Confederate monuments and memorials

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Confederate monuments and memorials in the United States include public displays and symbols of the Confederate States of America (CSA), Confederate leaders, or Confederate soldiers of the American Civil War. Many monuments and memorials have been or will be removed under great controversy. Part of the commemoration of the American Civil War, these symbols include monuments and statues, flags, holidays and other observances, and the names of schools, roads, parks, bridges, buildings, counties, cities, lakes, dams, military bases, and other public structures.[a] In a December 2018 special report, Smithsonian Magazine stated, "over the past ten years, taxpayers have directed at least $40 million to Confederate monuments—statues, homes, parks, museums, libraries, and cemeteries—and to Confederate heritage organizations."[2]

This entry does not include commemorations of pre-Civil War figures connected with the origins of the Civil War or white supremacy but not directly tied to the Confederacy, such as Supreme Court Justice Roger B. Taney, pro-slavery congressman Preston Brooks, North Carolina Chief Justice Thomas Ruffin,[3] or Southern politician John C. Calhoun, although Calhoun was venerated by the Confederacy and post-war segregationists, and monuments to Calhoun "have been the most consistent targets" of vandals.[4] It also does not include post-Civil War white supremacists, such as North Carolina Governor Charles Aycock and Mississippi Governor James K. Vardaman.

Monuments and memorials are listed alphabetically by state, and by city within each state. States not listed have no known qualifying items for the list.[5]


Monument building and dedications[edit]

Memorials have been erected on public spaces (including on courthouse grounds) either at public expense or funded by private organizations and donors. Numerous private memorials have also been erected.

Chart of public symbols of the Confederacy and its leaders as surveyed by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), by year of establishment. Most of these were put up either during the Jim Crow era or during the Civil Rights Movement.[b] These two periods also coincided with the 50th and 100th anniversaries of the Civil War.[c][6]

According to Smithsonian Magazine, "Confederate monuments aren't just heirlooms, the artifacts of a bygone era. Instead, American taxpayers are still heavily investing in these tributes today."[2] The report also concluded that the monuments were constructed and are regularly maintained in promotion of the Lost Cause, white supremacist mythology, and over the many decades of their establishment, African American leaders regularly protested these memorials and what they represented.[2]

A small number of memorializations were made during the war, mainly as ship and place names. After the war, Robert E. Lee said on several occasions that he was opposed to any monuments, as they would, in his opinion, "keep open the sores of war".[7][8] Nevertheless, monuments and memorials continued to be dedicated shortly after the American Civil War.[9][1] Before 1890, most were erected in cemeteries as memorials to soldiers who died in the war.[10] Many more monuments were dedicated in the years after 1890, when Congress established the first National Military Park at Chickamauga and Chattanooga, and by the turn of the 20th century, five battlefields from the Civil War had been preserved: Chickamauga-Chattanooga, Antietam, Gettysburg, Shiloh, and Vicksburg. At Vicksburg National Military Park, more than 95% of the park's monuments were erected in the first eighteen years after the park was established in 1899.[11] But monuments began appearing in public places with the emergence of the Jim Crow South.[10]

Jim Crow[edit]

Confederate monument-building has often been part of widespread campaigns to promote and justify Jim Crow laws in the South.[12][1][13] According to the American Historical Association (AHA), the erection of Confederate monuments during the early 20th century was "part and parcel of the initiation of legally mandated segregation and widespread disenfranchisement across the South." According to the AHA, memorials to the Confederacy erected during this period "were intended, in part, to obscure the terrorism required to overthrow Reconstruction, and to intimidate African Americans politically and isolate them from the mainstream of public life." A later wave of monument building coincided with the civil rights movement, and according to the AHA "these symbols of white supremacy are still being invoked for similar purposes."[14] According to Smithsonian Magazine, "far from simply being markers of historic events and people, as proponents argue, these memorials were created and funded by Jim Crow governments to pay homage to a slave-owning society and to serve as blunt assertions of dominance over African-Americans."[2]

Confederate Soldier Statue, in Monroe County, West Virginia, 2016

According to historian Jane Dailey from the University of Chicago, in many cases, the purpose of the monuments was not to celebrate the past but rather to promote a "white supremacist future".[15] Another historian, Karen L. Cox, from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has written that the monuments are "a legacy of the brutally racist Jim Crow era", and that "the whole point of Confederate monuments is to celebrate white supremacy".[13] Another historian from UNC, James Leloudis, stated that "The funders and backers of these monuments are very explicit that they are requiring a political education and a legitimacy for the Jim Crow era and the right of white men to rule."[16] They were erected without the consent or even input of Southern African Americans, who remembered the Civil War far differently, and who had no interest in honoring those who fought to keep them enslaved.[17] According to Civil War historian Judith Giesberg, professor of history at Villanova University, "White supremacy is really what these statues represent."[18] Some monuments were also meant to beautify cities as part of the City Beautiful movement, although this was secondary.[19]

In a June 2018 speech, Civil War historian James I. Robertson Jr. of Virginia Tech said the monuments were not a "Jim Crow signal of defiance" and referred to the current trend to dismantle or destroy them as an "age of idiocy" motivated by "elements hell-bent on tearing apart unity that generations of Americans have painfully constructed."[20] Katrina Dunn Johnson, Curator of the South Carolina Confederate Relic Room and Military Museum, states that "thousands of families throughout the country were unable to reclaim their soldier's remains--many never learned their loved ones' exact fate on the battlefield or within the prison camps. The psychological impact of such a devastating loss cannot be underestimated when attempting to understand the primary motivations behind Southern memorialization."[21]

Many Confederate monuments were dedicated in the former Confederate states and border states in the decades following the Civil War, in many instances by Ladies Memorial Associations, United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC), United Confederate Veterans (UCV), Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV), the Heritage Preservation Association, and other memorial organizations.[22][23][24] Other Confederate monuments are located on Civil War battlefields. Many Confederate monuments are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, either separately or as contributing objects within listings of courthouses or historic districts. Art historians Cynthia Mills and Pamela Simpson argued, in Monuments to the Lost Cause, that the majority of Confederate monuments, of the type they define, were "commissioned by white women, in hope of preserving a positive vision of antebellum life."[25][26]

In the late nineteenth century, technological innovations in the granite and bronze industries helped reduce costs and made monuments more affordable for small towns. Companies looking to capitalize on this opportunity often sold nearly identical copies of monuments to both the North and South.[27]

Another wave of monument construction coincided with the Civil Rights Movement and the American Civil War Centennial.[1]: 11  At least thirty-two Confederate monuments were dedicated between 2000 and 2017, including at least 7 re-dedications.[28][29][30][31]

Scholarly study[edit]

Scholarly studies of the monuments began in the 1980s. In 1983 John J. Winberry published a study which was based on data from the work of R.W. Widener.[32][33] He estimated that the main building period for monuments was from 1889 to 1929 and that of the monuments erected in courthouse squares over half were built between 1902 and 1912. He determined four main locations for monuments; battlefields, cemeteries, county courthouse grounds, and state capitol grounds. Over a third of the courthouse monuments were dedicated to the dead. The majority of the cemetery monuments in his study were built in the pre-1900 period, while most of the courthouse monuments were erected after 1900. Of the 666 monuments in his study 55% were of Confederate soldiers, while 28% were obelisks. Soldiers dominated courthouse grounds, while obelisks account for nearly half of cemetery monuments. The idea that the soldier statues always faced north was found to be untrue and that the soldiers usually faced the same direction as the courthouse. He noted that the monuments were "remarkably diverse" with "only a few instances of repetition of inscriptions".[33]

The Confederate Memorial in Fulton, Kentucky is listed on the National Register of Historic Places

He categorized the monuments into four types. Type 1 was a Confederate soldier on a column with his weapon at parade rest, or weaponless and gazing into the distance. These accounted for approximately half the monuments studied. They are, however, the most popular among the courthouse monuments. Type 2 was a Confederate soldier on a column with rifle ready, or carrying a flag or bugle. Type 3 was an obelisk, often covered with drapery and bearing cannonballs or an urn. This type was 28% of the monuments studied, but 48% of the monuments in cemeteries and 18% of courthouse monuments. Type 4 was a miscellaneous group, including arches, standing stones, plaques, fountains, etc. These account for 17% of the monuments studied.[33]

Over a third of the courthouse monuments were specifically dedicated to the Confederate dead. The first courthouse monument was erected in Bolivar, Tennessee, in 1867. By 1880 nine courthouse monuments had been erected. Winberry noted two centers of courthouse monuments: the Potomac counties of Virginia, from which the tradition spread to North Carolina, and a larger area covering Georgia, South Carolina and northern Florida. The diffusion of courthouse monuments was aided by organizations such as the United Confederate Veterans and their publications, though other factors may also have been effective.[33]

Winberry listed four reasons for the shift from cemeteries to courthouses. First was the need to preserve the memory of the Confederate dead and also recognize the veterans who returned. Second was to celebrate the rebuilding of the South after the war. Third was the romanticizing of the Lost Cause, and the fourth was to unify the white population in a common heritage against the interests of African-American Southerners. He concluded: "No one of these four possible explanations for the Confederate monument is adequate or complete in itself. The monument is a symbol, but whether it was a memory of the past, a celebration of the present, or a portent of the future remains a difficult question to answer; monuments and symbols can be complicated and sometimes indecipherable."[33]

The Monument Movement[edit]

The Monument Movement was a national movement of the late 19th and early 20th century. The Union and Confederate monuments were erected as community memorials. In the North and South communities came together in the time of war, contributing their men and boys (and a few documented women), then they came together again to memorialize these soldiers and their contributions to the cause as they saw it. Citizens paid subscriptions to memorials, for monument associations, taxes were issued, the GAR, Allied Orders, the United Daughters of the Confederacy, and the United Confederate Veterans all lead fundraisers.[34]

The monument to Confederate Colonel Francis S. Bartow was erected after First Manassas but was destroyed before or during Second Manassas. The other early monuments were Union monuments at Battle of Rowlett's Station in Munfordville, Kentucky in January 1862 for the men of the 32nd Indiana killed. It was removed for its own protection from the elements in 2008.[35] Other early Union monuments before the war ended were the Hazen Brigade Monument in Murfreesboro and the 1865 Ladd and Whitney Monument in Lowell, Massachusetts.[36][37][38]

The Northern memorials recorded in the survey work to date lists 11 monuments erected before 1866 including the previously mentioned monuments. Another ten monuments were documented in 1866, and 11 more in 1867 by the time the first post-war Confederate monuments were erected in Romney, Hampshire County, West Virginia and Chester, Chester County, South Carolina in 1867.[34]

Blevins' "Forever in Mourning" Chart of Union and Confederate Monuments, 1860–1920

In addition to monuments to the Union and Confederate honorees, the Monument Movement saw the placement of Revolutionary War Monuments for the 100th of the American Revolution from 1876 to 1883. In the W.H. Mullins Company catalog, The Blue and the Gray, it notes with Union and Confederate Monuments the company's recent installments of monuments for the Revolutionary War at Guilford Courthouse, North Carolina.[39]


As of June 19, over 12 Confederate monuments had been vandalized in 2019, usually with paint.[40][41][needs update]


The Confederate Monument to Robert E. Lee is removed from its pedestal in Lee Circle in New Orleans on May 17, 2017

As of April 2017, at least 60 symbols of the Confederacy had been removed or renamed since 2015, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC).[42] At the same time, laws in various Southern states place restrictions on, or prohibit altogether, the removal of statues and memorials and the renaming of parks, roads, and schools.[43][44][45][46][47]

A 2017 Reuters poll found that 54% of adults stated that the monuments should remain in all public spaces, and 27% said they should be removed, while 19% said they were unsure. The results were split along racial and political lines, with whites and Republicans preferring to keep the monuments in place, while blacks and Democrats were more likely to support their removal.[48][49] A similar 2017 poll by HuffPost/YouGov found that one-third of respondents favored removal, while 49% were opposed.[50][51]

Support for removal increased during the George Floyd protests, with 52% in favor of removal, and 44% opposed.[52][53]

Time period Number of removals[54]
1865–2009 2
2009–2014 3
2015 (after Charleston church shooting) 4
2016 4
2017 (year of the Charlottesville car attack) 36
2018 8
2019 4
2020 (after murder of George Floyd) 94[55]
2021 16[56]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Confederate monuments are widely distributed across the southern United States.[33] The distribution pattern follows the general political boundaries of the Confederacy.[33] Of the more than 1503 public monuments and memorials to the Confederacy, more than 718 are monuments and statues. Nearly 300 monuments and statues are in Georgia, Virginia, or North Carolina. The western states that were largely settled after the Civil War have few or no memorials to the Confederacy.


