List of monuments and memorials of the Confederate States of America

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Statue in Statesboro, Georgia

This is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials. The monuments and memorials honor the Confederate States of America, Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War.[1] One 2017 study reported that at least 1,503 symbols of the Confederacy can be found in public spaces across the United States. These symbols include monuments and statues; flags; holidays and other observances; and the names of schools, roads, parks, bridges, counties, cities, lakes, dams, military bases, and other public works.[1]

Monuments and memorials are listed below alphabetically by state, and by city within each state. Those that were moved or removed are noted beside their listing. States not listed have no known qualifying items for the list.

Contents

History[edit]

Building and dedication[edit]

Chart illustrating the number of Confederate monuments, schools and other iconography established by year. Most of these were put up either during the Jim Crow era or during the Civil Rights movement, times of increased racial tension.[1]

Memorials have been dedicated on public spaces either at public expense or funded by private organizations and donors. Numerous private memorials were also dedicated. Art historians Cynthia Mills and Pamela Simpson argued in their critical volume Monuments to the Lost Cause that the majority of Confederate monuments, of the type they define, were "commissioned by white women, in hope of preserving a positive vision of antebellum life.”[2][3]

Confederate monument-building has often been part of widespread campaigns to promote and justify Jim Crow laws in the South, and assert white supremacy.[1] According to historian Jane Dailey from University of Chicago, in many cases the purpose of the monuments was not to celebrate the past but rather to promote a "white supremacist future".[4] Another historian, Karyn Cox, from University of North Carolina has written that the monuments are "a legacy of the brutally racist Jim Crow era".[5] Another historian from UNC, James Leloudis, stated that "The funders and backers of these monuments are very explicit that they are requiring a political education and a legitimacy for the Jim Crow era and the right of white men to rule."[6] They were erected without the consent or even input of Southern African-Americans, who remembered the Civil War far differently, and who had no interest in honoring those who fought to keep them enslaved.[7] According to Civil War historian Judith Giesberg, professor of history at Villanova University, "White supremacy is really what these statues represent."[8] Monuments were also meant to beautify cities as part of the City Beautiful movement.[9]

Many Confederate monuments were dedicated in the former Confederate states and border states in the decades following the Civil War, in many instances by Ladies Memorial Associations, United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC), United Confederate Veterans (UCV), Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV), the Heritage Preservation Association, and other memorial organizations.[10][11][12] Other Confederate monuments are located on Civil War battlefields. Many Confederate monuments are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, either separately or as contributing objects within listings of courthouses or historic districts.

In the late nineteenth century, technology innovations in the granite and bronze industries helped reduce costs, and made monuments more affordable for small towns. Companies looking to capitalize off of this opportunity often sold nearly identical copies of monuments to both the North and South.[13] Another wave of monument construction coincided with the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–1968) and the American Civil War Centennial.[14]. Thirty-two Confederate monuments were dedicated between 2000 and 2017, but not all were new monuments, several were re-dedications to mark the 100-year anniversary of their construction.[15]

Removal[edit]

After nine black churchgoers were killed in a racially-motivated massacre in Charleston, South Carolina in 2015, the city council of New Orleans, Louisiana ordered the removal of four monuments honoring the Confederacy. This began a larger, nationwide movement to remove other symbols of the rebellion, including Confederate flags. The 2017 Unite the Right rally and the death of a protester launched another wave of efforts to remove Confederate memorials and symbols across the United States.[16]

As of April 2017, at least 60 symbols of the Confederacy had been removed or renamed since 2015, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC).[17]

Laws in various states prohibit or place restrictions on the removal of statutes amd memorials and in some cases prohibit renaming of parks, roads, and schools:

Distribution[edit]

Geographic dispersal[edit]

Confederate monuments are widely distributed across the Southern United States. The distribution pattern follows the general political boundaries of the Confederacy.[24] Of the more than 1503 public monuments and memorials to the Confederacy, more than 718 are monuments and statues. Nearly 300 monuments and statues are in Georgia, Virginia, or North Carolina.[1] According to one researcher, "the absence of monuments in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina indicates those regions' Union sentiment, and the few monuments in Maryland, West Virginia, and Kentucky reflect those states' ambivalent war-time politics."[24] The Northern States that remained part of the Union, as well as the Western States that were largely settled after the Civil War, have few or no memorials to the Confederacy.

These memorials are located in battlefields, public cemeteries, the lawns of courthouse squares, main streets and public parks, and on the grounds of state capitols across the South.[24] There are also numerous memorials in private cemeteries and other private property.

Types[edit]

According to Winberry (1983), monuments are distributed in four general types: (1) Confederate soldier atop a column; (2) Confederate soldier atop a column with his weapon held at the ready or in a combative stance or carrying a flag or bugle; (3) The obelisk, a single shaft with a peaked top, covered with a shroud or flag, or supporting an urn, cannon balls, or other objects; and (4) All other types, such as plaques, standing stones, fountains, arches, and other memorials.[24] The Confederacy has also been memorialized with flags; holidays and other observances; and the names of schools, roads, parks, bridges, counties, cities, lakes, dams, military bases, and other public works.[1]

Confederate[edit]

Ships[edit]

Commemorations by the Confederate States of America during the Civil War.

National[edit]

United States Capitol[edit]

There are eight Confederate figures in the National Statuary Hall Collection, in the United States Capitol.

Coins and stamps[edit]

  • Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were portrayed by the US Mint on the 1925 Commemorative silver US half dollar, along with the words "Stone Mountain". The coin was a fundraiser by for the Stone Mountain monument to honor the Confederate Generals. The authorized issue was 5 million coins, to be sold at $1 each, but that proved overly optimistic and only 1.3 million coins released, many of which ended up in circulation after being spent for face value.[46]
  • Robert E. Lee has been commemorated on at least 5 US postage stamps. One 1936–37 stamp featured Generals Lee and Stonewall Jackson with Lee's home Stratford Hall.[47][48]

US military[edit]

Bases[edit]

There are 10 major U.S. military bases named in honor of Confederate military leaders, all in former Confederate States.[1] In 2015 the Pentagon declared,[49] and declined to make further comment in 2017,[50] that it would not be renaming these facilities.

Facilities[edit]

  • Lee Barracks, named for CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee (1962), at U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York.[54]
  • U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland:
    • Buchanan House, the Naval Academy superintendent’s home, named for CSA naval officer Franklin Buchanan.[55] A road near the house is also memorialized in Buchanan's name.
    • Maury Hall, home to the academy’s division of Weapons and Systems Engineering, named for US naval officer in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments at Washington and later CSA naval officer Matthew Fontaine Maury.[55][56] Maury was internationally known for his scientific career in Meteorology both before and after the war and perfecting the "electric torpedo" during the Civil War as CSA naval officer.

Current ships[edit]

Former ships[edit]

National Park Service[edit]

This list includes NPS administered sites where the primary history is Civil War, and sites that include features named for significant figures in the Confederate states:

Multi-state[edit]

Commemorations that involve multiple states.

Highways[edit]

License plates[edit]

Nine states have issued commemorative or affinity license plates for the Sons of Confederate Veterans as a result of a national campaign for approval of such plates. Starting in the late 1990s, The SCV took various states to court and each time won the right to issue plates and include their Confederate Battle Flag based logo on the basis it was a free speech issue[63] however the 2015 US Supreme Court Walker v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans allowed states to remove the Confederate flag from plates finding that the plates were speech by the state. The use of the Confederate Battle Flag and other Confederate symbols on the plates has stirred controversy but Jay Barringer, commander of the Maryland Division of Sons of Confederate Veterans countered "We're trying to divest ourselves of the negative associations" with the Confederate flag.[63] In some states revenues are shared with the SCV organization.

  • Alabama: Sons of Confederate Veterans Commemorative License Plate (2013–current)[64][65]
  • Georgia: Sons of Confederate Veterans Commemorative License Plate (2014–current)[65] The plate was condemned as racist by critics.[66][67] In 2015 the state suspended sales after the South Carolina church shooting but resumed sales after a redesign removed a Confederate Battle Flag from across the background, but left the small flag in the SCV logo.[68][69]
  • Louisiana: Sons of Confederate Veterans Commemorative License Plate. (1999–current) Prior to 2016 between zero and 14 plates were issued each year. In fiscal 2016, 61 plates were issued after it became an election issue.[70]
  • Maryland: Sons of Confederate Veterans Commemorative License Plate (????–current) 18 years after a court decision finding the plates were protected as free speech, in November 2015 Maryland recalled the plates with the Confederate Battle flag and replaced them with a version without the offending flag, following the US Supreme Court ruling in Walker v. Texas Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans[71][72] There were 178 plates in 2015.[73]
  • Mississippi: Sons of Confederate Veterans Commemorative License Plate (2003–current) featuring the Confederate Battle Flag in the organization logo[74][65] Revised in 2011 for the 150th anniversary of the Civil War. A proposal to put General Forrest on the plates created controversy.[75]
  • North Carolina: Sons of Confederate Veterans Commemorative License Plate (1998–current)[76][65] 
  • South Carolina: Sons of Confederate Veterans Commemorative License Plate (????–current) a 2015 report found that 1,020 plates generated about $20,000 every two years for SCV under a revenue sharing deal with the state.[73]
  • Tennessee:
    • Sons of Confederate Veterans Commemorative License Plate (1999–current)[77] In 2015 a little over 3,000 plates showed the SCV logo.[78]
    • United Daughters of the Confederacy (1998-????)[77]
    • Tennessee Historical Commission (1998-????) included Confederate imagery[77]
  • Virginia:
    • Robert E. Lee Commemorative License Plate (????–current) which gives his birth and death dates and the words "Southern Gentleman"
    • Sons of Confederate Veterans Commemorative License Plate (????–current)[79] In 2015 the state banned plates with the Confederate Battle Flag, following a federal court ruling.[72] There were 1,677 SCV plates in 2015 and no revenue sharing arrangement with the SCV.[73]
  • Texas: refused to issue SCV plates in 2011,[63] which the SCV took to the US Supreme Court, and lost in June 2015. Texas then banned plates with the Confederate Battle Flag.[72] The organization vowed to continue fighting for the issuance of plates by submitting alternative designs.[80]

Holidays and observances[edit]

  • Confederate Memorial Day is a public holiday observed by the U.S. states of Alabama, Florida, Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Louisiana and Texas and an unofficially observed holiday in some other states. It is often in late April to align with the final surrender of the last Confederate Army. Texas observes Confederate Heroes Day
  • Confederate History Month has been declared at least once in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia as well as by various cities, usually in April to augment Confederate Memorial Day.
  • Robert E. Lee Day (on or around Lee's Jan. 19 birthday) is observed in Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida.
  • Arkansas combined the observance of Robert E. Lee Day with Martin Luther King, Jr. Day in 1985.[81] In 2017, it passed a law removing Lee's name from the January holiday and instead establishing a state memorial day on the second Saturday of October in honor of Lee.[82]
  • Lee–Jackson Day is a holiday celebrated in Virginia for the birthdays of Robert E. Lee (Feb 19) and Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson (Jan 21) The original 1889 holiday celebrated Lee's birthday until Jackson's name was added to the holiday in 1904. The holiday is currently observed on the Friday before Martin Luther King, Jr. Day

Alabama[edit]

There are at least 107 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Alabama.[1]

