Freehold Township, New Jersey
|Freehold Township, New Jersey|
|Township of Freehold|
|Motto: Western Monmouth's Family Town|
Map of Freehold Township in Monmouth County. Inset: Location of Monmouth County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Freehold Township, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Established||October 31, 1693|
|Incorporated||February 21, 1798|
|• Mayor||Barbara McMorrow (term ends December 31, 2013)|
|• Administrator||Peter R. Valesi|
|• Clerk||Terry Warner|
|• Total||38.727 sq mi (100.303 km2)|
|• Land||38.503 sq mi (99.723 km2)|
|• Water||0.224 sq mi (0.580 km2) 0.58%|
|Area rank||59th of 566 in state
4th of 53 in county
|Elevation||118 ft (36 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2012)||36,086|
|• Rank||62nd of 566 in state
5th of 53 in county
|• Density||939.8/sq mi (362.9/km2)|
|• Density rank||393rd of 566 in state
45th of 53 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||732/848 and 908 (mobile)|
|GNIS feature ID||0882116|
Freehold Township is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 36,184, reflecting an increase of 4,647 (+14.7%) from the 31,537 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 6,827 (+27.6%) from the 24,710 counted in the 1990 Census.
Freehold Township was first formed on October 31, 1693, and was incorporated as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of Freehold Township were taken to form Upper Freehold Township (c. 1731), so some wills and official records following the split referred to "Lower Freehold Township" although the official name has always been Freehold Township. Additional portions formed Millstone Township (February 28, 1844), Jackson Township (March 6, 1844), Atlantic Township (February 18, 1847; now Colts Neck Township), Marlboro Township (February 17, 1848) and Manalapan Township (March 9, 1848). Freehold town was formed within the township on March 25, 1869, and formally separated when it was reconstituted as a borough on April 15, 1919, including additional portions of the township.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government
- 5 Education
- 6 Recreation
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Points of interest
- 9 Notable people
- 10 References
- 11 Sources
- 12 External links
The Lenni Lenape were the earliest known people to live in the area that became Freehold. The Lenape were a hunter-gatherer society. They were largely sedentary, changing campsites seasonally. They were prolific hunters of small game and birds. They were also skilled fisherman, and were known to harvest vast amounts of clams from the bays and inlets on the Jersey Shore. They also practiced some agriculture to augment their food supply. During this time, an important crossroad of two major Lenape trails was located in the area of Freehold.
In 1498, John Cabot became the first European to sight this land. The Dutch were the first to settle and develop the area. By the 17th Century, the English had taken over the area. In 1664, the Duke of York granted a patent to Sir George Carteret to develop the area. In 1685, Scottish immigrants, fleeing religious persecution at home, became the first to settle the area. In 1693, Along with Middletown and Shrewsbury, Freehold was established by act of legislature as one of the three original towns in Monmouth County. The word 'Freehold' comes from the English legal term describing fee simple property ownership.
In 1714, when the colonial government was deciding where to locate the county seat and courthouse, Freeholder John Reid, the first Surveyor General of East Jersey, wanted the county seat located in Freehold. Reid sold the property to the Board of Chosen Freeholders at a bargain price, and this may have been the deciding factor why Freehold was selected over Middletown and Shrewsbury. In return for the heavily discounted price, Reid placed a restrictive covenant in the deed that, should the property ever cease being used as a courthouse, ownership would revert to the Reid family. Direct descendants of John Reid still reside in Freehold Township.
Freehold was officially designated as the seat of the Monmouth County government, and a court house was commissioned to be built on the land purchased from John Reid. The Monmouth Courthouse opened in 1715. A small village quickly began to develop around the courthouse. At first, the village was called Monmouth Courthouse. Overtime, other government buildings opened near the courthouse, including a sheriff’s office, a prison, and a post office. A number of homes and commercial businesses also sprang up in the village, including a blacksmith, a general store, a bank, a hotel, and saloon.
In the area surrounding Monmouth Courthouse, many successful farms began to appear. The farms in Freehold were particularly well known for the production of potatoes, beans, and rye, which were sold in the markets of nearby cities. Freehold also became known for its excellent horse farms. The differences within Freehold between the growing village around the courthouse and the surrounding farmland were the seeds for the eventually division of Freehold into two separate municipalities in the early 20th century.