United States Capitol[edit]

There are seven Confederate figures in the National Statuary Hall Collection, in the United States Capitol.

In the National Statuary Hall Collection, housed inside the United States Capitol, each state has provided statues of two citizens that the state wants to honor. Seven Confederate figures are among them, with one pending removal and replacement. The dates listed below reflect when each statue was given to the collection:[57][58]

In addition to these pieces, three additional sculptures of Confederate figures have been removed since the turn of the 21st century.

Arlington National Cemetery[edit]

Confederate Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery
The NPS describes the property as "the nation's memorial to Robert E. Lee. It honors him for specific reasons, including his role in promoting peace and reunion after the Civil War. In a larger sense it exists as a place of study and contemplation of the meaning of some of the most difficult aspects of American History: military service; sacrifice; citizenship; duty; loyalty; slavery and freedom."[72]

Coins and stamps[edit]

  • Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson were portrayed by the US Mint on the 1925 Commemorative silver US half dollar, along with the words "Stone Mountain". The coin was a fundraiser for the Stone Mountain monument, which honors the Confederate Generals. The authorized issue was 5 million coins, to be sold at $1 each, but that proved overly optimistic and only 1.3 million coins were released, many of which ended up in circulation after being spent for face value.[75] The caption on the reverse reads "Memorial to the valor of the soldier of the South".
  • Robert E. Lee has been commemorated on at least five US postage stamps. One 1936–37 stamp featured Generals Lee and Stonewall Jackson with Lee's home Stratford Hall.[76]

US military[edit]


Prior to 2023, there were nine major U.S. military bases named in honor of Confederate military leaders, all in former Confederate states.[1] Following nationwide protests over the murder of George Floyd by a police officer, the United States Congress in 2021 created The Naming Commission in order to rename military assets with names associated with the Confederacy.[77] The United States Secretary of Defense was required to implement a plan developed by the commission and to "remove all names, symbols, displays, monuments, and paraphernalia that honor or commemorate the Confederate States of America or any person who served voluntarily with the Confederate States of America from all assets of the Department of Defense" within three years of the commission's creation.[78][79]

By October 2023, all nine bases had officially been redesignated under new names proposed by the commission.


  • Lee Barracks, named for CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee (1962), at U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York.[90]
  • U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland:
    • Buchanan House, the Naval Academy superintendent's home, named for CSA naval officer Franklin Buchanan.[91] A road near the house is also memorialized in Buchanan's name.
    • Maury Hall, home to the academy's division of Weapons and Systems Engineering, named for US naval officer in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments at Washington and later CSA naval officer Matthew Fontaine Maury.[91][92]

Current ships[edit]

Former ships[edit]

Several ships named for Confederate leaders fell into Union hands during the Civil War. The Union Navy retained the names of these ships while turning their guns against the Confederacy:

Multi-state highways[edit]

On October 16, 2018, the Board of Commissioners of Orange County, North Carolina (location of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, see Silent Sam), voted unanimously to repeal the county's 1959 resolution naming for Davis the portion of U.S. 15 running through the county.[95]


As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 122 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Alabama.[96]


  • Yukon–Koyukuk Census Area: "Confederate Gulch"[97] and "Union Gulch" both drain the side of a mineralized mountain mass northeast of Wiseman. Gold was discovered in both gulches in the early 20th century, though only Union Gulch was mined.[98]


As of 20 August 2020, only two Confederate related plaques on public property remain in Phoenix and Sierra Vista, Arizona.[96]

Type of monument Date Location Details Image
Public 2010 Sierra Vista Confederate Memorial, Historical Soldiers Memorial Cemetery area of the state-owned Southern Arizona Veterans' Memorial Cemetery. The monument was erected in to honor the 21 soldiers interred in that cemetery who served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War and later fought in Indian wars in Arizona as members of the U.S. Army.[99][100]
Private 1999 Phoenix Arizona Confederate Veterans Monument, at Greenwood Memory Lawn Cemetery; erected by SCV.[99]
Public 1961–2020 Phoenix Memorial to Arizona Confederate Troops, in Wesley Bolin Park, next to the Arizona State Capitol; UDC memorial.[99]
Road 1943–2020 Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway marker 50 mi (80 km) east of Phoenix; erected by UDC. Tarred and feathered in August 2017.[99][101]
Public 1984–2015 Picacho Peak State Park A commemorative sign and a plaque commemorated the Battle of Picacho Pass, the westernmost Confederate engagement of the war. The sign is "dedicated to Capt. Sherod Hunter's 'Arizona Rangers, Arizona Volunteers' C.S.A.", while the plaque states three Union soldiers buried on battlefield and includes both US Union and CSA flags. The sign was removed in 2015 due to deterioration of the wood and the plaque was moved onto the Union stone monument.[99][102][103]


As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 65 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Arkansas.[96]

State capitol[edit]


Van Buren Confederate Monument at Crawford County Courthouse in Van Buren, Arkansas

Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Bentonville Confederate Monument
Confederate Statue, Fayetteville Confederate Cemetery
Confederate Soldiers Monument, Little Rock National Cemetery
Little Rock Confederate Memorial, Little Rock National Cemetery
Robert E. Lee Monument in Marianna
Star City Confederate Memorial

Inhabited places[edit]




State symbols[edit]

Flag of Arkansas since 1913
  • Flag of Arkansas The blue star above "ARKANSAS" represents the Confederate States of America and is placed above the three other stars for the countries (Spain, France and the US) to which the State belonged before statehood. The diamond represents the nations only diamond mine with bordering 25 stars symbolizing 25th state to join.[128] The design of the border around the white diamond evokes the saltire found on the Confederate battle flag.[129]


As of 23 July 2020, there were at least four public spaces with Confederate monuments in California.[96]

Inhabited places[edit]



  • Anaheim: Savanna High School (1961) mascot has always been Johnny Rebel and a fiberglass statue of a Confederate soldier stood in the courtyard from 1964 until 2009[132] when it was removed due to deterioration. The school colors are red and grey and the school fields the Savanna Mighty Marching Rebel Band and Color Guard.

Mountains and recreation[edit]


Stonewall Jackson Mine, San Diego County, circa 1872
  • San Diego County: Stonewall Jackson Mine (1870–1893), the richest gold mine in southern California history[138]


Robert E. Lee Mine in Leadville. Photo by William Henry Jackson.

Inhabited Places[edit]


  • Keenesburg: Weld Central Senior High School and Weld Central Middle School share the Weld Central Rebel, a Civil-war-era-soldier which used to appear with depictions of Confederate flags. School teams are named Rebels.[139]




As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Delaware.[96]

District of Columbia[edit]

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least nine public Confederate monuments in Washington, D.C., mostly in the National Statuary Hall Collection. (See above)[96]

  • Albert Pike Memorial (1901):[145] An outdoor statue that is owned by the National Park Service at 3rd and D Streets NW in the Judiciary Square neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Pike was a Confederate General and leading Freemason and is dressed as a Mason in the sculpture.[96][58] The statue is a "portrait of Albert Pike as a Masonic leader and not as a general in the military."[146][147][148] "Eight D.C. elected officials have asked the National Park Service to remove" the statue.[149] On June 19, 2020, protesters tore down the statue and set it on fire as part of the George Floyd protests because of Pike's association with the Confederacy.


As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 63 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Florida.[96]

An August 2017 meeting of the Florida League of Mayors was devoted to the topic of what to do with Civil War monuments.[150]

State capitol[edit]

State symbol[edit]

Flag of Florida since 1900
  • The current flag of Florida, adopted by popular referendum in 1900, with minor changes in 1985, contains the St. Andrew's Cross. It is believed that the Cross was added in memory of, and showing support for, the Confederacy.[153][154][155] Others instead say there is no link with the Confederacy, but that the saltire recalls the Cross of Burgundy, the emblem of New Spain.[156][157][158] However, the addition of the Cross was proposed by Governor Francis P. Fleming, a former Confederate soldier, who was strongly committed to racial segregation.

