List of chief ministers of Kerala
|Chief Minister of Kerala|
|Status||Head of Government|
|Member of||Kerala Legislature (Assembly|
|Residence||Cliff House, Thiruvananthapuram|
|Appointer||Governor of Kerala|
|Term length||5 years|
|Precursor||Prime Minister of Travancore|
Prime Minister of Cochin
Chief Ministers of Travancore-Cochin
|Inaugural holder||E. M. S. Namboodiripad (1957–1959)|
|Formation||5 April 1957|
The Chief Minister of Kerala is the chief executive of the Indian state of Kerala. In accordance with the Constitution of India, the governor is a state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.
The origins of Kerala lie in the princely states of Travancore and Cochin. Following India's independence from the British Raj in 1947, these states' monarchs instituted a measure of representative government, headed by a Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. On 1 July 1949 Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin state. On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act redrew India's map along linguistic lines, and the present-day state of Kerala was born, consisting solely of Malayalam-speaking districts. Since then, 12 people have served as the Chief Minister of Kerala. The first was E. M. S. Namboodiripad of the Communist Party of India, whose tenure was cut short by the imposition of President's rule. Kerala has come under President's rule for four years over seven terms, the last of them in 1982. Since then the office has alternated between leaders of the Indian National Congress and of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). The latter party's Pinarayi Vijayan is the incumbent chief minister; his Left Democratic Front government has been in office since 25 May 2016.
Colour key for parties
Prime Ministers of Travancore (1948-49)
|From||To||Days in office|
|1||Pattom A. Thanu Pillai||24 March 1948||17 October 1948||210 days||Indian National Congress||Representative
|Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, Maharaja of Travancore|
|2||Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai||22 October 1948||1 July 1949||253 days|
Prime Ministers of Cochin (1947-49)
|From||To||Days in office|
|1||Panampilly Govinda Menon||14 August 1947||22 October 1947||51 days||Independent||Sixth Council
|Kerala Varna VII,|
|2||T. K. Nair||27 October 1947||20 September 1948||334 days|
|3||E. Ikkanda Warrier||20 September 1948||30 June 1949||283 days||Legislative
Chief Ministers of Travancore-Cochin (1949-56)
|From||To||Days in office|
|1||Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai||1 July 1949||1 March 1951||1 year, 243 days||Indian National Congress||1st Assembly
|Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma,|
|2||C. Kesavan||3 March 1951||12 March 1952||1 year, 11 days|
|3||Anaparambil Joseph John||12 March 1952||16 March 1954||2 years, 4 days||2nd Assembly
|4||Pattom Thanu Pillai||16 March 1954||10 February 1955||331 days||Praja Socialist Party||3rd Assembly
|5||Panampilly Govinda Menon||10 February 1955||23 March 1956||1 year, 42 days||Indian National Congress|
|23 March 1956||31 October 1956||222 days||N/A||Dissolved||-|
Chief Ministers of Kerala
The Government of India's 1 November 1956 States Reorganisation Act inaugurated the new Kerala state, incorporating Malabar District, Travancore-Cochin (excluding 4 southern taluks which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the Kasaragod taluk of South Kanara district. A new Legislative Assembly was also created, for which elections were held in 1957.
- A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
- This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he headed may have been a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.
- When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.
- As the 1965 election did not deliver a clear mandate in favour of any party or coalition, no assembly was convened, and President's rule was re-imposed.
- Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Kerala as well.
- Responsible Governments (1947–56). Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
- History of Kerala Legislature. Government of Kerala. Archived on 6 October 2014.
- Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005.
- Chief Ministers, Ministers and Leaders of Opposition in Kerala. Secretariat of the Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 28 August 2018.
- Chief Ministers of Kerala since 1957. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
- President's rule in Kerala. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
- Duration of Each Assembly. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
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