The 2017 Alabama Memorial Preservation Act was passed to prevent removal of Confederate monuments and memorials.[83][84][85]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Pickens County War Memorial in Carrollton, Alabama with dedications to men and women of the Confederacy, the Spanish-American War, and World War I. LCCN2010640110
Detail of Troy Confederate Monument with cavalryman, infantryman, and a Confederate flag made of flowers. Troy, Alabama. LCCN2010640149
Raphael Semmes monument in Mobile, Alabama by sculptor Caspar Buberl
Confederate Memorial Monument in Montgomery, Alabama by sculptor Alexander Doyle
Jackson County Court House, Birmingham, 1932[clarification needed][86]
  • Ashville: Confederate Soldiers of Ashville Monument, St. Clair County Courthouse, erected in 1923 by UDC, Ashville Chapter.[87]
  • Athens: Confederate Soldiers Memorial, Limestone County Courthouse, erected in 1922, by UCV and UDC.[88]
  • Butler: Confederate Monument, Choctaw County Courthouse, erected in 1936 by UDC, Choctaw Ruffin Dragoon Chapter.[89]
  • Carrollton: Confederate War Memorial, Pickens County Courthouse, erected in 1927.[90]
  • Centre: Confederate Memorial, Cherokee County Courthouse, dedicated in 1988 by SCV, Emma Sansom Camp No. 27.[91]
  • Centreville: Confederate Monument, Bibb County Courthouse, erected in 1910 by UDC, Leonard Calloway Pratt Chapter No. 1056.[92] "These were men who by the simple manhood of their lives, by their strict adherence to the principles of right, by their sublime courage and unspeakable sacrifices, even to the heroism of death, have preserved for us through the gloom of defeat a priceless heritage of honor."[24]
  • Decatur: Confederate Monument, near Morgan County Courthouse, erected in 1922 by UDC, Joe Wheeler Chapter No. 291.[93]
  • Fayette: Confederate Monument, Fayette County Courthouse, erected in 1929 by UDC, Fayette Chapter.[94]
  • Florence: Confederate Monument, Lauderdale County Courthouse, erected in 1903, Ladies Memorial Association.[95]
  • Greensboro: Confederate Monument, Hale County Courthouse, erected in 1904, Ladies Memorial Association of Greensboro.
  • Huntsville: Confederate Veterans Memorial, Madison County Courthouse, erected in 1905 by UDC.[96]
  • Jasper: Confederate Monument, Walker County Courthouse, erected in 1907, Jasper County Chapter 925 by UDC.[97]
  • Livingston: Confederate Monument, Sumter County Courthouse, erected in 1908 by UDC, Sumter Chapter.[98]
  • Moulton: Confederate Monument, Lawrence County Courthouse, placed in 2006 by SCV, Lt. J. K. McBride Camp No. 241 and the Alabama Division.[99]
  • Tuscumbia: Confederate Veterans Monument, Colbert County Courthouse, erected in 1911 by UDC, Tuscumbia Chapter.[100]
  • Tuskegee: Tuskegee Confederate Monument, Town Square, erected in 1906 by UDC of Macon County, Alabama.[101]

Other public monuments[edit]

"Arsenal Place" memorial in Selma, Alabama
  • Selma:
    • Edmund Pettus Bridge; (built 1940, carries US Route 80) is named for the Confederate General and Alabama Grand Dragon of the KKK. Ironically, this bridge is now famous as the site of "Bloody Sunday" March 7, 1965, when, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., "some 600 civil rights marchers headed east out of Selma... They got only as far as the Edmund Pettus Bridge six blocks away, where state and local lawmen attacked them with billy clubs and tear gas and drove them back into Selma."[124]
    • Defense of Selma Memorial, erected in 1907 by UDC.[122][125]
    • Memorial boulder marking The Selma Ordnance and Naval Foundry "destroyed by the Federals 1865," placed "...in honor of the memory of hundreds of faithful men who made these great works a base for war material for the entire Confederate Army and Navy." Erected 1917 Alabama Division United Daughters of Confederacy.[126]
    • "Arsenal Place" memorial (1931), marking the site of the Confederate ordnance works "destroyed by the Union Army April 6, 1865".
    • A memorial arch on the grounds of the Federal Building / U.S. Courthouse honors Confederate Generals and Senators John Tyler Morgan and Edmund Pettus, who were instrumental in securing Federal appropriations for the State.
Bust of Nathan Bedford Forrest in Old Live Oak Cemetery.

Private monuments[edit]

Mesopotamia Cemetery, Eutaw, Alabama

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks, water features and dams[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

State symbols[edit]

  • Alabama Coat of Arms (1923) and the State Seal include the Confederate Battle Flag.
  • Alabama State Flag (1895) The Alabama Department of Archives and History found in 1915 that the flag was meant to “preserve in permanent form some of the more distinctive features of the Confederate battle flag, particularly the St. Andrew’s cross.”[148] According to historian John M. Coski, the adoption of Alabama's flag coincided with the rise of Jim Crow laws and segregation,[149] as other former Confederate slave states, such as Mississippi and Florida, also adopted new state flags based off Confederate designs around the same time when those states instituted Jim Crow segregation laws themselves:[149]
  • The Governor's version of the State Flag includes St Andrew's Cross plus the State Coat of Arms with the Confederate Battle Flag inclusion and the military crest on the bottom.
Flag of the Governor since 1939
Flag of the Governor since 1939

City symbols[edit]

  • Mobile: city flag includes the city seal which incorporates a small Confederate Battle Flag along with other flags.[1]
  • Montgomery:
    • The red and gray city flag includes a strip of stars from the Confederate Battle Flag.
    • The city seal (seen here) includes the words "Cradle of the Confederacy" and "Birthplace of the Civil Rights Movement"

Flag of Mobile, Alabama.png Seal of Mobile, Alabama.png Flag of Montgomery, Alabama.svg

Arizona[edit]

There are at least six public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arizona.[150]

Monuments[edit]

Public monuments[edit]

Private monuments[edit]

Roads[edit]

Former[edit]

  • Fort Breckinridge: Named for John C. Breckinridge, U.S. Vice President, from its opening in 1860 until 1862, when it was renamed Fort Breckenridge to distance it from Breckinridge, who had become a Confederate general. Named Camp Grant (for Union general Ulysses S. Grant) in 1865. Site closed in 1872, when Camp Grant was moved to a new location.

Arkansas[edit]

There are at least 57 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arkansas.[1]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Robert E. Lee Monument in Marianna, the county seat of Lee County, Arkansas
Marble scroll on David Owen Dodd's grave at Mount Holly Cemetery
Confederate Monument, Little Rock National Cemetery

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

State symbols[edit]

  • Flag of Arkansas The blue star above "ARKANSAS" represents the Confederate States of America and is placed above the three other stars for the countries (Spain, France and the USA) to which the State belonged before statehood.[148] The design of the border around the white diamond evokes the saltire found on the Confederate battle flag.[170]
Flag of Arkansas since 1913
Flag of Arkansas since 1913

Former[edit]

  • Fort Smith: Southside High School: Until 2016, the school nickname was the Rebels. Its mascot was Johnny Reb, a fictional personification of a Confederate soldier. The school also discontinued the use of "Dixie" as its fight song.[171]
  • Little Rock: Confederate Boulevard was renamed to Springer Boulevard in 2015. The new name honors an African-American family prominent in the area since the Civil War.[172]

California[edit]

There are at least eight public spaces with Confederate monuments in California and at least four former spaces.[1]

Monuments[edit]

  • Santa Ana: CSA monument with the inscription "to honor the sacred memory of the pioneers who built Orange County after their valiant efforts to defend the Cause of Southern Independence" in Santa Ana Cemetery. Installed in 2004.[173][174]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Confederate Corners: Established 1868. Formerly known as Springtown, it was renamed after a group of Southerners settled there in the late 1860s.[175][1]
  • Fort Bragg: originally a US Army garrison named in June 1857 for then US Army officer Braxton Bragg who later became a Confederate General and was abandoned by October 1864.[176][1][177] This city was founded in 1889 near the site of the former garrison. In 2015, members of the California Legislative Black Caucus petitioned the mayor of Fort Bragg to change the name due to general's links to the Confederacy.[178][179]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Anaheim: Savanna High School (1961) mascot has always been Johnny Rebel and a fiberglass statue of a Confederate soldier stood in the courtyard from from 1964 until 2009[181] when it was removed due to deterioration. The school colors are red and grey and the school fields the Savanna Mighty Marching Rebel Band and Color Guard.

Mountains and recreation[edit]

  • Jeff Davis Peak Elevation: 9065 ft / 2763 m 38.63670°N / 119.8965°W in the Mokelumne Wilderness[182] mapped by the USGS in 1889; "however, it may have long been used locally, as many of the inhabitants of nearby Summit City (now abandoned [in the late 1860s]) were Confederate sympathizers during the civil war. Jefferson Davis (1809-89) was president of the Confederacy, 1861-65."[183]
  • Pickett Peak: named for Confederate General George Pickett Elevation: 9118 ft / 2779 m 38.75620°N / 119.90339°W in National Forest, near the Mokelumne Wilderness[184]
  • Fortuna: Pickett Peak Campground operated by the National Forest Service[185]

Former[edit]

  • Long Beach: Robert E. Lee Elementary School. Renamed Olivia Herrera Elementary School on August 1, 2016.[186][1]
  • Los Angeles: Confederate Monument, Hollywood Forever Cemetery.[187] "Covered with a tarp and whisked away in the middle of the night after activists called for its removal and spray-painted the word 'No' on its back," August 15, 2017.[188][189]
  • San Diego:
  • San Lorenzo: San Lorenzo High School. Until 2017, the school nickname was the "Rebels" – a tribute to the Confederate soldier in the Civil War. It's mascot, The Rebel Guy, was retired in 2016. The school’s original mascot, Colonel Reb, was a white man with a cane and goatee who was retired in 1997.[192]
  • Quartz Hill: Quartz Hill High School. Until 1995, the school had a mascot called Johnny Reb, who would wave a Confederate Flag at football games. Johnny Reb had replaced another Confederate-themed mascot, Jubilation T. Cornpone, who waved the Stars and Bars flag at football games. "Slave Day" fundraisers were phased out in the 1980's.[193]

Colorado[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Keenesburg: Weld Central Senior High School and Weld Central Middle School share the Weld Central Rebel, a Civil-war-era-soldier which used to appear with depictions of Confederate flags. School teams are named Rebels.[194]

Former[edit]

Delaware[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Delaware.[1]

Florida[edit]

There are at least 61 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Florida.[1]

Monuments[edit]

Olustee

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Yellow Bluff monument
  • Key West:
    • Confederate memorial fence at Clinton Square, built by J.V. Harris circa 1866.[220]
    • Confederate memorial pavilion at Bayview Park, built in 1924 by UDC.[221]
  • Lake City: Confederate Dead of Battle of Olustee, town square in front of the Columbia County Courthouse, unveiled in 1928.[222]
  • Lakeland: Confederate soldier statue in Munn Park in downtown, created by the McNeel Marble Works, dedicated June 3, 1910.[215]
  • Leon County: A plaque commemorating Robert E. Lee and the Dixie Highway on Thomasville Road (U.S. Highway 319), one mile from the Georgia state line. Erected 1926 by the Anna Jackson Chapter of Daughters of the Confederacy.[200]
  • Madison: Confederate monument, Four Freedoms Park, dedicated June 3, 1909. Lists names of men who died from county. Nearby sits a momument to former slaves in the county.[218][200]
  • Miami: Confederate monument, Confederate Circle in City Cemetery. Unveiled June 3, 1914 at the Dade County Courthouse, it was moved to the cemetery in 1927.[201][223]
  • Olustee:
  • Ormond Beach: Confederate monument, city-owned Pilgrim's Rest Cemetery, dedicated in 2011.[224][225]
  • Pensacola:
    • Memorial with marker at the grave of Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory, St. Michael's Cemetery which was designated a state park in 1999.[226]
    • Our Confederate Dead, Lee Square, dedicated June 17, 1891.[227][228]
  • Perry: Confederate monument, Taylor County Sports Complex, dedicated in 2007.[229][230]
  • Quincy: Confederate memorial, Soldiers Cemetery within Eastern Cemetery, part of the town's National Register Historic District, dedicated April 10, 2010. The memorial also notes the restoration of the historic fence.[231][232]
  • St. Augustine:
  • St. Cloud: Confederate monument, Veterans Park, erected April 22, 2006.[235]
  • St. Petersburg: Confederate monument, Greenwood Cemetery, erected in 1900.[236]
  • Tallahassee: Confederate monument of Leon County, on the grounds of the former Florida State Capitol, the "Old Capitol," now a museum.[237] Dedicated in 1882 by "our country women", it was moved to its current location in 1923.[238] Tallahassee's mayor wants it removed, but it is not clear whom the statue belongs to or who can make a decision.[239]
  • Tampa
    • Confederate Dead, city-owned Woodlawn Cemetery, dedicated in 1913.[240][241]
    • Confederate monuments, city-owned Oaklawn Cemetery.[242][241]
  • Trenton: Confederate monument, across from Gilchrist County Courthouse in Veterans' Park, dedicated April 24, 2010.[243]
  • White Springs: Confederate monument and large flag, along Interstate 75, dedicated in 2002.[244]
  • Woodville: In Loving Memory Monument, Natural Bridge Battlefield Historic State Park, unveiled April 26, 1922.[203] A plaque placed at the base of the monument in 2000 lists the names of those who died as a result of the battle.[245]

