Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport
|Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport
छत्रपती शिवाजी आंतरराष्ट्रीय विमानतळ
|Owner||Airports Authority of India|
|Operator||Mumbai International Airport Limited (MIAL)|
|Location||Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Elevation AMSL||37 ft / 11 m|
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (CSIA) (IATA: BOM, ICAO: VABB), formerly Sahar International Airport, is the primary international airport in Mumbai, India. It is the second busiest airport in the country, and was ranked the 48th busiest airport in world by Airports Council International in 2013. The airport has five operating terminals spread over an operational area of 1,850 acres (750 ha) and handles more than 780 aircraft movements per day. The airport handled a record 51 movements in one hour on 16 September 2014. In 2011, the airport was ranked the third-best in the world in the 25–40 million passengers category by Airports Council International.
The airport is named after the 17th-century Maratha emperor, Chhatrapati Shivaji and its IATA airport code – "BOM" – is derived from Bombay, Mumbai's former name. It is situated in the suburb of Santa Cruz and the Sahar neighbourhood of Andheri suburb in the pincode area of 400099. Mumbai International Airport Limited, a consortium of GVK Industries Ltd, Airports Company South Africa and Bidvest, was appointed to carry out the modernisation of Mumbai Airport in February 2006. This project was to be completed by end of 2013, but this was delayed to February 2014. The new integrated terminal T2 was inaugurated on 10 January 2014 and opened for international operations on 12 February 2014. A dedicated six lane, elevated road connecting the new terminal with the main arterial Western Express Highway was also opened to the public the same day.
- 1 History
- 2 Structure
- 3 Terminals
- 4 Airlines and destinations
- 5 Connectivity
- 6 Statistics
- 7 Airport services
- 8 Incidents and accidents
- 9 Awards and honours
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The Juhu Aerodrome functioned as Mumbai's sole airport until 1942. Due to operational constraints imposed by its low-level location and proximity to the Arabian Sea coastline making it vulnerable during the monsoon season, a move further inland became necessary.
RAF Santacruz was set up in 1942. It was a bigger airfield than Juhu and was home to several RAF squadrons during World War II from 1942 to 1947. The Airport covered an area of about 1,500 acres (610 ha) and initially had three runways. The apron existed on the south side of runway 09/27, and the area, referred to today as the "Old Airport", houses, among others, maintenance hangars of Air India, Air Works India and MIAL's General Aviation Terminal.
By 1946, when the RAF began the process of handing over the airfield to the Director General of Civil Aviation for Civil operations, two old abandoned hangars of the Royal Air Force had been converted into a terminal for passenger traffic. One hangar was used as a domestic terminal and the other for international traffic. It had counters for customs and immigration checks on either side and a lounge in the centre. Air India handled its passengers in its own terminal adjoining the two hangars. In its first year, it handled six civilian services a day.
Traffic at the airport increased after Karachi was partitioned to Pakistan and as many as 40 daily internal and foreign services operated by 1949, prompting the Indian Government to develop the airport, equipping the airport with a night landing system comprising a Radio range and a modernised flare path lighting system Construction of a new passenger terminal and apron began in 1950 and was commissioned in 1958. Named after the neighbourhood in which it stood and initially under the aegis of the Public Works Department, the new airport was subsequently run by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. After a major fire gutted the Santa Cruz terminal in 1979, a temporary departure extension or "Gulf Terminal" became functional in October that year.
With the dawning of the Jumbo Jet era in the 1970s, Santacruz, despite several extensions, began suffering from insufficient operational capacity. The Tata committee, set up in 1967 to examine the issues concerning the airport, had recommended the construction of a new international terminal to meet the requirements of traffic in the seventies. The Santa Cruz terminal was to be used for domestic traffic alone. The International Airport Authority of India (IAAI), which was set up in 1972, started planning the construction of a new terminal building for handling international passenger traffic, to be completed by 1981. Accordingly construction of the new International terminal at Sahar to the north-east of Santacruz was taken up at an estimated cost of Rs. 110 million.