State holiday[edit]

  • In Florida, Robert E. Lee's birthday (January 19), Confederate Memorial Day (April 26), and Jefferson Davis's birthday (June 3) are legal holidays.[159]


Courthouse monuments[edit]

Unveiling of Confederate Monument, Ocala, 1908

Other public monuments[edit]

  • Crawfordville, Florida, Wakulla County:
    • Confederate Monument (1987): This white obelisk is located in Hudson Park. It is inscribed on one side with an image of a Confederate flag and the words: "1861–1865. In loving memory of those from Wakulla County who served the Confederacy during the war between the states. Erected by the R. Don McLeod Chapter 2469 United Daughters of the Confederacy May 17, 1987."
  • Daytona Beach:
    • Confederate Sun Dial Monument (1961)[32] Originally a marble base and column topped with a sundial (by the early 1980s all that remained was its base and its bronze plaque). Dedicated to the Confederate dead. Erected by United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1961. Plaque was removed by the City of Daytona Beach in 2017 after violent clashes in Charlottesville, Virginia over their Robert E. Lee monument. Was to be given to Halifax Historical Museum.[166]
    • Two other bronze plaques were erected in Riverfront Park by the Sons of Confederate Veterans in 1979 and 1985, which listed the names of Confederate veterans buried in East Volusia County. They were mounted on a long granite wall with other plaques commemorating various US wars. They were also removed by the city in 2017 to also be given to the Halifax Historical Museum.[166]
    • Confederate Boulder Monument (1979)[32]: 33 
  • Dixie County: American Veteran Monument, Highway 98 west of Old Town, dedicated to Confederate veterans (c. 2005)[167]
  • Jefferson County, Florida: Monument to Stonewall Jackson
  • Ellenton:
  • Fernandina Beach: Statue of David Levy Yulee.[171]
Yellow Bluff Fort Monument
United Daughters of the Confederacy members seated around a Confederate monument in Lakeland, 1915
  • Madison: Confederate monument, Four Freedoms Park (1909). Lists names of men who died from county. Nearby sits a monument to former slaves in the county.[162][32]: 35 
  • Miami: Confederate monument, Confederate Circle in City Cemetery (1914 at the Dade County Courthouse, was moved to cemetery in 1927)[180][32]: 36 
Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park
  • Olustee:
    • Battlefield monument, Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park (1912). Inscription: Here was fought on February 20, 1864, the Battle of Ocean Pond under the immediate command of General Alfred Holt Colquitt, "Hero of Olustee." This decisive engagement prevented a Sherman-like invasion of Georgia from the south. Erected April 20, 1936, by the Alfred Holt Colquitt Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy Ga. Div.
    • CSA Brigadier General Joseph Finnegan Monument, Olustee Battlefield Historic State Park (1912). "Placed by The United Daughters of the Confederacy Florida Division In Memory of Brig. Gen. Joseph Finegan Commander of the District of Middle and East Florida So well did he perform his part that a signal victory over the Federals was won in the Battle of Olustee Feb. 20, 1864"
  • Pensacola:
    • Florida Square was renamed Lee Square in 1889.[181]
    • A 50-foot monument to Our Confederate Dead, erected in 1891, is in Lee Square.[182] It commemorates Jefferson Davis, Pensacolian Confederate veterans Stephen R. Mallory (Secretary of the Confederate Navy) and Edward Aylesworth Perry (Confederate General and Governor of Florida 1885–1889), and "the Uncrowned Heroes of the Southern Confederacy." The mayor of Pensacola has called for its removal.[181]
  • Perry: Confederate monument, Taylor County Sports Complex (2007)[183][184]
  • Quincy: Confederate memorial, Soldiers Cemetery within Eastern Cemetery, part of the town's National Register Historic District (2010). The memorial also notes the restoration of the historic fence.[185][186]
  • St. Augustine:
    • Confederate monument, on the Plaza de la Constitución (1879).[187] "The Confederate Memorial Contextualization Advisory Committee, a seven-member task force comprised mostly of historians", in 2018 recommended to the City Commission that the monument be kept, with the addition of "some necessary context".[188]
  • St. Cloud: Confederate monument, Veterans Park (2006)[189]
  • St. Petersburg: Confederate monument, Greenwood Cemetery (1900)[190]
  • Tampa: There is a stained-glass window donated by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1906 in honor of Father Abram Ryan, called "Poet of the Confederacy", in the Sacred Heart Catholic Church.
  • Trenton: Confederate monument, across from Gilchrist County Courthouse in Veterans' Park (2010)[191]
  • Woodville: In Loving Memory Monument, Natural Bridge Battlefield Historic State Park (1922)[32]: 37  A plaque placed at the base of the monument in 2000 lists the names of those who died as a result of the battle.[192]

Private monuments[edit]

  • Alachua: Confederate monument, Newnansville Cemetery (2002) by the Alachua Lions Club[193]
  • Bradfordville, unincorporated community in Leon County: Robert E. Lee Monument, dedicated along Highway 319 in 1927 by UDC. Moved in the 1960s and 1990s, it is now located about a mile south of the Georgia border.[194][195]
  • Dade City: Confederate memorial, Townsend House Cemetery (2010)[196]
  • Deland: Confederate Veteran Memorial, Oakdale Cemetery (1958)[197]
  • Kissimmee: Granite obelisk in Rose Hill Cemetery, dedicated to Confederate veterans buried in Osceola County with their names listed on the monument. Erected 2002 by Sons of Confederate Veterans.[166]
  • Lake City:
    • Last Confederate War Widow, Oaklawn Cemetery, erected after her death in 1985. The memorial and the cemetery are along the Florida Civil War Heritage Trail.[198][199]: 28 
    • Our Confederate Dead, Oaklawn Cemetery (1901, rededicated 1996). A tall obelisk in memory of the unnamed soldiers who died at the nearby Battle of Olustee or in the town's Confederate hospital. The cemetery is the focal point of the opening of Lake City's annual Olustee Battle Festival.[200][201]
  • Leesburg: Memorial fountain made of rustic limestone, in Lone Oak Cemetery. Erected 1935 by United Daughters of the Confederacy but dedicated to soldiers of all wars. An adjacent 20-foot flagpole and inscribed granite block dedicated to Civil War veterans buried there was erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 2005.[166]
  • Ormond Beach: 2011; Pilgrim's Rest Cemetery. Monument consists of a flagpole and a concrete base with an attached bronze Southern Cross of Honor and a granite slab listing the names of Confederate veterans buried there. Erected by Confederate Sons Association of Florida.[166]
  • Oxford: Upright granite slab monument in Pine Level Cemetery, listing the names of Confederate veterans buried in the cemetery. Erected 2007 by Sons of Confederate Veterans.[166]
  • White Springs: Confederate monument and large flag, along Interstate 75 (2002)[202]

Inhabited places[edit]




  • Ellenton: Judah P. Benjamin Confederate Memorial at Gamble Plantation Historic State Park (1925)[208]
  • Fort Walton Beach: Heritage Park preserves the Confederate Camp Walton named for the county it was located in.[209]
  • Jacksonville:
    • Confederate Park, opened in 1907. Originally named Dignan Park, the park was renamed when UCV chose the locale as the site for their annual reunions in 1914.[210] -now Springfield Park.
    • Hemming Park/Hemming Plaza (1899) renamed in honor of Civil War veteran Charles C. Hemming, after he installed a 62-foot (19 m)-tall Confederate monument in the park in 1898.[211][212] -now James Weldon Johnson Park.
    • Hemming Park station an elevated rail station taking its name from the park. Now James Weldon Johnson Park Station.
  • Miami: Robert E. Lee Park, the athletic field of Jose de Diego Middle School which replaced Robert E. Lee Middle School (1924–1989) in the Wynwood neighborhood in 1999.[213] A school district spokesman has said the name is not official and requested agencies with incorrect listings update them.[214]
  • Pensacola: Lee Square (1889)[96] -now Florida Square.
  • Tampa: Confederate Memorial Park, opened 2008 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans.


Schools and libraries[edit]

  • Gainesville:
    • J.J. Finley Elementary School (1939), named for CSA Brig. Gen. Jesse J. Finley.[218] -now Carolyn Beatrice Parker Elementary School.
    • Kirby-Smith Center (1939), Alachua County Public Schools administrative offices. Constructed in 1900, the building was initially the all white Gainesville Graded & High School.[219] In August 2017, the school board announced plans to rename the center.[220]
    • Sidney Lanier School. Lanier was a Confederate soldier and poet.
  • Hillsborough County: Robert E. Lee Elementary School aka Lee Elementary Magnet School of World Studies and Technology was built 1906 and named for Lee in 1943. A school board member pushing for a rename in 2017 noted that had Lee's army won the war "a majority of our students would be slaves."[221] -now Tampa Heights Elementary Magnet School.
  • Jacksonville[222]
    • J.E.B. Stuart Middle School (1966), named for CSA Gen. J. E. B. Stuart. -now Westside Middle School.
    • Jefferson Davis Middle School (1961) -now Charger Academy.
    • Kirby-Smith Middle School (1924), named for CSA Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith. -now Springfield Middle School.
    • Robert E. Lee High School (1928) -now Riverside High School.
    • Stonewall Jackson Elementary School -now Hidden Oaks Elementary School.
  • Orlando:
    • Robert E. Lee Middle School, renamed College Park Middle School in 2017.[223]
    • Stonewall Jackson Middle School was renamed Roberto Clemente Middle School in 2020, as was the road in front of the school.
  • Pensacola: Escambia High School's Rebel mascot riots, 1972–1977. Before a noncontroversial name was chosen, protests and violence occurred at the school and in the community, crosses were burned on school district members' lawns, lawsuits were filed, and the Ku Klux Klan held a rally and petitioned the school board.
  • Tampa: Lee Elementary School of Technology / World Studies (1906). The school's mascot is Robert E. Lee's horse Traveller. In July 2015, students asked the school board to change the school's name.[224] In June 2017, a board member asked the board to consider the name change.[225] -now Tampa Heights Elementary School

City symbols[edit]

  • Hillsborough County: until 1997, the Hillsborough County seal included the Confederate Battle Flag.[226]
  • Panama City: city flag is quite similar to the Florida state flag with a white background and the St Andrews cross echoing the Confederate Battle Flag, but with the city seal replacing the state seal.

City holiday[edit]

  • On April 2, 2019, Ocala mayor Kent Guinn signed a declaration declaring that April 26, 2019, would be Confederate Memorial Day. He said he has done so in previous years.[227]

County holiday[edit]

  • In 2016, the Commission of Marion County (county seat Ocala) declared April as Confederate History Month.[165]


As of June 24, 2020, there are at least 201 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Georgia.[96]

Confederate monument in Macon, Ga on Mulberry street circa 1877



The settlement of Idaho coincided with the Civil War and settlers from Southern states memorialized the Confederacy with the names of several towns and natural features.[228][229][230]

As of June 24, 2020, there are at least three public spaces with Confederate monuments in Idaho.[96]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Atlanta: unincorporated, and its Atlanta Airport. The area was named by Southerners after reports of a Confederate victory over Gen. Sherman in the Battle of Atlanta, which turned to be wholly false, but the name stuck.
  • Confederate Gulch: unincorporated former mining community.[231][230]
  • Grayback Gulch: unincorporated former mining community, settled by Confederate soldiers and named for the color of their uniforms. Now a U.S. Forest Service campground.[232]
  • Leesburg: an unincorporated former goldmining town settled by southerners and named for Robert E. Lee.[233]

Natural features and recreation[edit]


Confederate Monument at Oak Woods Cemetery in Chicago

The four memorials in Illinois are in Federal cemeteries and connected with prisoners of war.

Federal cemeteries[edit]

Federal plot within private cemetery[edit]


As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Indiana.[96]

Confederate monument, Crown Hill National Cemetery, Indianapolis


As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Iowa.[96]


Veterans Memorial Park in Wichita, Kansas holds one Confederate and Union monument, a Reconciliation Memorial. "The intent of this memorial is to bring folks together and reconcile their differences," As Confederate Monuments Come Down Across U.S., Wichita Memorial Comes Into Question. The Memorial is a small obelisk with text honoring North and South combatants on both sides. See Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials#Kansas for monuments which have been removed.