As of 1745, the majority of families in Freehold were still Scottish immigrants. In modern Freehold today, many important streets bear the name of early colonial families, including Barkalow, Applegate, Rhea, Throckmorton, and Schanck.
The Revolutionary War in Freehold
Freehold was deeply impacted by the American Revolution. By the early 1770s, the Sons of Liberty were actively recruiting local members in Freehold, and were agitating the relationship between the British government and the colonists. In 1775, immediately after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, Capt. Elias Longstreet recruited the first company of Freeholders to join the Continental Army. Freehold was a known center of patriot activity. The Declaration of Independence was publicly proclaimed, read aloud, from the steps of the Monmouth Courthouse just a few days after being signed in Philadelphia.
However, after British success at the Battle of Long Island, Freehold and all of Monmouth County fell under the control of Loyalists. The British government continued to operate the Monmouth Courthouse, and several people involved in revolutionary activities were arrested and tried for treason at the courthouse. The success of the Continental Army at the Battle of Trenton helped to weaken loyalist control of Freehold.
In June 1778, the British Army began a major strategic evacuation of the city of Philadelphia. They attempted to protect a long, slow moving column of loyalist families, equipment, and other supplies seized in Philadelphia, as they moved towards ships in New York Harbor. On June 28, 1778, the Continental Army intercepted the column in Freehold. The Battle of Monmouth was one of the largest battles of the Revolutionary War, involving over 25,000 soldiers combined in Continental, British, and Hessian forces. The Continental Army was able to repel the British forces, and held their ground on the battlefield. However, British forces were successful in completing their primary goal, the evacuation of Philadelphia. Both sides claimed victory in the battle.
Several famous figures from the Revolutionary War fought at the Battle of Monmouth. British forces were commanded by Sir Henry Clinton and Charles Cornwallis. The Continental Army was commanded by George Washington and Charles Lee. Charles Lee was later court martialed by the Continental Army for his actions at the Battle of Monmouth. Nathanael Greene, Alexander Hamilton, "Mad" Anthony Wayne, the Marquis de Lafayette and Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben also fought at the Battle of Monmouth for the Continental Army. Another famous figure at the Battle of Monmouth was Molly Pitcher, who manned an artillery canon during the battle after her husband was wounded.
In the aftermath of the Battle of Monmouth, Loyalist control of Freehold faltered. The town ceased to have a functioning municipal government, and the courthouse was closed until the end of the war. Minor clashes between loyalists and continentals flared up in town, with the violence peaking around 1780. Colonel Tye, was an escaped slave formerly named Titus, and the leader of a prominent loyalist guerilla force, which conducted several raids in and around Freehold. In one famous incident Joshua Huddy was captured and hung by British Loyalists under the direction of Richard Lippincott and Colonel Tye. Colonel Tye later died from injuries sustained during that raid. Patriots later cut down Huddy's body hanging from the gallows and buried it in Freehold, at Old Tennent Church. At the end of the war, the community was deeply divided, and nearly 120 loyalist families left Freehold, fearing persecution from their neighbors. Most of these families re-settled in Canada.
19th Century Freehold
During the early 1800s, Freehold steadily grew in size. The village around the courthouse was now called Freehold, along with the surrounding farmland. In 1852, when long distance railroad systems were first being developed, a railroad station, with trains making regular stops, was built near the courthouse in Freehold. Freehold soon had public sewers in the village and in some of the outlying farmland. By 1883, there was an electrical grid and a telephone switchboard, at a time when these inventions were still brand new. These public advancements caused rapid economic growth in Freehold. The village of Freehold became an important commercial and industrial hub in central New Jersey. The farms in the rest of Freehold benefitted greatly by being able to sell their products more easily in New York and Philadelphia. Both the village and the farms prospered together, however the public policies sought by the two different communities continued to grow further apart. The municipal government was increasingly divided between the villagers and farmers.
In 1824, the American Hotel opened on Main Street in Freehold. It is still standing today, and is one of the oldest buildings in Freehold. In 1853, the Freehold Raceway opened. Though the original grandstand burned down in a fire, the racetrack is still open today, and is one of the oldest harness racetracks in America. The Great Fire of Freehold happened on October 30, 1873. The fire reportedly began in a commercial building on Main Street. It soon spread to engulf a large section of the village, and many wooden buildings, including Monmouth Courthouse, were burned down.
