Jangipara (community development block)

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Jangipara
জঙ্গীপাড়া
Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
Jangipara is located in West Bengal
Jangipara
Jangipara
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 22°44′26″N 88°03′14″E / 22.7405560°N 88.0538890°E / 22.7405560; 88.0538890Coordinates: 22°44′26″N 88°03′14″E / 22.7405560°N 88.0538890°E / 22.7405560; 88.0538890
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Hooghly
Government
 • Type Representative democracy
Area
 • Total 164.23 km2 (63.41 sq mi)
Elevation 14 m (46 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 221,578
 • Density 1,300/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 712404 (Jangipara)
712408 (Rajbalhat)
712424 (Antpur)
Telephone/STD code 03214
Vehicle registration WB 15, WB 16, WB 18
Literacy 79.62%
Lok Sabha constituency Sreerampur
Vidhan Sabha constituency Jangipara
Website hooghly.gov.in

Jangipara is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Srirampore subdivision of Hooghly district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

Overview[edit]

The Jangipara CD Block is part of the Hooghly-Damodar Plain, one of the three natural regions in the district of the flat alluvial plains, that forms part of the Gangetic Delta. The region has many depressions which receive water from the surrounding lands during the rainy season and discharge the water through small channels.[1]

History[edit]

Bhurishrestha Empire[edit]

Rajbalhat in Jangipara CD Block was capital of Bhurshut kingdom or Bhurishrestha Empire in the 16th century. There used to be a garh (fort) but no signs of it survive. Only one temple, that of Rajballavi, of that era is still active.[2] There were three garhs and forts at Garh Bhabanipur, Pandua (Pedo or Pedo Basantapur) and Rajbalhat, but there is hardly any trace of these.[3][4]

Furfura Sharif[edit]

Furfura Sharif in Jangipur CD Block is a Muslim pilgrimage centre. A mosque built by Muqlish Khan in 1375, still stands there. A Sufi settlement was established there during Akbar’s rule.[5]

Geography[edit]

Jangipara is located at 22°44′26″N 88°03′14″E / 22.7405560°N 88.0538890°E / 22.7405560; 88.0538890.

Jangipara CD Block is bounded by Tarakeswar and Haripal CD Blocks in the north, Chanditala I CD Block in the east, Jagatballavpur CD Block, in Howrah district, in the south and Udaynarayanpur CD Block in Howrah district, and Pursurah CD Block in the west.[6][7]

It is located 45 km from Chinsurah, the district headquarters.[6]

Jangipara CD Block has an area of 164.23 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 10 gram panchayats, 177 gram sansads (village councils), 129 mouzas and 128 inhabited villages. Jangipara police station serves this block.[8]Headquarters of this CD Block is at Jangipara.[9] [10]

Gram panchayats of Jangipara block/ panchayat samiti are: Antpur, Dilakash, Furfurah, Jangipara, Kotalpur, Mundalika, Radhanagar, Rajbalhat I, Rajbalhat II and Rashidpur.[11]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per the 2011 Census of India, Jangipara CD Block had a total population of 221,578, of which 205,099 were rural and 16,479 were urban. There were 112,317 (51%) males and 109,261 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 11,858. Scheduled Castes numbered 68,395 (30.87%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 10,220 (4.61%).[12]

As per the 2001 census, Jangipara block had a total population of 200,936, out of which 101,338 were males and 99,598 were females. Jangipara block registered a population growth of 13.28 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for Hooghly district was 15.72 per cent.[13]Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[14]

The only Census Town in Jangipara CD Block is (2011 census figure in brackets): Rajbalhat (16,479).[12]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Jangipara CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Borhal (4,548), Krishnanagar (10,520), Kotalpur (6,948), Furfura (7,407), Mandalika (5,946) and Laksmanpur (4,008).[12]

Other villages in Jangipara CD Block include (2011 census figures in brackets): Atpur (2,623), Jangipara (2,700).[12]