Private monuments[edit]

  • Alachua: Confederate monument, Newnansville Cemetery, dedicated by the Alachua Lions Club in 2002.[246]
  • Bradfordville: Robert E. Lee Monument, dedicated along Highway 319 in 1927 by UDC. Moved in the 1960s and 1990s, it is now located about a mile south of the Georgia border.[247][248]
  • Crestview: Florida's Last Confederate Veteran Memorial, City Park, unveiled January 18, 1958. In 2015, ownership was transferred to trustees of Lundy's family and the memorial was moved to private property.[198][249] Soon after research determined the memorialized man had not been a veteran but had falsified his age to get veteran benefits.[250]
  • Dade City: Confederate memorial, Townsend House Cemetery, dedicated April 10, 2010.[251]
  • Deland: Confederate Veteran Memorial, Oakdale Cemetery, dedicated September 27, 1958.[252]
  • Gainesville: Confederate monument, Courthouse lawn, unveiled January 19, 1904.[215] Removed from government land to a private cemetery in 2017.[253]
  • Lake City:
    • Last Confederate War Widow, Oaklawn Cemetery, erected after her death in 1985. The memorial and the cemetery are along the Florida Civil War Heritage Trail.[254][255]
    • Our Confederate Dead, Oaklawn Cemetery, erected in 1901, rededicated in 1996. A tall obelisk in memory of the unnamed soldiers who died at the nearby Battle of Olustee or in the town's Confederate hospital. The cemetery is the focal point of the opening of Lake City's annual Olustee Battle Festival.[256][257]
  • Orlando: Confederate "Johnny Reb" monument, Lake Eola Park. Erected at first at Magnolia Avenue in 1911 then moved to Lake Eola Park in 1917. Removed from the park to a private location in 2017.[258]
  • Seffner: Confederate Memorial Park, large flag visible from Interstate 75 near Tampa, dedicated April 2009.[259][260]
  • Tampa: Memoria In Aeterna, Hillsborough County Courthouse annex, dedicated February 8, 1911.[261] After voting in July 2017 to move the statue to a family cemetery in Brandon, the County Commission announced on August 16 that the statue could only be moved if private citizens raised $140,000 within 30 days. The funds were raised by the next day. The following day Save Southern Heritage, Veterans' Monuments of America, and UDC filed a lawsuit attempting to prevent the statue's relocation.[262] Removed September 5, 2017.[263]

Inhabited places[edit]

Counties[edit]

Municipalities[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Stonewall Jackson Memorial Highway, designated by UDC. Chapters placed the following markers in the state:
  • Hilliard: General Lee Road
  • Hollywood: In July 2017, the city began the process to rename streets.[282]
    • Forrest Street, named for CSA Lt. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, will become Savannah St.
    • Hood Street, named for CSA Gen. John Bell Hood, will become Macon St.
    • Lee Street, named for CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee, will become Louisville St. All changes expected to become final at Council meeting August 30, 2017.[283]
  • Jacksonville
    • Confederate Point Road
    • Confederate Street
    • General Lee Road
  • Orlando
    • Kirby Smith Road
    • Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Perry: North Jeff Davis Avenue
  • St. Cloud: Robert Lee Road
  • Stuart: Southeast General Lee Terrace
  • Tampa: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Zephyrhills: Jeff Davis Drive

Schools and libraries[edit]

  • Cross City: Dixie County High School and Dixie District Schools[284] named for the states that formed the Confederacy.
  • Cross City: Dixie County Public Library[285]
  • Gainesville:
    • J.J. Finley Elementary School (1939), named for CSA Brig. Gen. Jesse J. Finley.[286]
    • Kirby-Smith Center (1939), Alachua County Public Schools administrative offices. Constructed in 1900, the building was initially the all white Gainesville Graded & High School.[287] On August 21, 2017, the school board announced plans to rename the center.[288]
  • Hillsborough County: Robert E. Lee Elementary School aka Lee Elementary Magnet School of World Studies and Technology was built 1906 and named for Lee in 1943. A school board member pushing for a rename in 2017 noted that had Lee's army won the war "a majority of our students would be slaves."[289]
  • Jacksonville[290]
    • J.E.B. Stuart Middle School (1966), named for CSA Gen. J. E. B. Stuart.
    • Jefferson Davis Middle School (1961)
    • Kirby-Smith Middle School (1924), named for CSA Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith.
    • Nathan Bedford Forrest High School (1959), originally an all white school named in protest against school desegregation, renamed to Westside High School in 2014 after decades of controversy.[291]
    • Robert E. Lee High School (1928)
    • Stonewall Jackson Elementary School
  • Orlando: Robert E. Lee Middle School, renamed College Park Middle School in 2017.[292]
  • Pensacola: Escambia High School's Rebel mascot riots, 1972–1977. Before a noncontroversial name was chosen, protests and violence occurred at the school and in the community, crosses were burned on school district members' lawns, lawsuits were filed, and the Ku Klux Klan held a rally and petitioned the school board.[293]
  • Tampa: Lee Elementary School of Technology / World Studies (1906). The school's mascot is Robert E. Lee's horse Traveller. In July 2015, students asked the school board to change the school's name.[294] In June 2017, a board member asked the board to consider the name change.[295]
  • West Palm Beech: Jefferson Davis Middle School. Renamed Palm Springs Middle School in 2005.[296]

State symbols[edit]

Flag of Florida since 1900
Flag of Florida since 1900

City symbols[edit]

  • Panama City: city flag is quite similar to the Florida state flag with a white background and the St Andrews cross echoing the Confederate Battle Flag, but with the city seal replacing the state seal. [298]

Former[edit]

  • Bradenton: Confederate monument, Manatee County Courthouse, unveiled June 3, 1927.[198][299] Removed on August 24, 2017. Statue broke while being removed by workers.[300]
  • West Palm Beach: Confederate monument, Woodlawn Cemetery (1941). "The only one south of St. Augustine, likely the only Confederate statue in Palm Beach and Broward counties, said historian Janet DeVries, who leads cemetery tours at Woodlawn." Vandalized several times. Removed August 22, 2017. Placed in storage, since its owner, UDC, had not claimed it despite notification.[301] "Believed by local historians to be the last Confederate monument in Palm Beach County."[283]
  • The State Senate Seal included the Confederate Battle Flag from 1972 to 2016. The Senate voted in October 2015 to replace the confederate symbol with the Florida State Flag in the wake of the racially motivated Charleston shootings.[302]
  • The Confederate Stainless Banner flag flew over the west entrance of the Florida State Capitol from 1978 until 2001, when Gov. Jeb Bush ordered it removed.[148]

Georgia[edit]

There are at least 174 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Georgia.[1]

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Francis S. Bartow in Savannah, Georgia

Private monuments[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Public works[edit]

Roads[edit]

Jefferson Davis Highway marker in Irwin County

Schools[edit]

State symbols[edit]

Flag of Georgia since 2003
Flag of Georgia since 2003
  • The 1956 Georgia State Flag incorporated the Confederate Battle Flag and the bars of the Confederate Star and Bars flag. According to a 2000 Georgia Senate research report the 1956 flag was adopted in an era when the Georgia General Assembly "was entirely devoted to passing legislation that would preserve segregation and white supremacy", and they changed the state flag" during "an atmosphere of preserving segregation and resentment" to the U.S. government's rulings on integration.[356]
  • The short lived 2001–2003 flag included a miniature version of the 1956 flag along with other miniature former flags

City symbols[edit]

  • Trenton, Georgia: City council was upset the State's 1956 flag was being changed. Faced with the threat of a funding cut if they refused to fly the 2001 State flag, the city adopted a modified 1956 flag complete with the Confederate Battle Flag as their city flag in 2002. When the new mayor removed the city flag in 2004, objections were raised by the Sons of Confederate Veterans and a 2005 referendum confirmed the flag 278–64.[357]

Photos[edit]

Idaho[edit]

There are several places named for the Confederacy in Idaho.[1] The settlement of Idaho coincided with the Civil War and settlers from Southern states memorialized the Confederacy with the names of several towns and natural features.[358][359][360]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Atlanta: unincorporated, and its Atlanta Airport. The area was named by Southerners after reports of a Confederate victory over Gen. Sherman in the Battle of Atlanta, which turned to be wholly false, but the name stuck.
  • Confederate Gulch: unincorporated former mining community[361][360]
  • Dixie, Elmore County: founded 1864, unincorporated.[362] Named Dixie for the Confederates who settled there.[360]
  • Dixie, Idaho County: unincorporated.
  • Dixie, Canyon County: unincorporated.[362][360]
  • Grayback Gulch: unincorporated former mining community, settled by Confederate soldiers and named for the color of their uniforms. Now a government campground[363]
  • Leesburg: an unincorporated former goldmining town settled by southerners and named for Robert E. Lee.[364]

Natural features and recreation[edit]

Illinois[edit]

Confederate Monument at Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Illinois.[1]

Private monuments[edit]

Indiana[edit]

There are at least two public spaces with monuments to Confederate prisoners who died as prisoners of war in Indiana.[1]

Iowa[edit]

There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Iowa.[1]

  • Bentonsport: Iowa’s Confederate General Monument (2007)[372]
  • Bloomfield:[372]
    • Confederate Invasion of Iowa Monument (2005)
    • Confederate Memorial (2005)
      • Adjacent to the two Confederate memorials (plaques) is one "In honor of those citizens of Davis County who Sacrificed and Served to preserve the Union."

