Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport
|Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport|
|IATA: BOM – ICAO: VABB
|Owner||GVK, Airports Authority of India|
|Operator||Mumbai International Airport Limited (MIAL)|
|Location||Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Elevation AMSL||37 ft / 11 m|
|Statistics (Apr '12 – Mar '13)|
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (CSIA) (IATA: BOM, ICAO: VABB), formerly Sahar International Airport, is the primary international airport in Mumbai, India, and is named after the 17th century Maratha emperor, Chhatrapati Shivaji. The Airport's IATA code – "BOM", is derived from Bombay, Mumbai's former name.
Until and through 2008, it was the busiest airport in India. It has since lost that distinction to Delhi's Indira Gandhi International Airport, which currently makes Mumbai the second busiest airport in India in terms of overall passenger traffic. The airport has five operating terminals spread over an operational area of 1,500 acres (610 ha); CSIA handled 30.74 million passengers and 656,369 tonnes of cargo during FY 2011-12. Along with Delhi's Indira Gandhi International Airport and Chennai International Airport it handles more than half of the air traffic in South Asia. In 2010, CSIA was ranked the 30th busiest airport in the world in terms of cargo with 671,238 tonnes handled. In 2011, the airport was ranked the third-best in the world in the 25–40 million passengers category by Airports Council International. Also in 2011, the airport was the 44th busiest in the world with 30,439,122 passengers handled, registering a 7.6% growth rate over the previous year. It is situated in the suburb of Santa Cruz and the Sahar neighbourhood of Andheri suburb in the pincode area of 400099. Mumbai International Airport Limited, a consortium of GVK Industries Ltd, Airports Company South Africa and Bidvest, was appointed to carry out the modernisation of Mumbai Airport in February 2006. This project was to be completed by end of 2013, but this has been delayed by another year to the end of 2014. Once completed, CSIA will be capable of handling 40 million passengers and 1 million metric tonnes of cargo annually. The new integrated terminal T2 will open for international operations on January 15, 2014. The construction of a dedicated six lane, elevated road connecting the new terminal with the main arterial Western Express Highway is underway.
- 1 History
- 2 Structure
- 3 Expansion
- 4 Terminals, airlines and destinations
- 5 Access
- 6 Statistics
- 7 Airport services
- 8 Accidents and incidents
- 9 Awards and honours
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The Juhu Aerodrome functioned as Mumbai's sole airport until 1942. Due to operational constraints imposed by its low-level location and proximity to the Arabian Sea coastline making it vulnerable during the monsoon season, a move further inland became necessary.
RAF Santacruz was set up in 1942. It was a bigger airfield than Juhu and was home to several RAF squadrons during World War II from 1942 to 1947. The Airport covered an area of about 1,500 acres (610 ha) and initially had three runways. The apron existed on the south side of runway 09/27, and the area, referred to today as the "Old Airport", houses, among others, maintenance hangars of Air India, Air Works India and MIAL's General Aviation Terminal.
By 1946, when the RAF began the process of handing over the airfield to the Director General of Civil Aviation for Civil operations, two old abandoned hangars of the Royal Air Force had been converted into a terminal for passenger traffic. One hangar was used as a domestic terminal and the other for international traffic. It had counters for customs and immigration checks on either side and a lounge in the centre. Air India handled its passengers in its own terminal adjoining the two hangars. In its first year, it handled six civilian services a day.
Traffic at the airport increased after Karachi was partitioned to Pakistan and as many as 40 daily internal and foreign services operated by 1949, prompting the Indian Government to develop the airport, equipping the airport with a night landing system comprising a Radio range and a modernised flare path lighting system Construction of a new passenger terminal and apron began in 1950 and was commissioned in 1958,. Named after the neighbourhood in which it stood and initially under the aegis of the Public Works Department, the new airport was subsequently run by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. After a major fire gutted the Santa Cruz terminal in 1979, a temporary departure extension or "Gulf Terminal" became functional in October that year.
With the dawning of the Jumbo Jet era in the 1970s, Santacruz, despite several extensions, began suffering from insufficient operational capacity. The Tata committee, set up in 1967 to examine the issues concerning the airport, had recommended the construction of a new international terminal to meet the requirements of traffic in the seventies. The Santa Cruz terminal was to be used for domestic traffic alone. The International Airport Authority of India (IAAI), which was set up in 1972, started planning the construction of a new terminal building for handling international passenger traffic, to be completed by 1981. Accordingly construction of the new International terminal at Sahar to the north-east of Santacruz was taken up at an estimated cost of Rs. 110 million. The terminal was made operational in 1980.
