List of chief ministers of Kerala

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Chief Minister of Kerala
Government of Kerala Logo.svg
Pinarayi..Vijayan.jpg
Incumbent
Pinarayi Vijayan

since 25 May 2016
StyleThe Honourable
StatusHead of Government
Member ofKerala Legislature (Assembly
Cabinet)
ResidenceCliff House, Thiruvananthapuram
SeatKerala Niyamasabha
AppointerGovernor of Kerala
Term length5 years
PrecursorPrime Minister of Travancore
Prime Minister of Cochin
Chief Ministers of Travancore-Cochin
Inaugural holderE. M. S. Namboodiripad (1957–1959)
Formation5 April 1957; 64 years ago (1957-04-05)
WebsiteCMO Kerala
Photograph of Cliff House, a two-storey bungalow with a garden in the foreground
A 15,000 sq. ft building on 4.5 acres of land, Cliff House in Thiruvananthapuram is the official residence of the Chief Minister of Kerala.

The Chief Minister of Kerala is the chief executive of the Indian state of Kerala. In accordance with the Constitution of India, the governor is a state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[1]

The origins of Kerala lie in the princely states of Travancore and Cochin. Following India's independence from the British Raj in 1947, these states' monarchs instituted a measure of representative government, headed by a Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. On 1 July 1949 Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin state. On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act redrew India's map along linguistic lines, and the present-day state of Kerala was born, consisting solely of Malayalam-speaking districts. Since then, 12 people have served as the Chief Minister of Kerala. The first was E. M. S. Namboodiripad of the Communist Party of India, whose tenure was cut short by the imposition of President's rule. Kerala has come under President's rule for four years over seven terms, the last of them in 1982. Since then the office has alternated between leaders of the Indian National Congress and of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). The latter party's Pinarayi Vijayan is the incumbent chief minister; his Left Democratic Front government has been in office since 25 May 2016.

Colour key for parties[edit]

Precursors[edit]

Prime Ministers of Travancore (1948-49)[edit]

No.[a] Name Portrait Term[2][3]
(tenure length)
Party Assembly
(election)
Appointed by

(Monarch)

From To Days in office
1 Pattom A. Thanu Pillai Pattom A. Thanu Pillai.jpg 24 March 1948 17 October 1948 210 days Indian National Congress Representative

Body

(1948–49)

Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, Maharaja of Travancore
2 Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai 22 October 1948 1 July 1949 253 days

Prime Ministers of Cochin (1947-49)[edit]

No.[a] Name Portrait Term[2] Party Assembly Appointed by

(Monarch)

From To Days in office
1 Panampilly Govinda Menon Panampilly statue.jpg 14 August 1947 22 October 1947 51 days Independent Sixth Council

(1945–48)

Kerala Varna VII,

Maharaja of Cochin

2 T. K. Nair 27 October 1947 20 September 1948 334 days
3 E. Ikkanda Warrier Ikkanda variar.jpg 20 September 1948 30 June 1949 283 days Legislative

Assembly

(1948–49)

Chief Ministers of Travancore-Cochin (1949-56)[edit]

After India's independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on 1 July 1949. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state.

No.[a] Name Portrait Term[2] Party[b] Assembly
(election)
Appointed by

(Rajpramukh)

From To Days in office
1 Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai 1 July 1949 1 March 1951 1 year, 243 days Indian National Congress 1st Assembly

(1949–51)

Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma,

Maharaja of Travancore

2 C. Kesavan C Kesavan.jpg 3 March 1951 12 March 1952 1 year, 11 days
3 Anaparambil Joseph John 12 March 1952 16 March 1954 2 years, 4 days 2nd Assembly

(1952–53)
(1951 election)

4 Pattom Thanu Pillai Pattom A. Thanu Pillai.jpg 16 March 1954 10 February 1955 331 days Praja Socialist Party 3rd Assembly

(1954–56)
(1954 election)

5 Panampilly Govinda Menon Panampilly statue.jpg 10 February 1955 23 March 1956 1 year, 42 days Indian National Congress
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg 23 March 1956 31 October 1956 222 days N/A Dissolved -

Chief Ministers of Kerala[edit]

The Government of India's 1 November 1956 States Reorganisation Act inaugurated the new Kerala state, incorporating Malabar District, Travancore-Cochin (excluding 4 southern taluks which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the Kasaragod taluk of South Kanara district. A new Legislative Assembly was also created, for which elections were held in 1957.

No.[a] Name[5]
Ministry
Portrait Constituency Term[6][7] Party[b]
(alliance)
Assembly[8]
(election)
Appointed

by

(Governor)

From To Days in office
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg N/A 1 November 1956 5 April 1957 155 days N/A Dissolved -
1 E. M. S. Namboodiripad
1st EMS ministry
E. M. S. Namboodiripad.jpg Nileshwaram 5 April 1957 31 July 1959 2 years, 117 days Communist Party of India 1st Assembly

(1957–59)
(1957 election)

Burgula Ramakrishna Rao
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg N/A 31 July 1959 22 February 1960 206 days N/A Dissolved -
2 Pattom A. Thanu Pillai
Thanupillai ministry
Pattom A. Thanu Pillai.jpg Trivandrum II 22 February 1960 26 September 1962 2 years, 216 days Praja Socialist Party 2nd Assembly

(1960–64)
(1960 election)

Burgula Ramakrishna Rao
3 R. Sankar
Sankar ministry
R. Sankar (cropped).jpg Cannanore I 26 September 1962 10 September 1964 1 year, 350 days Indian National Congress V. V. Giri
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg N/A 10 September 1964 25 March 1965 2 years, 177 days N/A Dissolved -
25 March 1965 6 March 1967 2 years, 177 days Dissolved
(1965 election)[d]
-
(1) E. M. S. Namboodiripad
2nd EMS ministry
E. M. S. Namboodiripad.jpg Pattambi 6 March 1967 1 November 1969 2 years, 240 days;
(total 4 years, 357 days)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Saptakakshi Munnani)
3rd Assembly

