||This biographical article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2014)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Hyderabadi Urdu, Hindi, Telugu, Sindhi|
|Sunni Islam • Shia Islam • Mahdavi|
|Related ethnic groups|
|• Indian Muslim • Telugu people • Andhra Muslims • Marathi Muslims • Bhatkal Muslims • Arab Muslim|
Hyderabadi Muslims are a community of Urdu-speaking Muslims from the area that used to be the princely state of Hyderabad, India. With its origins in the Muslim Bahmani Sultanate and then Deccan sultanates, the culture became defined in the latter half of the reign of the Nizam dynasty in Hyderabad. The culture exists today in Hyderabad and among the Hyderabadi Muslim diaspora around the world, in particular, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, USA, Canada and the United Kingdom.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics and distribution
- 3 Politics
- 4 Language and literature
- 5 Cuisine
- 6 Clothing and jewellery
- 7 Religion
- 8 Notable people
- 9 Others
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
The Deccan plateau acted as a bulwark sheltering South India from the invasions and political turmoil that affected North India. This allowed the Muslim-ruled state of Hyderabad to develop a distinctive culture during the Qutb Shahi dynasty, Mughal Aurangzeb and later the Asaf Jahi dynasty of the Nizams.
According to Time, the seventh Nizam was the richest man in the world during the late 1940s, and fifth richest person of all time according to Forbes Magazine after adjustment for inflation and currency purchasing power parity.
The Nizam was the Muslim ruler of the vast princely Hyderabad State. The capital city of Hyderabad was primarily Urdu-speaking Muslim until the Incorporation of Hyderabad into India and the subsequent rise to dominance of Telugu-speaking people of Andhra State. The state's economy was agrarian, and Hyderabad was primarily a government and administrative hub, run mostly (but far from exclusively) by Muslims. The aristocracy, jagirdars and deshmukhs (wealthy landowners), and even minor government officials, could afford to hire servants, usually also Muslims, in a social order similar to the class system of Victorian England. The Nizam allied himself with the British early on, with ensuing political stability. The Muslim upper and middle classes were free to concentrate on a care-free and leisurely lifestyle involving clothes, jewelry, food, music, literary arts, and other indulgences, little of which trickled down to the servant class, known as naukar (a word originally used for the Mughal Emperor Babur's closest feudal retainers).
The relative isolation of Hyderabad until annexation to India, its distinctive dialect of Urdu and the strong web of interconnecting family relationships that still characterizes Hyderabadi Muslims, sometimes leads to charges of parochialism from other Indian Muslim communities, but it also ensures a Hyderabadi Muslim identity endures among the Indian diaspora.
Demographics and distribution
The largest concentration of Hyderabadi Muslims is in the old city of Hyderabad. After the Partition of India and the Incorporation of Hyderabad by India, the Muslims of the state lost their privileged status, so significant numbers chose to migrate to other countries such as Pakistan, the Arab States of the Persian Gulf, the United States, UK, Canada and Australia.
Because of its status as the richest of the princely states in India and being ruled by a Muslim leader, Hyderabad State attracted Muslims from all around India and even other countries in search of work. Many Muslim poets, musicians, scholars, soldiers and administrators from far and wide sought employment in the Nizam's court, the Hyderabad Civil Service, army or educational institutions. Among those who spent a significant amount of time in Hyderabad were the famous poet Josh Malihabadi, Fani Badayuni, religious scholar Shibli Nomani and court photographer Lala Deen Dayal among others
A section of Hyderabadi Muslims are of Hadhrami Arab origin, who came to serve in the Nizam's military. They are known as Chaush and mostly reside in the Barkas neighbourhood of Hyderabad. There are also some Siddis who are of African descent.
In Pakistan, most of the Hyderabadi migrants are settled in the southern port city of Karachi. Estimates of the Hyderabadi population in Karachi range between 20,000 and 200,000 today. The main neighbourhoods where the Hyderabadi migrants in Karachi initially settled were Hyderabad Colony, Bahadurabad (named after the Hyderabadi Muslim leader Bahadur Yar Jang) & Laiqabad known as (Murghi Khana). In 2007, a replica of the famous Charminar monument in Hyderabad was built at the main crossing of Bahadurabad.