Freehold also has a relatively forgotten but important place in the history of the bicycle. Cycling champion Arthur Augustus Zimmerman resided in the town during his racing career in the 1880s and 1890s, and from 1896–1899 operated the Zimmerman Bicycle Co.; the company's bicycles were known as the "Zimmy." Today, Freehold Borough is home to the Metz Bicycle Museum, where the only extant "Zimmy" can be seen.
At the beginning of the 20th Century, Freehold was an increasingly divided community. The issue of local tax dollars, used as funding for public works and infrastructure projects, was the primary point of contention. The Freeholders living in the downtown area, around the courthouse had very different ideas about how to spend public money compared to the Freeholders living in the surrounding farmland. A severe polio epidemic in 1916 hit Freehold, and it helped to increase tension within the community. After contentious public debate, a referendum was held to on the future of Freehold, and voters overwhelmingly decided to split the town into two separate municipalities.
On April 15, 1919, Freehold Borough formerly separated from Freehold Township. Freeholders generally refer to the different municipalities simply as the Borough and the Township. The Borough, the downtown area around the courthouse, retained all the existing government buildings around Court Street and Main Street. The Borough also kept the designation as county seat. Freehold Township, the farming communities that surrounded the courthouse, set up a new town hall complex on Schanck Road. The Township completely encircles the Borough. On Sept 7, 1926, Freehold Borough annexed additional territory from the Township.
The Township in the 20th Century
In the early 20th century, the farms in Freehold Township continued to be prosperous and successful, and the area steadily grew in population. However, after World War II, the Township experienced rapid growth. By this time, transportation systems had increased to a point to allow workers to commute daily to jobs in larger cities, such as Newark, Philadelphia, and New York City. Highways, including U.S. Route 9 and Route 33 helped to make it possible for commuters to live in Freehold and work in nearby cities. The township quickly developed large neighborhoods of suburban single family homes.
Soon, the Township began to grow commercial and industrial businesses that rivalled the Borough. Among the corporations that opened production factories in Freehold include Nestlé in 1948 and 3M in 1957. In 1971, a major medical complex, originally called Freehold Area Hospital, and today called CentraState Medical Center, opened in the Township. Not all industrial developments in the Township were positive. In 1983, the United States government designated the Lone Pine Chemical Site in the Township as a Superfund site, one of the worst environmental disasters in the country. In 1990, with the opening of Freehold Raceway Mall, the second largest mall in the state, the Township become a primary commercial center for Central New Jersey.
As the Township grew, Route 33 which ran through the heart of Freehold, become increasingly congested, and study suggested construction of a new freeway. After several years, the new freeway was downsized to merely a bypass of Freehold. Construction from near Sweetmans Lane (CR 527) to U.S. Route 9 was finished in 1972. Eventually construction began again and the bypass was extended to Halls Mill Road in 1989. For decades traffic was detoured, and congestion just kept getting worse. The delay was lengthened when an endangered species was found in the path of the proposed roadway. Finally, after 32 years of waiting, the bypass was fully completed in January 2003, reducing congestion on Route 33 and Route 33 Business.
The Township has thousands of jobs located within the municipality, along with a growing numbers of commuters, who work in neighboring cities such as New York City, Newark, Trenton, and Philadelphia. Five residents of the Township were killed in the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and are listed on the county's 9/11 memorial.
Freehold Township is located at United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 38.727 square miles (100.303 km2), of which, 38.503 square miles (99.723 km2) of it is land and 0.224 square miles (0.580 km2) of it (0.58%) is water.(40.224382,-74.299051). According to the
The township completely surrounds the borough of Freehold.
The municipality of Upper Freehold Township is not connected, geographically or politically, to the township.
1800-1920 1840 1850-1870
1850 1870 1880-1890
1930-1990 2000 2010
* = Lost territory in previous decade.
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 36,184 people, 12,577 households, and 9,382 families residing in the township. The population density was 939.8 per square mile (362.9 /km2). There were 13,140 housing units at an average density of 341.3 per square mile (131.8 /km2). The racial makeup of the township was 84.32% (30,509) White, 5.34% (1,931) Black or African American, 0.13% (47) Native American, 7.03% (2,544) Asian, 0.02% (7) Pacific Islander, 1.47% (531) from other races, and 1.70% (615) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 7.76% (2,808) of the population.
There were 12,577 households of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.4% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.4% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.24.