The airport consists of two passenger terminals: Terminal 1 at Santacruz for domestic flights and Terminal 2 at Sahar for international flights. These terminals use the same airside facilities but are physically separated on the cityside, requiring a 15–20 minute (airside) drive between them. MIAL operates coach shuttle services between the domestic and international terminals for transit passengers.
Mumbai has two intersecting runways. Both runways have been upgraded to Code F, which means they can accommodate larger aircraft like the Airbus A380. Following a presentation in March 2011 by UK’s air traffic service provider NATS on how the capacity of the airport can be increased, MIAL set a target of 48 aircraft movements an hour in an effort to reduce congestion at the airport. Both runways were operated simultaneously especially during peak hours to try and attain this target. MIAL scrapped simultaneous Cross-runway flight operations in mid-2013 after it found that single runway operations were more effective for increasing Aircraft movements per hour. Runway 14/32 is now used only when the main runway is unavailable due to maintenance or other reasons. The construction of new rapid exit taxiways helped in increasing flight handling capacity from 32 movements per hour to 44 in 2012.
|09–27||3,660 m (12,008 ft))||60 metres (200 ft)||Cat. II (27); Cat. I (09)||Once the longest commercial runway in India, Runway 09/27 is the main runway and has a full-length parallel taxiway to its north by 9 taxiways including three rapid exit taxiways. It intersects the secondary runway south of the terminal buildings.
The reconstruction of the runway was completed in May 2011. The runway width was increased from 45 metres (148 ft) to 60 metres (200 ft) with a runway shoulder width of 7.5m added on each side. The ILS on 27 starts at 2,900 ft (880 m) and is 9.1 nautical miles (16.9 km) long with a glide slope path of 3°.
|14–32||2,860 m (9,380 ft)||60 metres (200 ft)||Cat. I (both directions)||Runway 14/32 has ten taxiways including three rapid exit taxiways that connect to a parallel taxiway running along its eastern flank. It runs between Terminals 1 and 2 and was reconstructed in 2010. The runway shoulders were widened from 7.5m to 15m.|
The existing 72 m (236 ft) tall ATC tower, erected in 1996, stands close to the secondary runway and is a notified obstruction in the aircraft path. Hence, some carriers such as Singapore Airlines, Saudi Airlines and Continental Airlines avoid using the secondary runway and cancel or reschedule their flights into Mumbai when the main runway is unusable.
Further issues with utilising 14/32 are:
- There is a higher probability of missed approaches and diversions in inclement weather because of the runway's higher approach minima at both ends.
- Trombay Hill, lies 4.5 nmi (8.3 km) away from the 32 end, an approach also questioned recently by security agencies because the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) nuclear complex at Trombay (Anushakti Nagar) lies within its flight path.
In January 2006, the GVK led consortium won the bid to manage and operate CSIA. To accomplish this task, Mumbai International Airport Private Limited (MIAL), a Joint Venture between the consortium (74%) and the Airports Authority of India (26%) was formed. Since then, MIAL has made several improvements in the aesthetics, design and passenger conveniences at CSIA.
The graphic design and ambientation of the airport has mainly been created by Argentinan design studio Steinbranding. Landscape improvements were designed by Design Cell, a firm specialising in landscape architecture.
In October 2006, MIAL unveiled the master plan for CSIA, which has been designed to expand and upgrade the infrastructure to cater for 40 million passengers per year and one million metric tonnes of cargo per year by 2010. The separate international and domestic terminals will be merged into one terminal building at the current international building and the current domestic terminal will be converted to a dedicated cargo terminal. The new terminal will have a floor area of 439,000 m2 (4,730,000 sq ft). MIAL has also incorporated a parallel runway as part of the master plan but there are some obstructions to this part of the which includes land acquisition and rehabilitation of slums as well as relocation of a number of airport facilities.
The implementation will be undertaken in two stages:
- The Interim Phase was the implementation of several immediate measures. These were completed in 2008 and included:
- Refurbishment and construction at Terminal 2
- Revamp of Terminal 1A to upgrade and expand facilities such as check-in counters and boarding bridges
- Setting-up of temporary cargo facilities to add capacity
- Upgrading of the airside runway facilities such as rapid exit taxiways to increase runway capacity to cater to traffic growth
- Enhancing city-side facilities such as multi-level car parks
- Phase Two includes:
- Creation of a brand new terminal building (T2) at Sahar catering to both international and domestic operations
- Construction of a dedicated link from the Western Express Highway to T2 at Sahar
- Enhancement of the airside facilities by shifting the air traffic control tower and construction of a parallel taxiway for runway 14/32.