Designed by Aéroports de Paris and opened in January 1981, Terminal 2 was built in three modular phases as 2-A, 2-B, and 2-C. Each module had a capacity of 2.5 million passengers. This terminal had an area of 120,000 m2 (1,300,000 sq ft). The original terminal was a convex shaped single concourse building with 14 Code E contact stands. The greater T2 apron also provided a further 15 Code D/E and 6 Code C remote stands. This gave a total of 35 stands on the existing apron.
- 2-A This first phase of the terminal complex was completed at a cost of 180 million (US$2.8 million) and served most international carriers. Its boarding gates 3 to 8 were the first aerobridges installed in the subcontinent. It was decommissioned and demolished in January 2009 to make way for the new T2 structure.
- 2-B, costing 220 million (US$3.5 million) was completed in 1984. It served Air India and carriers handled by Air India between September 1986 and October 1999 and was decommissioned when 2-C opened. It was extensively refurbished and made operational once again following the demolition of 2A
- 2-C, inaugurated in October 1999, was originally exclusively for Air India, Air-India Express and those carriers whose ground operations were handled by Air India. 2B and 2C were decommissioned in February 2014 when the new T2 took over operations. Demolition of 2B and 2C recently commenced, so that the remaining bit of the new T2 can be completed.
AAI had been considering the modernisation of Mumbai airport in 1996 although the AAI board approved a modernisation proposal only in 2003. By then, Mumbai and Delhi airports were handling 38% of the country's aircraft movement and generating one third of all revenues earned by AAI. At that time, Mumbai airport handled 13.3 million passengers, 60% of which were domestic travellers. The airport faced severe congestion for both aircraft and passengers as it was handling twice as many aircraft movements per day than it was originally designed for. The bidding process for its modernisation eventually began in May 2004 with the decision by the Empowered Group of Ministers (EGoM) was announced in January 2006.
The GVK led consortium won the bid to manage and operate CSIA. To accomplish this task, Mumbai International Airport Private Limited (MIAL), a Joint Venture between the consortium (74%) and the Airports Authority of India (26%) was formed. Since then, MIAL has made several improvements in the aesthetics, design and passenger conveniences at CSIA.
The airport consists of two passenger terminals: Terminal 1 at Santacruz for domestic flights and Terminal 2 at Sahar for international flights. These terminals use the same airside facilities but are physically separated on the cityside, requiring a 15–20-minute (airside) drive between them. MIAL operates coach shuttle services between the domestic and international terminals for transit passengers. Over the past few years, the older Terminal 2 was demolished and a newer terminal has been partially completed and opened to traffic. Work is in progress on the other part of this new terminal and it is due to be completed in 2015 which is when it will be used for both international and domestic airlines.
Mumbai has two intersecting runways. Both runways have been upgraded to Code F, which means they can accommodate larger aircraft like the Airbus A380. Following a presentation in March 2011 by UK’s air traffic service provider NATS on how the capacity of the airport can be increased, MIAL set a target of 48 aircraft movements an hour in an effort to reduce congestion at the airport. Both runways were operated simultaneously especially during peak hours to try and attain this target. MIAL scrapped simultaneous Cross-runway flight operations in mid-2013 after it found that single runway operations were more effective for increasing Aircraft movements per hour. Runway 14/32 is now used only when the main runway is unavailable due to maintenance or other reasons. The construction of new rapid exit taxiways helped in increasing flight handling capacity from 32 movements per hour to 44 in 2012.