Kansas[edit]

There is one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in Kansas.[1]

  • Humboldt: Confederate Soldier Shot Historical Marker. The marker sits at the site of where the Union Flag was flying in Humboldt, Kansas, when a Confederate Soldier attempted to chop down the Union flag pole. The Confederate Soldier was shot as he tried to remove the flag. The marker is less of a monument to the Confederacy, and more of a historical marker describing the events when Humboldt was raided by Confederate Captains John Mathews and his friend Tom Livingston who led other white Confederate proslavers, southern sympathizing Indians, and Missouri Bushwhackers seeking fugitive slaves from Missouri who were hiding in Humboldt.[373]

Former[edit]

  • Between 1855 and 1862, the county now known as Lyon County was known as Breckinridge County, named for John C. Breckinridge, U.S. Vice President and Confederate general.[374]
  • Wichita: Confederate Flag Bicentennial Memorial (1962, removed 2015). The Confederate battle flag had been displayed at the John S. Stevens Pavilion at Veterans Memorial Plaza near downtown since 1976, when it was placed there in a historical flag display as part of the nation’s bicentennial. The flag was removed July 2, 2015 by order of Mayor Jeff Longwell.[375]

Kentucky[edit]

There are at least 56 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Kentucky.[1]

Monuments[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

Highways[edit]

Schools[edit]

Former[edit]

  • Florence: Boone County High School. The mascot for the school was Mr. Rebel, a Confederate general who stands tall in a light blue uniform, feathered cap, and English mustache. It was removed in 2017.[395]

Louisiana[edit]

There are at least 91 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Louisiana.[1]

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

  • Baton Rouge:
    • Breckinridge's March Monument (1931)
    • Confederate Monument (1886)
    • Gov. Francis T. Nichols Statue (1934)
    • Gov. Henry Watkins Allen Gravesite Monument (1885)
    • Gov. Henry Watkins Allen Statue (1934)
    • Jefferson Davis Highway Monument
  • Belle Chasse: Judah P. Benjamin Monument (1968)
  • Clinton: Confederate Monument (1909)
  • Donaldsonville: Fort Butler Memorial (1999)
  • Gretna: Jefferson Davis Highway Marker
  • Homer: Confederate Monument (1940)
  • Johnson Bayou: Robert E. L Statue (1984)
  • Lafayette: Brig. Gen. J.J. Alfred A. Mouton Statue (1922)[398]
  • Marthaville: Unknown Confederate Soldier Monument (1970)
  • Minden: Confederate Monument (1933)
  • Old Pleasant Hill
    • Confederate Memorial
    • Lieutenant Gen. Richard Taylor Monument (1994)
    • Red River Campaign Monument (1994)
  • Plaquemine: Confederate Memorial (1914)
  • Shreveport: Fort Humbug Confederate Memorial (1927)
  • Zachary: Port Hudson Confederate Monument (1930)

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Baton Rouge:
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Lee Drive
  • Bell City: Jeff Davis Road
  • Bogalusa: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Bossier City
    • General Bragg Drive
    • General Ewell Drive
    • General Polk Drive
    • General Sterling Price Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Kirby Smith Drive
    • Longstreet Place
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Robert E. Lee Street
  • Chalmette: Beauregard Street
  • Gretna: Beauregard Drive
  • Houma: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Lafayette: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Lake Charles:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Beauregard Street
  • Merryville: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Monroe: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • New Orleans
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Governor Nicholls Street
    • Jefferson Davis Parkaway
    • Lee Circl
    • Polk Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Slidell Street
  • Pineville:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Longstreet Drive
  • Rayne: Jeff Davis Avenue

Schools[edit]

Former[edit]

To comply with the 2015 city council order, New Orleans removed statues of Confederate President Jefferson Davis; Gen. Robert E. Lee, who resigned his U.S Army commission at the time of Virginia's secession and accepted command of the state's military forces; Gen. Pierre G.T. Beauregard, who oversaw the Battle of Fort Sumter; and the Battle of Liberty Place Monument. Court challenges were unsuccessful. The workers who moved the monuments were dressed in bullet-proof vests, helmets, and masks to conceal their identities because of concerns about their safety.[402][403] According to Mayor Landrieu, "The original firm we’d hired to remove the monuments backed out after receiving death threats and having one of his cars set ablaze."[404] "The city said it was weighing where to display the monuments so they could be 'placed in their proper historical context from a dark period of American history."[405] On May 19, 2017, the Monumental Task Committee,[406] an organization that maintains monuments and plaques across the city, commented on the removal of the statues: "Mayor Landrieu and the City Council have stripped New Orleans of nationally recognized historic landmarks. With the removal of four of our century-plus aged landmarks, at 299 years old, New Orleans now heads into our Tricentennial more divided and less historic." Landrieu replied on the same day: "These statues are not just stone and metal. They are not just innocent remembrances of a benign history. These monuments purposefully celebrate a fictional, sanitized Confederacy; ignoring the death, ignoring the enslavement, and the terror that it actually stood for.”[407]

Maine[edit]

Maryland[edit]

There were at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in Maryland[1] prior to the removal of several monuments in August, 2017.

Monuments[edit]

Public monuments[edit]

Private monuments[edit]

Roads[edit]

State symbols[edit]

  • Flag of Maryland (1904). The state flag of Maryland features the red-and-white Crossland Banner, the unofficial state flag of Maryland used by secessionists/ Confederates during the American Civil War.[417][418][419][420] The current state flag started appearing after the Civil War as a form of reconciliation. The flag became official in 1904.
Flag of Maryland since 1904
Flag of Maryland since 1904

Former[edit]

Gallery[edit]

Massachusetts[edit]

There is one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in Massachusetts.[1]

Private memorials[edit]

  • Cambridge
    • Memorial Hall, Harvard University. Stained-glass windows to commemorate various figures, among them:
      • Honor and Peace Window (1900). There is no inscription, but a Harvard University page ([2]) explaining the windows says: "This window commemorates those who surrendered their lives in the War of the Rebellion." Portrays two warriors, one with sword high in triumph, one kneeling in defeat, who from the ribbons can be seen to be from different but related countries.
      • Student and Soldier Window (1889). Soldier wears gray uniform.

Minnesota[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Minnesota.[1]

Mississippi[edit]

There are at least 131 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Mississippi.[1]

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

  • Aberdeen: Confederate Monument in Old Aberdeen Cemetery (1900)
  • Amory: Amory’s Tribute to the Heroes of 1861–1865 (1924)
  • Biloxi:
  • Brooksville: Our Heroes Monument (1911)
  • Canton: Howcott Monument to Loyal Servants of the Harvey Scouts (1894)
  • Corinth: Corinth Confederate Memorial (1992)
  • Duck Hill: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1908)
  • Fayette: Confederate Soldier Sculpture (1904)
  • Grenada: Confederate Monument (1910)
  • Hattiesburg: Forrest County Confederate Memorial (1910)
  • Heidelberg: Confederate Statue (1911)
  • Jackson:
    • Andrew Jackson Monument (1972)
    • Confederate Monument, Mississippi Department of Archives and History Building, dedicated June 1891.[434][435]
    • Women of the Confederacy Monument (1917)
  • Liberty: Confederate Monument, dedicated by Liberty Lodge of Masons in 1871[436]
  • Louisville: Confederate Monument (1921)
  • Natchez: Confederate Monument (1890)
  • Okolona: Our Confederate Dead (1905)
  • Pontotoc: Confederate Monument in town square, dedicated in 1919,[437] or the 1930s[438]
  • Port Gibson: Claiborne County’s Tribute to Her Sons Who Served in the War of 1861-65. (1906)
  • University: Confederate Monument
  • Vaiden: Vaiden Confederate Monument (1912)

Inhabited places[edit]

Water features and dams[edit]

  • Hattiesburg:
    • Jefferson Davis Lake
    • Jefferson Davis Lake Dam

Roads[edit]

  • Bay St. Louis: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Beaumont:
    • Jeff Davis Parkway
    • Robert E. Lee Street
  • Biloxi: Jefferson Davis Avenue
  • Bogue Chitto:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Lee Drive
  • Corinth: Confederate Street
  • De Kalb: Jeff Davis Road
  • Duck Hill: Jeff Davis Road
  • Florence: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Greenwood: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hattiesburg:
    • Bedford Forrest Road
    • Robert E. Lee Road
  • Hollandale: Jeff Davis Road
  • Indianola:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Leakesville: Jeff Davis Road
  • Lexington: Robert E. Lee Street
  • Long Beach: Jeff Davis Avenue
  • Lucedale: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Meridian: Jeff Davis School Road
  • Moss Point:
    • Anderson Road
    • Barron Road
    • Beauregard Road
    • Bragg Road
    • Breckinridge Road
    • Cleburne Road for Patrick Cleburne
    • Early Road
    • Ewell Road for Richard Stoddert Ewell
    • Forrest Road
    • Hood Road
    • Joseph E. Johnston Road
    • Kirby Smith Road
    • Longstreet
    • Magruder Road
    • Pemberton Road
    • Pickett Road
    • Robert E. Lee Road
    • Van Dorn
  • New Albany: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Oxford:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Lamar Avenue (the main thoroughfare) named for Lucius Q. C. Lamar drafter of Mississippi's articles of succession.[444]
  • Pascagoula:
    • Baker Road
    • Hardee Road
    • Imboden Road
    • Jeb Stuart Road
    • Mosby Road
    • Robertson Road
    • Wheeler Road
  • Picayune:
    • Jefferson Davis Parkway
    • Longstreet Lane
    • Pemberton Place
  • Prairie: Jeff Davis Road
  • Senatobia:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Forrest Avenue
    • Longstreet Lane
  • Tupelo:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Jeb Stuart Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Vicksburg National Military Park
    • Pemberton Circle, at the location of the John C. Pemberton monument.
    • Pemberton Avenue, road passing the site where Pemberton surrendered his forces to Ulysses S. Grant.
  • Waveland: Jeff Davis Avenue
  • Wesson: Beauregard Road

Highways[edit]

  • Jefferson Davis Highway
  • Lee Highway

Schools[edit]

  • Brooklyn:
  • Caledonia: Caledonia High School: The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Confederates."[445]
  • Hattiesburg:
  • Jackson:
  • Oxford:
    • Jeff Davis Elementary School (1959)
    • University of Mississippi ("Ole Miss").
      • The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Rebels."
      • From 1979 to 2003, its mascot was Colonel Reb.
      • The name "Ole Miss" itself was how slaves once addressed the mistress of the plantation.[447][448][449] It can be found on campus, on signs, sweatshirts, and in the football cheer.
      • Various plaques have been installed and modified to try and contextualize the school's history.
      • Lamar Hall (1977) memorializes Lucius Q. C. Lamar, a slaveholder who drafted the Mississippi's order of secession and funded his own CSA regiment. Post-war, he agitated for white supremacy, such as a speech before the 1875 election which he said “involved the supremacy of the unconquered and unconquerable Saxon race,”[444]
  • Rolling Fork: Sharkey Issaquena Academy (private school). The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Confederates."[445]

State symbols[edit]

Flag of Mississippi since 1894
Flag of Mississippi since 1894
  • Various state insignia incorporate the state flag
  • Mississippi National Guard seal features the Flag of Mississippi (incorporating the Confederate Battle Flag) flying over a solder at attention.

Photos[edit]

Missouri[edit]

There are at least 20 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Missouri.[1]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Columbia: Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1934)

Former[edit]

  • Kansas City: United Daughters of the Confederacy Monument, Ward Parkway (1934). Removed on August 25, 2017.[456]

Montana[edit]

Confederate Memorial Fountain in Helena, Montana before removal.

There is at least one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in Montana.[1]

Former[edit]

Nevada[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Nevada.[1]

Former[edit]

New Jersey[edit]

There is at least one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in New Jersey.[1]

Confederate Monument (1910), Finn's Point National Cemetery.