- Development of infrastructure on the city-side
- Building new cargo facilities
- Construction of Terminal 1C
New taxiways have been developed to reduce the runway occupancy time by aircraft after landing. The airport has five rapid exit taxiways. By 2013, 11 rapid exit taxiways will be constructed. MIAL is undertaking the installation of a centralised data system which will provide information about domestic as well as international flights to all display devices at both terminals instead of just one or the other as at present. There are plans to extend the scope of the system to the air traffic control (ATC) and apron control areas, the airport website and even to leading hotel chains. A centralised call centre to provide flight details is also envisaged.
- Cost: 123 billion (US$1.9 billion)
- Airport area: 800 hectares
- Completion Year: 2014
- Project Area: 4,843,759 ft (1,476,378 m)
- Building Height: 45 m
- Number of Storeys: 4
New Terminal 2
Larsen & Toubro was awarded the contract to construct the new Terminal 2 which was designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM). The terminal will cover a land area of 210,000 square metres and will replace the existing International Terminal. The entire project is estimated to cost 98 billion (US$1.5 billion) and employ over 12,000 workers. The X-shaped terminal will handle both domestic and International passengers and will have a total floor area of 439,000 square metres across four floors. It will include new taxiways and apron areas for aircraft parking designed to cater to 40 million passengers annually. The iconic structure will have boarding gates on two piers extending southwards from a central processing building featuring a 42 metre high roof employing over 20,000 metric tonnes of fabricated steel covering 30 acres. The new T2 terminal building will operate Multiple Aircraft Ramp System (MARS) stands and swing gates, so that a single stand can accommodate either one wide body aircraft or two narrow body aircraft, in either domestic or international configuration. The terminal will be connected by the six-lane Sahar Elevated Access Road to the Western Express Highway. A metro rail link to the terminal is also planned.
The Terminal will host the world's largest public art programme with 6,000 pieces of Indian art from the 8th to the 19th Century being displayed on 18 foot high walls along the terminal's corridors and other standalone display areas totalling 1.2 kilometres in length.
The new terminal will have around 21,000 square meters of retail space, lounges and travel services, over 5,000 square meters of landscaping and a multi level car park for 5,000 cars. T2 will have 188 check-in counters and 60 immigration counters for departing passengers, and 10 baggage carousels and 76 immigration counters for arriving passengers. To transfer passengers across its four levels, the building will have 47 escalators and 73 elevators. The terminal will also feature 41 travelators. In the initial phase of development due for completion in 2013, the apron adjoining T2 will provide a total of 48 stands including 3 Code F stands (for the A-380). In the final phase of development a total of 38 Code E/F contact stands, 14 Code E/F remote stands and 19 Code C remote stands will be provided (total 71 stands). International operations from the building will commence in January 2014, while the domestic operations will be transferred from the Santacruz terminal to T2 by the last quarter of 2014.
|Parking stands for aircraft||106||84|
Air Traffic Control Tower
India's tallest Air Traffic Control Tower with a height of 83.8 m (275 ft) stands in a section of the parking area opposite terminal 1B. The triangular three dimensional structure with soft vertices that won the Hong Kong Building Information Modeling (BIM) Award for the year 2009, has six storeys commencing from 62.1 m (204 ft) The tower was inaugurated on 18 October 2013 and will be fully functional by December 2013.
From the new tower, air traffic controllers will be able to see five miles beyond the thresholds of both runways. The tower and its associated technical block and mechanical plant building covers 2,884 square metres. The cost of the fully equipped tower is estimated at 4 billion. The structure is likely to be ready for handing over to the Air Traffic Control by end of March 2013 and is likely to be inaugurated by October 2013 after installation of ATC equipment.
The previous ATC tower began functioning in 1999 and was built by the Airports Authority of India (AAI) at an overall project cost of about 2.80 billion. The old tower stands 60 metres tall, uncomfortably close to the secondary runway. Hence, many such as Singapore International Airlines, Saudi Airways, Qantas and Continental do not use this runway. The old tower also obstructs the path of a parallel taxiway under construction for the secondary runway. The old tower will be demolished after all operations are shifted to the new tower and the taxiway will be completed.