|09–27||3,660 m (12,008 ft))||60 metres (200 ft)||Cat. II (27); Cat. I (09)||Once the longest commercial runway in India, Runway 09/27 is the airport's main runway. 13 taxiways, including four rapid exit taxiways, connect it to a full-length parallel taxiway to its north. It intersects the secondary runway south of the terminal buildings. The reconstruction of the runway was completed in May 2011. The runway width was increased from 45 metres (148 ft) to 60 metres (200 ft) with a runway shoulder width of 7.5m added on each side. The ILS on 27 starts at 2,900 ft (880 m) and is 9.1 nautical miles (16.9 km) long with a glide slope path of 3°.|
|14–32||2,990 m (9,810 ft)||60 metres (200 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||Runway 14/32 has ten taxiways including three rapid exit taxiways that connect to a parallel taxiway running along its eastern flank. It runs between Terminals 1 and 2 and was reconstructed in 2010. The runway shoulders were widened from 7.5m to 15m.|
Issues with utilising 14/32 are:
- There is a higher probability of missed approaches and diversions in inclement weather because of the runway's higher approach minima at both ends.
- Trombay Hill, lies 4.5 nmi (8.3 km) away from the 32 end, an approach also questioned recently by security agencies because the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) nuclear complex at Trombay (Anushakti Nagar) lies within its flight path.
Air traffic control tower
India's tallest Air Traffic Control (ATC) Tower with a height of 85 m (279 ft) stands in a section of the parking area opposite terminal 1B. The triangular three-dimensional structure with soft vertices that won the Hong Kong Building Information Modeling (BIM) Award for the year 2009, has six storeys commencing from 62.1 m (204 ft) The tower was inaugurated on 18 October 2013 and took over operations on 1 January 2014.
From the new tower, air traffic controllers are able to see five miles beyond the thresholds of both runways. The tower and its associated technical block and mechanical plant building covers 2,884 square metres. The cost of the fully equipped tower is estimated at 4 billion.
The previous ATC tower began functioning in 1999 and was built by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) at an overall project cost of about 2.80 billion. Many airlines such as Singapore International Airlines, Saudi Airways, Qantas and United have avoided landing at Mumbai airport when the secondary runway was in use as the old tower was not in compliance with ICAO Standards. The tower penetrated runway 14/32's transitional obstacle limitation surfaces by over 50 metres (for instrument approaches). The old tower also obstructed the path of a parallel taxiway under construction for the secondary runway. MIAL started demolishing the tower in October 2014.
MIAL was considering constructing a second parallel runway as part of its master plan. However, the construction of this runway would necessitate a large-scale relocation of either Air-India's hangars and maintenance facilities or the airport's flight kitchens and the Sahar police station, among others, depending on its alignment. The parallel runway remains an active part of the expansion plan but in the meantime the cross runway is being upgraded as much as possible.
The airport consists of four terminals:
Terminal 1 comprises three adjacent structures, designated 1A, 1B and 1C.
- Terminal 1-B was the original Santacruz building used for international and domestic operations. It was refurbished at various times over the decades, the most recent being during the 2000s. It is used by all of the other domestic airlines.
- Terminal 1-C was built at a cost of 3 billion and opened in April 2010. Architectural design was provided by Hafeez Contractor. EDRC, the inhouse design unit of the EPC contractor Larsen & Toubro (L&T) performed the Structural, MEP and IT / Airport systems design. The building serves as a boarding-only facility for all airlines. The terminal has 6 passenger boarding bridges and allows connectivity between terminals 1A and 1B. It is spread over 297,194 sq ft across three levels and has a seating capacity of about 900 passengers. Level 1 houses the offices of MIAL and some airlines, Level 2 comprises the security-hold area for passengers after checking in at either terminal 1A or 1B. Level 3 accommodates a food court.
New Terminal 2
Larsen & Toubro (L&T) was awarded the contract to construct the new Terminal 2. Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) was the architectural designer of the project. SOM also provided the schematic design of structure and MEP and the detailed structural design of the roof. Detailed design of the foundations and the rest of the structure and civil works, the MEP, IT and airport systems, including the full construction documentation of the project was carried out by L&T's inhouse design team, EDRC (Engineering Design and Research Center). The terminal covers a land area of 210,000 square metres and will replace the existing International Terminal (part of which has already been demolished). The entire project was estimated to cost 98 billion (US$1.5 billion) and employ over 12,000 workers. The X-shaped terminal has a total floor area of 450,000 square metres across four floors and will eventually handle both domestic and international passengers. It will include new taxiways and apron areas for aircraft parking designed to cater to 40 million passengers annually. The iconic structure will have boarding gates on two piers extending southwards from a central processing building featuring a 42-metre high roof employing over 20,000 metric tonnes of fabricated steel covering 30 acres. The new T2 terminal building operates Multiple Aircraft Ramp System (MARS) stands and swing gates, so that a single stand can accommodate either one wide body aircraft or two narrow body aircraft, in either domestic or international configuration. The new terminal is connected by the six-lane Sahar Elevated Access Road to the Western Express Highway. A metro rail link to the terminal is also planned.