Hyderabadi Muslims have organized themselves politically along religious lines. The most prominent example of this is the All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, currently led by Asaduddin Owaisi. The party dominates the politics scene in Hyderabad's Old City, and consistently wins seats for the Lok Sabha (Lower House of Indian Parliament) and the Telangana Legislative Assembly. The party claims to represent the interests of Muslims by campaigning for greater protection of minority rights. A rival breakaway faction of the AIMIM is the Majlis Bachao Tehreek that also claims to represent the interests of Muslims in Hyderabad.
However, some Hyderabadi Muslims have been strong supporters of secular progressive movements, such as the famous Urdu poets Makhdoom Mohiuddin and Sulaiman Areeb, and Hassan Nasir who participated in the Telangana Rebellion against the rule of the Nizam. Hyderabadi Muslims were also at the forefront of the formation of the Comrades Association in 1939, one of the first communist organizations in Hyderabad which struggled against the Nizam. Other secular members of the Hyderabad Muslim community include Shoaibullah Khan, the editor of the Urdu daily Imroz that was critical of the Razakars and urged Hyderabad's integration with India (he was stabbed to death). The story of a poor Muslim peasant named Bandagi who was killed while struggling against the landlord was immortalised in the popular drama Ma Bhoomi about the Telangana Rebellion. In 1946, editor of Urdu daily Saltanat Sayyid Ahmedullah Qadri was the first journalist of Hyderabad state who wrote articles on ONE NATION Theory.
Language and literature
One of the most identifiable markers of Hyderabadi Muslim culture is the local dialect of Urdu. It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Turkish, Persian and Arabic, as well in some vocabulary from Telugu and Marathi that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu. In terms of pronunciation, the easiest way to recognize a Hyderabadi Urdu is use of "nakko"(no) and "hau"(yes); whereas in standard Urdu its "nahi" for (no) and "haa" for (yes).
The other important characteristic of the natives is cultural refinement in terms of interpersonal communication, referred to as 'meethi boli' (or, sweet and civilised speech). 'Tameez', 'tahzeeb' and 'akhlaq' (etiquette, custom, and tradition) are considered very important and guests are treated well with lot of 'mahmaan nawaazi' (hospitality).
Among the famous Hyderabadi Urdu poets are Amjad Hyderabadi, Dagh Dehalvi, Molana Mufti Mir Ashraf Ali, Safi Aurangabadi Makhdoom Mohiuddin, Sulaiman Areeb and khawja Shouq. Others poets who made Hyderabad their home for a significant amount of time include Josh Malihabadi and Fani Badayuni. Although not a Muslim himself, Maharaja Sir Kishen Pershad was steeped in Hyderabadi Muslim culture and wrote Urdu poetry under the pen name of "Shad" (Urdu: شاد).
Some famous Hyderabadi cuisine (dishes) that are served at weddings are: Hyderabadi Biryani, Haleem, Khubani ka Mitha, Gil-e-Firdaus, Double Ka Meetha, Luqmi, Dum ka qimah, Marag, Kaddu ki Kheer, Mirchi ka Salan and Baghare Baigan.
Other popular food items are: Chakna, Tamate ka Kut, Khatti Dal, Dalcha, Shirmal, Rawghani Roti, Nahari, Pasande, Pathar Ka Ghosht, Naan, Dum Ka Murgh, Khagina, Katche Gosht Ki Biryani, Khichdi, Nargisi Kheema, Shaami, Kofte, Tala Hua Ghosht, Poori, Kheer, Sheer Khorma, Til ka Khatta, Til ki Chutney and Qubuli,shikampur,Tahari, Khichdi, shawarma.
Clothing and jewellery
The Khada Dupatta or Khara Dupatta(uncut veil) is an outfit composed of a kurta (tunic), chooridaar (ruched pair of pants), and 6 yard dupatta (veil) and is traditionally worn by Hyderabad brides. Sometimes the kurta is sleeveless and worn over a koti resembling a choli. The bride also wears a matching ghoonghat (veil) over her head. The accompanying jewellery is:
- Tika (a medallion of uncut diamonds worn on the forehead and suspended by a string of pearls)
- Jhoomar (a fan shaped ornament worn on the side of the head)
- Nath (a nose ring with a large ruby bead flanked by two pearls)
- Chintaak also known as Jadaoo Zevar (a choker studded with uncut diamonds and precious stones)
- Kan phool (earrings that match the Chintaak and consist of a flower motif covering the ear lobe and a bell shaped ornament that is suspended from the flower. The weight of precious stones and gold in the Karan phool is held up by sahare or supports made of strands of pearls that are fastened into the wearers hair.)