As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 37 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Kentucky.[96]


Confederate Monument, Georgetown
Confederate Monument, Spring Hill Cemetery, Harrodsburg
John B. Castleman Monument, Louisville
Lloyd Tilghman Statue, Paducah


Inhabited places[edit]






As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 83 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Louisiana.[96]

State capitol[edit]

  • Gov. Francis T. Nicholls Statue (1934). Nicholls was a brigadier general in the Confederate Army.
  • Gov. Henry Watkins Allen Statue (1934). Allen was a brigadier general in the Confederate Army. He is buried on the Old Louisiana State Capitol grounds.
  • "Silent Sentinel" Monument, officially the Confederate Soldiers of East and West Baton Rouge Parishes Memorial. Plinth erected 1886 and statue in 1890. Dedicated by Gov. John McEnery. Original granite and marble plinth cracked; replaced in the 1960s with a small brick plinth that was aesthetically unappealing. Formerly at North Boulevard and 3rd Street, near City Hall. In 2012, to make room for Town Square construction, it was moved to the nearby Old Louisiana State Capitol, now a museum.[282] Plaque reads: "Erected by the men and women of East and West Baton Rouge to perpetuate the heroism and patriotic devotion of the noble soldiers from the two parishes who wore the gray and crossed the river with their immortal leaders to rest under the shade of the trees. Original monument erected 1886 A.D."


Confederate Memorial Hall in New Orleans


Courthouse monuments[edit]

Other public monuments[edit]

Greenwood Cemetery, New Orleans
Army of Tennessee Tomb, Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans
Monument at Camp Moore, Tangipahoa Parish
Charles Didier Dreux statue in New Orleans

Inhabited places[edit]



  • Baton Rouge:
    • Confederate Avenue
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Lee Drive[96]
  • Bell City: Jeff Davis Road
  • Bogalusa: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Bossier City:
    • General Bragg Drive
    • General Ewell Drive
    • General Polk Drive
    • General Sterling Price Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Kirby Smith Drive
    • Longstreet Place
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Robert E. Lee Street
  • Chalmette: Beauregard Street
  • Gretna: Beauregard Drive
  • Houma: Jefferson Davis Street
  • Lafayette: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Lake Charles:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Beauregard Avenue
    • Beauregard Street
  • Merryville: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Monroe: Jefferson Davis Drive
  • New Orleans:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Dreux Avenue, named for Confederate General Charles Didier Dreux
    • Gayarre Place, named for Charles Gayarré, a financial supporter of the Confederacy. Clio, muse or goddess of history, is on a monument. (Gayarré was a historian.) The monument was paid for by George Hacker Dunbar, an artilleryman during the Civil War, married to a niece of General Beauregard. The original statue was replaced in 1938, after vandals damaged it.[298]
    • Governor Nicholls Street
    • Jefferson Davis Parkway. Originally named Hagan Avenue; name changed in 1911 to coincide with the unveiling of the Jefferson Davis Monument.[296] -now Norman C. Francis Parkway.
    • Lee Circle[96]
    • Polk Street
    • Robert E. Lee Boulevard
    • Slidell Street
  • Pineville:
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Longstreet Drive
  • Rayne: Jeff Davis Avenue


Confederate flag display[edit]


The Confederate Soldier, Loudon Park National Cemetery, Baltimore

There are at least 7 confederate monuments on public land. They are generally in or near cemeteries.

As of December 27, 2022 there is one statue on a large stone of general Lee at the Antietam battlefield, visible from the road.

It was on private land adjacent to the park, and was donated with the land.

The "Talbot Boys" statue in Easton, Maryland was the last Confederate monument removed from public property on March 14, 2022.

State symbols[edit]

Flag of Maryland since 1904
  • Flag of Maryland (1904). The state flag of Maryland features the red-and-white Crossland Banner, the unofficial state flag of Maryland used by secessionists and Confederates during the American Civil War.[303][304][305][306] The current state flag started appearing after the Civil War as a form of reconciliation. The flag became official in 1904.
  • The former state song "Maryland, My Maryland" calls on the state to join the Confederacy.[307] Prior to 2021, the Maryland General Assembly voted nine times to repeal, replace, or alter the state song, all without any success. In 2017, the Mighty Sound of Maryland, the marching band of the University of Maryland at College Park, stopped playing the song.[308] In March 2021, both houses of the Maryland General Assembly voted by substantial margins to abandon "Maryland, My Maryland" as the state song. On May 18, 2021, governor Larry Hogan signed the bill officially repealing the state song.[309] Since then, Maryland has had no official state song.


Public monuments[edit]

Private monuments[edit]

Monument to the Unknown Confederate Soldiers, Frederick, Maryland
  • Beallsville: Memorial to Confederate soldiers at Monocacy Cemetery (1911; replaced 1975).[316]
  • Frederick: Monument to the Unknown Confederate Soldiers (1881), Mount Olivet Cemetery[317]
  • Silver Spring: Confederate Monument, Grace Episcopal Church Cemetery, 1896. Commemorated the death and burial of 17 unknown Confederate Soldiers who died at the Battle of Fort Stevens. The monument, a stone obelisk, could be seen from Georgia Ave.[318][319]
  • Fox's Gap, Frederick County, Maryland: North Carolina Monument (2003): The monument is a life sized bronze figure of a wounded Confederate color bearer on a base of black granite. It was created by sculptor Gary Casteel for the Living History association of Mecklinburg, North Carolina, and unveiled on October 18, 2003. It is dedicated to all the North Carolina troops who fought in the Battle of South Mountain. Fox's Gap is the southernmost battlefield of the Battle of South Mountain. The property is owned by the Central Maryland Heritage League, a battlefield protection group.[320]
North Carolina Memorial at Fox's Gap
North Carolina Memorial at Fox's Gap (2003)
  • White's Ferry, Montgomery County: Confederate Monument, a granite pedestal.
    The base of the CSA monument moved from Rockville, MD, to White's Ferry, MD.
The original monument, a bronze life-sized Confederate soldier on this pedestal, was originally donated by the UDC and the United Confederate Veterans, and built by the Washington firm of Falvey Granite Company at a cost of US$3,600 (equivalent to $110,982 in 2023). The artist is unknown.[321] The inscription says "To Our Heroes of Montgomery Co. Maryland That We Through Life May Not Forget to Love The Thin Gray Line / Erected A.D. 1913 / 1861 CSA 1865."[322] because Confederate uniforms are gray. The Rockville dedication was on June 3, 1913, Jefferson Davis's birthday,[322] and was attended by 3,000 out of a county population of 30,000.[323] It was originally located in a small triangular park[324] called Courthouse Square. In 1971, urban renewal led to the elimination of the Square, and the monument was moved to the east lawn of the Red Brick Courthouse (no longer in use as such), facing south.[325] In 1994 it was cleaned and waxed by the Maryland Military Monuments Commission.[321] The monument was defaced with "Black Lives Matter" in 2015; a wooden box was built over it to protect it.[326] The monument was removed in July 2017 from its original location outside the Old Rockville Court House to private land[324] at White's Ferry in Dickerson, Maryland.[327][328] The statue was removed from the pedestal in June 2020, but the pedestal urging people to "Love The Thin Gray Line" remains.

Inhabited places[edit]



Gen. Jubal A. Early
The renamed White's Ferry ferryboat



As of May 2019, all public memorials listed by the Southern Poverty Law Center[96] had been removed.[334]

Private memorials[edit]

  • Cambridge
    • Memorial Hall, Harvard University. Stained-glass windows to commemorate various figures, among them:
      • Honor and Peace Window (1900). There is no inscription, but a Harvard University page (Memorial Hall) explaining the windows says: "This window commemorates those who surrendered their lives in the War of the Rebellion." Portrays two warriors, one with sword high in triumph, one kneeling in defeat, who from the ribbons can be seen to be from different but related countries.
      • Student and Soldier Window (1889). Soldier wears gray uniform.


As of June 29, 2020, there is at least one known public monument of a confederate soldier in Michigan. It is located in Allendale, Michigan, a town in Ottawa County. A part of the Veterans Garden of Honor (1998) which features nine life sized statues of soldiers from various wars, the statue in question depicts a union soldier and a confederate soldier back to back with a young slave at their feet holding a plaque reading "Freedom to Slaves," and the date January 5, 1863.[335]


Murray County Central High School uses a Rebel mascot and the nickname Rebels.[336]


As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 147 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Mississippi.[96]


As of 24 June 2020, there were at least 19 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Missouri.[96]


Courthouse monuments[edit]

Statue of David Rice Atchison in front of the Clinton County Courthouse, Plattsburg, Missouri

Other public monuments[edit]

UDC monument at Forest Hill and Calvary Cemetery, Kansas City, Missouri
Union Confederate Monument, Union Cemetery, Kansas City, Missouri

Inhabited places[edit]





As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 2 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Montana.[96]


As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in Nevada.[96]

New Jersey[edit]

Confederate Monument (1910), Finn's Point National Cemetery.

There are at least two public spaces dedicated to the Confederacy in New Jersey.[96]

New Mexico[edit]

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in New Mexico.[96]

New York[edit]

Confederate Monument, Woodlawn National Cemetery, Elmira, New York

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 3 public spaces with Confederate monuments in New York.[96][358]


Public monuments[edit]

  • The Bronx: Busts of Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee were in the Hall of Fame for Great Americans at Bronx Community College. The college removed the busts in 2020.[359][360]
  • Central Park: J. Marion Sims. In November 2017, the cover of Harper's Magazine featured J. C. Hallman's article "Monumental Error," about the Central Park monument of controversial surgeon – and Confederate spy – J. Marion Sims.[361] The timing coincided with the work New York City Mayor Bill De Blasio's committee on monuments, and Hallman's article was distributed to members of New York's Public Design Commission. The commission voted unanimously to remove Sims's statue, and it was removed in April 2018.[362] Hallman has since written articles about Sims's statue in Montgomery, Alabama, and is working on a book, The Anarcha Quest, about Sims and his so-called "first cure," Anarcha Westcott.[363]

Private monuments[edit]


  • Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn:
    • General Lee Avenue. The avenue was renamed to John Warren Avenue in 2022, to honor a 22-year-old lieutenant in the Army who was killed in the Vietnam War in January 1969.[367]
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive. The road was later renamed to Washington Road in 2022, shortly after the renaming of General Lee Avenue.
Governor Andrew Cuomo had twice requested the Army, unsuccessfully, to have these streets renamed.[360]

North Carolina[edit]

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 164 public spaces with Confederate monuments in North Carolina.[96]


As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 5 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Ohio.[96]

Historical marker[edit]


Confederate Soldier Memorial, Camp Chase, Columbus
The Lookout (1910), Johnson's Island, Ottawa County[371]

Inhabited places[edit]

  • Confederate Hills, a neighborhood in Batavia Township named for the Confederate cause that is home to roads named for a CSA leader and various southern locations, notably Stanton Hall and the Natchez Trace.


  • Batavia Township:
  • Day Heights:
  • Fairfield:
    • Robert E Lee Drive, memorializing CSA Gen. Robert E. Lee.
    • Stonewall Lane, memorializing CSA Gen. Stonewall Jackson.
  • Mt. Repose:
    • Beauregard Court, memorializing CSA Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard.
    • Jeb Stuart Drive, memorializing CSA Gen. J. E. B. Stuart.
    • Monassas Run Road, memorializing the CSA victory at the battle at Manassas, known to the North as Bull Run.
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive, memorializing CSA Gen. Stonewall Jackson.