The new terminal has around 21,000 square meters of retail space, lounges and travel services, over 5,000 square meters of landscaping and a multi level car park for 5,000 cars. The parking Management System and Revenue control system for the entire MLCP has been designed and supplied by SKIDATA. It has 192 check-in counters and 60 immigration counters for departing passengers, and 12 baggage carousels and 76 immigration counters for arriving passengers. To transfer passengers across its four levels, the building has 48 escalators and 75 elevators. The terminal also features 42 travelators. In the initial phase of development, the apron adjoining T2 will provide a total of 48 stands including 3 Code F stands (for the A-380). In the final phase of development a total of 38 Code E/F contact stands, 14 Code E/F remote stands and 20 Code C remote stands will be provided (total 72 stands).
The old international terminal was closed permanently at 1 pm on 12 February 2014, and international operations from the new building commenced from the same day, when the first arrival was Air India flight 343 from Singapore via Chennai, and the first departure was Jet Airways flight 118. Construction is underway to build the remaining piers of T2 and is expected to open to the public in 2015. Dedicated domestic operations at T2 were launched on 9 January 2015, with the inaugural flight of Vistara arriving from Delhi. Vistara will initially operate from level 4 of the terminal, which is currently being used by international carriers. From July 2015, they will shift to level 3, which will be exclusively opened up to other domestic carriers.
|Official Terminal 2 Video|
|Parking stands for aircraft||108||84|
Jaya He art exhibit
Terminal 2 hosts the world's largest public art programme to be located in an airport, with 6,000 pieces of Indian art, including religious statuettes from all over India. The majority of the art originates from the 8th to the 19th Centuries, with some 100 commissioned contemporary works, including by renowned Indian artists. Posters depicting Mumbai's unique culture, such as the city's Yellow and Black taxis and Bollywood filmstars, are also featured.
The exhibits are being displayed on 18-foot high walls along the terminal's corridors and other standalone display areas totalling 1.2 kilometres in length and encompassing a total area of 7,430sqm. It has also been referred to by the BBC as "India's largest museum".
General Aviation Terminal
CSIA's GA Terminal for private and non-scheduled flight operators (NSOPs) is located at Kalina on the south-west side of the airfield. The terminal was approved for international operations in April 2011, making CSIA the first airport in India to have a self-contained terminal for handling round the clock domestic and international flight operations for private and NSOPs. The terminal offers facilities for passengers departing and arriving on private aircraft and business jets. The terminal has two exclusive lounges, two conference halls, two crew rest rooms and a café bar.
The Air Cargo Complex, located west of the International passenger Terminal (T2), has been in operation since 1977. The cargo apron is capable of handling five wide-bodied aircraft. In 2009–10, the airport handled 385,937 metric tones of International Cargo and 165,252 metric tones of Domestic Cargo.
Air India (AI) and Mumbai International Airport Pvt Ltd (MIAL) have been appointed as custodians of cargo by the Central Board of Excise and Customs at Mumbai. MIAL handles 33 airlines while AI handles 11. Apart from handling 65% of the international volumes at CSIA, MIAL also operates the Common User Domestic Cargo Facility since November 2009 handling Deccan 360 and IndiGo. The common user facility for exports is 7,500 m2 and handles 11,000 tonnes per month. The Common User Express Terminal for couriers is operated by the Express Industry Council of India. Small shipments are handled via the International passenger Terminal or the Domestic passenger Terminal while larger express parcels are handled through the general cargo warehouses.