- Satlada (neck ornament of seven strands of pearls set with emeralds, diamonds and rubies)
- Ranihaar (neck ornament of pearls with a wide pendant)
- Jugni (neck ornament of several strands of pearls with a central pendant)
- Gote (Shellac bangles studded with rhinestones and worn with gold coloured glass bangles called sonabai)
- Payal (ankle bracelets)
- Gintiyan (toe rings)
The Sherwani is the traditional men's garb of Hyderabad. It is a coat-like tunic with a tight-fitting collar (hook & eyelet fastening), close-fitting in the upper torso and flaring somewhat in its lower half. It usually has six or seven buttons, often removable ones made from gold sovereigns for special occasions. The material is usually silk or wool. A groom may use gold brocade for his wedding sherwani, but otherwise good taste dictates understated colors, albeit with rich and textured fabrics. The sherwani is usually worn over a silk or cotton kurta (long shirt) and pyjamas (baggy pants with a drawstring at the waist).
The sherwani is closely associated with Hyderabad, although it has spread since to the rest of India and to Pakistan. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru adapted its design and turned it into his trademark Nehru Jacket, further popularizing the garment.
The majority of Hyderabadi Muslims are Sunni. Sunni Muslims mostly follow the Hanafi school of Islamic Jurisprudence, although the Chaush community follows the Shafi'i school of thought and mainly reside in areas close to Barkas, the former Military Barracks of the Nizam, an area where the residents are mainly of Hadhrami Arab descent from Yemen. Islam in Hyderabad, with historical patronizing by the rulers, has a strong Sufi influence, Tablighi Jamaat has also been active since late 50s, with its headquarters at Jama Masjid Mallepally. Salafis and Mahdavis also exist in small pockets. Bismillah ceremony a Islam initiation ceremony, held for children between the age 3 – 5.
Religious knowledge and its propagation flourished under the Nizam with institutions like the world famous Jamia Nizamia (Jami'ah Nizamiyyah) of Hyderabad. The largest Mosque of Hyderabad, the Makkah Masjid gathers congregations of two hundred thousand and more on special occasions of Eid prayers and especially of Jumu'at-al Wida' ( the last Friday of Ramadan )
Hyderabad has also produced many renowned religious scholars of representing different Islamic sects and trends, including Jamaat-e-Islami founder Abul Ala Maududi, Tablighi jamaat key player maulana abid khan sahab, Sunni Barelvi scholar Turab-ul-Haq Qadri, and Shia scholar Allamah Rasheed Turabi. Currently professor and philosopher Dr. M. A. Muqtedar Khan, who lives and teaches in the U.S. is one of the most famous intellectuals from Hyderabad who frequently lectures in Europe, and the Middle East.
Writers and poets
- Sayyid Shamsullah Qadri,(1933), "Moorrakheen-E-Hind", Bibliographical Studies In Indo-Muslim History (in Urdu). HYDERABAD DECCAN: THE MAGAZINE TAREEKH. p. 139. and was the First Researcher of Deccaniyat, Allama Sayyid Shamsullah Qadri had also written many books. "Salateen E Muabber". Muslim University Press Aligarh. Retrieved 31 August 2013. "Urdu-i-qadim". Urdu literature - History and criticism. Lucknow : [s.n.], 1930. Sayyed ShamsUllah Qadri (1930). "Tareekh - Malabaar". Hindustan - Malabaar (in Urdu). Aligarh: Muslim University Press. p. 98.
- Sayyid Ahmedullah Qadri, Urdu writer, critic, author and politician, President of Lutfuddaulah Oriental Research Institute, Hyderabad. (Sayyid Ahmedullah Qadri S/o Sayyid Shamsullah Qadri)
- Mohiuddin Qadri Zore, Urdu poet literary critic and historian, established Idare Adabiyaat-e-Urdu in Hyderabad.