(1967–70)
(1967 election)

Bhagwan Sahay
4 C. Achutha Menon
1st Achutha Menon ministry
C. Achutha Menon.jpg Kottarakkara 1 November 1969 1 August 1970 273 days Communist Party of India V. Viswanathan
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg N/A 4 August 1970 3 October 1970 60 days N/A Dissolved -
(4) C. Achutha Menon
2nd Achutha Menon ministry
C. Achutha Menon.jpg Kodakara 4 October 1970 25 March 1977 6 years, 172 days;

(total 7 years, 80 days)

Communist Party of India
(United Front)
4th Assembly

(1970–77)
(1970 election)

V. Viswanathan
5 K. Karunakaran
1st Karunakaran ministry
Karunakaran Kannoth.jpg Mala 25 March 1977 25 April 1977 31 days Indian National Congress
(United Front)
5th Assembly

(1977–79)
(1977 election)

N. N. Wanchoo
6 A. K. Antony
1st Antony ministry
A. K. Antony.jpg Kazhakkuttom 27 April 1977 27 October 1978 1 year, 183 days
7 P. K. Vasudevan Nair
PKV ministry
P.K. Vasudevan Nair.jpg Alleppey 29 October 1978 7 October 1979 343 days Communist Party of India
(United Front)
Jothi Venkatachalam
8 C. H. Mohammed Koya
Koya ministry
C H Mohammed Koya (1979).jpg Malappuram 12 October 1979 1 December 1979 50 days Indian Union Muslim League
(United Front)
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg N/A 5 December 1979 25 January 1980 51 days N/A Dissolved -
9 E. K. Nayanar
1st Nayanar ministry
Ek nayanar.jpeg Malampuzha 25 January 1980 20 October 1981 1 year, 268 days Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
6th Assembly

(1980–82)
(1980 election)

Jothi Venkatachalam
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg N/A 21 October 1981 28 December 1981 68 days N/A -
(5) K. Karunakaran
2nd Karunakaran ministry
Karunakaran Kannoth.jpg Mala 28 December 1981 17 March 1982 79 days Indian National Congress (I)
(United Democratic Front)
Jothi Venkatachalam
Vacant[c]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg N/A 17 March 1982 23 May 1982 67 days N/A Dissolved -
(5) K. Karunakaran
3rd Karunakaran ministry
Karunakaran Kannoth.jpg Mala 24 May 1982 25 March 1987 4 years, 305 days Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
7th Assembly

(1982–87)
(1982 election)

Jothi Venkatachalam
(9) E. K. Nayanar
2nd Nayanar ministry
Ek nayanar.jpeg Trikaripur 26 March 1987 17 June 1991 4 years, 83 days Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
8th Assembly

(1987–91)
(1987 election)

P. Ramachandran
(5) K. Karunakaran
4th Karunakaran ministry
Karunakaran Kannoth.jpg Mala 24 June 1991 16 March 1995 3 years, 265 days;
(total 8 years, 315 days)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
9th Assembly

(1991–96)
(1991 election)

B. Rachaiah
(6) A. K. Antony
2nd Antony ministry
A. K. Antony.jpg Thirurangadi 22 March 1995 9 May 1996 1 year, 48 days
(9) E. K. Nayanar
3rd Nayanar ministry
Ek nayanar.jpeg Thalassery 20 May 1996 13 May 2001 5 years, 24 days;
(total 11 years, 10 days)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
10th Assembly

(1996–2001)
(1996 election)

Khurshid Alam Khan
(6) A. K. Antony
3rd Antony ministry
A. K. Antony.jpg Cherthala 17 May 2001 29 August 2004 3 years, 75 days;
(total 5 years, 306 days)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
11th Assembly

(2001–06)
(2001 election)

Sukhdev Singh Kang
10 Oommen Chandy
1st Chandy ministry
Oommen Chandy (cropped).jpg Puthuppally 31 August 2004 12 May 2006 1 year, 254 days R. L. Bhatia
11 V. S. Achuthanandan
Achuthanandan ministry
V. S. Achuthanandan 2016.jpg Malampuzha 18 May 2006 14 May 2011 4 years, 361 days Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
12th Assembly

(2006–11)
(2006 election)

(10) Oommen Chandy
2nd Chandy ministry
Oommen Chandy (cropped).jpg Puthuppally 18 May 2011 20 May 2016 5 years, 2 days;
(total 6 years, 256 days)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
13th Assembly

(2011–16)
(2011 election)

R. S. Gavai
12 Pinarayi Vijayan
Vijayan ministry
Pinarayi Vijayan (cropped).jpg Dharmadam 25 May 2016 Incumbent 4 years, 323 days Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
14th Assembly

(2016–21)
(2016 election)

P. Sathasivam

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d A parenthetical number indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  2. ^ a b This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he headed may have been a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[4]
  4. ^ As the 1965 election did not deliver a clear mandate in favour of any party or coalition, no assembly was convened, and President's rule was re-imposed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Kerala as well.
  2. ^ a b c Responsible Governments (1947–56). Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
  3. ^ History of Kerala Legislature. Government of Kerala. Archived on 6 October 2014.
  4. ^ Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005.
  5. ^ Chief Ministers, Ministers and Leaders of Opposition in Kerala. Secretariat of the Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 28 August 2018.
  6. ^ Chief Ministers of Kerala since 1957. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
  7. ^ President's rule in Kerala. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
  8. ^ Duration of Each Assembly. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.

External links[edit]