Jangipara (community development block)

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Jangipara
জঙ্গীপাড়া
Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
Jangipara is located in West Bengal
Jangipara
Jangipara
Location in West Bengal, India
Coordinates: 22°44′26″N 88°03′14″E / 22.7405560°N 88.0538890°E / 22.7405560; 88.0538890Coordinates: 22°44′26″N 88°03′14″E / 22.7405560°N 88.0538890°E / 22.7405560; 88.0538890
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Hooghly
Area
 • Total 162 km2 (63 sq mi)
Population (2001)
 • Total 200,936
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Bengali, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Literacy 50.82%
Lok Sabha constituency Sreerampur
Vidhan Sabha constituency Jangipara
Website hooghly.gov.in

Jangipara is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Srirampore subdivision of Hooghly district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Bhurishrestha Empire[edit]

Rajbalhat in Jangipara CD Block was capital of Bhurshut kingdom or Bhurishrestha Empire in the 16th century. There used to be a garh (fort) but no signs of it survive. Only one temple, that of Rajballavi, of that era is still active.[1] There were three garhs and forts at Garh Bhabanipur, Pandua (Pedo or Pedo Basantapur) and Rajbalhat, but there is hardly any trace of these.[2][3]

Furfura Sharif[edit]

Furfura Sharif in Jangipur CD Block is a Muslim pilgrimage centre. A mosque built by Muqlish Khan in 1375, still stands there. A Sufi settlement was established there during Akbar’s rule.[4]

Geography[edit]

Overview[edit]

Hooghly district forms a part of the flat alluvial plains of the lower Gangetic delta. It lies on the western bank of the Hooghly, a distributary of the Ganges. The river bank of the Hooghly is heavily industrialised. The Dwarakeswar, in the western part of the district, forms the dividing line between the uplands and the plains. It is subsequently joined by the Shilabati to form the Rupnarayan, flowing along the western boundary of the district. The Damodar intersects the district. Human intervention in the form of construction of roads and railways and flood control measures have had an impact on the topography. Urbanisation and industrialisation has altered land use pattern of the district. With a very high density of population (1,601 per km2), about 66% of the population live in the rural areas. In 2001, Hindus formed 83.63% of the population followed by Muslims, who formed 15.14% of the population. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes together constituted 43% of the population.[5]

Location[edit]

Jangipara is located at 22°44′26″N 88°03′14″E / 22.7405560°N 88.0538890°E / 22.7405560; 88.0538890.

Jangipara CD Block is bounded by Tarakeswar and Haripal CD Blocks in the north, Chanditala I CD Block in the east, Jagatballavpur CD Block, in Howrah district, in the south and Udaynarayanpur CD Block in Howrah district, and Pursurah CD Block in the west.[6][7]

It is located 45 km from Chinsurah, the district headquarters.[6]

Area and administration[edit]

Jangipara CD Block has an area of 162.00  km2.[8]

Jangipara police station serves this CD Block. Jangipara panchayat samity has 10 gram panchayats. The block has 129 inhabited villages.[9] Headquarters of this block is at Jangipara.

Gram panchayats[edit]

Gram panchayats of Jangipara block/ panchayat samiti are: Antpur, Dilakash, Furfurah, Jangipara, Kotalpur, Mundalika, Radhanagar, Rajbalhat I, Rajbalhat II and Rashidpur.[10]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per 2011 Census of India Jangipara CD Block had a total population of 221,578, of which 205,099 were rural and 16,479 were urban. There were 112,317 (51%) males and 109,261 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 11,858. Scheduled Castes numbered 68,395 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 10,220.[11]

As per 2001 census, Jangipara block had a total population of 200,936, out of which 101,338 were males and 99,598 were females. Jangipara block registered a population growth of 13.28 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for Hooghly district was 15.72 per cent.[8] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[12]

Census Towns, large villages and other villages[edit]

Census Town in Jangipara CD Block (2011 census figure in brackets): Rajbalhat (16,479).[11]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Jangipara CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Borhal (4,548), Krishnanagar (10,520), Kotalpur (6,948), Furfura (7,407), Mandalika (5,946) and Laksmanpur (4,008).[11]

Other villages in Jangipara CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Atpur (2,623), Jangipara (2,700).[11]

Literacy[edit]

As per 2011 census the total number of literates in Jangipara CD Block was 157,993 (75.34% of the population over 6 years) out of which 85,861 (54%) were males and 72,132 (46%) were females.[11]

As per 2011 census, literacy in Hooghly district was 81.80%.[13] Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011.[14] Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.[14]

As per the 2001 census, Jangipara block had a total literacy of 50.82 per cent. While male literacy was 71.82 per cent, female literacy was 48.83 per cent.[15]


Language[edit]

Bengali is the local language in these areas.[6]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Jangipara CD Block
Hindu
  
76.41%
Muslim
  
23.15%
Others
  
0.44%

In 2011 census Hindus numbered 169,308 and formed 76.41% of the population in Jangipara CD Block. Muslims numbered 51,295 and formed 23.15% of the population. Others numbered 975 and formed 0.44% of the population.[16]

