|Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
|• Type||Community development block|
|• Total||275.83 km2 (106.50 sq mi)|
|Elevation||82 m (269 ft)|
|• Density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Jhargram|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Nayagram|
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Human Development Report
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transport
- 7 Education
- 8 Healthcare
- 9 References
Naxalite movement in Debra-Gopiballavpur
In 1968 many revolutionary intellectuals, broadly termed as Naxalites, settled in Gopiballavpur. Amongst them was Santosh Rana, who was a local person. In September 1969 a guerrilla squad killed an oppressive landlord. The landlords fled to the towns and a big peasant movement began. Landlords’ crops were forcibly harvested. Around 150 people were killed. Santosh Rana was the key figure in virtually “liberating” Debra, Gopiballavpur and neighbouring areas in West Bengal, as well as in Odisha and Jharkhand (then it was Bihar). The movement gradually split and collapsed in the early seventies.
106 districts spanning 10 states across India, described as being a part of the Left Wing Extremism activities, constitutes the Red corridor. In West Bengal the districts of Pashim Medinipur, Bankura, Purulia and Birbhum are part of the Red corridor. However, as of July 2016, there has been no reported incidents of Maoist related activities from these districts for the previous 4 years.In the period 2009-2011 LWE violence resulted in more than 500 deaths and a similar number missing in Paschim Medinipur district.
The Lalgarh movement, which started attracting attention after the failed assassination attempt on Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, then chief minister of West Bengal, in the Salboni area of Paschim Medinipur district, on 2 November 2008 and the police action that followed, had also spread over to these areas.The movement was not just a political struggle but an armed struggle that concurrently took the look of a social struggle. A large number of CPI (M) activists were killed. Although the epi-centre of the movement was Lalgarh, it was spread across 19 police stations in three adjoining districts – Paschim Medinipur, Bankura and Purulia, all thickly forested and near the border with Jharkhand. The deployment of CRPF and other forces started on 11 June 2009. The movement came to an end after the 2011 state assembly elections and change of government in West Bengal. The death of Kishenji, the Maoist commander, on 24 November 2011 was the last major landmark.
Paschim Medinipur, located in the south-western part of West Bengal, was created with the partition of the erstwhile Midnapore district, then the largest district of India, on 1st January 2002. It ranks second in terms of geographical area (9,295.28 km2) amongst the districts of the state, next to South 24-Parganas (9,960 km2). It ranks third in terms of rural population (4.58 million) following South 24-Parganas (5.82 million) and Murshidabad (5.13 million). It ranked fourth in terms of percentage of tribal population (14.87) following Jalpaiguri (18.87), Purulia (18.27) and Dakshin Dinajpur (16.12) in 2011.
Broadly speaking, there are two natural divisions of the district. NH 14 and NH 16 (old numbering NH 60) from Bankura to Balasore, cuts across the district and roughly is the dividing line between the two natural divisions. To the east of this road, the soil is fertile alluvial and the area is flat. To the west, the Chota Nagpur Plateau gradually slopes down creating an undulating area with infertile laterite rocks/ soil. The landscape changes from dense dry deciduous forests in the west to marshy wetlands in the east. Paschim Medinipur’s tribal population is concentrated mostly in the west.
The river system of Paschim Medinipur district consists of the Rupnarayan, the Silabati or Silai, the Kangsabati or Kansai, the Subarnarekha and the Dulongs. The Silai enters the district from Bankura district, flows through the northern parts of Medinipur Sadar subdivision and then enters Ghatal subdivision and joins the Rupnarayan at Bhandar, 4 miles below Ghatal. The Kasai enters the district from Bankura district. It flows past Medinipur town, bifurcates into two channels, one of which joins the Rupnarayan. Purandar, Gopa, Chandaur and Kubai are important tributaries in the system. The Subarnarekha enters the district from East Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, flows through the southern part of Medinipur Sadar subdivision, intersects Gopiballavpur police station area, flows past Dantan town and enters Balasore district of Odisha.