Sahar Elevated Access Road
Despite the fact that T2 is located in Sahar close to Mumbai’s arterial Western Express Highway, passengers travelling to the terminal have a harrowing road traffic experience. The impending shift of all domestic air traffic to T2 would worsen the situation during the daytime and evening peak traffic hours.
In order to avoid these traffic bottlenecks, a dedicated, direct elevated corridor was envisaged. This elevated corridor, also called the Sahar Elevated Access Road, runs roughly east-west between the Western Express Highway near Hanuman Mandir to the airport’s forecourt bypassing the crowded Chakala, Sahar Road and Jog flyover areas of Andheri (east). MIAL is contributing a major share of the project cost.
The 2.87 billion project, commissioned in January 2008 and expected to be complete in two years, has been delayed due to issues in shifting Project-affected persons (PAPs) to resettlement colonies in Kurla and Oshiwara. The road is being constructed under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission.
On the WEH end, the project comprises 1,050 metres of elevated road, a 98 metre long tunnel with ramps measuring 261 metres, three vehicular underpasses each of 48, 22 & 30 metres and a 641 metre long 6 lane road at Grade. A 48 metre long pedestrian cum 2 wheeler underpass on the WEH is also part of the plan. The airport end of the elevated road will have four ramps totally measuring 2,200 metres to connect to the arrivals and departure sections of the airport forecourt.
A second parallel runway was being considered to meet objections raised by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests against the proposed location of the Navi Mumbai International Airport near Kopra Panvel.
Two alternatives that were mooted by MIAL in the master plan for CSIA:
- An east-west runway parallel to the existing runway 09/27 on the southern side. With a length of 12,500 ft (3,800 m), this runway will accommodate new-generation aircraft, and also be sufficiently distant (more than 800 feet (240 m) apart) from the existing runway; it would necessitate the relocation of Air-India's hangars and maintenance facilities.
- A second runway parallel to the current cross runway 14/32 on the northern side, between the international terminal to the north and the Kalina campus university grounds. The airport's flight kitchens and the Sahar police station would have to be moved and the area to which they could be relocated is occupied by thousands of slum-dwellers.
The parallel runway remains an active part of the plan but in the meantime the cross runways are being upgraded as much as possible.
The Airport's expansion plans, however, have been repeatedly thwarted by slums encroaching onto the airport area. According to a report submitted by GVK to the Ministry of Civil Aviation, the airport's total operating area covers 936 acres (3.79 km2) of which actual encroached land is 262 acres (1.06 km2) against a government estimate of 147 acres (0.59 km2). Land subject to legal proceedings covers an area of 34 acres (140,000 m2). Approximately 308 acres of airport land is encroached upon by about 85,000 hutments housing a population of around 400,000 persons,
In 2007, MIAL awarded the airport slum rehabilitation project, the largest urban rehabilitation scheme in the country, to Housing Development and Infrastructure Limited (HDIL). The project entailed shifting people living on 276 acres of encroached airport land to enable airport expansion. As part of the deal, HDIL was expected to build and provide eligible slumdwellers free housing on its own land within a radius of 2 km from the airport within seven years. In return, HDIL was to get a couple of crore square feet of land in the form of Transfer of Development Rights (TDR). However, less than 500 of the 85,000 slum families were relocated to new houses and in February 2013, MIAL terminated its agreement HDIL following a decision taken by the MIAL board. citing non-completion of the project on time.
According to MMRDA, these 500 families were the ones moved to facilitate the Sahar Elevated Access Road. None of the encroached 276 acres has been freed up partly because 40% to 50% of the slumdwellers on airport land were ineligible for rehabilitation. The state had extended the cut-off date for these slum residents from January 1995 to January 2000. This meant that only the slumdwellers residing at the spot prior to 2000 are eligible for free housing under the project.
In August 2012, the State Government admitted its inability to clear encroachments and excluded nearly 200 acres of encroached land from the modernization and expansion plans for the airport. Hence, only 104 acres of the encroached land required for aeronautical purposes will be cleared.
A 17-month delay in the relocation of the statue of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, whose location fell in the footprint of the new common user terminal, cost 25 crore, according to a consultation paper by the Airport Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA). The report stated that although the statue area was scheduled to be handed over for construction by 31 March 2010, the State Government kept delaying the sanction to move the statue because the Shiv Sena, Bharatiya Janata Party, the main Opposition parties in the Maharashtra State assembly and the Maharashtra Navnirman Sena held protests against the shifting of the statue. MIAL doesn't have the right to hurt our sentiment on Shivaji Maharaj just because they are developing the airport, stated MNS MLA Bala Nandgaonkar, "We will not allow the statue to be shifted."