New York[edit]

There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in New York.[1][466]

Monuments[edit]

Private monuments[edit]

  • Brooklyn: A tree at St. John’s Episcopal Church bears a plaque, installed by UDC in 1912, reading "This tree was planted by CSA Gen. Robert Edward Lee, while stationed at Fort Hamilton." [467] The plaque was removed in 2017.[468]
  • Mount Hope Cemetery, Hastings-on-Hudson[469]
  • The Bronx: Busts of Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee are in the Hall of Fame for Great Americans at Bronx Community College. The college plans to remove the statues.[468]

Roads[edit]

North Carolina[edit]

Silent Sam in Chapel Hill

There are at least 140 public spaces with Confederate monuments in North Carolina.[1]

A state law, the Historic Artifact Management and Patriotism Act (2015)[20] prevents removal or relocation of monuments. In 2017 Governor Roy Cooper asked the North Carolina legislature to repeal the law. He also asked the Department of Natural and Cultural Resources to "determine the cost and logistics of removing Confederate monuments from state property."[471][472]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

  • Albemarle: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1925)[473]
  • Asheville:
    • Zebulon Baird Vance Monument, a granite obelisk erected in 1896.[474] Near the obelisk, a small granite marker memorializes the Dixie Highway, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee, and Col. John Connally, a Confederate officer who was wounded at the Battle of Gettysburg. Near the Buncombe County Courthouse entrance, a smaller obelisk memorializes Confederate soldiers from Buncombe County who fought at Chickamauga and in other Civil War battles.[474] The monument was vandalized on August 18, 2017, and four individuals out of 30-40 protesters were arrested for trying to remove it with crowbars.[475]
    • Monument to 60th Regiment North Carolina Volunteers (1905)
    • Memorial plaque to Lieutenant William Henry Hardy (1930), "the First Soldier from Buncombe County to Fall in the War Between The States"[476]
  • Bakersville: Mitchell County’s Confederate Dead Monument
  • Burgaw: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1914)
  • Burnsville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (2009)
  • Clinton: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1916). "In honor of the Confederate soldiers of Sampson County who bore the flag of a nation's trust and fell in a cause though lost still just and died for me and you."[24]
  • Columbia: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1902)
Confederate Soldiers Monument at Old Cabarrus County Courthouse, Concord, North Carolina
  • Concord: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1892) at Old Cabarrus County Courthouse[473]
  • Currituck: Confederate Soldiers Monument "To Our Confederate Dead 1861–1865" (1918)[477]
A Confederate Soldiers Monument in Durham that was dedicated in 1924. It was pulled down during a protest in August 2017 and eight individuals were arrested for their participation in destroying the monument.
Old Chatham County Courthouse, Pittsboro, North Carolina (1908)

Other public monuments[edit]

  • Asheboro: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1911)
  • Beaufort: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1926), Carteret County Courthouse[473]
  • Unincorporated Cabarrus County, near Concord: Stonewall Jackson Youth Development Center (a correctional facility).
  • Chapel Hill: Silent Sam, 1913. On August 22, 2017, hundreds of protestors gathered at the statue, calling for its removal. UNC Chancellor Carol Folt Issued a statemont that if it could, the University would remove it; state law prohibited it.[482]
  • Charlotte:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1977)
    • Jefferson Davis Plaque (1960)
    • Last Meetings of the Confederate Cabinet Marker (1915)
    • 1929 Confederate Reunion Marker (1929)
    • Judah P. Benjamin Memorial "erected in His Honor by Temple Israel and Temple Beth El, the Jewish Congregations of Charlotte, as a Gift to the North Carolina Division, United Daughters of the Confederacy" (1948)[483]
  • Concord:
  • Edenton: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1909); moved from courthouse in 1961[473]
  • Faison: Monument to the "Confederate Grays" 20th Regiment North Carolina State Troops (1932)[473]
Confederate Soldiers Monument (1868) in Fayetteville
Lexington, North Carolina (ca. 1920)
  • Lenoir: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1910) in town square[473]
  • Lexington: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1905)
  • Louisburg:
    • Confederate Memorial Drinking Fountain (1911)
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument to, "Our Confederate Dead". The monument is owned by the town of Louisburg, and in the center of Louisburg College. (1914)[499]
  • Middletown: Confederate Soldiers Monument (2001)
  • Mocksville: Davie County War Memorial (1987)
  • Monroe: Located on the grounds of the Old Union County Courthouse, the obelisk was erected by the Monroe chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy in 1910.[500]
  • Morgantown: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1918)
New Bern, North Carolina
Henry Lawson Wyatt in Raleigh, North Carolina
  • Raleigh:
    • Henry Lawson Wyatt Monument (1912); the first Confederate soldier to die in battle.[502]
    • Confederate Women’s Monument (1914)
    • Samuel A’Court Ashe Monument (1940)
    • Historic Oakwood Cemetery has a section devoted to Confederate soldiers' graves with a modest marker.
    • North Carolina State Confederate Monument, Union Square, also known as the Soldiers and Sailors Monument, on the State Capitol grounds.
  • Reidsville: From 1910 to 2011, the monument stood in Reidsville's downtown area. In 2011, a motorist hit the monument, shattering the granite soldier which stood atop it. Placing the monument back in the center of town sparked a debate between local officials, neighbors and friends – which resulted in it being placed at its current site – the Greenview Cemetery. The new site contains a brand new statue. The original 101-year-old statue was completely destroyed.[503]
  • Rockingham: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1930)
  • Rocky Mount: Nash County Confederate Monument, erected in 1917 to honor Confederate War dead in Edgecombe and Nash Counties, rededicated to all veterans of all wars in 1976.
  • Salisbury: Confederate Monument (1909).[504]
  • Selma: The Last Grand Review Monument (1990)[505]
  • Snow Hill: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1929)
  • Stanley: Stanley Community Center & Polling Place
  • Sylva: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1915)
  • Tarboro:
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1904)
    • Henry Lawson Wyatt Memorial Fountain (1910)
  • Thomasville: Thomasville and Davidson County Civil War Memorial (1910)
  • Tuxedo: Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway Marker (1927)[506]
  • Washington, Virginia: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1888), Oakdale Cemetery[473]
  • Weldon: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1908)
  • Wentworth: Rockingham County Confederate Monument (1998)[507]
  • Wilmington:
  • Windsor: Memorial to the Confederate Dead, erected in 1896 by the Confederate Veterans Associations of Bertie County.[508]
  • Yanceyville: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1921), Old Caswell County Courthouse[473]

Inhabited places[edit]

Natural features[edit]

  • North Carolina Confederate Veterans Forest (1956).[509] 125,000 spruce pine trees were planted by the UDC in the 1940s as a living memorial to North Carolina Confederate Veterans. The forest was rededicated in 2001. The area is located beneath Mt. Hardy near the Blue Ridge Parkway.

Roads[edit]

  • Charlotte:
    • Jefferson Davis Street
    • E & W Stonewall Streets [510]
    • E & W Hill Streets [510]
  • Clinton: General Lee Lane
  • Dunn: General Lee Avenue
  • Fayetteville: General Lee Avenue
  • Flat Rock: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hope Mills: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Kinston: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Lexington: Confederate Street
  • Mebane:
    • Beauregard Lane
    • Hill Lane
    • Pickett Lane
    • Stonewall Drive
    • Stuart Lane
  • Monroe: Confederate Street
  • Salisbury:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Stonewall Road
    • Stuart Street
  • Sanford: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Spencer:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Stonewall Road
    • Stuart Street
  • Spring Lake: General Lee Street
  • Stonewall: Stonewall Street
  • Watha: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Wilmington: (all within the Pine Valley neighborhood)
  • Windsor: Confederate Street

Former[edit]

Ohio[edit]

There are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Ohio.[1]

Monuments[edit]

Confederate Soldier Memorial, Camp Chase, Columbus

Roads[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Cleveland: John Adams High School uses the Rebels team name, but the mascot more closely resembles a cavalier than a Confederate soldier.[521]
  • Willoughby: Willoughby South High School dropped its Confederate uniformed mascot and removed all remaining Confederate imagery from the school while retaining the Rebels team name and school colors grey and blue. In 1993 the school dropped Stars and Bars as the school song and removed Confederate imagery from school uniforms.[521]
  • McConnelsville: Morgan High School is named for Confederate General John Hunt Morgan. Their nickname is the "Raiders".

Former[edit]

Oklahoma[edit]

Confederate Monument at Cherokee National Capitol
Robert E. Lee School in Durant, Oklahoma

There are at least 13 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oklahoma.[1]

Stand Watie Monument, Polson Cemetery, Delaware County

Monuments[edit]

Schools[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Jackson County (1907) sources dispute if the name is for the CSA General or President Jackson
  • Town of Stonewall (1874) for Stonewall Jackson

Roads[edit]

Oregon[edit]

Schools[edit]

Pennsylvania[edit]

Virginia State Monument (1917), Gettysburg Battlefield.
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery.

There are at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in Pennsylvania.[1]

Monuments[edit]

  • Gettysburg Battlefield. In addition to the monuments listed below, the battlefield features monuments to specific Confederate units.[533]
    • Alabama State Monument (1933)
    • Arkansas State Monument (1966)
    • Culp Brothers' Memorial (2013) Near entrance Gettysburg Heritage Center, Honors Confederate Private Wesley Culp and brother Union Army, Lieutenant William Culp (“brother against brother”).
    • Florida State Monument (1963)
    • Georgia State Monument (1961)
    • Lt. Gen. James Longstreet Equestrian Statue (1998)
    • Louisiana State Monument (1971)
    • Maryland State Monument (1994). Honors Maryland soldiers on both the Union and Confederate sides.
    • Mississippi State Monument (1973)
    • North Carolina State Monument (1929)
    • Soldiers and Sailors of the Confederacy Monument (1965)
    • Tennessee State Monument (1982)
    • Texas State Monument (1964)
    • Virginia State Monument (1917). Topped by an equestrian statue of Gen. Robert E. Lee.
  • McConnellsburg
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument, dedicated in 1929.
    • Last Confederate Bivouac Monument, dedicated in 1930.
  • Philadelphia: Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery. Commemorates 184 Confederate prisoners of war who died in Philadelphia area hospitals and camps.

Roads[edit]

  • McConnellsburg: Confederate Lane 
  • Wilkes-Barre: Lee Park Avenue 

South Carolina[edit]

There are at least 112 public spaces with Confederate monuments in South Carolina.[1]

The state restricted the removal of memorials and statues with the South Carolina Heritage Act (2000) which states that "no historical monument can altered or moved without a two-thirds vote in both chambers of the state's General Assembly".[534]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Greenwood County Courthouse, Greenwood, South Carolina

Other public monuments[edit]

Orangeburg
  • Charleston: Monument to the Confederate Defenders of Charleston (1932)[540]
  • Chester Confederate Monument[1]
  • Clemson: Old Stone Church Confederate Memorial
  • Clinton Confederate Monument[1]
  • Columbia:
    • The monument to South Carolina's Confederate Dead (1879) is positioned on the northern end of the South Carolina State House grounds. The monument, after a decision by the Legislature to remove the Confederate flag from the dome of the State House, where it had flown since 1962, flew a traditional version of the Confederate Battle Flag from 2000 to 2015; the flag was the subject of intense protests and national level political debate.[541][542] President Obama said the Confederate Flag belonged in a museum.[543] In 2015 it was removed by a 2/3 vote of both houses of the Legislature.[544]
    • Longstreet Theater and Annex at the University of South Carolina.[1]
    • Monument to the South Carolina Women of the Confederacy (1912)[1]
    • Wade Hampton Confederate Monument (1906)[1]
    • Benjamin Tillman monument, in the statehouse.
  • Conway: Our Confederate Dead Monument
  • Cross Hill: Confederate Monument (1908)
  • Fort Mill:
    • Catawba Indian Monument (1900)
    • Defenders of State Sovereignty Momnument (1891)
    • Faithful Slaves Monument (1895). Local cotton mill owner Samuel E. White and the Jefferson Davis Memorial Association dedicated the memorial to honor the "faithful slaves who loyal to a sacred trust toiled for the support of the army with matchless devotion and sterling fidelity guarded our defenceless homes, women and children during the struggle for the principles of our Confederate States of America." [545] This monument is seen as an example of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy movement.
  • Gaffney: The Cherokee County Confederate Monument was built in 1922.[546]
Monument at Battery White

