Legislative districts of the Philippines

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Legislative districts for the 16th Congress of the Philippines.

The legislative districts of the Philippines are the divisions of the Philippines' provinces and cities for representation in the various legislative bodies. Congressional districts are for House of Representatives, while there are districts for Sangguniang Panlalawigan, and some Sangguniang Panlungsod. For purposes of representation, the Senate, most Sangguniang Panlungsod, Sangguniang Bayan, Sangguniang Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan are all elected at-large, although there were previously senatorial districts.

The first composition of legislative districts was enshrined in the Ordinance appended to the Constitution. Changes in the composition of legislative districts were later added as new provinces and cities were created, and the composition was modified through laws enacted by Congress.

Apportionment on local legislatures is also possible.

History[edit]

Representation to the legislature traces its origin to the Spanish era, when the Philippines was granted very limited representation to the Spanish Cortes. During the American period, when the Philippine Bill of 1902 was enacted, the first Philippine Assembly was established as the lower house and the then-existing Philippine Commission as the upper house. Representation in the assembly was apportioned among the provinces with respect to their population, provided that no province shall have less than one member.

In 1916, the Philippine Legislature was reconstituted with a Senate as the upper house and the Assembly retained as the lower house. The Senate elected members through Senatorial Districts, a grouping of provinces and areas of the country, while the Assembly retained its way of representation. During the Commonwealth period, the Philippine Legislature was abolished, and a unicameral National Assembly was established, with representation being like that of the Philippine Assembly, each province having at least one member depending on its population.

With the passage of the 1940 Amendments to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress was established with a House of Representatives and a Senate. The House of Representatives way of representation was like that of the Philippine Assembly, while the Senate's members were elected at large.

With the coming of the Interim Batasang Pambansa and the regular Batasan during the Marcos regime, representation was done in many ways: most members were elected by regions, some by appointment from the different sectors of the society such as youth and labor, and some were members of the Cabinet appointed by the President. However, with the advent of the 1987 Constitution, the Batasan was scrapped and the Congress was restored. The present way of electing delegates to the House of Representatives is through legislative districts apportioned among the provinces, cities and the Metropolitan Manila Area and through a party-list system of registered national, regional and sectoral parties or organizations.

Senatorial districts[edit]

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From 1916 to 1935, the Philippines was divided into 12 senatorial districts. Each district except for the twelfth senatorial district elected two senators to the Senate. The senators from 12th senatorial district were appointed by the U.S. Governor-General. Since 1941, when the Senate was restored, all twenty-four senators have been elected at-large in intervals.

Senatorial District Provinces and/or City
First District Abra (re-established 1917), Batanes, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Isabela
Second District La Union, Pangasinan, Zambales
Third District Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac
Fourth District Manila, Bataan, Laguna, Rizal
Fifth District Batangas, Cavite, Marinduque (established 1920), Mindoro, Tayabas
Sixth District Albay, Ambos Camarines (split into Norte and Sur 1917), Sorsogon
Seventh District Capiz, Iloilo, Romblon (established 1917)
Eighth District Antique, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, Palawan
Ninth District Leyte, Samar
Tenth District Cebu
Eleventh District Bohol, Misamis (split into Occidental and Oriental 1929), Surigao
Twelfth District City of Baguio, Department of Mindanao and Sulu (abolished in 1920, consisted of the provinces of Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, Lanao, Sulu and Zamboanga), Mountain Province (consisted of the sub-provinces of Apayao, Benguet, Bontoc, Ifugao, and Kalinga), Nueva Vizcaya

Representative districts[edit]