MIAL had proposed to construct a grand memorial of Chhatrapati Shivaji on the Western Express Highway near the airport. In addition, it proposed to relocate the statue to a garden near the airport and undertake beautification. The proposals failed to deter the protesters. The change of government in the state further delayed the decision making process. The delay in approval affected work on approximately 50,000 square feet of land and has led to delay in project completion. The Statue was relocated on August 27, 2011 and the area was handed over for construction.
Terminals, airlines and destinations
The airport consists of four terminals:
Terminal 1 comprises three adjacent structures, designated 1A, 1B and 1C.
- Terminal 1-A opened in April 1992, and is used by Air India and GoAir. It has an area of 15,000 m2 (160,000 sq ft) and has 54 check in counters, 9 self check in counters, 6 Kiosk check in, 8 security channels
- Terminal 1-B was the original Santacruz building used for international and domestic operations. It was refurbished in 1998, and is used by all of the other domestic airlines. It has an area of 18,900 m2 (203,000 sq ft) and has 72 check in counters, 12 self check in counters, 9 Kiosk check in, 12 security channels.
- Terminal 1-C was built at a cost of 3 billion and opened in April 2010. The building serves as a boarding-only facility for all airlines. The terminal has 6 passenger boarding bridges and allows connectivity between terminals 1A and 1B. It is spread over 297,194 sq ft across three levels and has a seating capacity of about 900 passengers. Level 1 houses the offices of MIAL and some airlines, Level 2 comprises the security-hold area for passengers after checking in at either terminal 1A or 1B. Level 3 accommodates a food court.
Designed by Aéroports de Paris and opened in January 1981, Terminal 2 was built in three modular phases as 2-A, 2-B, and 2-C. Each module had a capacity of 2.5 million passengers. This terminal has an area of 120,000 m2 (1,300,000 sq ft). The original terminal was a convex shaped single concourse building with 14 Code E contact stands. The greater T2 apron also provided a further 15 Code D/E and 6 Code C remote stands. This gave a total of 35 stands on the existing apron.
- 2-A This first phase of the terminal complex was completed at a cost of 180 million (US$2.8 million) and served most international carriers. Its boarding gates 3 to 8 were the first aerobridges installed in the subcontinent. It was decommissioned and demolished in January 2009 to make way for the new T2 structure.
- 2-B, costing 220 million (US$3.4 million) was completed in 1984. It served Air India and carriers handled by Air India between September 1986 and October 1999 and was decommissioned when 2-C opened. An extensively refurbished 2-B is now operational once again, following the demolition of 2A
- 2-C, inaugurated in October 1999, was originally exclusively for Air India, Air-India Express and those carriers whose ground operations were handled by Air India.
The Terminal 2 complex is under re-development and will handle all passenger traffic (international and domestic) when completed.
General Aviation Terminal
CSIA's GA Terminal for private and non-scheduled flight operators (NSOPs) is located at Kalina on the south-west side of the airfield. The terminal was approved for international operations in April 2011, making CSIA the first airport in India to have a self-contained terminal for handling round the clock domestic and international flight operations for private and NSOPs. The terminal offers facilities for passengers departing and arriving on private aircraft and business jets. The terminal has two exclusive lounges, two conference halls, two crew rest rooms and a cafe bar.
The Air Cargo Complex, located west of the International Passenger Terminal (T2), has been in operation since 1977. The cargo apron is capable of handling five wide-bodied aircraft. In 2009–10, the airport handled 385,937 metric tones of International Cargo and 165,252 metric tones of Domestic Cargo.
Air India (AI) and Mumbai International Airport Pvt Ltd (MIAL) have been appointed as custodians of cargo by the Central Board of Excise and Customs at Mumbai. MIAL handles 33 airlines while AI handles 11. Apart from handling 65% of the international volumes at CSIA, MIAL also operates the Common User Domestic Cargo Facility since November 2009 handling Deccan 360 and IndiGo. The common user facility for exports is 7,500 m2 and handles 11,000 tonnes per month. The Common User Express Terminal for couriers is operated by the Express Industry Council of India. Small shipments are handled via the International Passenger Terminal or the Domestic Passenger Terminal while larger express parcels are handled through the general cargo warehouses.