Inhabited places[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Aiken: Beauregard Lane
  • Anderson:
    • Beauregard Lane
    • Bonham Court
  • Beaufort: Beauregard Court
  • Bluffton: Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Charleston:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
  • Clinton:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Columbia:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Bonham Road
    • Bonham Street
    • Confederate Avenue
    • South Bonham Road
  • Cowpens: Stonewall Drive
  • Daufuskie Island: Beauregard Boulevard
  • Early Branch: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Easley: Stonewall Drive
  • Fort Mill: Confederate Street
  • Greenville: Stonewall Lane
  • Greenwood: Bonham Court
  • Greer: Beauregard Court
  • Hartsville: Stonewall Street
  • Honea Path: Beauregard Drive
  • Lake City: Beauregard Street
  • Lancaster: Confederate Avenue
  • Modoc: Beauregard Drive
  • Mountville: Jefferson Davis Road
  • Orangeburg:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Street
    • Stonewall Jackson Boulevard
    • Stonewall Jackson Street Southwest
  • Rock Hill
    • North Stonewall Street
    • South Stonewall Street
  • Saluda
    • Bonham Avenue
    • Bonham Road
  • St. Matthews: Stonewall Lane
  • Summerville:
    • Beauregard Court
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Timmonsville:
    • Robert E. Lee Avenue
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Trenton: Thomas S. Jackson Road
  • Union:
    • Bonham Station Road
    • General Lee Drive
  • Wagener: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Walterboro: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Westminster: Stonewall Drive
  • Walterboro: Robert E. Lee Drive

Schools[edit]

  • Bishopville:
    • Lee Central High School 
    • Lee Central Middle School 
    • Lee County Career & Technology Center
    • Lee High School 
  • Greenville: Wade Hampton High School
  • Ehrhardt: Jackson Academy (private school): The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Confederates"[445]
  • Clemson University: Named after the Confederate soldier and son of John C. Calhoun that bequeathed the land to the state for the creation of an agricultural college. [548]

Tennessee[edit]

There are at least 80 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Tennessee.[1]. The Tennessee Heritage Protection Act (2016) and a 2013 law restrict the removal of statues and memorials.[18]

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Confederate Women monument, Nashville

Other public monuments[edit]

Jefferson Davis statue in the former Confederate Park, Memphis
Sign of the Confederate Circle in the Mount Olivet Cemetery.

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Brentwood
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Culleoka: General Lee Road
  • Dandridge
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Elizabethton: Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Eva: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Forest Hills: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Franklin:
    • General J.B. Hood Drive
    • General Nathan Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Gallatin: Robert Lee Drive
  • Nashville: Beauregard Drive
  • Newport
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Driv
  • Oak Hill: Stonewall Jackson Court
  • Pulaski
    • Sam Davis Avenue
    • Sam Davis Trail
  • Sardis: Jeff Davis Lane
  • Smyrna
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Lee Lane
    • Longstreet Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
    • Sam Davis Road
    • Stonewall Drive

Inhabited places[edit]

Schools[edit]

  • Chapel Hill: Forrest High School 
  • Paris: Robert E. Lee School
  • Sewanee: The University of the South is more closely linked with the Confederacy than is any other university. Confederate flags are in stained glass windows of the Chapel. Students as late as 1871 were required to wear uniforms of "cadet gray cloth."[566] Confederate flags hung in the Chapel from its dedication in 1909 until the mid-1990s when they were removed "reportedly to improve acoustics."[567] There is an official portrait hanging at the University of Bishop Leonidas Polk, who was in charge of the celebration of the cornerstone laying in 1857, and said the new university will "materially aid the South to resist and repel a fanatical domination which seeks to rule over us."[568] He resigned his ecclesiastical position to become a major general in the Confederate army, and died in battle in 1864. His official portrait at the University depicts him dressed as a bishop with his army uniform hanging nearby. The Confederate flag was also emblazoned on the university mace that led processions marking the beginning and ending of the term from 1965 until 1997. At a special chapel service to celebrate Jefferson Davis' birthday, the Ceremonial Mace was consecrated to the memory of Nathan Bedford Forrest, the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, by Bishop Charles C. J. Carpenter of Alabama – one of the clergy who opposed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s activities in Birmingham in 1963, prompting King to write his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in response.[567]
The Vice Chancellor is the chief academic officer at the University; the chancellor is a bishop of the Episcopal church. Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee both turned down offers of the position.[569] (Sewanee has a portrait of Davis.[570]) The first Vice Chancellor was Rt. Rev. Charles Todd Quintard, called "chaplain of the Confederacy." He compiled the Confederate Soldiers' Pocket Manual of Devotions (Charleston, 1863).[571]
The University's chief donor was John Armfield, at the time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, the largest slave-trading firm in the U.S. He purchased the site and gave the university an endowment of $25,000 a year. In addition to Polk, Bishop Stephen Elliott, the first and only Presiding Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America, and Bishop James Hervey Otey, later prominent in the Confederacy, were significant founders of the university. Generals Edmund Kirby Smith, Josiah Gorgas, and Francis A. Shoup were prominent in the university's postbellum revival and continuance.

Former[edit]

Confederate Memorial Hall, now known as Memorial Hall, Vanderbilt University.

The 2016 Tennessee Heritage Protection Act puts "the brakes on cities' and counties' ability to remove monuments or change names of streets and parks."[552]

  • Nashville: Confederate Memorial Hall on the campus of Vanderbilt University was built in 1935. The school renamed the building "Memorial Hall" on August 15, 2016 after anonymous donors donated US$1.2 million to repay the United Daughters of the Confederacy a $50,000 donation, adjusted for inflation. UDC accepted the donation "reluctantly".[576]

Texas[edit]

There are at least 178 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Texas.[577][1]

Buildings[edit]

  • Houston:
  • Jefferson Davis Hospital was built on a confederate graveyard and operated from 1924-1938. The building saw many government uses after that, but was eventually converted to artist lofts in 2004 after being listed on the National Register of Historic Places and designated a heritage landmark to be preserved in perpetuity. The hospital was named for Jefferson Davis, former president of the Confederacy, in honor of the Confederate soldiers who had been buried in the cemetery and as a means to console the families of the deceased.[578]
  • A second Jefferson Davis Hospital operated several miles away on Allen Parkway from 1938 to 1999 when it was demolished.[579]

Monuments[edit]

Many monuments were donated by pro-Confederacy groups like Daughters of the Confederacy. County governments at the time voted to accept the gifts and take ownership of the statues.[580][581]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Dignified Resignation in Galveston, Texas

Other public monuments[edit]

Confederate Memorial Plaza in Anderson, Texas
  • Alpine: CSA Gen. Lawrence "Sul" Ross Monument (1963)
  • Amarillo: Confederate Monument (1931)
  • Anderson: Confederate Memorial Plaza (2010).[626] The plaza beside the Grimes County courthouse flies a Confederate flag behind a gate with metal lettering reading “Confederate Memorial Plaza.” A metal statue depicts one of several Grimes County residents who fought with the 4th Texas volunteer infantry brigade in Virginia.[597]
  • Athens: Henderson County Confederate Monument (1964)
  • Austin:
    • Littlefield Fountain, on the South Mall at the University of Texas of Austin, bears the name of George W. Littlefield, a university regent who served under Confederate general Albert Sidney Johnston and owned slaves prior to the Civil War. The fountain features an inscription that reads, "To the men and women of the Confederacy who fought with valor and suffered with fortitude that states [ sic? ] rights be maintained."
    • Texas State Capital Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903). Base Designer: Frank Teich. Sculptor: Pompeo Coppini.[627] Contains four statues; one is of Jefferson Davis, one of Robert E. Lee, and one of of Confederate General John B. Hood. The inscription reads: "Died for state rights guaranteed under the constitution. The people of the South, animated by the spirit of 1776, to preserve their rights, withdrew from the federal compact in 1861. The North resorted to coercion. The South, against overwhelming numbers and resources, fought until exhausted.”[597]
    • Plaque in the Texas State Capitol, which reads:
Children of the Confederacy Creed

Because we desire to perpetuate, in love and honor, the heroic deeds of those who enlisted in the Confederate Army, and upheld its flag through four years of war, we, the children of the South, have united in an organization called "Children of the Confederacy," in which our strength, enthusiam, and love of justice can exert its influence.

We, therefore, pledge ourself to preserve pure ideals: to honor our Veterans; to study and teach the truths of history (one of the most important of which is that the War between the States was not a rebellion, nor was its underlying cause to sustain slavery) and to always act in a manner that will reflect honor upon our noble and patriotic ancestors.

Erected by Texas Division
Children of the Confederacy
August 7, 1959
In August 2017 Representative Eric Johnson, and in September 2017 House Speaker Joe Straus wrote to the Texas State Preservation Board asking that the plaque be removed. According to Straus, "The plaque says that the Civil War was not an act of rebellion and was not primarily about slavery. This is not accurate, and Texans are not well-served by incorrect information about our history." "Straus also reiterated his calls for the 'historical accuracy and context' of the Capitol's dozen or so other nods to the Civil War to be reviewed: 'We have an obligation to all the people we serve to ensure that our history is described correctly, especially when it comes to a subject as painful as slavery.'"[628]
  • Beaumont: "Our Confederate Soldiers" Monument (1912)
  • Clarksville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1912)
  • Cleburne: Cleburne Monument (2010)
  • Coleman: Hometown of Texas CSA Col. James E. McCord Monument (1963)
  • Dallas: Confederate War Memorial. Originally erected in City Park in 1897, but relocated to Pioneer Park Cemetery in 1961 due to highway construction.[629]
  • College Station: A statue of Lawrence Sullivan Ross, confederate general and former president of A&M University is located on the campus of Texas A&M University. In August, 2017, the Chancelor of the university, John Sharp, has confirmed that the university will not be removing the statue from the campus.[630]
  • El Paso:
    • Hometown of Texas CSA Capt. James W. Magoffin Monument (1964)
    • CSA Maj. Simeon Hart Monument (1964)
  • Farmersville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1917)
  • Gainesville Confederate Heroes Statue (1908) in Leonard Park[631][632]
  • Gonzales: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Confederate Square. Dedicated on June 3, 1909. To "our Confederate dead."[633][634]
  • Greenville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1926)
  • Holliday: Stonewall Jackson Camp 249 Monument (1999)
  • Houston:
    • Spirit of the Confederacy (1908, in present location since 1925). Erected by United Daughters of the Confederacy.[635] On August 19, 2017, "More than 400 socialists, liberals and Black Lives Matter activists showed up to demand the monument's removal, while a few dozen counter-protesters — some carrying Confederate flags — showed up in opposition."[636]
    • Dick Dowling (sculpture), located at the entrance to Hermann Park. Erected in 1905, the monument was in front of City Hall until 1958, when it was moved to its present location. On August 19, 2017, Andrew Schneck was arrested at the statue with bomb materials.[637]
  • Kermit: Col. C.M. Winkler Monument (1963)
  • Marshall:
    • Confederate Capitol of Missouri Monument (1963)
    • Confederate Monument (1906)
    • Home of Last Texas Confederate Gov. Pendleton Murrah Monument (1963)
  • Miami: Col. O.M. Roberts Monument (1963)
  • Palestine: John. H. Reagan Statue (1911)
  • Sherman: Confederate Soldier Monument (1897)
  • Tomball: Confederate Powder Mill Marker Monument (1966)
  • Victoria: Confederate Monument (1912)

Private monuments[edit]

  • Hempstead: The Liendo Plantation was a center for Confederate recruiting efforts and held Union prisoners during the war. Now it holds battle reenactments and demonstrations of Civil War era Confederate life at its annual Civil War Weekend.
  • Orange: Confederate Memorial of the Wind: under construction since 2013.[638]
  • Palestine: Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza (2013). Funded by the Sons of Confederate Veterans.