  Increased representation;   Decreased representation

Province/City Districts Congress of the Philippines
17th 16th 15th 14th 13th 12th 11th 10th 9th 8th
Abra Abra 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Agusan del Norte and Butuan Agusan del Norte 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Agusan del Sur (with Bayugan) Agusan del Sur 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Aklan Aklan 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Albay (with Legazpi, Ligao and Tabaco) Albay 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Antique Antique 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Apayao Apayao 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Kalinga (with Tabuk) Kalinga 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Aurora Aurora 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Bacolod Bacolod 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Baguio Baguio 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (see Benguet)
Basilan (with Isabela and Lamitan) Basilan 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Bataan (with Balanga) Bataan 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Batanes Batanes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Batangas (with Batangas City, Lipa and Tanauan) Batangas 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Benguet Benguet 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
Biliran Biliran 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (see Leyte)
Bohol (with Tagbilaran) Bohol 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Bukidnon (with Malaybalay and Valencia) Bukidnon 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Bulacan (with Malolos, Meycauayan and San Jose del Monte) Bulacan, San Jose del Monte 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4
Cagayan (with Tuguegarao) Cagayan 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Cagayan de Oro Cagayan de Oro 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Caloocan Caloocan 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Camarines Norte Camarines Norte 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Camarines Sur (with Iriga) and Naga Camarines Sur 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Camiguin Camiguin 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Capiz (with Roxas) Capiz 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Catanduanes Catanduanes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Cavite (with Bacoor, Cavite City, Dasmariñas, General Trias, Imus, Tagaytay and Trece Martires) Cavite (includes Dasmariñas (Cavite–4th) 7 7 7 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Cebu (with Bogo, Carcar, Danao, Naga, Talisay and Toledo) and Mandaue Cebu 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Cebu City Cebu City 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Compostela Valley Compostela Valley 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (see Davao del Norte)
Cotabato (with Kidapawan) Cotabato 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Davao City Davao City 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Davao del Norte (with Panabo, Samal and Tagum) Davao del Norte 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
Davao del Sur (with Digos) Davao del Sur 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Davao Occidental Davao Occidental 1 (see Davao del Sur)
Davao Oriental (with Mati) Davao Oriental 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Dinagat Islands Dinagat Islands 1 1 1 1 (see Surigao del Norte)
Eastern Samar (with Borongan) Eastern Samar 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Guimaras Guimaras 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (see Iloilo)
Ifugao Ifugao 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Iligan Iligan 1 1 1 (see Lanao del Norte)
Ilocos Norte (with Laoag) Ilocos Norte 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Ilocos Sur (with Candon and Vigan) Ilocos Sur 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Iloilo (with Passi) Iloilo 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Iloilo City Iloilo City 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Isabela (with Cauayan and Ilagan) and Santiago Isabela 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
La Union (with San Fernando) La Union 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Laguna (with Biñan, Cabuyao, Calamba, San Pablo, San Pedro and Santa Rosa) Laguna 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Lanao del Norte Lanao del Norte 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Lanao del Sur (with Marawi) Lanao del Sur 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Lapu-Lapu Lapu-Lapu 1 1 1 (see Cebu)
Las Piñas Las Piñas 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Muntinlupa Muntinlupa 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Leyte (with Baybay), Ormoc and Tacloban Leyte 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Maguindanao and Cotabato City Maguindanao 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Makati Makati 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
Malabon Malabon 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Navotas Navotas 1 1 1
Mandaluyong Mandaluyong 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
San Juan San Juan 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Manila Manila 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Marikina Marikina 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Marinduque Marinduque 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Masbate (with Masbate City) Masbate 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Misamis Occidental (with Oroquieta, Ozamiz and Tangub) Misamis Occidental 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Misamis Oriental (with El Salvador and Gingoog) Misamis Oriental 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Mountain Province Mountain Province 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Negros Occidental (with Bago, Cadiz, Escalante, Himamaylan, Kabankalan, La Carlota, Sagay, San Carlos, Silay, Sipalay, Talisay and Victorias) Negros Occidental 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Negros Oriental (with Bais, Bayawan, Canlaon, Dumaguete, Guihulngan and Tanjay) Negros Oriental 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Northern Samar Northern Samar 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Nueva Ecija (with Gapan, Muñoz, Palayan and San Jose) Nueva Ecija 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Nueva Vizcaya Nueva Vizcaya 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Occidental Mindoro Occidental Mindoro 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Oriental Mindoro (with Calapan) Oriental Mindoro 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Palawan and Puerto Princesa Palawan 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Pampanga (with Mabalacat and San Fernando) and Angeles Pampanga 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Pangasinan (with Alaminos, San Carlos and Urdaneta) and Dagupan Pangasinan 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Parañaque Parañaque 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1
Pasay Pasay 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Pasig Pasig 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Quezon and Lucena Quezon 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Quezon City Quezon City 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Quirino Quirino 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Rizal (with Antipolo) Rizal, Antipolo 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 2
Romblon Romblon 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Samar (with Calbayog and Catbalogan) Samar 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Sarangani Sarangani 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (see South Cotabato)
Siquijor Siquijor 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sorsogon (with Sorsogon City) Sorsogon 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
South Cotabato (with Koronadal) and General Santos South Cotabato 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3
Southern Leyte (with Maasin) Southern Leyte 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sultan Kudarat (with Tacurong) Sultan Kudarat 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Sulu Sulu 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Surigao del Norte (with Surigao City) Surigao del Norte 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Surigao del Sur (with Bislig and Tandag) Surigao del Sur 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Taguig and Pateros Taguig and Pateros–Taguig 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Tarlac (with Tarlac City) Tarlac 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Tawi-Tawi Tawi-Tawi 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Valenzuela Valenzuela 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
Zambales and Olongapo Zambales 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Zamboanga City Zamboanga City 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Zamboanga del Norte (with Dapitan and Dipolog) Zamboanga del Norte 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Zamboanga del Sur (with Pagadian) Zamboanga del Sur 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
Zamboanga Sibugay Zamboanga Sibugay 2 2 2 2 1 1 (see Zamboanga del Sur)
Total Philippines 238 234 229 219 212 209 208 203 200 200

Local districts[edit]

Representation in the ARMM Regional Legislative Assembly follows the congressional districts, except for the Isabela excluded from Basilan's assembly district, as it is not included in the ARMM. However, unlike one seat being contested in each district, three seats elected via plurality-at-large voting is done.

Representation via provincial boards, known as Sangguniang Panlalawigan are also via legislative districts except for a few instances, such as Bulacan's 4th provincial board district including San Jose del Monte, while its congressional district does not. The province's income determines how many seats it is entitled to, with 6 seats being the least. If a province only has one congressional district, the Commission on Elections then divides the province into two districts based on population and geography.

If a city is split into several congressional districts, representation via its city councils, known as Sangguniang Panlalawigan, follows the districts as set by the congressional districts; otherwise, representation is via an at-large district.

At-large representation is also used in municipalities through their Sangguniang Bayan, and in barangays through their Sangguniang Barangay and Sangguniang Kabataan. At-large representation is always via plurality-at-large voting

See also[edit]

References[edit]