The Cargo Terminal has a Centre for Perishable Cargo(CPC) with an area of 1844 m2 for perishable and temperature sensitive international export shipments, strong rooms of 115 m2 for storage of valuable cargo and storage areas for dangerous goods in both import and export warehouses, dedicated Unaccompanied Baggage handling and clearance areas and 9 coloured X-ray cargo screening machines for export cargo.
Airlines and destinations
Ville Parle (East) is a railway station on the Western line and Harbour line of the Mumbai Suburban Railway network closest to the Domestic Terminal.
Andheri (East) is a railway station on the Western and Harbour lines closest to the International Terminal.
Airport Road and Marol are the stations on Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro system closest to the International Terminal.
Western Express Highway (WEH) is the station on Line 1 of the Mumbai Metro system closest to the Demestic Terminal.
Airport metro stations: Proposed
The proposed Line 3 of the Mumbai Metro that will run underground from Colaba to SEEPZ will serve CSIA via three stations - one each at the Santacruz and Sahar terminals and one in the GVK SkyCity. It will reduce the commute time between Colaba and the airport to 40 minutes.
In early 2012, the MMRDA held talks with MIAL to either construct or finance the construction of three of the line's stations. MIAL agreed to bear the cost of constructing the three stations, expected to total 777 crore, because of the potential increase in passenger convenience. However, CSIA placed conditions before MMRDA for the corridor;
- The metro line should operate twenty four hours a day in order to serve passengers of international flights scheduled at odd hours.
- A provision be made for a check-in facility at all metro stations.
MIAL specified that the commercial rights of the three stations it constructs will fully rest with the authority, and that revenue earned from any commercial activity on the premises would go to MIAL. It would undertake the design and civil construction of the stations, costing 600 crore, on its own, and would pay the estimated cost of electromechanical equipment (around 177 crore) to MMRDA in three equal installments over three years.
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport is the second-busiest airport in the Indian Subcontinent, in terms of passengers carried per year and second-busiest in term of traffic movements. CSIA handles more than 780 aircraft movements per day. The airport can officially handle 38 flights per hour but during peak hours it handles up to 42 flights per hour. The airport handled a record 51 movements in one hour on 16 September 2014.
The Mumbai-Delhi route was recently ranked by Official Airline Guide (OAG) as the seventh-busiest domestic route in the world, based on the number of flights per week. This airport, along with Delhi's Indira Gandhi International Airport, is the primary international gateway to India and served by approximately 50 international airlines. It is the primary hub for Jet Airways and GoAir and also serves as a secondary hub for a few other airlines, including Air India, IndiGo, JetLite and SpiceJet. International traffic peaks late in the night, whilst peak domestic traffic is before 10:00. Nevertheless, at least 45% of traffic flows between 10:00 and 18:30 daily.
In July 2010, the Airport was ranked fourth best in the world for having aerobridges, food courts, spas and salons. This airport, along with airports in Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, and Kolkata handles more than 75% of the passengers in India.
In 2013, the airport handled almost 32 million passengers. In Mar 2014, the airport recorded 8% growth.
There are several fixed base operators at the airport and they include:
- Ambassador's Sky Chef
- Chef Air
- Oberoi Flight Services
- Sky Gourmet
- Mumbai Aviation Fuel Farm Facility Private Limited (MAFFPL) is a Special Purpose Vehicle of MIAL and Bharat Petroleum, Hindustan Petroleum and Indian Oil, each having a stake of 25%. The Joint venture received clearance in October 2014 for setting up an Integrated aviation fuel facility at CSIA.
- Ground handlers
- Cambata Aviation
Incidents and accidents
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2014)|
- On 15 July 1953, a BOAC DH.106 Comet landed at the much smaller Juhu Aerodrome instead of Santacruz Airport (now Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport). The aircraft was flown out some nine days later.