Inhabited places[edit]

Counties[edit]

Municipalities[edit]

Cemeteries[edit]

  • San Antonio: The Confederate Cemetery on Commerce Street covers nearly 3 acres and has more than 950 burials, including 215 Confederate veterans.[597]

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Austin:
    • Jeff Davis Avenue
    • Robert E. Lee Road. Austin City Council has begun the process of renaming this road.[641]
  • Conroe:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jubal Early Lane
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • El Paso: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Hamilton: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Hemphill:
    • Confederate Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Holliday: Stonewall Road
  • Houston:
    • Robert E. Lee Road
    • Robert Lee Road
    • Tuam Street, another major artery is named for Tuam, CSA Gen. Dowling's birthplace in Irelamd
  • Hunt: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Jacksonville: Jeff Davis Street
  • Kermit East Winkler Street
  • Lakeside Confederate Park Road
  • League City: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Levelland: Robert Lee Street
  • Liberty: Confederate Street
  • Livingston: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Marshall:
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Missouri City
    • Beauregard Court
    • Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Breckinridge Court
    • Confederate Drive
    • Pickett Place
  • Richmond:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Ridgley: Bedford Forrest Lane
  • Roma: Robert Lee Avenue
  • San Antonio:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Sterling City: Robert Lee Highway
  • Sweetwater: Robert Lee Street
  • Tyler:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
  • Victoria: Robert E. Lee Road

Note: "There are similarly named streets in towns and cities across east Texas, notably Port Arthur and Beaumont, as well as memorials to Dowling and the Davis Guards, not least at Sabine Pass, where the battleground is now preserved as a state park"

Schools[edit]

  • Abilene:
    • Jackson Elementary School
    • Johnston Elementary School
    • Lee Elementary School (1961)
  • Amarillo:
    • Lee Elementary School
    • Tascosa High School. Confederacy iconography was dropped in 1974. The school dropped its mascot, Johnny Reb, and stopped playing "Dixie” as their fight song. The Dixieland Singers became the Freedom Singers. Miss Southern Belle became Tascosa Belle. The "Rebel" nickname remained, but other ties to the Civil War disappeared.[642]
  • Austin:
    • John H. Reagan High School (1965)
    • Lee Elementary School (1939) – Lee Elementary school was renamed in May 2016 for Russell Lee, a prominent photographer with the Farm Security Administration and the first Professor of Photography at the University of Texas.
    • William B. Travis High School, home of the "Rebels".[643] Dropped "Dixie" as its song in 2012.[644]
  • Buda: Jack C. Hays High School. The school uses the "Rebel" nickname for its athletic teams.[645] Mascot "Colonel Jack" no longer has a Confederate flag belt buckle but still dresses in grey. The school dropped the Confederate flag as an official symbol in 2010 and the school district banned it from all district property in 2012.[646] In 2015 it replaced the school song "Dixie".
  • Baytown:
  • Dallas:
    • Albert Sidney Johnston Elementary School
    • John H. Reagan Elementary School
    • Robert E. Lee Elementary School
    • Stonewall Jackson Elementary School (1939)
  • Denton: Lee Elementary School (1988)
  • Eagle Pass: Robert E. Lee Elementary School
  • Edinburg: Lee Elementary School
  • El Paso: Lee Elementary School
  • Evadale: Evadale High School. The school uses a Confederate flag-inspired crest. Its athletic teams are nicknamed the "Rebels".[647]
  • Fort Davis:
  • Gainesville: Robert E. Lee Intermediate School
  • Grand Prairie: Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1948)
  • Houston:
  • Marshall: Robert E. Lee Elementary School
  • Midland:
  • North Richland Hills, home of the Richland High School "Rebels" and "Dixie Belles". The school mascot is "Johnny Rebel".[649]
  • Port Arthur: Lee Elementary School (1959)
  • Robert Lee:
    • Robert Lee Elementary School
    • Robert Lee High School
  • San Angelo: Lee Middle School (1949)
  • San Antonio: Robert E. Lee High School (1958). After voting against a name change in 2015, the school board voted on August 29, 2017, to change the name of the school.[650] The new name has not yet (September 2017) been chosen.[651] Its mascot is currently the Volunteer and the school colors are red and grey. Its pep squad, currently called the Southern Belles, were once called the Confederates. Its varsity dance team and junior varsity drill team are respectively named the Rebel Rousers and Dixie Drillers.[597]
  • Stonewall: Stonewall Elementary School
  • Tyler:
    • Hubbard Middle School (1964), named for Confederate Col. Richard B. Hubbard
    • Robert E. Lee High School (1958). Called "the city's most radioactive Confederate symbol," the possible renaming of the school was the subject of active discussion at meetings in August and September, 2017. In 1970, as a result of a statewide federal desegregation order, the school had to get rid of "its Confederate-themed mascot (the Rebels), fight song (“Dixie”), and prized Confederate flag (so large that it required twenty boys to carry). Its beloved Rebel Guard, a squadron of boys handpicked by an American-history teacher to dress in replica Confederate uniforms at football games and fire a cannon named Ole Spirit after touchdowns, had to find a new name. Same for the Rebelettes drill team."[652]

State symbols[edit]

Reverse of the Seal of Texas.svg

The reverse side of the Seal of Texas (1992) includes "the unfurled flags of the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, the United Mexican States, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America". The Confederate flag is rendered as the Stars and Bars.

Former[edit]

  • Arlington: Six Flags Over Texas theme park: In August 2017 removed the Stars and Bars Confederate Flag after flying it for 56 years along with the flags of the other countries that Texas has been part of. In the 1990s the park renamed the Confederacy section the Old South section and removed all Confederate Battle Flags.[653]
  • Dallas: Robert E. Lee Statue (1936) located in Lee Park along Turtle Creek Boulevard. Dedicated in 1936 to celebrate the Texas Centennial Exposition. Removed September 14, 2017 after the city council voted 13–1 to remove it.[654][655][656]
  • Garland: South Garland High School removed various Confederate symbols in 2015. A floor tile mosaic donated by the Class of 1968 and a granite sign in front of the school were replaced. Both had incorporated the Confederate flag, which was part of the school’s original coat of arms. In addition, the district has dropped “Dixie” as the tune for the school fight song.[657] The school changed its Colonel mascot's uniform from Confederate gray to red and blue in 1991.[658]
  • Houston:
    • Downing Street. Renamed Emancipation Avenue in 2017.[659]
    • Lee High School (1962). Originally known as Robert E. Lee High School, district leaders dropped the “Robert E.” from the school’s title to distance the school from the Confederate general.[660] School officials changed the name to Margaret Long Wisdom High School in 2016.
    • Westbury High School changed the nickname of its athletic teams from the "Rebels" to the "Huskies."[661]
  • University of Texas (Austin):
    • The 2015 decision to move a statue of Jefferson Davis from its mall to a museum was fought by SCV in court. The Confederates likened the move to the destruction of cultural heritage by ISIL while the University President Gregory L. Fenves said “it is not in the university’s best interest to continue commemorating him (Davis) on our Main Mall."[662]
    • After the removal of the Jefferson Davis statue in 2015 there were three remaining Confederate statues left on the South Mall at the University of Texas. The statues were of Generals Robert E. Lee and Albert Sidney Johnston and Confederate Postmaster John H. Reagan. They were dedicated in 1933. On August 20–21, 2017 the university removed the three Confederate statues from the Austin campus grounds and relocated them to a museum.[663][664]
    • Three confederate statues, of two Confederate generals, Robert E. Lee and Albert Sidney Johnston, and the Confederate cabinet member John Reagan, were removed from the campus of the university on August 20, 2017. The decision was based on the aftermath of the protests in Charlottesville, VA.[665]
  • San Antonio: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, dedicated April 28, 1899, located in Travis Park next to The Alamo.[666] Removed September 1, 2017.[667][668][669]

Vermont[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Vermont.[1]

Former[edit]

  • Brattleboro: Brattleboro Union High School. Until 2004, the school mascot was Colonel Reb, a Confederate plantation owner.[670]
  • South Burlington: South Burlington High School Confederate themed Captain Rebel mascot (1961), use of the Confederate Battle Flag, and playing of Dixie almost immediately sparked controversy during the Civil Rights era and every decade since. The school board voted to retain the name in 2015 but to change it in 2017. "The Rebel Alliance", a community group opposed to changing the mascot has lead two successful efforts to defeat the school budget in public votes as a protest.[671][672] The students choose the "Wolves" and rebranding is proceeding.[673]

Virginia[edit]

There are at least 223 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Virginia,[1] more than in any other state.[674][675]

Buildings[edit]

Monuments[edit]

Arlington National Cemetery
Leesburg

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Charlottesville

Other public monuments[edit]

On his march to Gettysburg, Robert E. Lee hitched his horse in Berryville, Virginia
Robert Edward Lee Sculpture, Charlottesville
Lebanon, Virginia
Mount Jackson
Howitzer Monument, Richmond
Robert E. Lee hitched his horse in Berryville, Virginia while on his march to Gettysburg
  • Berryville: Memorial (1986) and "hitching post" where Robert E. Lee tethered his horse, Traveller, while Lee "paused on his march to Gettysburg" to attended a church service[677]
  • Bristol: Confederate Soldier Monument (1910)
  • Buckingham: Confederate Soldiers of Buckingham County (1908)
  • Charlottesville
  • Farmville: Virginia Defenders of State Sovereignty Confederate Soldier Monument (1900)
  • Fairfax, Virginia: John Quincy Marr monument, dedicated to the first Confederate officer killed in the Civil War during the Battle of Fairfax Court House (June 1861) Erected 1904.
  • Franklin: Confederate Monument (1911)
  • Fredericksburg
    • Confederate Monument (2009)
    • The Heights at Smith Run (2014)
    • Thomas R.R. Cobb Monument and Marker (1888)
    • Slave block, William and Charles Sts., conserved as the place slaves were sold in pre-Civil War Fredericksburg. Some Fredericksburg residents believe it should be removed, and have started a petition.[678][679]
  • Glen Allen: J.E.B. Stuart Memorial (1888)
  • Gloucester: Confederate Monument (1889)
  • Goshen Pass: Maury Memorial, stone monument marker (1923)
  • Hanover: Confederate Monument (1914)
  • Hopewell: Confederate Memorial (1949)
  • Lebanon: Confederate Monument (1914)
  • Lexington
    • Francis H. Smith Confederate Monument (1931)
    • Stonewall Jackson Monument and Arch
    • Washington and Lee University
      • Previously Washington University, was renamed weeks after Robert E. Lee died as the President of the university.[680]
      • A large Confederate battle flag and a number of related flags were removed from the Chapel in 2014.[681][682]
      • Inside Lee Chapel, in place of an altar, is a "gigantic" marble statue of Lee, recumbent, wearing Confederate battle gear and resting on a camp bed. (Lee is buried with his family in a mausoleum beneath the chapel.)[683]
      • Robert E. Lee Residence.[680]
      • Grave of Traveller, Robert E. Lee's horse (1871). Apples are regularly placed on the grave by visitors.[680]
    • At Virginia Military Institute sits a 1912 bronze replica of a 1910 marble statue of Stonewall Jackson by Moses Jacob Ezekiel (on the grounds of the West Virginia state capital). First-year cadets exiting the barracks through the archway are required to honor Jackson's memory by saluting the statue.[684]
    • R.E. Lee Memorial Church, an Episcopal church where Lee worshipped. Considering name change August 2017.[685][686]
  • Luray:
    • Confederate Monument (1898)
    • Page County Confederate Monument (1918)
  • Lynchburg:
    • Confederate Statue opposite Courthouse.
    • Jubal Early Monument (1919)
    • Confederate Monument (1900)
  • Mechanicsville: Wilcox's Alabama Brigade (1999)
  • Mecklenburg County: Confederate statue in front of the Courthouse.
  • Mount Jackson: "Our Soldiers Cemetery" statue (1903)
  • New Kent: Confederate Monument (1934)
  • New Market: This Rustic Pile Monument (1909)
  • Newport News: Confederate Soldier Monument (1909)
  • Nickelsville: Nickelsville Spartan Band Monument (2000)
  • Norfolk: Confederate Monument (1907)
  • Parksley: Confederate Monument (1899)
  • Petersburg:
  • Portsmouth: Confederate Monument, listed on the NRHP. Local politicians "have been contemplating the fate of the Confederate statue since 2015, and the town’s mayor recently called for it to be moved to a local cemetery instead." On August 17, 2017, the mayor announced that it would be relocated to a cemetery.[687]
  • Pulaski: In Memory of the Confederate Soldiers of Pulaski County, 1861–1865 Monument (1906)
  • Reams: North Carolina Monument
  • Richmond:
  • Stephenson: Memorial to Lieutenant Colonel Richard Snowden Andrews and Men of 1st Maryland Battery, CSA (1920)
  • Virginia Beach: Princess Anne County Confederate Heroes Monument (1905)
  • Winchester: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1916)

Private monuments[edit]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Arlington County: Originally Alexandria County; renamed in 1920 in honor of Robert E. Lee's house in Arlington.