- Ali Haider Tabatabai, Urdu expert, Head of Translations Department (Darul Tarjuma) at Osmania University
- Amjad Hyderabadi, Urdu poet of Ruba'i
- Makhdoom Mohiuddin, Urdu poet and Marxist politician
- Iqbal Mateen, Urdu short story writer
- Sulaiman Areeb, Urdu poet
- Fani Badayuni, Urdu poet
- Fatima Surayya Bajia, novelist and playwright (Karachi,Pakistan)
- Anwar Maqsood, script writer, anchor-person,show-host (Karachi,Pakistan)
- Razaul Jabbar, author of many books, Settled in Canada.
- Omar Khalidi, author of Hyderabad: After the Fall and others, migrated to US.
- Masood Ali Khan, authored Islamic and cultural encyclopedia.
- Haroon Siddiqui, Indo-Canadian Journalist.
- Samina Ali (A PEN/Hemingway Award winner for her novel Madras on Rainy Days).
- Awaz Sayeed, Urdu writer of short stories and biographer.
- M. A. Muqtedar Khan, Political Science Professor, Islamic Philosopher and Muslim intellectual.
- Mirza Farhatullah Baig, Urdu writer.
- Yousuf Hussain Khan, was a historian, scholar, educationist, critic and author.
- Salam Masdoosi, scholar and writer
- Ahmed Abdullah Masdoosi, poet
- Shaz Tamkanat, Poet
- Aziz Qaisi, Poet
- Bahr-Ul-Uloom Hazrat Muhammad Abdul Qadeer Siddiqi Qadri, first head of the Department of Theology, Osmania University.
- Allam Mufti Mir Ashraf Ali, The grand mufti of the Sultanate of Nizam VII, scholar of Islamic jurisprudence
- Muhammad Hamidullah, professor, translator of Quran into French and academic author.
- Abul Ala Maududi, founder of the Jamaat-e-Islami
- M. A. Muqtedar Khan, a reformist Islamic thinker and strong advocate of Ijtihad * Muqtedar Khan's website on Ijtihad
- Hameeduddin Aqil, founder of the Darul Uloom Hyderabad
- Rasheed Turabi, Islamic scholar
- Muhammad Muslehuddin Siddiqui, Islamic scholar migrated to Pakistan.
- Mohammed Murtuza Siddiqui, Islamic scholar and author of The Message of the Qur'an as interpreted by Maulana Azad.
- Hashim Amir Ali, Islamic scholar and translator of the Quran in English under the title, "The Message of the Quran – presented in perspective" (1974)
- Sayyid Shamsullah Qadri
- Ajit Khan (Hamid Ali Khan), Bollywood villain actor
- Bade Ghulam Ali Khan A Hindustani classical singer.
- Shabana Azmi, actress
- Talat Aziz, Ghazal Singer
- Tabu, actress
- Ahmed Rushdi, playback singer
- Anwar Maqsood, playwright and satirist
- Fatima Surayya Bajia, Renowned Urdu novelist, playwright and drama writer of Pakistan. She has been awarded various awards at home and abroad including Japan's highest civil award in recognition of her works
- Mahmood Ali, television and radio artist
- Moin Akhtar, television, film and stage actor, as well as a humorist, comedian, impersonator, host, play writer, singer, film director and a producer
- Munshi Raziuddin, qawwali musician
- Warsi Brothers, qawwali musicians
- Bahauddin Khan, qawwali musician
- Ateeq Hussain Khan, qawwali musician
- Mohammad Ali Baig, theater personality and ad film maker.
- Aziz Qaisi, writer and Screenplay
- Jehan Ara Saeed first woman English newsreader of Radio Pakistan.
- Mohammad Irfan Ali, singer and winner of Jo Jeeta Wohi Super Star
- Zubaida Tariq, is a renowned chef and cooking expert from Pakistan
- Inayat Khan was an Indian classical musician and later became a teacher of Universal Sufism.
- Aziz Naser
- Mast Ali
- Danish Khan
- Mohammed Vizarat Rasool Khan, Founder, Shadan Group of Institutions.