Floods and drought
Paschim Medinipur district is subject to both floods and drought. Ghatal and parts of Kharagpur subdivision covering an area of 142,647 hectares (1,426.47 km2) are flood prone. Water logging during the rainy season affects Ghatal and the southern parts of Kharagpur subdivion and results in loss of crops in such areas as Sabang, Pingla and Narayangarh CD Blocks.335,248 hectares (3,352.48 km2) in Jhargram and Medinipur Sadar subdivisions are drought prone. The drought situation is particularly severe in Jhargram subdivision. Although the district is away from the sea, cyclones hit it frequently in October-November.
Alampur, a constituent gram panchayat of Gopiballavpur I block is located at.
Gopiballavpur I CD Block is bounded by Gopiballavpur II CD Block in the north, Sankrail and Nayagram CD Blocks in the east, Koliana and Suliapada CD Blocks/tehsils, in Mayurbhanj district in Odisha, in the south and Saraskana CD Block/tehsil in Mayurbhanj district and Baharagora CD Block, in East Singhbhum district in Jharkhand, in the west.
Area and administration
Gopiballavpur I CD Block has an area of 275.83 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 7 gram panchayats, 80 gram sansads (village councils), 216 mouzas and 199 inhabited villages. Gopiballavpur police station serves this block.Headquarters of this CD Block is at Chatinasole.
Pashim Medinipur has a forest cover of 171,935 hectares. The main products of the forest are: Sal, Teak, Babble, Mahua, Amla, broom sticks etc. The main forested areas are Jhargram, Binpur, Nayagram, Garhbeta, Midnapore, Jamboni, Gopiballavpur and Salboni. Gopiballavpur I CD Block has a forest cover of 6,018 hecatres, which is 21.60% of the reporting area of the CD Block.
As per the 2011 Census of India Gopiballavpur I CD Block had a total population of 108,254, all of which were rural. There were 55,475 (51%) males and 52,779 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 13,127. Scheduled Castes numbered 29,423 (27.18%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 36,819 (34.01%).
As per the 2001 census, Gopiballavpur I block had a total population of 94,796, out of which 48,802 were males and 45,994 were females. Gopiballavpur I block registered a population growth of 18.20 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the combined Midnapore district was 14.87 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.45 per cent.
Other villages in Gopiballavpur I CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Alampur Pirasimul (2,862), Saria (629), Sasara (3,418), Amarda (869), Satma (Kortir) (1,390), Kenduageria (1,401) and Chhatinasol (1,040).
As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Gopiballavpur I CD Block was 62,248 (65.44% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 36,620 (75.11% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 25,628 (55.26% of the female population over 6 years). The gender gap in literacy rates was 19.85%.
|Literacy in CD Blocks of
Paschim Medinipur district
|Binpur I – 69.74%|
|Binpur II – 70.46%|
|Gopiballavpur I – 65.44%|
|Gopiballavpur II – 71.40%|
|Jamboni – 72.63%|
|Jhargram – 72.23%|
|Nayagram – 63.70%|
|Sankrail – 73.35%|
|Medinipur Sadar subdivision|
|Garhbeta I – 72.21%|
|Garhbeta II – 75.87%|
|Garhbeta III – 73.42%|
|Keshpur – 77.88%|
|Midnapore Sadar – 70.48%|
|Salboni – 74.87%|
|Chandrakona I – 78.93%|
|Chandrakona II – 75.96%|
|Daspur I – 83.99%|
|Daspur II – 85.62%|
|Ghatal – 81.08%|
|Dantan I – 73.53%|
|Dantan II – 82.45%|
|Debra – 82.03%|
|Keshiari – 76.78%|
|Kharagpur I – 77.06%|
|Kharagpur II – 76.08%|
|Mohanpur – 80.51%|
|Narayangarh – 78.31%|
|Pingla – 83.57%|
|Sabang – 86.84%|
2011 Census: CD Block Wise
Primary Census Abstract Data
There is a tribal presence in many of the CD Blocks of the district. Santali is spoken by 55.93% of the tribal population of the district. The Bhumij, forming 11.16% of the tribal population, and the Mundas, forming 6.10% of the tribal population, speak Mundari. Other small groups include Koras and Mahalis. The Lodhas, forming 3.85% of the tribal population, the only primitive tribe in the district, speak Lodhi.
In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 105,926 and formed 97.85% of the population in Gopiballavpur I CD Block. Muslims numbered 761 and formed 0.70% of the population. Others numbered 1,567 and formed 1.45% of the population.Others include Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria,Christian and other religious communities.