In the township, 24.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 30.7% from 45 to 64, and 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.3 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.9 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $94,735 (with a margin of error of +/- $5,749) and the median family income was $112,094 (+/- $4,124). Males had a median income of $85,099 (+/- $6,540) versus $48,926 (+/- $4,407) for females. The per capita income for the township was $40,504 (+/- $2,006). About 2.8% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 4.0% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 31,537 people, 10,814 households, and 8,283 families residing in the township. The population density was 820.2 people per square mile (316.7/km²). There were 11,032 housing units at an average density of 286.9 per square mile (110.8/km²). The racial makeup of the township was 87.09% White, 5.12% African American, 0.14% Native American, 5.15% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.19% from other races, and 1.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.19% of the population.
There were 10,814 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.9% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.4% were non-families. 20.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.21.
In the township the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.3 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $77,185, and the median income for a family was $89,845. Males had a median income of $62,545 versus $36,668 for females. The per capita income for the township was $31,505. About 2.8% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over.
Freehold Township is governed under the Township form of government with a five-member Township Committee. The Township Committee is elected directly by the voters in partisan elections to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with one or two seats coming up for election each year. At an annual reorganization meeting, the Township Committee selects one of its members to serve as Mayor and another as Deputy Mayor.
The Township Committee enacts local ordinances, levies municipal taxes and conducts the affairs of the township. In almost all cases, it can review and approve the actions of other Freehold Township boards, committees and agencies. The Township Committee conducts all of its business during monthly meetings open to the public.
As of 2013[update], the members of the Township Committee are Mayor Barbara J. McMorrow (R, term on committee and as mayor ends December 31, 2013), Deputy Mayor Anthony J. Ammiano (R, term on committee ends 2015; term as deputy mayor ends), Thomas L. Cook (R, 2015), Eugene B. Golub (R, 2014) and David M. Salkin (R, 2014).
Federal, state and county representation
Freehold Township is located in the 4th Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 11th state legislative district. Prior to the 2011 reapportionment following the 2010 Census, Freehold Township had been in the 12th state legislative district. Prior to the 2010 Census, Freehold Township had been split between the 4th Congressional District and the 12th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections.
New Jersey's Fourth Congressional District is represented by Christopher Smith (R). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg) and Bob Menendez (D, North Bergen).
For the 2014-2015 Session, the 11th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Jennifer Beck (R, Red Bank) and in the General Assembly by Mary Pat Angelini (R, Ocean Township, Monmouth County) and Caroline Casagrande (R, Colts Neck Township). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Monmouth County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders consisting of five members who are elected at-large to serve three year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either one or two seats up for election each year as part of the November general election. At an annual reorganization meeting held in the beginning of January, the board selects one of its members to serve as Director and another as Deputy Director. As of 2014[update], Monmouth County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director Lillian G. Burry (R, Colts Neck Township; term ends December 31, 2014), Freeholder Deputy Director Gary J. Rich, Sr. (R, Spring Lake; 2014), Thomas A. Arnone (R, Neptune City; 2016), John P. Curley (R, Middletown Township; 2015) and Serena DiMaso (R, Holmdel Township; 2016). Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk M. Claire French (Wall Township), Sheriff Shaun Golden (Farmingdale) and Surrogate Rosemarie D. Peters (Middletown Township).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 23,033 registered voters in Freehold Township, of which 5,014 (21.8%) were registered as Democrats, 5,058 (22.0%) were registered as Republicans and 12,949 (56.2%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 12 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2008 presidential election, Republican John McCain received 53.5% of the vote here (9,480 cast), ahead of Democrat Barack Obama with 44.2% (7,845 votes) and other candidates with 1.0% (185 votes), among the 17,733 ballots cast by the township's 23,935 registered voters, for a turnout of 74.1%. In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 56.6% of the vote here (9,260 ballots cast), outpolling Democrat John Kerry with 42.2% (6,915 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (131 votes), among the 16,373 ballots cast by the township's 22,061 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 74.2.
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 65.5% of the vote here (7,900 ballots cast), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 27.5% (3,317 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 5.7% (688 votes) and other candidates with 0.8% (96 votes), among the 12,058 ballots cast by the township's 23,343 registered voters, yielding a 51.7% turnout.