In 2011, Hindus numbered 4,574,569 and formed 82.89% of the population in Hooghly district. Muslims numbered 870,204 and formed 15.77% of the population. In West Bengal Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.[16]

Human Development Report[edit]

Important Handicrafts of Hooghly District
  • Zari Work on Sari - Pandua, Pursurah, Jangipara, Tarakeswar and other blocks - 3,000 families involved
  • Chikon Embroidery – Babnan, Pandua, Singur - 2,500 families
  • Silk and Cotton Printing – Serampore (Chanditala) - 300 families
  • Brass and Bell Metal – Manikpat, Goghat, Arambagh - 150 families
  • Conch Shell – Pandua, Khanakul, Makla, Chandannagar
  • Jute Diversified Product – Baidyabati, Mogra
  • Terracota – Chinsurah, Chandannagar, Baidyabati, Mogra

Source:District Human Development Report 2010: Hooghly P. 67

The first wave of industrialisation (in Hooghly district, as well as the region) came with the establishment of jute mills along the banks of the Hooghly River long back in the British era. The district has moved from an overwhelmingly rural society with a mere 14.92% of the population living in urban areas in 1901 to a more urban society with 33.47% of the population living in urban areas in 2001. Increasing urbanisation has opened up a broader range of livelihood opportunities. However, in 12 out of the 18 community development blocks in the district the entire population continued to live in the rural areas in 2001. The district presents a unique picture of 12 municipalities surrounded by rural areas.[17]

In the rural areas of the district while 14.95% of the total workers were cultivators, agricultural labourers were 24.31%, thereby indicating the huge pressure on land that outstrips its ownership. In Jangipara CD Block, while cultivators were 16.28% of the total workers, agricultural labourers formed 29.80%. Household workers formed 10.02% and other workers 43.90%. Up to 30.11.2006 a total of 5,260 hectares of vested agricultural land was distributed amongst 71,643 persons in Hooghly district. Amongst different categories of workers engaged in agriculture in Jangipara CD Block 14.10% were bargadars, 5.25% patta (ownership document) holders, 15.31% small farmers, 22.10% marginal farmers and 43.23% agricultural workers in 2001.[17]

Agricultural activities or cultivation is divided into two categories: crop cultivation and plantation (orchards). There is a general belief that plantations are more remunerative. In Jangipara CD Block 75.87% of the land is used for crop cultivation and 1.86% for orchards. In Jangipara CD Block 90.30% of the land is sown more than once. Jangipara CD Block produced 32,560 tonnes of Aman paddy from 10,660 hectares, 8,540 tonnes of Boro paddy from 4,342 hectares, 32,570 tonnes of Jute from 1,559 hectares and 137,170 tonnes of potatoes from 6,379 hectares in 2005-06. In Chanditala II CD Block out of the total cultivated area of 4,215 hectares 1,000 hectares is drought prone and 3,000 hectares is flood prone. The irrigation system in Hooghly district is based on five rivers: Hooghly, Damodar, Mundeswari, Darakeswar and Sankari. Erosion of the river banks of these rivers pose a problem in many areas, particularly the Khanakul area.[17]

Handloom saris of Dhaniakhali, Begampur, Jangipara and Rajbalhat areas, and dhutis of Haripal, Rajbalhat and Khanakul areas are familiar all over the country. However, in spite of Government support, the problems of adequate finance, raw materials and marketing persist. Low remuneration is forcing weavers to switch over to other professions. Dhaniakhali produces three varieties of saris – 100 counts (fine), 80 counts (medium) and 60 counts (general). Weaver’s wage for finishing a sari is Rs.47 for 60 counts, Rs.62 for 80 counts and Rs. 135 for 100 counts. It takes two days to complete a sari.[17]

Hooghly district has the distinction of all mouzas (villages) being electrified by 2005. In Jangipara CD Block all 129 mouzas were electrified even earlier. However, in Jangipara CD Block 42.21% of households owned houses with electricity and 36.15% households owned houses with toilets in 2001.[17]

In the rural areas of Hooghly district there are wide variations amongst the CD Blocks regarding families living below poverty line (BPL). The data provided in the table given below is based on a household survey for BPL list carried out by the state government in 2005.[17]


Economy[edit]

Infrastructure[edit]

Jangipara CD Block had 6,458 hectares of canals. In 2003-04 Jangipara had 79.50 km of surfaced roads under PWD, 59.95 km surfaced roads under Zilla Parishad and 296.50 km unsurfaced roads under Zilla Parishad.[18]

Agriculture[edit]

This is a rich agricultural area. Though rice is the prime crop of the district, the agricultural economy largely depends on potato, jute, vegetables, and orchard products. Potato is cultivated in all the blocks of this district.[19] There are several cold storages in the area.[20]

Some of the primary and other hats or markets in the Jangipara bloc area are: Antpur, Jangipara hat, Kulakash hat, Satghara hat, Sitapur hat, Taltala cattle hat, and Kalarkash bazaar.[21]

Pisciculture[edit]

In Jangipara CD Block 723.98 hectares was the nett area under effective pisiculture and 4,238 persons were engaged in the profession. Approximate annual production in 2003-04 was 21,719.4 qtl.[18]