- On 19 July 1959, Rani of Aera, a Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation (registered VT-DIN) carrying 46 people (39 passengers and 7 crew) approached Santacruz Airport in conditions of poor visibility due to rain. The captain was using an altimeter with the barometric pressure set at 29.92". An overshoot was delayed and the aircraft crashed and suffered damage beyond repair. There were no fatalities.
- On 28 May 1968, the pilot of a Garuda Indonesia Convair 990 mistook the much smaller Juhu Aerodrome for Santacruz Airport and tried to land his aircraft. It overshot the runway falling just short of the traffic road ahead and several residential buildings when its nose wheel got stuck in a ditch at the end of the runway. All passengers survived.
- On 9 September 1970, BOAC 775 was flying from the then Santacruz Airport to London Heathrow International airport with stopovers in Bahrain and Beirut. It was hijacked by PFLP hijackers after taking off from Bahrain and diverted to Dawson's Field.
- On 24 December 1972, Japan Airlines Flight 472, operated by Douglas DC-8-53 landed at Juhu Aerodrome instead of Santacruz Airport. The aircraft overran the end of the runway and was damaged beyond economic repair.
- On 12 October 1976: Indian Airlines Flight 171, a Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle had its right engine catch fire shortly after take off. The crew attempted to return, but the plane crashed approximately 1000 feet short of Runway 09. All six crew members and their 89 passengers were killed.
- On 1 January 1978 Air India Flight 855 a Boeing 747-237B crashed into the Arabian Sea after take off from Mumbai, killing all on board (213 persons; 190 passengers, 23 crew).
- On 4 August 1979: a Hawker Siddeley HS 748 aircraft was approaching Sahar International Airport (now Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport) at night and in poor weather when it flew into high terrain approximately 6 mi (9.7 km) from the airport, killing the four crew and their 41 passengers.
- On 4 September 2009, Air India Flight 829 a Boeing 747–437 flying on the Mumbai-Riyadh route caught fire at the Airport. The fire started in number one engine while the aircraft was taxiing to Runway 27 for take-off. An emergency evacuation was carried out with no injuries among the 228 people (213 passengers and 15 crew) on board.
- On 10 November 2009, Kingfisher Airlines Flight 4124, operated by ATR 72-212A VT-KAC skidded off the runway after landing. The aircraft suffered substantial damage but all 46 passengers and crew escaped unharmed.
- On 2 September 2011, Turkish Airlines Flight 720, from Istanbul, skidded off rapid exit taxiway N8 after landing. No injuries were reported but the incident has been called "serious" by an official and a probe has been ordered.
- On 9 March 2013, IndiGo Flight 433 from Chandigarh skidded off runway 27 whilst landing, however the pilot managed to bring the aircraft back onto the runway but failed to notify ground control or the ATC. An airport worker saw damaged runway lights shortly afterwards and reported it. Checks of aircraft at the airport confirmed that the Airbus A320 did skid off the runway.
- On 11 March 2013, Air France Flight 217 took off from Mumbai at around 4am bound for Paris. After detecting engine failure, the pilot contacted air-traffic control, requesting a return and asking for emergency services to be readied. The plane landed at 4.45am (30 minutes passed between detection and landing). Airport officials said a preliminary check conducted by the fire team did not show anything amiss, but a tool was found during a check by maintenance officers.
Awards and honours
- Third-best Airport in the World in the 25–40 million passengers category by Airports Council International in 2011 and 2012.
- Fourth-best Airport in the World in the 15–20 million passengers category by Airports Council International, notably for aerobridges, fancy food courts, spas and salons.
- Best Airport in India by the Airport Council International.
- Best Airport in Public-Private Partnership by the Air Passengers Association of India (APAI).
- Aeronautical Excellence Airport of the Year 2008 from Frost & Sullivan.
- First Airport in India to Implement Self-Service Kiosks and CUTE (Common Use Terminal Equipment) check-in systems.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport.|
- CSIA Official website
- Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport page at the AAI website
- GVK web site
- Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Project Details
- Accident history for BOM at Aviation Safety Network