In 2011, Hindus numbered 5,056,953 and formed 85.52% of the population in Paschim Medinipur district. Muslims numbered 620,554 and formed 10.49% of the population. Others (including Christians) numbered 235,950 and formed 3.99% of the population. Christians numbered 23,287 and formed 0.39% of the population. In West Bengal, Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.
Human Development Report
According to the District Human Development Report of Paschim Medinipur: The district represents regional diversity in terms of physiographic, agro-climatic characteristics, economic development, social composition etc. Over 7,500 inhabited villages of the district reflect highly differential features and indicators of human development. There are pockets of prosperity in the eastern part and areas of distress in the western part. From 2009 Maoist violence rapidly spread across eleven western CD Blocks of the district: Binpur I, Binpur II, Salboni, Grahbeta II, Jamboni, Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Gopiballavpur I, Gopiballavpur II, Sankrail and Nayagram. 
The level of urbanisation in the district is low. In 2001 the percentage share of the urban population in the district was 11.90 against 27.96 in the state as a whole. Population density at 531 persons per km2 was lower than the West Bengal average of 903 persons per km2. The literacy rate has increased significantly from 39.80% in 1981 to 70.41% in 2001, but the gender gap in literacy rate (difference between female and male literacy rates) is substantial.
There is high agricultural productivity differential across 29 blocks of the district. The differential being high across drought prone blocks of the western part of the district and substantially irrigated blocks of its eastern part. Low productivity of agriculture has considerable relevance for high level of poverty among households in the drought prone regions specially among the SCs and STs. The district is relatively backward in the development of infrastructure.
Electrification was extended to 76.79% mouzas of the district by 2007. In Gopiballavpur I CD Block electricity was extended to 27.78% of the mouzas by 2007.
The United Nations Development Programme considers the combined primary and secondary enrolment ratio as the simple indicator of educational achievement of the children in the school going age. The infrastructure available is important. In Gopiballavpur I CD Block out of the total 131 primary schools in 2008-2009, 106 had pucca buildings, 3 partially pucca and 22 multiple type. In the district as a whole 43.6% of primary schools and 88.38% of upper primary schools had libraries, 30.99% primary schools (classes I – V) and 78.37% upper primary schools (classes VI to VIII) had play grounds, and 20.83% upper primary schools had computers. 62,697 sudents of primary schools and 242,728 students of upper primary schools were covered under the Midday Meal Scheme. Nayagram and Gopiballavpur I CD Blocks have been identified as educationally backward blocks and special efforts are being made through National Programme of Education for Girls at Elementary Level and Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya hostels. These are the hostels for accommodating girl students from weaker sections of the society and all costs relating to their livelihood are borne by the government so that they are not to be deprived of availing elementary education for want of money or other social issues.
As per the Rural Household Survey conducted in 2005 by the Department of Panchayats and Rural Development, Government of West Bengal, 43.79% of rural houselds in the district were Below Poverty Line against 34.12% in West Bengal.
The 29 CD Blocks of the district were classified into four categories based on the poverty ratio. Nayagram, Binpur II and Jamboni CD Blocks have very high poverty levels (above 60%). Kharagpur I, Kharagpur II, Sankrail, Garhbeta II, Pingla and Mohanpur CD Blocks have high levels of poverty (50-60%), Jhargram, Midnapore Sadar, Dantan I, Gopiballavpur II, Binpur I, Dantan II, Keshiari, Chandrakona I, Gopiballavpur I, Chandrakona II, Narayangarh, Keshpur, Ghatal, Sabang, Garhbeta I, Salboni, Debra and Garhbeta III CD Blocks have moderate levels of poverty (25-50%) and Daspur II and Daspur I have low levels of poverty (below 25%).
The loco shops of South Eastern Railway employed 3,983 persons, the carriage shops of South Eastern Railway employed 2,189 persons, the wagon repair shops of South Eastern Railway employed 1,700 persons. There were 14 units employing between 250 and 1,000 persons. All other industrial establishments in Paschim Medinipur employed less than 250 persons. More than 80% of Paschim Medinipur’s population depend on agricultural activities for a living.