Transport[edit]

Jangipara CD Block has 1 ferry service and 4 originating/ terminating bus routes.[18]

The narrow gauge line of Martin's Light Railways from Howrah Maidan to Amta, Sehakhala and Champadanga was built in 1897 and was closed down in 1971. While the broad gauge Howrah-Amta line came up in 2000, and although the branch line from Bargachia to Sehakhala and Champadanga was sanctioned along with the Howrah-Amta line in 1974-75, the branch line is yet to come up.[22]

Now, one has to go to Jangipara by road either directly from Kolkata or from Tarakeswar or Haripal. From Kolkata via Howrah-Domjur-Bargachhia-Amta road, approx 47 km. Or From Howrah, Tarekeswar / Arambag local, to Haripal, from Haripal bus is available to Jangipara.

Education[edit]

Jangipara assembly constituency covers a primarily rural area. It is around 45 kilometres (28 mi) from Kolkata and has 170,000 voters. Forty per cent of them are in the 18-30 age group. It has over a hundred primary, twenty-six secondary and eight higher secondary schools, and one degree college in Jangipara. However, hundreds of students from Jangipara travel over 15 km to Haripal or Howrah to attend college for their special subject.[23]

In 2003-04, Jangipara CD Block had 146 primary schools with 22,789 students, 6 middle schools with 655 students, 11 high schools with 9,708 students and 12 higher secondary schools with 8,400 students. Jangipara CD Block had 191 institutions with 8,112 students for special and non-formal education.[18]

Culture[edit]

Durga is worshipped in Jangipara and Rajbalhat as Rajballavi. She is a mixed form of Durga, Kali and Saraswati.[24]

The mosque built by Muqlish Khan in 1375 at Furfura Sharif is a site for Muslim pilgrimage, especially during the Pir’s Mela.[25]

Antpur is home to one of the finest pieces of terracotta architecture and Rajbalhat is famous for handloom saris.[26] Both are part of Jangipara community development block.

Health[edit]

Groundwater in Jangipara block contains arsenic above WHO guideline value of arsenic in drinking water (10 µg/L) but is lower than the Indian standard value for arsenic in drinking water (50 µg/L).[27]

Jangipara CD Block had 1 hospital, 4 health centres and 36 clinics with 84 beds and 14 doctors in 2003.[18]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Rajbalhat – Temples and Textiles". Rangan Dutta. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  2. ^ "The Temples in Hooghly". hindubooks.org. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  3. ^ Ghosh, Binoy, Paschim Banger Sanskriti, (in Bengali), part II, 1976 edition, pp. 218-234, Prakash Bhaban
  4. ^ "Hooghly District". Places of Interest. District administration. Retrieved 6 June 2016. 
  5. ^ "District Human Development Report: Hooghly". Chapter I / Page 1, 3 - Published 2011. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c "Jangipara Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  7. ^ "Map of Hooghly district". District Profile. Hooghly district administration. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – Hooghly district. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  9. ^ "District Statistical Handbook – 2008 – Hooghly" (PDF). Table 2.1. Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  10. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Hooghly – Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 16 May 2016. 
  11. ^ a b c d e "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 May 2016. 
  12. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  13. ^ "Hughli (Hooghly) Dustrict: Census 2011 data". 2016 Digital Trends. Census Population 2015 Data. Retrieved 22 May 2016. 
  14. ^ a b "Provisional population tables and annexures" (PDF). Census 2011:Table 2(3) Literates and Literacy rates by sex. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 9 February 2016. 
  15. ^ "Jangipara". Local Self-government. Hooghly Zilla Parishad. Retrieved 2011-08-04. 
  16. ^ a b "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f "District Human Development Report: Hooghly". Pages - 31-40, 57, 60, 62-65, 68-69, 73, 82, 225, 226-227. Published 2011. Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  18. ^ a b c d e "District Statistical Handbook – 2004 – Hooghly" (PDF). Tables 3.1, 4.4, 4.5, 8.2, 18.2, 18.4, 21.1, 21.2. Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 24 May 2016. 
  19. ^ "Intensive cropping with remarkable feature of Hooghly District". Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  20. ^ "List of functioning Cold Storage of West Bengal District wise as on 18.01.07". West Bengal State Marketing Board. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  21. ^ "Primary Hats/Markets of District". Hooghly. West Bengal State Marketing Board. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  22. ^ "Howrah-Amta BG line section inaugurated". The Hindu Business Line, 24 July 2000. Retrieved 7 June 2016. 
  23. ^ Ghosh, Barun; Dutta, Uttam (2014-06-15). "Where’s the college? Don’t ask the teacher". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph, 21 April 2006. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  24. ^ "Amar Pujo". Archived from the original on December 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-03. 
  25. ^ "Hooghly District". Places of Interest. District administration. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  26. ^ "Next weekend you can be at ... Antpur". Calcutta, India: The Telegraph, 24 July 2005. 2005-07-24. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  27. ^ "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (20 years study )". Groundwater arsenic contamination status of Hooghly district, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal-India. Retrieved 2009-02-03.