The Cargo Terminal has a Centre for Perishable Cargo(CPC) with an area of 1844 m2 for perishable and temperature sensitive international export shipments, strong rooms of 115 m2 for storage of valuable cargo and storage areas for dangerous goods in both import and export warehouses, dedicated Unaccompanied Baggage handling and clearance areas and 9 coloured X-ray cargo screening machines for export cargo.
Ville Parle, a railway station on the Western line and Harbour line is the closest station of the Mumbai Suburban Railway network. The Mumbai Metro is also planned to connect to the airport in the future.
Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport is the second-busiest airport in the Indian Subcontinent, in terms of passengers carried per year and second-busiest in term of traffic movements. The airport can officially handle 36 flights per hour and intends to increase this to 48.
The Mumbai-Delhi route was recently ranked by Official Airline Guide (OAG) as the seventh-busiest domestic route in the world, based on the number of flights per week. This airport, along with Delhi's Indira Gandhi International Airport, is the primary international gateway to India and served by approximately 50 international airlines. It is the primary hub for Jet Airways and GoAir and also serves as a secondary hub for a few other airlines, including Air India, IndiGo, JetLite and SpiceJet. International traffic peaks late in the night, whilst peak domestic traffic is before 10:00. Nevertheless, at least 45% of traffic flows between 10:00 and 18:30 daily.
In July 2010, the Airport was ranked fourth best in the world for having aerobridges, food courts, spas and salons. This airport, along with airports in Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, and Kolkata handles more than 75% of the passengers in India. In the eleven months between April 2006 and February 2007, it handled 180,000 landings and take-offs and over 20 million passengers, with a total of 13.56 million domestic air passengers and 6.73 million international passengers[dated info]. It registered a 21.28% growth in passenger traffic over the previous year 2005–06, when the figure was 17.6 million passengers[dated info]. In 2008, for the second year in a row, it was the world's most-delayed airport in terms of arrivals. Only 49.95% of arrivals were on time. About 58% of its late arrivals in 2008 were delayed by 30 minutes or more, although the delay in these arrivals is largely attributed to air congestion at a flight's origin.
Fixed base operators (FBO)
There are several fixed base operators at the airport and they include:
- Ambassador's Sky Chef
- Chef Air
- Oberoi Flight Services
- Sky Gourmet
- Cambata Aviation
Accidents and incidents
- On 15 July 1953, a BOAC DH.106 Comet landed at the much smaller Juhu Aerodrome instead of Santacruz Airport (now Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport). The aircraft was flown out some nine days later.
- On 19 July 1959, Rani of Aera, a Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation (registered VT-DIN) carrying 46 people (39 passengers and 7 crew) approached Santacruz Airport in conditions of poor visibility due to rain. The captain was using an altimeter with the barometric pressure set at 29.92". An overshoot was delayed and the aircraft crashed and suffered damage beyond repair. There were no fatalities.
- On 28 May 1968, the pilot of a Garuda Indonesia Convair 990 mistook the much smaller Juhu Aerodrome for Santacruz Airport and tried to land his aircraft. It overshot the runway falling just short of the traffic road ahead and several residential buildings when its nose wheel got stuck in a ditch at the end of the runway. All passengers survived.
- On 9 September 1970, BOAC 775 was flying from the then Santacruz Airport to London Heathrow International airport with stopovers in Bahrain and Beirut. It was hijacked by PFLP hijackers after taking off from Bahrain and diverted to Dawson's Field.
- On 24 December 1972, Japan Airlines Flight 472, operated by Douglas DC-8-53 landed at Juhu Aerodrome instead of Santacruz Airport. The aircraft overran the end of the runway and was damaged beyond economic repair.
- On 12 October 1976: Indian Airlines Flight 171, a Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle had its right engine catch fire shortly after take off. The crew attempted to return, but the plane crashed approximately 1000 feet short of Runway 09. All six crew members and their 89 passengers were killed.
- On 1 January 1978 Air India Flight 855 a Boeing 747-237B crashed into the Arabian Sea after take off from Mumbai, killing all on board (213 persons; 190 passengers, 23 crew).
- On 4 August 1979: a Hawker Siddeley HS 748 aircraft was approaching Sahar International Airport (now Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport) at night and in poor weather when it flew into high terrain approximately 6 mi (9.7 km) from the airport, killing the four crew and their 41 passengers.
