument (1901) Marble statue bears the inscription, "There is a true glory and a true honor. The glory of duty done, the honor of integrity of principle. R. E. Lee"[794]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Bartow, initially an 1861 Confederate encampment, Camp Bartow, named for the late Confederate Colonel Francis Bartow.[795]:97
  • Harding, named for CSA Maj. French Harding.[795]:297
  • Linden, named for CSA Capt. Charles Linden Broadus.[795]:374
  • Welch, named for CSA Capt. Isaiah A. Welch.[796]

Parks and water features[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Charleston: Stonewall Jackson Middle School. Occupies the building that housed the former Stonewall Jackson High School.

Wisconsin[edit]

  • Prairie du Chien: United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) monument to Jefferson Davis at Fort Crawford Cemetery Soldiers' Lot. Davis served briefly at Fort Crawford.[797] The text on the plaque reads, "JEFFERSON DAVIS, 1808 - 1889, Lieutenant United States Army, Assigned Fort Crawford 1831, Served here with distinction during Black Hawk War, Hero in Mexican War 1846-1848, United States Congressman, Senator, Secretary of War, President Confederate States of America, 1861-1865, Erected by The United Daughters of the Confederacy"[798]

Former[edit]

  • Madison: A plaque called "Confederate Rest" (1981) and a larger monument were ordered removed from the city's Forest Hill Cemetery in August 2017. The memorials had honored 140 Confederate soldiers who died in 1862 while in captivity at nearby Camp Randall.[799][800]

Wyoming[edit]

Natural Features[edit]

Yellowstone National Park: The Lamar River (named 1884–85) is named for L.Q.C. Lamar, a secessionist who drafted the instrument of Mississippi's secession and raised a regiment for the Confederates with his own money. He served as a Confederate ambassador to Russia. The river was named while he served as the United States Secretary of the Interior after the war. The Lamar Valley and other park features or administrative names which contain Lamar are derived from this original naming.[801]

International[edit]

Brazil[edit]

  • In 1865, at the end of the American Civil War, a substantial number of Southerners left the South; many moved to other parts of the United States, such as the American West, but a few left the country entirely. The most popular country of Southerners emigration was Brazil which still allowed slavery and wanted to encourge cotton production.[802] These emigrants were known as Confederados. A Confederate monument was placed in Americana, São Paulo, Brazil.[803]

Canada[edit]

  • Kitchener, Ontario: Eastwood Collegiate Institute (1956), a public high school, replaced its Johnny Rebel mascot and Confederate imagery, perceived as associated with white bigotry, with Rebel Lion in 1999. The school retains the Rebel name for its teams.
  • Montreal, Quebec: A plaque on a Hudson's Bay Company store commemorating Jefferson Davis' brief stay in the city was installed by UDC in 1957; it was removed in 2017 following the attack against counter protesters committed by a white supremacist in Charlottesville.[804][805]

Ireland[edit]

  • Tuam, Ireland commemorated CSA Major Richard W. Dowling, who was born in the Tuam, with a bronze memorial plaque on the Town Hall bearing his image and life story. Text of plaque: "Major Richard W. (Dick) Dowling C.S.A., 1837–1867 Born Knock, Tuam; Settled Houston Texas, 1857; Outstanding business and civic leader; Joined Irish Davis Guards in American Civil War; With 47 men foiled Invasion of Texas by 5000 federal troops at Sabine Pass, 8 Sept 1863, a feat of superb gunnery; formed first oil company in Texas; Died aged 30 of yellow fever. This plaque was unveiled by Col. J.B. Collerain 31 May 1998"

Scotland[edit]

  • Edinburgh: Dean Cemetery, obelisk for Scottish-born CSA Colonel Robert A. Smith, with a Confederate marker and Confederate flags.[806]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This chart is based on data from an SPLC survey which identified "1,503 publicly sponsored symbols honoring Confederate leaders, soldiers or the Confederate States of America in general." The survey excluded "nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that SPLC deemed largely historical in nature"[4]
  2. ^ Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were portrayed by the US Mint on a 1925 commemorative silver US half dollar, along with the words "Stone Mountain" as a fundraiser by for the monument. The authorized issue was 5 million coins, to be sold at $1 each and 1.3 million coins released.Pilitowski, Tom. "Information about the Stone Mountain Half Dollar coin". U.S. Rare Coin Investments. Retrieved August 23, 2017. 
  3. ^ Fitzgerald was formed in 1895 for veterans of the war, from the North and the South. Streets running North/South on the east side of the city were named after Confederate ships and generals, whereas the ones on the west side were named after Union ships and generals. See Fitzgerald, Georgia#History.
  4. ^ In May 1970 the memorial was hit by a truck and destroyed. The money from the insurance company was not sufficient to restore it. Widener, p. viii

References[edit]

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