Public school students in Kindergarten through eighth grade are educated by the Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Early Childhood Learning Center for pre-school children ages 3–5, offering half-day sessions of typical preschoolers, economically disadvantaged, and full-day sessions of preschoolers with special needs (93 students), five K-5 elementary schools: C. Richard Applegate Elementary School (530 students), Joseph J. Catena Elementary School (514), Laura Donovan Elementary School (507), Marshall W. Errickson Elementary School (542) and West Freehold Elementary School (556); for grades 6-8, schools are Clifton T. Barkalow Middle School (most students in Laura Donovan and West Freehold; 788) and Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School (most students in Applegate and Catena; 813), with students from Errickson split between Eisenhower and Barkalow.
Students in public school for grades 9-12 attend either Freehold Township High School or Freehold High School (based on home address), as part of the Freehold Regional High School District. The Freehold Regional High School District also serves students from Colts Neck, Englishtown, Farmingdale, Freehold Borough, Howell, Manalapan and Marlboro. Freehold Township High School is home to the Contemporary Global Studies Learning Center (formerly International Studies) that admits talented students from all over the Freehold Regional High School District.
High school students in Freehold Township have the opportunity of going to Vocational Schools such as Biotechnology High School, High Technology High School, the Marine Academy of Science and Technology, Fine and Performing Arts Center and the Academy of Allied Health & Science, which are part of the Monmouth County Vocational School District, which are available to all students in Monmouth County on a selective basis.
Monmouth Battlefield State Park, Turkey Swamp Park, and Michael J. Tighe Park (formerly known as Liberty Oak Park) are all located within the township and provide assorted recreational opportunities. The southernmost segment of the Henry Hudson Trail also starts in the township and is used by walkers, runners, and bicyclists. Smaller parks in the township include Durand Park, Whittier Oaks Park, Opatut Park, Wynnefield Park, Stonehurst Park, Sandy Brook Park, Duchess Court Park, Greentree Park, Medford Park, Woodgate Park, Woodcrest Park, Orchard Hills Park, and Sargent Park.
In 2004, the Freehold Township Senior League baseball team won the Senior League World Series. Led by manager Mike Brach of Freehold Township, the team became the first from Freehold Township to make it to the World Series, let alone win it.
Several major roads pass through the township. Major state routes include US Route 9, Route 18, Route 33 (also known as the Freehold Bypass), and Route 79. Major county routes that pass through are County Route 524, 527, and 537.
Access to Interstate 195 is available in neighboring Howell via Route 9 or Jackson via CR 537. The Garden State Parkway entrance at exit 100 is about ten miles east on Route 33. The New Jersey Turnpike entrance at exit 8 is about ten miles west on Route 33.
New Jersey Transit provides bus service to communities along US Route 9 from Lakewood to Old Bridge and to the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City via bus routes 131, 135 and 139, to Newark on the 67 route, to Jersey City on the 64 and 67, as well as local service on the 833, 836 and 307 routes. Bus service is available from Route 9 to Wall Street in New York via the Academy Bus Line. Bus service is available to Philadelphia from Freehold Township via transfer in Lakewood. There are several bus stops to the points listed above located along Route 9 in the township. Freehold Township has two commuter parking lots available to residents of Freehold Township only located in the Freehold Mall Shopping Center and on Schibanoff Lane. The nearest train stations are located in Aberdeen-Matawan, Belmar, Long Branch and Princeton.
Points of interest
- Diane & Co. - dress shop featured on the Oxygen Network's show Jersey Couture.
- Maplewood Cemetery - New Jersey Governors Joel Parker and Joseph D. Bedle, as well as several officers who served in the Civil War are interred here.
- Michael J. Tighe Park - formerly known as Liberty Oak Park, the park was renamed in 2001.
- CentraState Medical Center - affiliated with University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, the facility has 284 beds and is part of CentraState Healthcare System, the county's fourth-largest employer.
- Freehold Raceway Mall - a super-regional high-end shopping mall with a gross leasable area of 1,600,000 square feet (150,000 m2), making it the second-largest mall in the state, behind Westfield Garden State Plaza.
Notable current and former residents of Freehold Township include:
- Brad Brach (born 1986), relief pitcher with the San Diego Padres.
- Clare Farragher (born 1941), member of the New Jersey General Assembly from 1988 to 2002 who also served as mayor of Freehold Township.
- Milton Goode (born 1960), high jumper who participated at the 1984 Summer Olympics.
- Thomas Henderson (1743-1824), acting Governor of New Jersey.
- Caren Lissner (born 1972), novelist.
- Val Majewski (born 1981), center fielder who played for the Baltimore Orioles.
- Catello Manzi (born 1950), harness racing driver.