- On 4 September 2009, Air India Flight 829 a Boeing 747–437 flying on the Mumbai-Riyadh route caught fire at the Airport. The fire started in number one engine while the aircraft was taxing to Runway 27 for take-off. An emergency evacuation was carried out with no injuries among the 228 people (213 passengers and 15 crew) on board.
- On 10 November 2009, Kingfisher Airlines Flight 4124, operated by ATR 72-212A VT-KAC skidded off the runway after landing. The aircraft suffered substantial damage but all 46 passengers and crew escaped unharmed.
- On 2 September 2011, Turkish Airlines Flight 720, from Istanbul, skidded off rapid exit taxiway N8 after landing. No injuries were reported but the incident has been called "serious" by an official and a probe has been ordered.
- On 9 March 2013, IndiGo Flight 433 from Chandigarh skidded off runway 27 whilst landing, however the pilot managed to bring the aircraft back onto the runway but failed to notify ground control or the ATC. An airport worker saw damaged runway lights shortly afterwards and reported it. Checks of aircraft at the airport confirmed that the Airbus A320 did skid off the runway.
- On 11 March 2013, Air France Flight 217 took off from Mumbai at around 4am bound for Paris. After detecting engine failure, the pilot contacted air-traffic control, requesting a return and asking for emergency services to be readied. The plane landed at 4.45am (30 minutes passed between detection and landing). Airport officials said a preliminary check conducted by the fire team did not show anything amiss, but a tool was found during a check by maintenance officers.
Awards and honours
- Third-best Airport in the World in the 25–40 million passengers category by Airports Council International in 2011 and 2012.
- Fourth-best Airport in the World in the 15–20 million passengers category by Airports Council International, notably for aerobridges, fancy food courts, spas and salons.
- Best Airport in India by the Airport Council International.
- Best Airport in Public-Private Partnership by the Air Passengers Association of India (APAI).
- Aeronautical Excellence Airport of the Year 2008 from Frost & Sullivan.
- First Airport in India to Implement Self-Service Kiosks and CUTE (Common Use Terminal Equipment) check-in systems.
- Saurabh Sinha, TNN, 10 July 2008, 03.54am IST (10 July 2008). "Delhi beats Mumbai to become busiest airport". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "Delhi's IGIA edges ahead of Mumbai's CSIA as country's busiest airport". Domain-b.com. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- Travel Biz Monitor: Mumbai airport gets ready for new innings[dead link]
- "ACI’s 2011 ASQ Awards Name Incheon International Airport Best Airport Worldwide in Overall Customer Satisfaction". Airports Council International. 14 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- Simon Rogers (4 May 2012). "The world's top 100 airports: listed, ranked and mapped | News | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- "CSIA pin code". India Codes. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- "Bidvest.co.za". Bidvest.co.za. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "Mumbai airport modernization likely to be delayed to 2014". Live Mint. 14 December 2011.
- "New Mumbai airport terminal to open on January 15". Business Standard. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- "GVK CSIA Project". GVK Industries Ltd. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- "RAF Santacruz". www.rafweb.org. 9 January 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "Transport by Air". Maharashtra State Gazetteers. 1987. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
- "Airfield, Santacruz". Hansard. 30 October 1946. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "Santacruz to be developed". Flight Global. 19 May 1949. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "Common Agreement Document of the A380 Airport Compatibility Group Version 2.1" page 8, European Civil Aviation Conference, December 2002. Retrieved: 4 December 2012.
- "Mumbai airport aims high; sets eyes on 48 flights per hour by next year". Indian Express. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "Mumbai shifts to single runway to boost flight capacity". The Times of India. 22 August 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2013.
- "19 more flight slots for city airport this winter". Hindustan Times. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "AIRAC AIP Supplement". Airports Authority of India. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "City’s new ATC tower misses July deadline". Times of India. 17 June 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- "GVK website, CSIA". gvk.com. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Master plan". Csia.in. Retrieved 2010-08-24.[dead link]
- 25 March 2010 3:58PM (25 March 2010). "Mumbai Airport's $2.2bn makeover". The Australian. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
- CSIA | Know Your Airport | Master Plan
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai, Maharashtra". Airport Technology. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, India". airport-technology.com. Retrieved 2012-03-18.
- "New terminal, network of taxiways for Mumbai by 2013 – The Times of India". The Times Of India. 21 November 2011.
- "Free wi-fi at Mumbai airport". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 24 April 2007. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "Mumbai airport upgrade cost may top Delhi’s ₹12,700 crore". Live Mint. 2 November 2011. Retrieved 2 Septhember 2012.