  • Cleveland: John Adams High School uses the Rebels team name, but the mascot more closely resembles a cavalier than a Confederate soldier.[376]
  • Mcconnelsville: Morgan High School is named for Confederate General John Hunt Morgan. Their nickname is the "Raiders".
  • Willoughby: Willoughby South High School dropped its Confederate uniformed mascot and removed all remaining Confederate imagery from the school while retaining the Rebels team name and school colors grey and blue. In 1993 the school dropped Stars and Bars as the school song and removed Confederate imagery from school uniforms.[376]


As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 13 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oklahoma.[96]


  • Ardmore: Oklahoma Confederate Home, operated as OK Confederate Home from 1911 to 1942. Renamed Oklahoma Veterans Center after last residing confederate veteran passed.[377][378]


Stand Watie Monument, Polson Cemetery, Delaware County
Confederate Monument at Cherokee National Capitol


Robert E. Lee School in Durant, Oklahoma
  • Durant: Robert E. Lee Elementary School[385]
  • Oklahoma City: school board studying renaming in 2017
    • Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1910)[386] -now Adelaide Lee Elementary School.
    • Jackson Elementary School (1910)[386] -now Mary Golda Ross Enterprise Elementary School.
    • Wheeler Elementary School (1910)[386]
    • Stand Watie Elementary School (1930)[386] -now Esperanza Elementary School.
  • Pauls Valley: Lee Elementary School[96]

Inhabited places[edit]


  • Jay: Stand Watie Road


As of 24 June 2020, there are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Oregon.[96]


As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 3 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Pennsylvania.[96]


Virginia State Monument (1917), Gettysburg Battlefield.
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument (1911), Philadelphia National Cemetery.


  • Gettysburg: Confederate Avenue
  • McConnellsburg: Confederate Lane

Rhode Island[edit]

As of 24 June 2020, there are no public spaces with Confederate monuments in Rhode Island.[96]

South Carolina[edit]

As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 194 public spaces with Confederate monuments in South Carolina.[96][390]

South Dakota[edit]

In July 2020 the Confederate flag was removed from the patch of Gettysburg South Dakota police officers.

As of June 24, 2020, there is at least one public space with Confederate monuments in South Dakota.[96]

  • Gettysburg: The Gettysburg police uniforms feature a patch with overlapping U.S. and Confederate flags and a civil-war era cannon along with the city's name, in a nod to the city's namesake, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, site of the famous Battle of Gettysburg.[391] The historical reference logo for the police emblem and uniform patch was designed in 2009.[392][96]


As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 105 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Tennessee.[96] The Tennessee Heritage Protection Act (2016) and a 2013 law restrict the removal of statues and memorials.[43]

The Tennessee legislature designated Confederate Decoration Day, the origin of Memorial Day, as June 3, and in 1969[393] designated January 19 and July 13, their birthdays, as Robert E. Lee Day and Nathan Bedford Forrest day respectively.

State capitol[edit]

  • Nathan Bedford Forrest Bust. On display in the Capital rotunda since 1978. Former governor Bill Haslam wished to remove it, but he was not supported by the Legislature or the Capitol Commission. "In 2010, the state moved the Forrest bust from outside the doors of the House of Representatives' chamber to its current location between the legislature's two chambers. It was relocated in order to make room for a bust of Sampson Keeble, Tennessee's first black legislator."[394] In January 2019 a group of students demonstrated at the capital, calling for its removal.[395]


  • Greeneville: General Morgan Inn, located at the spot where Confederate general John Hunt Morgan was killed.
  • Harrogate: [1] Grant Lee Building at Lincoln Memorial University was named in honor of the two famous civil war generals. Lincoln Memorial University was named in honor of Abraham Lincoln.
  • Murfreesboro: Forrest Hall at Middle Tennessee State University. The Tennessee Board of Regents has unanimously recommended the name change, on the recommendation of a campus task force, and the university president, but it has yet to pass the Tennessee Historical Commission, which plans "public hearings."[396][397]


Courthouse monuments[edit]

Tipton County Courthouse, Covington
Confederate Monument "Chip", Franklin
Confederate Women monument, Nashville

Other public monuments[edit]

Pyramid of cannonballs commemorate Patrick Cleburne in Franklin, Tennessee
  • Franklin: Confederal "Funeral Rest" Memorial, Rose Hill Cemetery[398]
  • Gallatin: Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903)
  • Hamilton County: Chickamauga & Chattanooga National Military Park. Numerous monuments and memorials to Confederate soldiers and units, as well as Union monuments.
  • Humboldt: Confederate Monument (1900), Bailey Park
  • Knoxville:
    • A stone monument was erected in 1914 by the United Daughters of the Confederacy at the corner of 17th Street and Laurel Avenue, in the Fort Sanders neighborhood, defaced in August 2017.[408]
    • Civil War Memorial (1901), Knoxville National Cemetery
    • Monument to the Confederate dead (1892), Bethel Avenue[398]
    • Historical marker, with Confederate flag, in front of Immaculate Conception Church, for Father Abram Ryan, called "Poet of the Confederacy".
  • Lebanon:
    • Confederate Memorial Gen. Hatton Statue (1912)
    • Rutherford County: grounds around the County Courthouse contain a 1901 monument to the Confederacy and a 2011 memorial to those from the County who served in the Army of Tennessee.
  • Lynchburg: Confederate Veterans Memorial, Moore County Public Square[398]
  • Memphis:
    • Monument to Captain J. Harvey Mathes, 37th Tennessee CSA[409]
    • Confederate Memorial (1878), Elmwood Cemetery, 824 Dudley Street[398]
  • Mount Pleasant: Confederate Monument (1907)
  • Mulberry: Confederate Memorial (1909)
  • Murfreesboro: Confederate Circle in Evergreen Cemetery was established in 1891 as a memorial to approximately 2,000 Confederate soldiers whose remains were reinterred there.
  • Nashville:
  • Obion: Obion Veterans Memorial, honoring those who were killed in service and were MIA-POW in Civil War, World Wars I & II, Korea, Vietnam, Desert Storm, Afghanistan and Iraq (2006)[398]
  • Parkers Crossroads:
    • Freeman's Battery (2002)
    • Morton's Battery (2007)
  • Pulaski:
  • Santa Fe: Memorial plaque to Maury [County] Light Artillery (Confederate), public square.[398]
  • Tazewell: Confederate memorial (2000) honoring unknown Confederate dead; located in Irish Memorial Cemetery.[398]
  • Trimble: Cemetery Ridge Memorial Plaza, honoring Merion Spence Parks and Williams Hamilton Parks II, members of UDC and SCV respectively (2012)[398]
  • Union City
    • Confederate Monument, Kiwanis Park (1909)
    • Confederate Monument to Unknown Soldiers, Old Soldiers' Cemetery, Summer Street at Edwards Street (1869)[398]
  • Winchester
    • UDC Memorial to Confederate soldiers (1950), City Cemetery
    • SCV Memorial to Confederate soldiers (2003), Confederate Cemetery, adjoining the City Cemetery"[398]
  • Woodbury: 1926 monument "honors all confederate soldiers and marks the spot where CSA Lt. Col. John B. Hutchenson was killed."[398]

Private monuments[edit]

  • Nashville
    • Nathan Bedford Forrest Statue, made of fiberglass over foam, 25 feet high, on private land[413] near Interstate 65, installed in 1998, built with private money. It is surrounded by Confederate battle flags, constituting what the owner calls "Confederate Flag Park." (No government recognizes it as a park, and the entrance is chained shut with a "No Trespassing" sign.) The giant statue is visible from the highway to anyone entering the city from the south.[414] It has been called "hideous"[414] and "ridiculous."[415] There have been numerous calls for its removal. Tennessee Governor Bill Haslam said: "It's not a statue that I like and [ sic ] that most Tennesseans are proud of in any way."[416] Former Nashville Mayor Megan Barry called the statue "an offensive display of hatred."[416] In 2015, Nashville's Metro Council voted to petition the Tennessee Department of Transportation to plant obscuring vegetation;[417] the Department declined, because it is private land.[414] ("Never mind that the T.D.O.T. itself removed the obscuring vegetation back in 1998, when the statue was first erected."[414][416]) There has been occasional vandalism; in December 2017 it was covered in "pussy-hat pink" paint,[414] which Bill Dorris, current owner of the land, says he intends to leave.[418] He also said that if trees are planted to block the view from I-65, he "would make the statue taller."[413] It was sculpted, at no charge, by notorious racist Jack Kershaw, an attorney for Martin Luther King's murderer, famous for having said "Somebody needs to say a good word for slavery."[419][420]

Inhabited place[edit]



  • Brentwood
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
  • Culleoka: General Lee Road
  • Dandridge
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Elizabethton: Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • Eva: Jeff Davis Drive
  • Forest Hills: Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Franklin:
    • General J.B. Hood Drive
    • General Nathan Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
  • Gallatin: Robert Lee Drive
  • Nashville:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jefferson Davis Drive
    • Confederate Drive
    • General Forrest Court
    • Robert E. Lee Court
    • Robert E. Lee Drives (two different streets with the same name)
  • Newport
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
    • Stonewall Jackson Driv
  • Oak Hill: Stonewall Jackson Court
  • Pulaski
    • Sam Davis Avenue
    • Sam Davis Trail
  • Sardis: Jeff Davis Lane
  • Smyrna
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Lee Lane[96]
    • Longstreet Drive
    • Robert E. Lee Lane
    • Sam Davis Road
    • Stonewall Drive


  • Chapel Hill: Forrest High School
  • Nashville: Father Ryan High School, named for Abram Ryan, called "Poet of the Confederacy".
  • Paris: Robert E. Lee School – now called Paris Academy for the Arts.
  • Sewanee: The University of the South: "Nowhere is the issue of Confederate remembrance more nettlesome than at Sewanee, whose origin[s] are entwined with the antebellum South and the Confederacy."[421] Confederate flags are in stained glass windows of the chapel, as is the Seal of the Confederacy.[421] It benefited greatly at its founding by a large gift from John Armfield, at one time co-owner of Franklin and Armfield, the largest and most prosperous slave trading enterprise in the country. Students as late as 1871 were required to wear uniforms of "cadet gray cloth".[422] Confederate flags hung in the chapel from its dedication in 1909 until the mid-1990s when they were removed "reportedly to improve acoustics".[423] There is an official portrait hanging at the University of Bishop Leonidas Polk, "an ardent defender of slavery,"[421] who was in charge of the celebration of the cornerstone laying in 1857, and said the new university will "materially aid the South to resist and repel a fanatical domination which seeks to rule over us."[424] He resigned his ecclesiastical position to become a major general in the Confederate army (called "Sewanee's Fighting Bishop"), and died in battle in 1864. His official portrait at the University depicts him dressed as a bishop with his army uniform hanging nearby. However, his portrait was moved from Convocation Hall to Archives and Special Collections in 2015.[425] The Confederate flag was also emblazoned on the university mace that led processions marking the beginning and ending of the term from 1965 until 1997. At a special chapel service to celebrate Jefferson Davis' birthday, the Ceremonial Mace was consecrated to the memory of Nathan Bedford Forrest, the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, by Bishop Charles C. J. Carpenter of Alabama – one of the clergy who opposed Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s activities in Birmingham in 1963 (see A Call for Unity), prompting King to write his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" in response.[423]
Calhoun Hall, named for slave owner and Confederate supporter W. H. Calhoun.