- Kal Penn (born 1977), actor of Harold & Kumar Go to White Castle.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- County Subdivisions: New Jersey - 2010 Census Gazetteer Files, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 9, 2013.
- 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 12, 2013.
- Administration, Township of Freehold. Accessed December 17, 2011.
- Clerk's Office, Township of Freehold. Accessed July 24, 2012.
- 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 110.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of Freehold, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 5, 2013.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Freehold township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 17, 2011.
- Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 6. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Table DP-1. Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Freehold township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed December 17, 2011.
- PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012 - 2012 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 7, 2013.
- GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 4, 2012.
- Look Up a ZIP Code for Freehold, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed December 17, 2011.
- Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Freehold, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed November 26, 2012.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed July 24, 2012.
- Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey, by Elmer T. Hutchinson; page 85: Will of Hendrick Covenhoven, Oct 1799.
- Lower Freehold Township Tax Roll July 1787.
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 179-180. Accessed March 15, 2012.
- Monmouth Battlefield State Park, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Division of Parks and Forestry.
- History, Township of Freehold. Accessed August 28, 2013.
- Pepe, p. 19.
- Lurie, Maxine ed.; "Freehold Township", The Encyclopedia of New Jersey, p. 291. Rutgers University Press; New Brunswick, NJ; 2004. Accessed August 28, 2013. ISBN 9780813533254.
- History of the Hall of Records, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed January 28, 2008.
- Pepe, p. 10.
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- Pepe, p. 29.
- Adelberg, p. 15.
- Adelberg, p. 16.
- Adelberg, p. 17.
- Adelberg, p. 18.
- Adelberg, p.20
- Adelberg, p.11
- Adelberg, p.22
- "Africans in America", PBS Resource Bank.
- The Joshua Huddy era, Monmouth County. Accessed December 14, 2006.
- Adelberg, p. 23
- Pepe, p. 23
- Griffith, Lee Ellen. Freehold, Arcadia Publishing; Charleston; 1996; introduction.
- Griffith, p. 11
- Metzger, Dick. "Bicycle buffs have a haven at Freehold museum: Local collector’s prize possession is ‘Zimmy’ manufactured in town", East Brunswick Sentinel, July 11, 2002. Accessed May 15, 2007. "More than 100 years ago, in the late 1880s and 1890s, the village of Freehold was arguably the bicycle capital of the world."
- Pepe, p. 134
- Pepe, p. 133
- Pepe, p. 135
- Pepe, p. 140
- Pepe; p. 142
- Pepe; p. 143
- Pepe; p. 148
- Conohan, Sherry. "Freehold bypass on track for completion in 2002", Asbury Park Press, June 20, 2000. Accessed December 4, 2012.
- Staff. "32 years later ...", Asbury Park Press, January 18, 2003. Accessed December 4, 2012. "IT took nearly 32 years to complete the Route 33 Freehold bypass, opened yesterday."
- Celano, Clare Marie. "Memorial event set for Sept. 11 in Freehold Twp", News Transcript, September 7, 2011. Accessed September 8, 2013. "From Freehold Township, the county memorial lists Frederick Joseph Hoffman, Michele L. Hoffman, Dennis Moroney, Carmen Milagros Rodriguez and Wendy Alice Rosario Wakeford."
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for East Freehold CDP, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 24, 2012.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data for West Freehold CDP, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 24, 2012.
- GCT-PH1 - Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County -- County Subdivision and Place from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 31, 2012.
- New Jersey: 2010 - Population and Housing Unit Counts - 2010 Census of Population and Housing (CPH-2-32), United States Census Bureau, August 2012. Accessed December 4, 2012.
- Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed July 10, 2013.
- Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843, p. 231, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed July 10, 2013. Population is listed as 6,299, four less than in table.
- Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 249, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed July 9, 2013. "Freehold township was formed in 1798 and contained in 1850, 2,644 inhabitants; in 1860, 3,811; and in 1870, 4,231. The northern and middle part abounds in fertile farms." The population of 2,644 listed for 1850 conflicts with the other sources, which show 2,642 for that year.
- Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 140. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed July 9, 2013.
- Staff. A compendium of the ninth census, 1870, p. 260. United States Census Bureau, 1872. Accessed December 4, 2012.
- Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 99. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed July 24, 2012. Population for Freehold township is listed as 4,302 for 1880 and 5,097 for 1890, which includes population for Freehold town of 2,432 in 1880 and 2,932 in 1890. Freehold township population for these two years was calculated via subtraction.
- Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 336. Accessed July 24, 2012.
- Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 717. Accessed December 17, 2011.
- New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990 at the Wayback Machine (archived May 2, 2009), Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 2, 2009. Accessed December 17, 2011.
- Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Freehold township, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 17, 2011.
- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Freehold township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed December 4, 2012.
- DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Freehold township, Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 14, 2012.
- Township Committee: General Information, Freehold Township. Accessed March 30, 2007.
- Committee Members, Township of Freehold. Accessed October 16, 2013.
- 2013 Municipal Data Sheet, Township of Freehold. Accessed October 16, 2013.
- Monmouth County General Election Results General Election November 6, 2012, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed October 16, 2013.
- Monmouth County General Election Results General Election November 8, 2011, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed October 16, 2013.
- Monmouth County General Election Results General Election November 2, 2010, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed October 16, 2013.
- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2012 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 57, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2011 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 57, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
- Cory A. Booker, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
- Nutt, Amy Ellis (October 31, 2013). "Booker is officially a U.S. senator after being sworn in". NJ.com/Associated Press. Accessed October 31, 2013. "Former Newark Mayor Cory Booker was sworn in as a Democratic senator from New Jersey today, taking the oath of office, exchanging hugs with Vice President Joe Biden and acknowledging the applause of friends and family members seated in the visitor's gallery that rings the chamber.... Booker, 44, was elected to fill out the term of the late Sen. Frank Lautenberg, who died earlier this year."
- Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013. "He currently lives in North Bergen and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
- Senators of the 113th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013.
- Legislative Roster 2014-2015 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 27, 2014.
- "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- Monmouth County Government, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed February 4, 2014.
- Freeholder Lillian G. Burry, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed February 4, 2014.
- Freeholder Gary J. Rich Sr., Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed February 4, 2014.
- Freeholder Director Thomas A. Arnone, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed February 4, 2014.
- Freeholder John P. Curley, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed February 4, 2014.
- Freeholder Deputy Director Serena DiMaso, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed February 4, 2014.
- Freeholder Gary J. Rich Sr., Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed February 4, 2014.
- About the County Clerk, M. Claire French, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed February 4, 2014.
- Sheriff Shaun Golden, Monmouth County Sheriff's Office. Accessed February 4, 2014.
- Monmouth County Surrogate, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Accessed February 4, 2014.
- Voter Registration Summary - Monmouth, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed December 3, 2012.
- 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Monmouth County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed December 3, 2012.
- 2004 Presidential Election: Monmouth County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed December 3, 2012.
- 2009 Governor: Monmouth County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed December 3, 2012.
- Data for the Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed December 4, 2012.
- Early Childhood Learning Center, Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- C. Richard Applegate Elementary School, Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- Joseph J. Catena Elementary School, Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- Laura Donovan Elementary School, Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- Marshall W. Errickson Elementary School, Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- West Freehold Elementary School, Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- Clifton T. Barkalow Middle School, Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- Dwight D. Eisenhower Middle School, Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- New Jersey School Directory for the Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- Freehold Regional High School District 2013 Report Card Narrative, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed September 8, 2013. "Freehold Regional High School District, the largest regional high school District in New Jersey, has six high schools with almost 12,000 students and over 1,500 employees and spans 200 square miles. District members include the townships of Colts Neck, Freehold, Howell, Manalapan, and Marlboro, and the boroughs of Englishtown, Farmingdale, and Freehold."
- Specialized Learning Centers, Freehold Regional High School District. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- About, Monmouth County Vocational School District. Accessed September 8, 2013.
- Brookdale, Rutgers University. Accessed December 17, 2011.
- Henry Hudson Trail, Monmouth County, New Jersey Park System. Accessed March 15, 2012.
- Parks & Open Space, Township of Freehold. Accessed March 15, 2012.
- Home page, Freehold Raceway. Accessed December 4, 2012. "Welcome to Freehold Raceway, the nation's oldest and fastest daytime half mile harness racing track. Located in central New Jersey in the historic town of Freehold, Freehold Raceway was established in 1853 and features live Standardbred harness racing for trotters and pacers."
- Jersey’s best standing tall at World Series, North Brunswick Sentinel by Tim Morris, August 19, 2004.