- Sayeed Bin Mohammed (Naqsh) - Artist, Professor of Fine Arts, Poet. (From the Family of Babader Al Hazrami a Chaush)
- Begum Anees Khan, Founder & Chairperson Nasr School
- Raziuddin Siddiqui, theoretical physicist who was member of imperial Britain's nuclear physicist delegation, which was led by British Scientist William Penney (father of the British Nuclear Bomb), to the US Atomic Bomb-Manhattan Project. Participated in nuclear weapons programs of US-Manhattan Project and UK-Tube Alloys Project.
- Ahmed Mohiuddin, founder of the Pakistan Zoological Society, authored 37 books on scientific researches.
- Dr.Tahseen Mirza, Pharmaceutical scientific research.
Deputy director of US FDA, Washington DC, USA
- Sayyid Ahmedullah Qadri, Padmashri Sayyid Ahmedullah Qadri he was Freedom Fighter, Executive Member, Pradesh Congress Committee, Member AICC, he was Member Andhra Pradesh Library Committee, further he was convener of Publicity and Propaganda Committee of Hyderabad Congress Session in 1953, he was elected M.L.C. in 1960 to 1980 that is 20 years from Guntur Zilla Perishad, from Assembly and Nominated by President of India, he was Chairman A.P. State Hajj Committee in 1982 to 84.
- Suhail A. Khan, American conservative political activist, Senior Fellow for Muslim-Christian Understanding at the Institute for Global Engagement and Director of External Affairs at Microsoft Corporation.
- Zakir Hussain, former President of India.
- Bahadur Yar Jung, political leader.
- Mir Laiq Ali, last Prime Minister of Hyderabad State
- Hassan Nasir, Pakistani communist activist
- Sultan Salahuddin Owaisi Salar-e-Millat AIMIM
- Asaduddin Owaisi Naqeeb-e-Millat AIMIM
- Akbaruddin Owaisi Habeeb-e-Millat AIMIM
- Mohammad Majid Hussain AIMIM - Mayor of Hyderabad since 2012.
- Shabbir Ali, Ex-Minister during Indian National Congress rule in AP.
- Akbar Ali Khan (20 November 1899 – 1994) governor of Uttar Pradesh in India from 1972 to 1974 and governor of Orissa from 1974 to 1976. Member of the Rajya Sabha for 18 years.
- Syed Ali Mohammed Commander in Chief of The Paigah Army
- Col Syed Ali Raza Commander in Chief of The Paigah Army
- Mohammad Ahmed Zaki, former Lieutenant General and Director General of the Indian Army Infantry and Vice Chancellor of Jamia Millia Islamia (1997–2000).
- Jameel Mahmood Lt Gen, Commander-in-Chief (GOC-in-C), Eastern Command of the Indian Army.
- Idris Hasan Latif, former Chief of Air Staff, Indian Air Force. Former Governor of Maharashtra (1982–85).
- Hashim Ali Khan, Commandant of the 2nd Lancers, Hyderabad Imperial Service Troops
- Syed Mohammad Ahsan, Admiral and former Chief of Naval Staff, Pakistan Navy. Served as Weapon Engineer Officer (WEO) -Royal Naval Engineers, United Kingdom during the Second World War. Recipient of the United Kingdom's Distinguished Service Order military medal.
- Shahid Karimullah, Admiral and former four-star naval officer. Chief of Naval Staff (CNS), Pakistan Navy from 2002 to 2005. Graduate of the United States Naval War College. Recipient of the United States military Legion of Merit medal and French military Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honour) medal. Former senior officer of the Pakistan Navy Elite Special Service Group (Navy)- SSGN commando division.
- Sultan Mehmood, former Major General of the Indian Army.
- Ibrahim Habibullah, former Major General of the Indian Army| former Commandant of Indian National Defence Academy.
- Sami Khan, former Lieutenant General of the Indian Army| former Commandant of Indian National Defence Academy.
- General El Edroos, last Commander-in-chief of the Hyderabad State Army.
- Captain Mateen Ansari, British Indian Army Military Officer and graduate of Indian Military Academy. Served in the British Indian Army as a part of the 5th Battalion, 7th Rajput Regiment in World War II. Posthumous recipient of the British George Cross military medal.
- Ashraf Un Nisaa, The only Indian women recipient of George Cross.