Tourist sites[edit]

  • Pigeon Forge: "Rebel Railroad" was a small theme park built in 1961, its main attraction being a simulated Confederate steam train which afforded "'good Confederate citizens' the opportunity to ride a five mile train route through 'hostile' territory and to help repel a Yankee assault on the train". Rebel Railroad was purchased in 1970 by Art Modell, owner of the Cleveland Browns.[437][438][439] In 2018 it is operating under the name Dollywood.
  • Morristown, General Longstreet Headquarters Museum[440]


As of 24 June 2020, there are at least 205 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Texas.[96][441] "Nowhere has the national re-examination of Confederate emblems been more riven with controversy than the Lone Star State."[442]

State capitol[edit]

  • "The Texas Capitol itself is a Confederate monument," according to then-Land Commissioner Jerry E. Patterson.[443] The Texas Confederate Museum was once housed in the Capitol.
    • Confederate Soldiers Monument (1903) features four bronze figures representing the Confederate artillery, cavalry, infantry, and navy. A bronze statue of Jefferson Davis stands above them.[444] The inscription reads: "Died for state rights guaranteed under the constitution. The people of the South, animated by the spirit of 1776, to preserve their rights, withdrew from the federal compact in 1861. The North resorted to coercion. The South, against overwhelming numbers and resources, fought until exhausted."[445]
    • Hood's Texas Brigade, a monument "to memorialize those [who] fought for the Confederacy".[446] "The monument includes a depiction of a Confederate soldier, quotes by Confederate leaders, a flag of the Confederacy and the Confederate battle flag."[447] These are the only Confederate flags currently (2017) visible in the Capitol.[448] Representative Eric Johnson has called for its removal.[447]
    • Terry's Texas Rangers Monument, a monument "to memorialize those [who] fought for the Confederacy"[446] (1907).

State symbols[edit]

Seal of Texas
  • The reverse side of the Seal of Texas (1992) includes "the unfurled flags of the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, the United Mexican States, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America". The Confederate flag is rendered as the Stars and Bars.

State holiday[edit]

  • Confederate Heroes Day is celebrated on January 19. State employees have the day off.
  • April is Confederate History Month in Texas.[449]



Many monuments were donated by pro-Confederacy groups like Daughters of the Confederacy. County governments at the time voted to accept the gifts and take ownership of the statues.[450][451]

Courthouse monuments[edit]

  • Alpine: Confederate Colonel Henry Percy Brewster (1963)[452]
  • Aspermont: Historical marker, "County Named for Confederate Hero Stonewall Jackson", Stonewall County Courthouse (1963)
  • Bastrop: Monuments at Bastrop County Courthouse include:
  • Bay City: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1913), Matagorda County Courthouse[455][456]
  • Belton: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Bell County Courthouse[457]
  • Bonham: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (1905), Fannin County Courthouse[458]
  • Bryan: Commemorative marker, erected 1965, to the Brazos County Confederate Commissioners Court.[459]
  • Comanche: Confederate Soldiers' Monument (2002), Comanche County Courthouse[460]
  • Corsicana: Call to Arms (Confederate Soldiers' Monument), by Louis Amateis (1907), Navarro County Courthouse.[461][462] A Civil War bugler stands in uniform holding a bugle to his mouth with his proper right hand. He holds a sword in his proper left hand at his side. He wears a hat with a feather in it and knee-high boots. A bedroll is slung over his proper left shoulder and strapped across his chest and proper right hip. The sculpture is mounted on a rectangular base.[463] "Isaac O'Haver was a member of Co K of the 17th VA Cavalry. He was a 17 year-old bugler for his unit. He was born Sep. 20, 1844 and died at the age of 27 on March 30, 1872. He is buried at the Ladoga Cemetery."[464] The plaques on the monument read:
    • South side: The Call to Arms Erected 1907 by Navarro chapter United Daughters of the Confederacy To commemorate the valor and heroism of our Confederate Soldiers It is not in the power of mortals to command success The Confederate Soldier did more – he deserved it. "But their fame on brightest pages penned by poets and by pages Shall go sounding down the ages"
    • West side: "Nor shall your glory be fought while fame her record keeps or honor points the hollowed spot where valor proudly sleeps" "Tell it as you may It never can be told Sing it as you Will It never can be sung The Story of the Glory of the men who wore the gray"
    • East side: "It is a duty we owe the dead who died for us: – But where memories can never die – It is a duty we owe to posterity to see that our children shall know the virtues And rise worthy of their sires".
    • North side: The soldiers of the Southern Confederacy fought valiantly for The liberty of state bequeathed them By their forefathers of 1776 "Who Glorified Their righteous cause and they who made The sacrifice supreme in That they died To keep their country free"[463]
  • Clarksville: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Red River County County Courthouse[465]
Denton, Texas
  • Denton: Denton Confederate Soldier Monument, Denton County Courthouse.[466] Cost $2,000; a project of the Denton Chapter, UDC. Dedicated June 3, 1918, Jefferson Davis's birthday.[467] It had "whites only" drinking fountains on each side.[468] In 2015 it was defaced with the words "THIS IS RACIST" in red paint.[469] The twenty-year campaign of a Denton resident, Willie Hudspeth, to have the monument removed was the subject of a Vice news video in 2018.[468] After the wave of Confederate monument removals that followed the 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, and in large part as a result of Hudspeth's campaign, a county 15-person Confederate Memorial Committee met for three months in 2017–18 and recommended "adding context" – two video kiosks and a large plaque, "with interviews about local veterans and the history of slavery"[470] – to the monument rather than removing it, a suggestion accepted unanimously by the county commissioners. Once the nature of the historical context has been determined, approval of the Texas Historical Commission will be required.[471] As of September 2018, "the county still does not have a timeline for completing the project and...there were no updates to report".[472] The video caught the attention of Kali Holloway, director of the Make It Right Project, which is working to remove Confederate monuments. She added the Denton monument to the group's "top 10 list" of monuments they consider priorities.[243][472] The statue was removed in June 2020.[473]
  • Fort Worth: Monument to "Confederate Soldiers and their Descendents" (1953), Tarrant County Courthouse[474]
Dignified Resignation in Galveston, Texas
  • Galveston: Dignified Resignation (1909) by Louis Amateis at the Galveston County Courthouse. With his back turned to the US flag while carrying a Confederate flag, it is the only memorial in Texas to feature a Confederate sailor.[475][476] It was "erected to the soldiers and sailors of the Confederate States of America." An inscription on the plaque reads, "there has never been an armed force which in purity of motives intensity of courage and heroism has equaled the army and navy of the Confederate States of America."[445]
  • Gainesville: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Cooke County Courthouse (1911)[477][478]
Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument in Georgetown, Texas
Confederate Mothers Monument in Texarkana

Other public monuments[edit]

Confederate Memorial Plaza in Anderson, Texas
Confederate Soldiers Monument, Austin
Confederate Monument, Beaumont
  • Alpine: CSA Gen. Lawrence "Sul" Ross Monument (1963)
  • Anderson: Confederate Memorial Plaza (2010).[508] The plaza beside the Grimes County courthouse flies a Confederate flag behind a gate with metal lettering reading "Confederate Memorial Plaza." A metal statue depicts one of several Grimes County residents who fought with the 4th Texas volunteer infantry brigade in Virginia.[445]
  • Athens: Henderson County Confederate Monument (1964)
  • Austin:
    • Hood's Texas Brigade Monument, Texas State Capitol
    • Littlefield Fountain, University of Texas, commemorates George W. Littlefield, a university regent and CSA officer. An inscription reads, "To the men and women of the Confederacy who fought with valor and suffered with fortitude that states [sic] rights be maintained."
    • Texas Confederate Women's and Men's Historical Markers, at 3710 Cedar St. and 1600 W. Sixth, commemorate campgrounds built to house and care for widows, wives, and veterans of the Confederacy.[446]
  • Beaumont: "Our Confederate Soldiers" Monument (1912). Removed in June 2020.[509]
  • Clarksville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1912)
  • Cleburne: Cleburne Monument (2015) Confederate Arch (1922)
  • Coleman: Hometown of Texas CSA Col. James E. McCord Monument (1963)
  • College Station: A statue of Lawrence Sullivan Ross, Confederate general and former president of A&M University is located on the campus of Texas A&M University. In August 2017 the Chancellor of the university, John Sharp, confirmed that the university will not be removing the statue from the campus.[510]
  • Corpus Christi: Queen of the Sea (1914; restored 1990), bas-relief by Pompeo Coppini; UDC-sponsored Confederate memorial featuring an allegorical female figure – representing Corpus Christie – holding keys of success while receiving blessings from Mother Earth and Father Neptune, who are standing next to her.[475] "Coppini was abhorrent of war", and in Queen of the Sea "he crafted a sculpture that symbolized peace and captured the spirit of Corpus Christi".[511]
  • El Paso:
    • Hometown of Texas CSA Capt. James W. Magoffin Monument (1964)
    • CSA Maj. Simeon Hart Monument (1964)
  • Farmersville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1917), Farmersville City Park[512]
  • Fort Worth: Confederate Soldier Memorial (1939), Oakwood Cemetery[475]
  • Gainesville Confederate Heroes Statue (1908) in Leonard Park[513][514]
  • Gonzales: Confederate Soldiers' Monument, Confederate Square. Dedicated on June 3, 1909. To "our Confederate dead."[515][516]
  • Greenville: Confederate Soldier Monument (1926)
  • Holliday: Stonewall Jackson Camp 249 Monument (1999)
  • Houston:
  • Kermit: Col. C.M. Winkler Monument (1963)
  • Marshall:
    • Confederate Capitol of Missouri Monument (1963)
    • Confederate Monument (1906)
    • Home of Last Texas Confederate Gov. Pendleton Murrah Monument (1963)
  • Miami: Col. O.M. Roberts Monument (1963)
John H. Reagan Memorial in Palestine, Texas. The allegorical figure seated beneath Reagan represents the Lost Cause of the Confederacy.[475]

Private monuments[edit]

Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza, Palestine, Texas
  • Austin: Confederate monument, Oakwood Cemetery. Erected in 2016 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans.[519]
  • Belton: Monument to Confederate Sargeant Jacob Hemphill. Erected 2016 by Sons of Confederate Veterans.[520]
  • Crowley: "Confederate Veterans Memorial Monument honoring The Confederate Veterans of Crowley and the surrounding area interred at the Crowley Cemetery." Erected 2011 by the Sons of Confederate Veterans.[520]
  • Hempstead: The Liendo Plantation was a center for Confederate recruiting efforts and held Union prisoners during the war. Now it holds battle reenactments and demonstrations of Civil War era Confederate life at its annual Civil War Weekend.
  • Orange: The Confederate Memorial of the Wind, located on Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, but visible from I-10, has been under construction since 2013, and will be the largest Confederate monument built since 1916, according to the Sons of Confederate Veterans.[442] A center stone ring is held aloft by 13 pillars, one for each state that seceded. There are twenty commemorative flagpoles.
  • Palestine: Confederate Veterans Memorial Plaza (2013), funded by the Sons of the Confederate Veterans[521]

Inhabited places[edit]





  • Confederate Reunion Grounds State Historic Site, Limestone County, near Mexia, Texas
  • Davis Mountains State Park (1938) named for the mountain range
  • Davis Mountains (geographic feature in West Texas around and named for Fort Davis)
  • Fort Worth: Jefferson Davis Park.[526] -now Unity Park.
  • Holliday: Stonewall Jackson Campground
  • Lakeside, Tarrant County: Confederate Park. The two Confederate flags displayed on each side of the park's marker were removed by the Texas Department of Public Transportation in 2017. Marker text:

    Site of Confederate Park // Local businessman Khleber M. Van Zandt organized the Robert E. Lee Camp of the United Confederate Veterans in 1889. By 1900 it boasted more than 700 members. The Club received a 25-year charter to create the Confederate Park Association in 1901, then purchased 373 acres (151 ha) near this site for the "recreation, refuge and relief of Confederate soldiers" and their families. Opening events included a picnic for veterans and families on June 20, 1902, and a statewide reunion September 8–12, 1902, with 3,500 attendees. The park thrived as a center for the civil and social activities on Texas Confederate organizations. By 1924 the numbers [ sic ] of surviving veterans had greatly diminished, and the Confederate Park Association dissolved when its charter expired in 1926.