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Jangipara CD Block was 157,993 (79.62% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 85,861 (85.47% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 72,132 (73.63% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 11.84%.[12]

As of 2001 census, Jangipara block had a total literacy of 50.82%. While male literacy was 71.82 per cent, female literacy was 48.83%.[15]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language and religion[edit]

As per the 2001 census, Bengali is the mother tongue for 86.4 % of the population of the district followed by Hindi at 7.9%. Santali at 2.6% and Urdu at 2.0%, are the two other major languages spoken in the district. The population who reported Bengali as a mother tongue has decreased from 88.1% in 1961 to 86.4% in 2001 census whereas the population who reported Hindi as mother tongue has increased from 5.8% in 1961 to 7.9% in 2001 census.[16]

Religion in Jangipara CD Block
Hindu
  
76.41%
Muslim
  
23.15%
Others
  
0.44%

As per the 2011 census, majority of the population of the district belong to the Hindu community with a population share of 82.9% followed by Muslims at 15.8%. The percentage of the Hindu population of the district has followed a decreasing trend from 87.1% in 1961 to 82.9% in the latest census 2011. On the other hand, the percentage of Muslim population has increased from 12.7% in 1961 to 15.8% in 2011 census.[16]

In 2011 census Hindus numbered 169,308 and formed 76.41% of the population in Jangipara CD Block. Muslims numbered 51,295 and formed 23.15% of the population. Others numbered 975 and formed 0.44% of the population.[17]

Rural poverty[edit]

As per poverty estimates obtained from household survey for families living below poverty line in 2005, rural poverty in Jangipara CD Block was 32.05%.[18]

Economy[edit]

Livelihood[edit]

Circle frame.svg

Livelihood
in Jangipara CD Block

  Cultivators (14.13%)
  Agricultural labourers (34.77%)
  Household industries (14.86%)
  Other Workers (36.24%)

In Jangipara CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators formed 14.13%, agricultural labourers 34.77%, household industry workers 14.86% and other workers 36.24%.[19]

Infrastructure[edit]

There are 128 inhabited villages in Jangipara CD Block. 100% villages have power supply. 82 villages have more than one source of drinking water (tap, well, tube well, hand pump), 2 villages have only tube well/ borewell and 43 villages have only hand pump. 9 Villages have post offices, 12 villages have sub post offices and 3 villages have post and telegraph offices. 114 villages have landlines, 70 villages have public call offices and 113 villages have mobile phone coverage. 44 villages have pucca roads and 43 villages have bus service (public/ private). 19 villages have agricultural credit societies, 14 villages have commercial/ co-operative banks and 1 village has bank ATM.[20]

Weaving[edit]

Rajbalhat is an important weaving centre, producing saris and dhuties.[21]

Agriculture[edit]

This is a rich agricultural area with several cold storages.[22] Though rice is the prime crop of the district, the agricultural economy largely depends on potato, jute, vegetables, and orchard products. Potato is cultivated in all the blocks of this district Jangipara CD Block produced the highest quantity of potatoes amongst all the CD Blocks in 2103-14.[23][19]

Some of the primary and other hats or markets in the Jangipur block area are: Antpur, Jangipar hat, Kulakash hat, Satghara hat, Sitapur hat, Taltala cattle hat, Kalarkash bazar and Rahtdpur.[24]

Important Handicrafts of Hooghly District
  • Zari Work on Sari - Pandua, Pursurah, Jangipara, Tarakeswar and other blocks - 3,000 families involved
  • Chikon Embroidery – Babnan, Pandua, Singur - 2,500 families involved
  • Silk and Cotton Printing – Serampore (Chanditala) - 300 families involved
  • Brass and Bell Metal – Manikpat, Goghat, Arambagh - 150 families involved
  • Conch Shell – Pandua, Khanakul, Makla, Chandannagar
  • Jute Diversified Product – Baidyabati, Mogra
  • Terracota – Chinsurah, Chandannagar, Baidyabati, Mogra