The dominant SC gropus in the district are Bagdi Dule, Dom, Jalia Kaibarta, Mal, Rajbanshi, Rajoyar, Keora, Bhimali, Bauri, and Tiyar. Ghatal sub-division has highest concentration of 24.95% SC population. The western part of the district shows more dense ST population. The Jhargram sub division has the highest concentration, i.e. 30.02% of total ST population. The major tribal communities of the district are Santhal, Bhumij, Munda, Lodha, Kora and Mahali. Among them, Lodha only belong to the primitive tribal group. Most of the STs live on agricultural labour. Many ST families move to the neighbouring districts in search of work, particularly during the cultivation season.
(Note: Certain topics, such as Geography, Literacy, Education, Healthcare etc., are not/not fully covered here and are covered elsewhere in this page.)
in CD Blocks of
Paschim Medinipur district
|Binpur I – 47.46%|
|Binpur II – 68.59%|
|Gopiballavpur I – 44.25%|
|Gopiballavpur II – 47.72%|
|Jamboni – 67.11%|
|Jhargram – 49.02%|
|Nayagram – 69.26%|
|Sankrail – 51.33%|
|Medinipur Sadar subdivision|
|Garhbeta I – 36.87%|
|Garhbeta II – 50.76%|
|Garhbeta III – 31.95%|
|Keshpur – 39.90%|
|Midnapore Sadar – 48.90%|
|Salboni – 36.11%|
|Chandrakona I – 44.21%|
|Chandrakona II – 41.84%|
|Daspur I – 22.16 %|
|Daspur II – 20.29%|
|Ghatal – 38.86%|
|Dantan I – 48.81%|
|Dantan II – 46.97%|
|Debra – 33.76%|
|Keshiari – 46.89%|
|Kharagpur I – 58.56%|
|Kharagpur II – 53.57%|
|Mohanpur – 50.16%|
|Narayangarh – 41.60%|
|Pingla – 50.51 %|
|Sabang – 37.37%|
District Human Development Report:
Paschim Medinipur, 2010, page 177
in 2003-04, in Gopiballavpur I CD Block 1,200 hectares were irrigated with tank water and 2,500 hectares by shallow tube wells.In 2006-07 in Gopiballavpur I CD Block 62.59% of the gross cropped area had facilities for irrigation.
In 2003-04 Gopiballavpur II CD Block had 31 km of surfaced roads and 10 km unsurfaced roads under PWD, 7 km surfaced roads and 25 km unsurfaced roads under Zilla Parishad and 267 km surfaced roads and 18 km unsurfaced roads under Gram Panchayat and Panchayat Samiti.
In 2003-04 the farmers of Gopiballavpur I CD Block could be classified as follows: Bargadars 3.01%, patta (document) holders 37.14%, small farmers 2.42%, marginal farmers 22.18% and agricultural labourers 35.25%.
Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.As of 2003-04, Gopiballavpur I CD Block had 2,991 hectares vested land, out of which 2,339 hectares were distributed amongst 20,529 persons.
In 2003-04 net area sown in Gopiballavpur I CD Block was 14,201 hectares and the area in which more than one crop was grown was 7,220 hectares.
In 2003-04 Gopiballavpur I CD Block produced 4,320 tonnes of Aus paddy from 5,080 hectares, 19,520 tonnes of Aman paddy from 9,910 hectares, 4,380 tonnes Boro paddy from 2,140 hectares, 800 tonnes wheat from 560 hectares and 680 tonnes potatoes from 30 hectares.
In Gopiballavpur I CD Block 101 hectares was the nett area under effective pisiculture. Approximate annual production in 2003-04 was 1,065 qtl.
Gopiballavpur I CD Block has 3 ferry services and 3 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 45 km from the CD Block headquarters.
In 2003-04, Gopiballavpur I CD Block had 128 primary schools with 8,248 students, 2 middle schools with 538 students, 6 high schools with 3,796 students and 3 higher secondary schools with 2,566 students. Gopiballavpur I CD Block had 1 general college with 663 students and 181 institutions with 6,549 students for special and non-formal education. Gopiballavpur I CD Block had 70 mass literacy centres,
Gopiballavpur I CD Block had 4 health centres, 18 clinics and 3 dispensaries with 27 beds and 10 doctors in 2003.
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