  • Palestine: John H. Reagan Park


  • Austin:
    • In July 2018, at approximately the same time that Robert E. Lee Road and Jeff Davis Avenue were renamed, the city's Equity Office recommended changing the names of seven more streets:
  • Conroe:
    • Beauregard Drive
    • Jubal Early Lane
    • Stonewall Jackson Drive
  • El Paso: Robert E. Lee Road – now Buffalo Soldier Road
  • Hamilton: Stonewall Jackson Road
  • Hillsboro: Confederate Drive
  • Hemphill:
    • Confederate Street
    • Stonewall Street
  • Holliday: Stonewall Road
  • Houston:
    • Robert E. Lee Road – now Unison Road.
    • Robert Lee Road
    • Sul Ross St, Named for Lawrence Sullivan Ross, Confederate general and former president of Texas A&M University.
    • Tuam Street, a major artery named for CSA Gen. Dowling's birthplace, Tuam, Ireland.
  • Hunt: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Jacksonville: Jeff Davis Street
  • Kermit East Winkler Street
  • Lakeside Confederate Park Road
  • League City: Jeb Stuart Drive
  • Levelland: Robert Lee Street
  • Liberty: Confederate Street
  • Livingston: Robert E. Lee Road
  • Marshall:
    • Jeff Davis Street
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Missouri City
    • Beauregard Court
    • Bedford Forrest Drive
    • Breckinridge Court
    • Confederate Drive
    • Pickett Place
  • Richmond:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
    • Stonewall Drive
  • Ridgley: Bedford Forrest Lane
  • Roma: Robert Lee Avenue
  • San Antonio:
    • Beauregard Street
    • Robert E. Lee Drive
  • Sterling City: Robert Lee Highway
  • Sweetwater: Robert Lee Street
  • Tyler:
    • Jeb Stuart Drive
    • Jeff Davis Drive
  • Victoria: Robert E. Lee Road

Note: "There are similarly named streets in towns and cities across east Texas, notably Port Arthur and Beaumont, as well as memorials to Dowling and the Davis Guards, not least at Sabine Pass, where the battleground is now preserved as a state park"


Stonewall Jackson Elementary School, Dallas
  • Dallas:
    • Albert Sidney Johnston Elementary School – now Cedar Crest Elementary School.
    • John H. Reagan Elementary School – now Bishop Arts STEAM Academy.
    • Robert E. Lee Elementary School – now Geneva Heights Elementary School.
    • Stonewall Jackson Elementary School (1939) – now Mockingbird Elementary School.
    • Sidney Lanier Expressive Arts Vanguard Elementary School – now Jesús Moroles Expressive Arts Vanguard Elementary School.
  • Denton: Lee Elementary School (1988), renamed Alice Moore Alexander Elementary School in 2017[96]
  • Eagle Pass: Robert E. Lee Elementary School – now Juan N. Seguin Elementary School.
  • Edinburg: Lee Elementary School[96]
  • El Paso: Lee Elementary School[96] -now Sunrise Mountain Elementary School.
  • Evadale: Evadale High School. The school uses a Confederate flag-inspired crest. Its athletic teams are nicknamed the "Rebels".[535]
  • Fort Davis:
  • Gainesville: Robert E. Lee Intermediate School – now Gainesville Intermediate School.
  • Grand Prairie: Robert E. Lee Elementary School (1948) -now Delmas F. Morton Elementary School.
  • Houston:
    • Davis High School (1926). In 2016, the Houston school board voted to rename the school.[536] -now Northside High School.
    • Dowling Middle School (1968), named for CSA Maj. Richard W. Dowling. In 2016, the Houston school board voted to rename the school.[536] -now Audrey H. Lawson Middle School.
    • Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson Middle School to Yolanda Black Navarro Middle School of Excellence.
    • Sydney Lanier, Confederate poet and soldier. In 2016, the Houston school board voted to rename the school.[536] -now Bob Lanier Middle School.
    • Lee High School to Margaret Long Wisdom High School.
    • John H. Reagan High School (1926). In 2016, the Houston school board voted to rename the school.[536] -now Heights High School.
    • Johnston Middle School (1959), named for Albert Sidney Johnston. In 2016, the Houston school board voted to rename the school.[536] -now Meyerland Performing and Visual Arts Middle School.
  • Marshall: Robert E. Lee Elementary School – closed in 2018.
  • Midland:
    • Lee Freshman High School (1961) – now Midland Freshman High School.
    • Lee High School (1961). The school's athletic teams are nicknamed the "Rebels". Lee High School had used the Confederate flag in the past.[537] -now Legacy High School.
  • North Richland Hills, home of the Richland High School "Rebels" and "Dixie Belles". The school mascot is "Johnny Rebel".[538]
  • Port Arthur: Lee Elementary School (1959)[96] -now Lakeview Elementary School.
  • Robert Lee:
    • Robert Lee Elementary School
    • Robert Lee High School
  • Rosenberg: B. F. Terry High School. Named for Confederate hero Benjamin Franklin Terry.
  • San Angelo: Lee Middle School (1949)[96] -now Lone Star Middle School.
  • San Antonio: Robert E. Lee High School (1958). After voting against a name change in 2015, the school board voted in August 2017 to change the name of the school.[539] In October, district trustees voted 5-2 to name the school Legacy of Educational Excellence, or LEE High School.[540] Its mascot is currently the Volunteer and the school colors are red and grey. Its pep squad, currently called the Southern Belles, were once called the Confederates. Its varsity dance team and junior varsity drill team are respectively named the Rebel Rousers and Dixie Drillers.[445]
  • Stonewall: Stonewall Elementary School
  • Tyler:
    • Hubbard Middle School (1964), named for Confederate Col. Richard B. Hubbard
    • Robert E. Lee High School (1958). Called "the city's most radioactive Confederate symbol," the possible renaming of the school was the subject of active discussion at meetings in August and September 2017. In 1970, as a result of a statewide federal desegregation order, the school had to get rid of "its Confederate-themed mascot (the Rebels), fight song ("Dixie"), and prized Confederate flag (so large that it required twenty boys to carry). Its beloved Rebel Guard, a squadron of boys handpicked by an American-history teacher to dress in replica Confederate uniforms at football games and fire a cannon named Ole Spirit after touchdowns, had to find a new name. Same for the Rebelettes drill team."[541] -now Tyler Legacy High School.

Other memorials[edit]




As of 24 June 2020, there were at least 241 public spaces with Confederate monuments in Virginia,[96] more than in any other state.[544][545] Virginia also has numerous schools, highways, roads and other public infrastructure named for Confederates. Some have been removed since. Lee-Jackson Day ceased to be a State holiday in 2020.

Washington State[edit]

As of 24 June 2020, only one public space contains a Confederate connected monument in Washington.[96]

3rd Flag of the Confederacy and the Bonnie Blue Flag at the Jefferson Davis Park, 2018

At least two private properties contain a Confederate memorial or fly a CSA flag:

  • Clark County: Near Ridgefield is Jefferson Davis Park (2007), established by the SCV to hold the Jeff Davis Highway markers from Blaine and Vancouver. Flags of the Confederacy are also displayed there.[546][547]
  • Seattle: United Confederate Veterans Memorial, Lake View Cemetery. Erected in 1926 by United Daughters of the Confederacy.[548] In October 2018, the Make It Right Project put up a billboard in Seattle, saying: "Hey Seattle, there's a Confederate Memorial in your backyard".[549] After years of calls to remove the monument and numerous acts of vandalism against it, the monument was toppled by unknown persons, apparently on July 3, 2020. In the process, the lower ends of both formerly vertical columns were broken in multiple places.[550] The wreckage was discovered by visitors to the cemetery on July 4.

West Virginia[edit]

As of 2020 there were 21 public spaces with Confederate monuments in West Virginia.[96]

State capitol[edit]


Bronze plaque commemorating the site of Pettigrew's death.
First Confederate Memorial (1867), Romney, West Virginia
  • Bunker Hill, West Virginia: Monument marking the death of Brig.-Gen. James Johnston Pettigrew, wounded on July 14, 1863, near Falling Waters during the retreat after the Battle of Gettysburg. He died at Edgewood on July 17, 1863.[555]
  • Clarksburg: Bronze equestrian statue of Stonewall Jackson created by Charles Keck (1953) by the United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC). Jackson was born in Clarksburg.
  • Charles Town: Portraits of Lee and Jackson hang in the courtroom in which John Brown was tried and sentenced to death.[556]
  • Charleston – See West Virginia State Capitol, above.
  • Harpers Ferry: Heyward Shepherd Monument (1931). Although Shepherd was a black freeman working for the railway when killed in John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, the monument was erected by UDC and Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV). They called the project the "Faithful Slave Memorial" for many years and saw it as a way to emphasize their idea that blacks enjoyed being slaves and that men like Shepherd were victims of those seeking to free slaves.[557]
  • Hinton: Confederate Soldier Monument, Summers County Courthouse (dedicated May 1914)[558] The base of the monument carries the inscription: "(North base:) This monument erected in honor of American valor as displayed by the Confederate soldiers from 1861 to 1865, and to perpetuate to remotest ages the patriotism and fidelity to principles of the heroes who fought and died for a lost cause. (East base:) sacred to the memory of the noble women of the Confederacy, who suffered more and lost as much, with less glory, than the Confederate soldier. (South base:) erected in the year 1914 by Camp Allen Woodrm Confederate veterans and Camp Bob Christian sons of Confederacy veterans and their friends. (West base:) This monument is dedicated to the Confederate soldiers of Greenbrier and New River valleys who followed Lee and Jackson.[559]
  • Lewisburg: Confederate Monument (1906) The Confederate "monument was erected by the United Daughters of the Confederacy at a cost of $2,800. The monument was originally located on the campus of the Greenbrier College, but moved to its present location when U.S. Route 60 was relocated."[560] It is now located on the lawn of the old public library in Lewisburg. Some residents have suggested interpretive signage for the statue.[561] The inscription on the base reads, "In memory of our Confederate dead."[562]
  • Parkersburg: Confederate Soldier Monument, (1908) The monument was created by Leon Hermant and the inscription reads in part, " IN MEMORY OF OUR CONFEDERATE DEAD ERECTED BY PARKERSBURG CHAPTER UNITED DAUGHTERS OF CONFEDERACY"[564]
  • Romney: First Confederate Memorial (1867) Carved on the main facade are the words, "The daughters of Old Hampshire erect this tribute of affection to her heroic sons who fell in defense of Southern Rights."
  • Union: Monroe County Confederate Soldier Monument (1901); marble statue inscribed "There is a true glory and a true honor. The glory of duty done, the honor of integrity of principle. R. E. Lee"[565]

Inhabited places[edit]

Parks and water features[edit]



  • Charleston: Stonewall Jackson Middle School occupies the building that housed the former Stonewall Jackson High School.
    • The name was changed to West Side Middle School in July 2020.