- Shirin R. Tahir-Kheli, former Director of Political Military Affairs, United States National Security Council, USA. Previously served as a research professor at Johns Hopkins University Foreign Policy Institute at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, in Washington DC, USA.
- Sohail Mohammed, New Jersey Superior Court Judge in 2011.
- Abid Hussain IAS, Diplomat and since 2011 Chancellor of English and Foreign Languages University.
- Ghulam Ahmed
- Mohammad Azharuddin
- Arshad Ayub
- Asif Iqbal
- Abbas Ali Baig
- Syed Mohammed Hadi
- Syed Ali Abbas
- Syed Mohammed Hadi
- Syed Mohammed Hussain
Football and hockey
- Col Syed Ali Raza
- Syed Abdul Rahim (Football)
- Syed Nayeemuddin (Football)
- Shabbir Ali (Football)
- Syed Mohammad Hadi, Football and Hockey
- Yousuf Khan, Football- Olympics 1960 Rome
Tennis and other sports
- Syed Asif Quadri (Tennis) represented India at the Wimbledon championships in 1954.
- Khanum Haji (Tennis)
- Sania Mirza (Tennis)
- Mir Mohtesham Ali Khan (Bodybuilder)
- S. M. Arif (Badminton)
- Abdul Najeeb Qureshi (Sprint (race))
- "Hyderabadis in Pakistan still carry mohajir tag: Karen Leonard – Times Of India". The Times of India. 7 January 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-30.
- "The Muslim question". articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- Leonard 2007
- Leonard 2009
- Yimene 2004
- Ali 1996: 193–202
- Leonard2003: 232
- Ansari 2005: 140
- Zakaria, M. Rafique (22 April 2007). "Charminar in Karachi". Dawn (newspaper).
- Welcome to the Integrated Institute Professional Studies (IIPS). Iipspatna.org. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- Zakir Husain (president of India) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Britannica.com (3 May 1969). Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
- http://web.archive.org/web/20071115121740/http://www.gc-database.co.uk/alpha.htm. Retrieved 13 December 2014. Missing or empty
- http://archive.iwm.org.uk/server/show/ConWebDoc.2479/outputRegister/lowhtml. Retrieved 13 December 2014. Missing or empty
- "Division of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire to the undermentioned" (PDF). The Edinburgh Gazette. 5 February 1937. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- "Division of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire to the undermentioned" (PDF). The Edinburgh Gazette. 5 February 1937. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- Ahmad, Akbar S. (July 1985). "Muslim society in South India: the case of Hyderabad". Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs (Routledge) 6 (2): 317–331. doi:10.1080/13602008508715945.
- Ali, Shanti Sadiq (1996). The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern Times. Orient Blackswan. ISBN 81-250-0485-8.
- Ansari, Sarah (2005). Life after Partition: Migration, Community and Strife in Sindh, 1947–1962. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-597834-X.
- Howarth, Toby M. (2005). The Twelver Shîʻa as a Muslim Minority in India: Pulpit of Tears. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36234-2.
- Leonard, Karen Isaksen (2003). "Hyderabadis in Pakistan: Changing Nations". In Bates, Crispin. Community, Empire and Migration: South Asians in Diaspora. Orient Blackswan. pp. 224–244. ISBN 81-250-2482-4.
- Leonard, Karen Isaksen (2007). Locating Home: India's Hyderabadis Abroad. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-5442-X.
- Leonard, Karen Isaksen (2008). "Hyderabadis Abroad: Memories of Home". In Raghuram, Parvati; Sahoo, Ajaya Kumar; Maharaj, Brij; et al. Tracing an Indian Diaspora: Contexts, Memories, Representations. SAGE Publications. pp. 257–270. ISBN 81-7829-833-3.
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- Lynton, Harriet Ronken; Rajan, Mohini (1974). The Days of the Beloved. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02442-7.
- Pernau, Margrit (2000). The Passing of Patrimonialism: Politics and Political Culture in Hyderabad, 1911–1948. Delhi: Manohar. ISBN 81-7304-362-0.
- Yimene, Ababu Minda (2004). An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi Identity, Its Maintenance and Change. Cuvillier Verlag. ISBN 3-86537-206-6.
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