Source:District Human Development Report 2010: Hooghly P. 67

The Tebhaga movement launched in 1946, in 24 Parganas district, aimed at securing for the share-croppers a better position within the existing land relation structure. Although the subsequent Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented fully. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.[25]Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Jangipara CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 14.89%, patta (document) holders 6.19%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 3.00%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 25.48% and agricultural labourers 50.44%.[19]

Jangipara CD Block had 107 fertiliser depots, 52 seed stores and 53 fair price shops in 2013-14.[19]

In 2013-14, Jangipara CD Block produced 94,861 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 32,638 hectares, 14,528 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 4,601 hectares, 30,806 tonnes of jute from 1,347 hectares, 342,597 tonnes of potatoes from 11,830 hectares. It also produced oilseeds .[19]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Jangipara CD Block was 17,068 hectares, out of which 8,940 hectares were irrigated by canal water, 3,360 hectares by tank water, 330 hectares by river lift irrigation, 670 hectares by deep tube wells and 3,768 hectares by shallow tube wells.[19]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Jangipara CD Block had offices of 13 commercial banks and 2 gramin banks.[19]

Transport[edit]

Jangipara CD Block has 3 ferry services and 4 originating/ terminating bus routes. The nearest railway station is 17 km from CD Block headquarters.[19]

The narrow gauge line of Martin's Light Railways from Howrah Maidan to Amta, Sehakhala and Champadanga was built in 1897 and was closed down in 1971. While the broad gauge Howrah-Amta line came up in 2000, and although the branch line from Bargachia to Sehakhala and Champadanga was sanctioned along with the Howrah-Amta line in 1974-75, the branch line is yet to come up.[26]The project has suffered because on non-acquisition of land by the state government.[27]

Now, one has to go to Jangipara by road either directly from Kolkata or from Tarakeswar or Haripal. From Kolkata the road route is via Howrah-Domjur-Bargachhia-Amta, approx 47 km. Or one has to avail a local train from Howrah, Tarekeswar / Arambag local, to Haripal, from Haripal bus is available for Jangipara.

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Jangipara CD Block had 146 primary schools with 14,282 students, 11 middle schools with 1,252 students, 10 high schools with 7,144 students and 16 higher secondary schools with 17,313 students. Jangipara CD Block had 1 general college with 661 students, 263 institutions for special and non-formal education with 7,596 students[19]

Mahitosh Nandy Mahavidyalaya, a general degree college, was established at Jangipara, in 2007.[28][29]

Jangipara assembly constituency covers a primarily rural area. It is around 45 kilometres (28 mi) from Kolkata and has 170,000 voters. Forty per cent of them are in the 18-30 age group. It has over a hundred primary, twenty-six secondary and eight higher secondary schools, and one degree college in Jangipara. However, hundreds of students from Jangipara travel over 15 km to Haripal or Howrah to attend college for their special subject.[30]

In Jangipara CD Block, amongst the 128 inhabited villages, 10 villages had no school, 46 villages had more than 1 primary school, 82 villages had at least 1 primary school, 36 villages had at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 25 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.[20]

Culture[edit]

Durga is worshipped in Jangipara and Rajbalhat as Rajballavi. She is a mixed form of Durga, Kali and Saraswati.[31]

The mosque built by Muqlish Khan in 1375 at Furfura Sharif is a site for Muslim pilgrimage, especially during the Pir’s Mela.[32]

Antpur is home to one of the finest pieces of terracotta architecture and Rajbalhat is famous for handloom saris.[33] Both are part of Jangipara community development block.