- 25 March 2010 3:58PM (25 March 2010). "Mumbai Airport's $2.2bn makeover". The Australian. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
- CSIA press release
- "http://www.csia.in/knowyourairport/masterplan.aspx". CSIA. CSIA.
- Geodesic Techniques
- http://www.airporttech.tc.faa.gov/ATT2010/Pavements/Session4a/McCullagh-A%20Case%20Study%20Upgrade%20of%20the%20Terminal%20Apron.pdf CSIA airport apron Case Study
- Mumbai airport's big face-lift: The story so far | CNNGo.com
- "Terminal 2 can be a game changer for Mumbai airport and a challenger to Delhi's T3". The Economic Times. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "Terminal art". Daily News & Analysis. 4 December 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- "First look at Mumbai international airport's Terminal 2". NDTV.com. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- "CSIA.in". CSIA.in. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
- "MIAL ATC Tower". JSW Severfield Structures Limited. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Tallest in India, new ATC tower to boost Mumbai air traffic". Business Standard. 18 October 2013. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Air Traffic Control Tower, Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport". Arup. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Mumbai's new ATC Tower scales futuristic heights". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "New ATC tower to be inaugurated by October". The Times of India. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
- "Work on new ATC tower to begin soon". The Indian Express. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Mumbai airport to get new traffic control tower". Business Standard. 4 April 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Flying in to the Airport forecourt". ECC Concord. January 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- "Demolition of 350 houses paves the way for elevated road at Sahar". DNA. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
- Pinglay, Prachi (21 January 2008). "NEWS.BBC.co.uk". NEWS.BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "Mumbai Airport cancels HDIL slum redevelopment pact". Reuters. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
- "5 year on, 'not an inch' of airport land freed". The Times of India. 12 May 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "200 acres to be excluded for airport expansion". The Times of India. 11 August 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "Delay in Shivaji statue relocation cost Rs25 crore". Daily News & Analysis. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "MNS joins stir over Shivaji statue". The Indian Express. 11 July 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- "Politics over Shivaji statue delays Mumbai airport expansion". Business Standard. 25 June 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- GoAir to use Terminal 1A in Mumbai airport from July 1
- "Mumbai airport unveils new domestic terminal". Business Standard. 18 April 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Razing of terminal 2A begins at airport". Indian Express. 7 Jan 2009. Retrieved 26 Dec 2011.
- MIAL General Aviation Terminal – Press release
- MIAL Air Cargo Complex
- MIAL Air Cargo Performances
- MIAL Cargo Facilities
- "2013 summer schedule". Aero Logic. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- Ethiopian Airlines Cargo Schedule
- Etihad Crystal Cargo Schedule
- MP Cargo winter 2012 timetable
- "Mumbai Airport plans Rs 2,280 cr investment this fiscal". Business-standard.com. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "Delhi’s airport busier than Mumbai’s by 40 flights a day". Indianexpress.com. 16 August 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
- "Public Private Partnerships In India – Maharashtra – Infrastructure". Pppinindia.com. Retrieved 2010-08-03.
- "Mumbai airport to handle more flights per hour – The Times of India". The Times Of India. 3 October 2011.
- "Hindustan Times e-Paper". Epaper.hindustantimes.com. Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- TNN, 17 March 2007, 02.11am IST (17 March 2007). "Airport records 20 mn passengers in 11 months". The Times of India. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- Forbes.com – The World's Most-Delayed Airports for 2008
- "The Legacy of Douglas Corrigan: "Wrong Way" Landings By Commercial Airliners". Third Amendment. Retrieved 25 December 2009.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 25 December 2009.
- "AI plane catches fire; probe ordered". NDTV. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
- "Turkish Airways Flight Veers Off Taxiway". The Times Of India. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Close shave as IndiGo plane veers off runway in Mumbai". The Indian Express (Mumbai). Express News Service. 9 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- Shalya, Chinmayi (12 March 2013). "Lucky escape for 200 after plane's engine fails midair". The Times of India (Mumbai). Times News Network. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "MumbaIlive.in". MumbaIlive.in. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "The Sustainability Report 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- "CSIA.in". CSIA.in. 8 February 2008. Retrieved 2010-08-24.[dead link]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport.|
- Mumbai International Airport Limited (Official website)
- Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport at Airports Authority of India web site
- Accident history for BOM at Aviation Safety Network