- Monmouth County Bus / Rail Connections at the Wayback Machine (archived May 22, 2009), New Jersey Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed December 17, 2011.
- Kinon, Cristina. "Oxygen's 'Jersey Couture' stars Diane & Co. family Kimberly Gambale and Christina and Diane Scali", Daily News (New York), May 29, 2010. Accessed December 4, 2012. "One day, a bride-to-be went into the Scali family's Freehold, N.J., dress shop, Diane & Co., to find a dress for her mother. She walked out with a dress and an idea for a TV show."
- Home page, Maplewood Cemetery, Freehold, New Jersey. Accessed December 4, 2012. "Maplewood Cemetery was established in the late 1800's and serves as the final resting place of two NJ Governors, Joel Parker and Joseph D. Bedle. Many Union Army officers, including Edwin Applegate and Peter Vredenburgh, Jr. rest here as well."
- Staff. "Freehold Township by the numbers", Asbury Park Press, January 23, 2003. Accessed December 4, 2012. "In 2001, Liberty Oak Park was renamed Michael J. Tighe Park by the Township Committee in memory of a former township recreation commissioner."
- Key Facts & Stats, CentraState Medical Center. Accessed December 4, 2012.
- Freehold Raceway Mall, International Council of Shopping Centers. Accessed December 4, 2012.
- Staff. "Woodbridge Center mall shooting: New details emerge about man who held woman at knife-point", The Star-Ledger, March 9, 2012. Accessed October 16, 2013. "With about 220 stores and 1.5 million square feet of space, Woodbridge Center is the third-largest shopping mall in New Jersey, behind only Westfield Garden State Plaza in Paramus and Freehold Raceway Mall."
- Staff. "Brach's no-hitter paces Hawks' win ", Atlanticville, April 19, 2007. Accessed April 4, 2013. "Brad Brach did something no Monmouth University pitcher has done in 17 years, pitch a no-hitter.... The Hawks' ace, a junior from Freehold Township, was two outs from a perfect game when he issued a walk to the Blackbirds' Dan Etkin with one out in the ninth on a 3-2 pitch...."
- Assemblywoman Clare M. Farragher at the Wayback Machine (archived February 25, 1998). Accessed June 2, 2010.
- HENDERSON, Thomas, (1743 - 1824), Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 24, 2013.
- Celano, Claire Marie. "Young author offers tips to audience at workshop: Caren Lissner says love of writing should be first ingredient toward success", News Transcript, July 30, 2003. Accessed August 25, 2008. "Lissner, 31, grew up in Freehold Township and attended the Laura Donovan School and the Barkalow Middle School.... She later graduated from high school in Old Bridge."
- "Several factors have led to township’s LL success: League has produced three state champions in last two years", News Transcript, August 20, 2002. Accessed June 8, 2007. "The camp not only features Piccola and an outstanding coaching staff, but ex-Township Little Leaguers, such as Val Majewski who is now playing in the Baltimore Orioles minor league chain in Fredricksburg [sic], Va., who come back and instruct the kids the same way they were instructed."
- Catello Manzi Profile, United States Trotting Association. Accessed October 16, 2013.
- via Associated Press. "Freehold's Kal Penn to work as White House liaison", The Star-Ledger, July 6, 2009. Accessed July 6, 2011. "Actor Kal Penn started a job today as a liaison between the White House and Asian communities. The Indian-American actor from Freehold Township is taking a break from Hollywood to work as an associate director in the Office of Public Liaison, with a focus on connecting President Obama with the Asian-American and Pacific Islander communities, as well as arts groups."
- Adelberg, Michael S. The American Revolution in Monmouth County:The Theatre of Spoil and Destruction, The History Press, 2010. ISBN 9781609490010
- Pepe, Barbara. Freehold: A Home Town History, Arcadia Publishing; Charleston, SC; 2003. ISBN 9780738524184.
- Freehold Township website
- Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools website
- Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools's 2010–11 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
- Data for the Freehold Township Elementary and Middle Schools, National Center for Education Statistics
- Freehold Boro High School
- Freehold Township High School
- Freehold Regional High School District
- Freehold Regional High School District's 2010–11 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
- Monmouth Battlefield State Park
- Rutgers at Brookdale Community College
- Freehold InJersey, community blog
||Manalapan Township||Marlboro Township||Colts Neck Township|
|Millstone Township||Howell Township|
|Jackson Township||Lakewood Township|