  • Prairie du Chien: United Daughters of the Confederacy (UDC) monument to Jefferson Davis at Fort Crawford Cemetery Soldiers' Lot. Davis served briefly at Fort Crawford.[569] The text on the plaque reads, "JEFFERSON DAVIS, 1808–1889, Lieutenant United States Army, Assigned Fort Crawford 1831, Served here with distinction during Black Hawk War, Hero in Mexican War 1846–1848, United States Congressman, Senator, Secretary of War, President Confederate States of America, 1861–1865, Erected by The United Daughters of the Confederacy"[570]
  • Wisconsin Dells: The Confederate spy Belle Boyd (1844–1900) is buried in Spring Grove Cemetery in Wisconsin Dells. She would go on tour in the United States and speak about being a spy for the Confederacy. She also wrote a book about her career. She was to speak at a Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) Post in Kilbourne City (now Wisconsin Dells) when she died from a heart attack. Members of the local GAR served as pallbearers at her funeral and was buried at the cemetery. Her grave is marked with a Confederate flag.[571]


Natural features[edit]

  • Yellowstone National Park: The Lamar River (named 1884–85) is named for L.Q.C. Lamar, a secessionist who drafted the instrument of Mississippi's secession and raised a regiment for the Confederates with his own money. He served as a Confederate ambassador to Russia. The river was named while he served as the United States Secretary of the Interior after the war. The Lamar Valley and other park features or administrative names which contain Lamar are derived from this original naming.[572]



  • In 1865, at the end of the American Civil War, a substantial number of Southerners left the South; many moved to other parts of the United States, such as the American West, but a few left the country entirely. The most popular country of Southerners emigration was Brazil, which still allowed slavery and wanted to encourage cotton production.[573] These emigrants were known as Confederados. A Confederate monument was erected in the city of Americana, São Paulo state, Brazil.[574]



  • Tuam: Ireland commemorated CSA Major Richard W. Dowling, who was born in the Tuam, with a bronze memorial plaque on the Town Hall bearing his image and life story. Text of plaque: "Major Richard W. (Dick) Dowling C.S.A., 1837–1867 Born Knock, Tuam; Settled Houston Texas, 1857; Outstanding business and civic leader; Joined Irish Davis Guards in American Civil War; With 47 men foiled Invasion of Texas by 5000 federal troops at Sabine Pass, 8 Sept 1863, a feat of superb gunnery; formed first oil company in Texas; Died aged 30 of yellow fever. This plaque was unveiled by Col. J.B. Collerain 31 May 1998"


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "In an effort to assist the efforts of local communities to re-examine these symbols, the SPLC launched a study to catalog them. For the final tally, the researchers excluded nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that are largely historical in nature."[1]
  2. ^ This chart is based on data from an SPLC survey which identified "1,503 publicly sponsored symbols honoring Confederate leaders, soldiers or the Confederate States of America in general." The survey excluded "nearly 2,600 markers, battlefields, museums, cemeteries and other places or symbols that are largely historical in nature."[1]
  3. ^ "The second spike began in the early 1950s and lasted through the 1960s, as the civil rights movement led to a backlash among segregationists."[1]
  4. ^ Pair of Kentucky Historic Markers located on KY 61, near bridge crossing at Salt River, near Shepherdsville. Marker #1296, "L & N Bridge in Civil War. Destroyed three times by CSA. Partially razed on Sept. 7, 1862, by troops under Col. John Hutcheson. During the occupation of Shepherdsville, Sept. 28, Braxton Bragg's troops again destroyed it, but new bridge was up by Oct. 11. After Battle of Elizabethtown, Dec. 27, John Hunt Morgan's men moved along tracks, destroying everything on way to trestle works at Muldraugh's Hill." Marker #1413, "Morgan-on to Ohio. July 2, 1863, CSA Gen. J. H. Morgan began raid to prevent USA move to Tenn. and Va. Repulsed at Green River, July 4. Defeated a USA force at Lebanon, July 5. Moved through Bardstown, July 6. After night march, crossed here July 7. Rested troops few hours and proceeded to Brandenburg. Crossed to Indiana, July 8. He continued raid until captured in northeast Ohio, July 26." See also Morgan's Raid.[271]
  5. ^ Kentucky Historic Marker located 2 mi. N. of Somerset, KY 39. Marker #712, "March 30, 1863, USA force of 1,250 under General Q. A. Gillmore overtook 1,550 Confederate cavalry under Gen. John Pegram, here. Five-hour battle resulted. CSA driven from one position to another, withdrew during night across Cumberland. Killed, wounded, missing, CSA 200 and USA 30. On nine-day expedition into Ky., CSA had captured 750 cattle and took 537 across river.".[271]
  6. ^ Kentucky Historic Marker located Springfield, US 150, KY 55. Marker #689, erected in 1964, "CSA Gen. John H. Morgan's cavalry moved thru Springfield on raids, July 12 and December 30, 1862. On third raid, into Ohio, after battle of Lebanon, July 5, 1863, Union prisoners brought here but paroled to speed CSA movement. Confederate invasion force of 16,000 here before meeting Union Army in battle at Perryville, Oct. 8, 1862. See map other side."[271]
  7. ^ Kentucky Historic Marker #625, "Morgan's Men Here" located in Winchester, Kentucky on Courthouse lawn, US 60 & KY 627. Inscribed "CSA Gen. John H. Morgan's cavalry first raided Kentucky July, 1862. Took Cynthiana but, faced by large USA forces, withdrew. Destroyed arms here on 19th and went to Richmond. On last raid, June 1864, after two battles at Mt. Sterling, they moved by here to Lexington and to Cynthiana where they met defeat on 12th and retreated to Virginia. See map on other side." Dedicated March 9, 1964. See also Battle of Cynthiana.[271]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Gunter, Booth; Kizzire, Jamie (April 21, 2016). Gunter, Booth (ed.). "Whose heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy" (PDF). Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved June 24, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Palmer, Brian; Wessler, Seth Freed (December 2018). "The Costs of the Confederacy". Smithsonian Magazine.
  3. ^ Shaffer, Josh (October 25, 2018). "NC's highest court will review courtroom portraits amid complaint about pro-slavery judge". Island Packet.
  4. ^ Kytle, Ethan J.; Roberts, Blain (June 25, 2015). "Take Down the Confederate Flags, but Not the Monuments". The Atlantic. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  5. ^ Criss, Doug; Elkin, Elizabeth (June 5, 2018). "The state leading the way in removing Confederate monuments? Texas". CNN.
  6. ^ Cunningham, Anne, ed., The Confederate Flag, p. 31 (quotes original text of SPLC report).
  7. ^ "Actually, Robert E. Lee was against erecting Confederate memorials". WPTV News Channel 5 West Palm. CNN. August 16, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
  8. ^ "Memorialization of Robert E. Lee and the Lost Cause". National Park Service. September 14, 2021. Retrieved September 29, 2023.
  9. ^ Maxwell, Hu (1897). History of Hampshire County, West Virginia: from its earliest settlement to the present. Morgantown, W. Va: A.B. Boughner, printer. OL 23304577M.
  10. ^ a b Andrew J. Yawn; Todd A. Price; Maria Clark (August 1, 2020). "'This is not just about symbols': America's reckoning over Confederate monuments". USA Today Network. Retrieved September 29, 2023.
  11. ^ "Monuments and Memorials". Vicksburg National Military Park. National Park Service. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  12. ^ Leib, Jonathan I.; Webster, Gerald R.; Webster, Roberta H. (December 1, 2000). "Rebel with a cause? Iconography and public memory in the Southern United States". GeoJournal. 52 (2): 303–310. doi:10.1023/A:1014358204037. ISSN 0343-2521. S2CID 151000497.
  13. ^ a b Cox, Karen L. (August 16, 2017). "Analysis – The whole point of Confederate monuments is to celebrate white supremacy". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  14. ^ American Historical Association, AHA Statement on Confederate Monuments (August 2017)
  15. ^ Parks, Miles (August 20, 2017). "Confederate Participation Trophies Were Built To Further A 'White Supremacist Future'". Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  16. ^ "Durham Confederate Participation Trophy: tribute to dying veterans or political tool of Jim Crow South?". The Herald-Sun. Durham, North Carolina. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
  17. ^ Confederate Monuments and Civic Values in the Wake of Charlottesville. Dell Upton, Society of American Historians, September 13, 2017
  18. ^ Confederate monuments: What to do with them?. Grier, Peter. Christian Science Monitor, August 22, 2017
  19. ^ Dotinga, Randy (June 14, 2017). "Inside the hidden history of confederate memorials". The Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
  20. ^ Robertson, James I. Jr. (July 28, 2018). "Debate Over Confederate Monuments |".
  21. ^ Kristina Dunn Johnson (April 6, 2009). No Holier Spot of Ground: Confederate Monuments & Cemeteries of South Carolina. Arcadia Publishing Inc. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1614232827.
  22. ^ Winsboro, Irvin D.S. (2016). "The Confederate Monument Movement as a Policy Dilemma for Resource Managers of Parks, Cultural Sites, and Protected Places: Florida as a Case Study" (PDF). The George Wright Forum. 33: 217–29.
  23. ^ Wiggins, David N. (2005). Remembering Georgia's Confederates. Arcadia. pp. 106, 108, 109, 117. ISBN 978-0738518237.
  24. ^ Confederate Monument in Forsyth Park Archived May 31, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, City of Savannah website, accessed April 24, 2010
  25. ^ Mills, Cynthia; Simpson, Pamela H. (2003). Monuments to the Los Cause: Women, Art, and the Landscapes of Southern Memory. University of Tennessee Press. p. [page needed]. ISBN 978-1572332720.
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