Healthcare[edit]

In 2014, Jangipara CD Block had 1 rural hospital, 4 primary health centres and 6 private nursing homes with total 120 beds and 10 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 36 family welfare subcentres. 2,300 patients were treated indoor and 355,840 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[19]

Jangipara CD Block has Jangipara Rural Hospital (with 60 beds) at Jangipara, Mundalika Primary Health Centre (with 10 beds), Furfura PHC (with 10 beds), Guti PHC (with 4 beds) and Rajbalhat PHC (with 6 beds).[34]

Jangipara CD Block is one of the areas of Hooghly district where ground water is affected by low level of arsenic contamination. The WHO guideline for arsenic in drinking water is 10 mg/ litre, and the Indian Standard value is 50 mg/ litre. In Hooghly district, 16 blocks have arsenic levels above WHO guidelines and 11 blocks above Indian standard value. The maximum concentration in Jangipara CD Block is 25 mg/litre.[35]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "District Census Handbook: Hugli, Series-20, Part XIIA" (PDF). Physigraphy, Page 17. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  2. ^ "Rajbalhat – Temples and Textiles". Rangan Dutta. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  3. ^ "The Temples in Hooghly". hindubooks.org. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  4. ^ Ghosh, Binoy, Paschim Banger Sanskriti, (in Bengali), part II, 1976 edition, pp. 218-234, Prakash Bhaban
  5. ^ "Hooghly District". Places of Interest. District administration. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  6. ^ a b "Jangipara Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  7. ^ "Map of Hooghly district". District Profile. Hooghly district administration. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  8. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Hooghly". Tables 2.1, 2.2. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  9. ^ "District Census Handbook: Hugli, Series-20, Part XIIA" (PDF). Map of Hooghly district with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fifth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  10. ^ "Jangipara". Local Self-government. Hooghly Zilla Parishad. Retrieved 6 June 2017. 
  11. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Hooghly – Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 16 May 2016. 
  12. ^ a b c d e "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  13. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – Hooghly district. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  14. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  15. ^ "Jangipara". Local Self-government. Hooghly Zilla Parishad. Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  16. ^ a b "District Census Handbook: Hugli, Series-20, Part XIIA" (PDF). Religion, Mother-tongue Pages 50-51. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  17. ^ "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  18. ^ "District Human Development Report: Hooghly" (PDF). Table 2.38: Empirical Measurement of Rural Poverty in Hooghly 2005, page 89. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2017. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Hooghly". Tables 2.7, 17.2, 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 2 June 2017. 
  20. ^ a b "District Census Handbook: Hugli, Series-20, Part XIIA" (PDF). Appendices to Village Directory, 2009, Pages 775-779. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  21. ^ "Important handloom potential areas". Hooghly. Directorate of Textiles (Handloom, Spinning Mills, Silk Weaving and Handloom Based Handicrafts Division. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  22. ^ "List of functioning Cold Storage of West Bengal District wise as on 18.01.07". West Bengal State Marketing Board. Retrieved 28 January 2009. 
  23. ^ "Intensive cropping with remarkable feature of Hooghly District". Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  24. ^ "Primary Hats/Markets of District". Hooghly. West Bengal State Marketing Board. Retrieved 16 June 2017. 
  25. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016. 
  26. ^ "Howrah-Amta BG line section inaugurated". The Hindu Business Line, 24 July 2000. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  27. ^ "Railway project kept ‘alive’ for 10 years with Rs. 1000 allocation each year, says CAG report". The Times of India, 19 December 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2017. 
  28. ^ "Mahitosh Nandy Mahavidyalaya". MNV. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 
  29. ^ "Mahitosh Nandy Mahavidyalaya Hughli". College Search. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 
  30. ^ Ghosh, Barun; Dutta, Uttam (2014-06-15). "Where’s the college? Don’t ask the teacher". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph, 21 April 2006. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  31. ^ "Amar Pujo". Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  32. ^ "Hooghly District". Places of Interest. District administration. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  33. ^ "Next weekend you can be at ... Antpur". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph, 24 July 2005. 2005-07-24. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  34. ^ "Health & Family Welfare Department". Health Statistics. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 15 July 2017. 
  35. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (20 years study )". Hugli. SOES. Retrieved 3 June 2017.