Parks[edit]

Roads[edit]

  • Alexandria:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Bragg Street
    • Braxton Place
    • Breckinridge Place
    • Calhoun Avenue
    • Chambliss Street
    • Dearing Street
    • Donelson Street
    • Early Street
    • Floyd Street
    • French Street
    • Frost Street
    • Gordon Street
    • Hardee Place
    • Hume Avenue
    • Imboden Street
    • Iverson Street
    • Jackson Place
    • Janney's Lane
    • Jordan Street
    • Jubal Avenue
    • Lee Street
    • Longstreet Lane
    • Maury Lane
    • Pegram Street
    • Quantrell Avenue
    • Reynolds Street
    • Rosser Street
    • Van Dorn Street
    • Wheeler Avenue
  • Annandale:
    • John Marr Drive
    • Lanier Street
    • Rebel Drive
  • Blackstone: Jeb Stuart Road
  • Bland: Jeb Stuart Street
  • Boones Mill: Jubal Early Highway
  • Bristow: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Centreville:
    • Confederate Ridge Lane
    • General Lee Drive
  • Chantilly:
    • Mosby Highway
    • Old Lee Road
  • Culpeper:
    • General A.P. Hill
    • General Jackson Avenue
    • General Jeb Stuart Lane
    • General Lee Avenue
    • General Longstreet Avenue
    • General Winder Road
  • Damascus: Jeb Stuart Highway
  • Fairfax:
    • Confederate Lane
    • Mosby Woods Drive
    • Old Lee Highway
    • Pickett Road
    • Rebel Run
  • Foster: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Hopewell: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Ivor: General Mahone Boulevard
  • Lynchburg: Early Street
  • Manassas:
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Lee Avenue
  • Martinsville:
    • Jeb Stuart Road
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Middleburg: John Mosby Highway
  • Natural Bridge Station:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • New Market:
    • Confederate Street
    • Lee Street
    • Stonewall Street
    • Stuart Street
  • Petersburg: Confederate Avenue
  • Powhatan: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Purcellville: Jeb Stuart Road
  • Rhoadesville: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Richmond:
  • Sandston:
    • Carter Avenue
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Early Avenue
    • Garland Avenue
    • J.B. Finley Avenue
    • Jackson Avenue
    • Kemper Court
    • Pickett Avenue
    • Wilson Way
  • Staunton:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • J.E.B. Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Boulevard
  • Verona: Confederate Street
  • Virginia Beach:
    • General Beauregard Drive
    • General Hill Drive
    • General Jackson Drive
    • General Lee Drive
    • General Longstreet Drive
    • Hood Drive
  • Waynesboro:
    • Davis Road
    • Pickett Road
    • Robert E. Lee Avenue
  • Winchester: Jubal Early Drive
  • Woodford:
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Road

Highways[edit]

  • General Mahone Highway, a large portion of U.S. Route 460, between Petersburg and Suffolk.
  • Jefferson Davis Highway also called Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway, renaming in progress in Alexandria.[693]
  • Jubal Early Highway
  • Lee Highway
  • Lee Jackson Memorial Highway
  • Stonewall Jackson Highway

Schools[edit]

Former[edit]

  • Bailey's Crossroads: J. E. B. Stuart High School (1958). Following protests by students and alumni that began in June 2015, the school board voted in July 2017, to rename the school by the beginning of the 2019 school year.
  • Charlottesville:
    • In May 2017, the City Council of Charlottesville voted to remove and sell its statue of CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee, and renamed Lee Park, where the statue stands, as Emancipation Park.[700] The removal has been halted for six months by a court injunction, in response to a suit by SCV.[701] Self-proclaimed white nationalist Richard B. Spencer led "a large group of demonstrators" carrying torches protesting this plan, which has played "an outsize role in this year's race for Virginia governor," in which Stewart is a candidate. White supremacists and "nationalist" groups demonstrated in Charlottesville in favor of preserving the statues. On May 15, 2017, Richard Spencer led a white nationalist group around the Robert E. Lee statue. They rallied in support of the statues for, in their view, the "Confederacy is what represents us."[701] Lieutenant Governor Ralph Northam commented on the appearance of nationalist and supremacist groups, saying via email, "These actions are totally unacceptable. These people are racists. They don't represent Virginian values. I condemn their action and beliefs. I call on all Virginians who are involved in efforts to advocate for or against Virginia's history to act responsibly and honorably."[701] Mayor Stoney called it "one of the most overt acts of racism I've seen in a very, very long time."[702]
    • On July 8, 2017, about 50 Ku Klux Klan members from North Carolina demonstrated in support of the monument. They were met by a large group of counterprotesters who, following the demonstration, blocked the Klan members from leaving. Virginia State Police intervened and used tear gas to open the streets. A city spokeswoman said at least 23 people were arrested.[703]
    • Another protest by white nationalists in support of the monument, the 2017 Unite the Right rally, took place during the August 11–12 weekend. Friday night, several hundred torch-bearing men and women marched on the University of Virginia campus. A brawl occurred between the marchers and a group of counterprotesters.[704][705] One white nationalist was arrested after deliberately driving his car into a crowd of counterprotesters, killing 32-year-old Heather Heyer and injuring several others.[706]
    • On August 20, 2017, the City Council unanimously voted to shroud the statues of Lee and Stonewall Jackson in black. The Council "also decided to direct the city manager to take an administrative step that would make it easier to eventually remove the Jackson statue."[707]
    • The University of Virginia Board of Visitors (trustees) voted unanimously on September 15, 2017, to remove two plaques from the university’s Rotunda that honored students and alumni who fought and died for the Confederacy in the Civil War. The University also agreed "to acknowledge a $1,000 gift in 1921 from the Ku Klux Klan and contribute the amount, adjusted for inflation, to a suitable cause."[708]
Jefferson Davis Memorial Park at Fort Monroe, Virginia

Washington State[edit]

There is at least one public space dedicated to the Confederacy in Washington.[1]

PicketHousePlaqueByJuliusReque.jpg
  • Bellingham:
    • Pickett Bridge, commemorating an earlier wooden bridge erected by Pickett over Whatcom Creek. Sign erected in 1920, larger signs erected in early 2010's. Some have called for removal of the designation.[711]
    • The Pickett House is the oldest house in Bellingham. Built in 1856 by Virginia native George Pickett, who left it in 1861 to become a General in the CSA. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.
  • East Wenatchee: Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1955) School district rejected a name change in 2015 but the issue is being considered again in 2017. A majority of the students are now Hispanic and there are no African-American students.[712][713]

At least two private properties contain a Confederate memorial or fly a CSA flag.

Former[edit]

  • Blaine and Vancouver: Stone markers at both ends of the state designating Highway 99 the "Jefferson Davis Highway" were erected in the 1930s by the Daughters of the Confederacy, with State approval. They were removed in 2002 through the efforts of State Representative Hans Dunshee and city officials, and after it was discovered that the highway was never officially designated to memorialize Davis by the State.[717] Markers are now in Sons of Confederate Veterans owned "Jefferson Davis Park" in Ridgefield right beside I-5.[718]

West Virginia[edit]

There are at least 17 public spaces with Confederate monuments in West Virginia.[1]

Monuments[edit]

First Confederate Memorial (1867), Romney, West Virginia
  • Clarksburg: Metal replica of Stonewall Jackson created by Charles Keck was erected by UDC on May 10, 1953. Jackson was born in Clarksburg.
  • Charleston:
    • Bust of Stonewall Jackson, 1959.
    • Statue of Stonewall Jackson on the state capitol grounds. Dedicated in 1910, the money was raised by UDC Chapter No. 151. Legislation accepting the statue was unanimously passed by both houses of the legislature in one day.[719]
  • Harpers Ferry: Hayward Shepherd Monument, 1931. Although Shepherd was a black freeman killed in John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, the monument was erected by UDC and SCV. They called the project the "Faithful Slave Memorial" for many years and saw it as a way to emphasize their idea that blacks enjoyed being slaves and that men like Shepherd were victims of those seeking to free slaves.[720]
  • Hinton: Confederate Soldier Monument, Summers County Courthouse, 1914.[721]
  • Lewisburg: Confederate Monument, 1906.
  • Mingo: Confederate Soldier Monument, 1913/2013.
  • Parkersburg: Confederate Soldier Monument, 1908.
  • Romney: First Confederate Memorial, erected in 1867, one of the first Confederate memorials raised after the Civil War.
  • Union: Monroe County Confederate Soldier Monument, 1901.

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks and water features[edit]

Roads[edit]

Wisconsin[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Wisconsin.[1]

Former[edit]

Madison: A plaque called "Confederate Rest" (1981) and a larger monument were ordered removed from the city's Forest Hill Cemetery in August 2017. The memorials had honored 140 Confederate soldiers who died in 1862 while in captivity at nearby Camp Randall.[726] 

Wyoming[edit]

There are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Wyoming.

International[edit]

Brazil[edit]

In 1865, at the end of the American Civil War, a substantial number of Southerners left the South; many moved to other parts of the United States, such as the American West, but a few left the country entirely. The most popular country of Southerners emigration was Brazil which still allowed slavery and wanted to encourge cotton production.[727] These emigrants were known as Confederados. A Confederate monument was placed in Americana, São Paulo, Brazil.[728]

Canada[edit]

  • Kitchener, Onario: Eastwood Collegiate Institute (1956), a public high school, replaced its Johnny Rebel mascot and Confederate imagery, perceived as associated with white bigotry, with Rebel Lion in 1999. The school retains the Rebel name for its teams.
  • Montreal, Quebec: A plaque on a Hudson's Bay Company store commemorating Jefferson Davis' brief stay in the city was installed by UDC in 1957; it was removed in 2017 following the attack against counter protesters committed by a white supremacist in Charlottesville.[729][730]

Ireland[edit]

Tuam, Ireland commemorated CSA Major Richard W. Dowling, who was born in the Tuam, with a bronze memorial plaque on the Town Hall bearing his image and life story. Text of plaque: "Major Richard W. (Dick) Dowling C.S.A., 1837–1867 Born Knock, Tuam; Settled Houston Texas, 1857; Outstanding business and civic leader; Joined Irish Davis Guards in American Civil War; With 47 men foiled Invasion of Texas by 5000 federal troops at Sabine Pass, 8 Sept 1863, a feat of superb gunnery; formed first oil company in Texas; Died aged 30 of yellow fever. This plaque was unveiled by Col. J.B. Collerain 31 May 1998"

Scotland[edit]

  • Edinburgh: Dean Cemetery, obelisk for Scottish-born CSA Colonel Robert A. Smith, with a Confederate marker and Confederate flags.[731]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Fitzgerald was formed in 1895 for veterans of the war, from the North and the South. Streets running North/South on the east side of the city were named after Confederate ships and generals, whereas the ones on the west side were named after Union ships and generals. See Fitzgerald, Georgia#History.
  2. ^ On May 28, 1970 the memorial was hit by a truck and destroyed. The money from the insurance company was not sufficient to restore it. Widener, p. viii

References[edit]

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